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Medial Axis Transform

Nina Amenta

Sunghee Choi

Ravi Krishna Kolluri

July 22, 2000

Abstra
t

The medial axis transform (or MAT) is a representation of an obje
t as an in

**nite union of balls. We
onsider approximating the MAT
**

of a three-dimensional obje
t, and its
omplement, with a

nite union

of balls. Using this approximate MAT we de

By onstru tion. We bound the geometri error of the union. so we avoid the hole-. the polar balls. the power rust is always the boundary of a solid. We sele t a subset of the Voronoi balls of the sample. and show that both representations are topologi ally orre t as well. We assume that we are given as input a suÆ iently dense sample of points from the obje t surfa e.ne a new pie ewise-linear approximation to the obje t surfa e. whi h we all the power rust. and of the orresponding power rust. our results provide a new algorithm for surfa e re onstru tion from sample points. as the union of balls representation. Thus.

lling or manifold extra tion steps used in previous algorithms. The union of balls representation and the power rust have orresponding pie ewise-linear dual representations. whi h in some sense approximate the medial axis. We show a geometri relationship between these duals and the medial axis by proving that. as the sampling density goes to in.

the enters of the polar balls. onverges to the medial axis 1 .nity. the set of poles.

1 Introdu tion The input to the surfa e re onstru tion problem is a set S of sample points from the surfa e W of a three-dimensional obje t. is . in a nutshell. and it has re ently be ome important in omputer graphi s be ause of the development of laser range s anners and other te hnologies for olle ting sets of sample points from the surfa es of real obje ts. Surfa e re onstru tion arises in a variety of ontexts. Our approa h to surfa e re onstru tion. and the output should be a pie ewise-linear approximation of W .

See Figure 1 for a two-dimensional example.rst to use the sample points to approximate the medial axis transform (or MAT) of the obje t. and then to produ e the pie ewise-linear surfa e approximation from the approximate MAT. The MAT is a representation of the obje t as the in.

a subset of the Voronoi balls of S . one more or less . As our approximation. we use the polar balls.nite union of its maximal internal balls. The polar balls belong to two sets.

In a subsequent paper. When the sample S is suÆ iently dense it is easy to distinguish the inner from the outer poles.lling up the inside of the obje t. the power diagram. respe tively. we will des ribe additional heuristi s and a very robust implementation. These two sets approximate the MAT of the obje t. We also use the power diagram to de. and the MAT of its omplement. ea h ell onsisting of the points in IR losest to a parti ular ball. under a onvenient distan e fun tion. We ompute a weighted Voronoi diagram. Our main innovation lies in the following algorithm for onverting these unions of balls into a surfa e representation. The power diagram divides spa e into polyhedral ells. Se tion 9 ontains our algorithm. of the polar balls. the power distan e. The boundary separating the ells belonging to inner polar balls from the ells belonging to outer polar balls is a pie ewise-linear surfa e. the power rust. and the other the outside. whi h is our output.

the power shape. under 3 2 .ne the adja en ies of the polar ball enters (the poles). Subsets of inner (resp. These fa es form a simpli ial omplex. outer) poles whose power diagram ells share a fa e are onne ted with a dual weighted Delaunay fa e. analogous to the medial axis. We prove a variety of bounds on the quality of our approximations.

Upper left. The medial axis is the union of the enters of these maximal interior balls. Upper right. Outer polar balls with enters at in. in three dimensions we sele t only ertain ones near the medial axis. the sets of inner (shaded) and outer polar balls. one maximal interior ball is shown. Middle left. the Voronoi diagram of a sample of points from the obje t boundary. an obje t (shaded) with its medial axis. In two dimensions. we sele t all Voronoi verti es as poles.Figure 1: Two-dimensional example of power rust onstru tion.

the power rust and the inner portion of the power shape. 3 . Middle right.nity degenerate to halfspa es on the onvex hull. In two dimensions this is the same as the Delaunay triangulation of the samples. but not in three dimensions. the power diagram ells of the poles. Bottom.

that their surfa e normals are lose. inner and outer. and that they interpolate the samples. We show that the power rust.the assumption that the input sample is suÆ iently dense. are all lose to the surfa e of the original obje t. These geometri bounds allow us to de. and the surfa es of the two unions of polar balls.

We hara terize the geometri a ura y of the power shape by showing that the set of poles onverges to the medial axis as the sampling density goes to in.ne a spa e homotopy between the power rust and the original obje t surfa e. is homotopy equivalent to the original obje t. This in turn implies that the power shape. like the medial axis.

The output surfa e is a polygonization of the zero set of the estimated signed distan e fun tion. they need a post-pro essing step for hole-. 2 Related work Computer graphi s The lean abstra tion of the problem of re onstru tion from unorganized points was introdu ed to the omputer graphi s ommunity by Hoppe et al. they store only the part of the grid near the input sample. the distan e is negative at interior points of the obje t. the fun tion on IR whi h returns the distan e from the losest point on the surfa e. Be ause they only approximate part of the distan e fun tion.nity. This allows them to handle very large and noisy data sets. To save spa e. Curless and Levoy [14℄ gave a really ee tive algorithm whi h represents the distan e fun tion on a voxel grid. They use as an estimate the distan e to the losest point in the input sample. They proposed an algorithm whi h lo ally estimates the signed distan e fun tion. [23℄. so that their algorithm an be applied to ombinations of many laser range s ans.

lling. They used silhouettes of the obje t to onstrain hole-.

has an advantage here. whi h returns a solid interpolating all of the data. even within indentations. our algorithm an be des ribed in terms of the signed distan e fun tion.lling. The medial axis sket hes the \ridges" of the signed 3 4 . whi h works well ex ept in indentations. where there might be data but no silhouettes. Like the algorithms above. our algorithm.

distan e fun tion. Thus estimating the medial axis is a way of representing the signed distan e fun tion on the entire spa e. 4. 1℄. 21℄ in luding algorithms whi h handle plane urves with boundaries [16℄ and urves with sharp orners [20. without about the same amount of storage as the input data itself. Computational geometry The surfa e re onstru tion problem has re eived a lot of re ent attention in the omputational geometry ommunity. They de. In three dimensions. the points at whi h the dire tion to the losest surfa e point hanges. and an algorithm for spa e urves with a strong topologi al guarantee [?℄ (we give something similar in Se tion 7). 6. Amenta and Bern [3℄ gave an algorithm whi h sele ts a subset of the Delaunay triangles of S as the output surfa e. 15. There have been several algorithms for re onstru ting urves [19.

see Se tion 5). under whi h they proved that their output surfa e is lose to that of the original obje t.ned a sampling ondition (whi h we use. They also de.

a serious drawba k in pra ti e. They des ribe a manifold extra tion heuristi whi h seems to work well. and also showed that the output surfa e is homeomorphi to the original obje t surfa e. Amenta. whi h are at the heart of our algorithm. As part of their theoreti al analysis they independently prove a version of the theorem (see Se tion 8) that the set of poles onverges to the medial axis as the sampling density goes to in. but simpler algorithm. The algorithm sele ts a set of andidate triangles from the Delaunay triangulation. and then sele ts the output manifold from the andidate set. Dey and Leekha [2℄ gave a similar. Choi. This manifold extra tion step fails when the sampling ondition is not met. with a mu h simpler proof. Boissonnat and Cazals [10℄ avoid the manifold extra tion diÆ ulty by proposing an algorithm whi h re onstru ts a smooth surfa e interpolating the sample points.ned the poles.

we also guarantee that our output is the boundary of a three-dimensional solid. Computing the smooth surfa e is time onsuming ompared to the Voronoi diagram omputation. irrespe tive of the sampling density. This not only avoids the manifold extra tion problem.nity. A key feature that dierentiates our algorithm is that in addition to being simple and providing theoreti al guarantees. but makes the algorithm quite robust in pra ti e. 5 .

Bernardini et al. Another algorithm based on Delaunay triangulation is the -shape algorithm of Edelsbrunner and Mu ke [18℄. We avoid labeling ambiguities by using the power diagram instead of the Delaunay tetrahedra. although in a dierent way. the relationship between power diagrams and unions of balls was developed by Edelsbrunner [17℄. It would be very interesting to . on eptually. on shapes. We use many of the beautiful ideas developed in the ontext of -shapes. whi h labels a subset of the Delaunay tetrahedra of the input sample as the interior of the solid. and the power shape is very lose to the weighted -shape of the polar balls. In parti ular. [8℄ have also given an algorithm based.Our algorithm is perhaps most similar to an old algorithm of Boissonnat [9℄. while avoiding the omputation of the Delaunay triangulation. The Delaunay triangulation is the expensive step in the onstru tion of the power rust as well. This algorithm sele ts andidate Delaunay triangles based on the radius of their smallest empty ir umspheres. This allows them to apply the algorithm to very large data sets.

This approa h is sometimes justi. approximation probably ontinues to be more appropriate.nd a power rust algorithm whi h similarly avoids omputing the Delaunay triangulation. but parti ularly in three dimensions it has generally failed to lead to pra ti al algorithms. For more ompli ated shapes. the power shape. whi h is a useful alternative representation of the obje t. One problem is that the MAT is hard to ompute exa tly. Appli ations for the MAT have been proposed in a wide variety of ontexts. The omputation of the exa t medial axis for simple polyhedra has been demonstrated only re ently [13℄. Attalli and Montanvert [7℄ and others [26℄ have proposed approximating the medial axis using the Voronoi diagram. Medial axis approximation Another distinguishing feature of our algorithm is that it generates a dis rete approximation of the MAT.

whi h argues. that the set of three-dimensional Voronoi verti es onverges to the true medial axis as the sampling density goes to in.ed by a referen e to [22℄. in orre tly.

The set of interior polar balls is a good approximation of the obje t as a 6 . Sin e the set of poles does onverge to the medial axis.nity. we believe that the power shape is a better MAT approximation.

Hubbard's experien e shows that the su ess of the approa h depends on the quality of the shape approximation.union of balls. using in reasingly simple unions of balls. He . He onstru ts a hierar hi al representation. guided by the observation that dete ting the interse tion of two balls is mu h easier than dete ting interse tions of two other primitives like triangles or polyhedra. Hubbard [24℄ promotes the use of unions of balls for ollision dete tion. and gives onvin ing experimental eviden e that this hierar hy is more eÆ ient in pra ti e than others. whi h is a also a useful shape approximation.

Both papers again begin with the set of Voronoi balls and use a heuristi lean-up phase. Our work an be seen as a step toward onverting an arbitrary polygonal surfa e into a provably a urate skin surfa e. Surfa es and balls All our ideas are based on the relationships between surfa es and balls. we believe that the set of polar balls should be better still. whi h are smooth surfa es based on unions of balls. Edelsbrunner. and again. although perhaps not widely known.nds that the set of Voronoi balls is superior to a larger and less a urate set of balls derived from a quad-tree. Rajan and Fournier [25℄ use a union of balls for interpolating between shapes. we believe that the polar balls would be a better starting point. Let W be the losed. 3 Geometry In this se tion we formally introdu e the geometri stru tures we will use. Cheng. properties. Finite unions of balls or dis rete medial axis transforms have also been proposed as a representation for deformable obje ts. bounded two-dimensional surfa e of an obje t W in IR . Fu and Lam [11℄ do morphing in two dimensions with skin surfa es. Tei hman and Teller [28℄ use a dis rete medial axis as a skeleton in a semi-automati system for animating arbitrary omputer models. and des ribe some of their known. To avoid having to deal with points at in.

we assume that surfa e 3 7 .nity.

we will assume that W is not only losed but smooth. The enter of a medial ball is either a point with more than one losest point on W . A (Eu lidean) ball B . Q is empty (with respe t to W ) if the interior of B ontains no point of W . For our theoreti al arguments. bounded region Q. it is ompletely ontained in no other empty ball. A medial ball is a maximal empty ball.i (with i = 1). Hen e. we allow both the inside and the outside to be dis onne ted. B . by whi h we mean C - ontinuous. A point with weight zero (ie a ball with radius zero) is unweighted. We will also p need the on ept of a point x with negative weight . has a enter and radius . a ball is often equivalently represented by a weighted point with position and weight . De. that is.W is ontained in an open. or a enter of urvature of W . In the ontext of power diagrams. 1 2 2 Medial axis transform We say ball B = B . W divides Q into the inside and the outside of W .

We ould equivalently de.nition: The medial axis transform of surfa e W is the set of medial balls. The set of enters of the medial balls form the medial axis M of W .

tunnels and onne ted omponents.ne the medial axis as the losure of the set of all points with more than one losest point of W . Q W [12℄. even though they generally dier in dimension. This is a way of saying that the two solid shapes. This an be shown by giving a ontinuous deformation retra tion of Q W onto M . Noti e that either way the medial axis in ludes both a part inside of W (the inner medial axis) and a part outside of W (the outer medial axis). Barring degenera ies. and the medial axis have the same holes. W and its omplement. the medial axis of a two dimensional surfa e in a region Q is another two dimensional surfa e. The medial axis is homotopy equivalent to the omplement of W . de.

whi h moves every point of Q M towards its losest surfa e point.ning a ontinuous motion whi h moves every point away from its losest surfa e point [12℄. de. The opposite motion.

nes a deformation retra tion of Q M onto W . 8 .

Power diagrams The duality just des ribed between the in.

nite union of balls M and the surfa e W is akin to the relationship between .

a spe ies of weighted Voronoi diagram. De. whi h in turn are related to power diagrams.nite unions of balls and their -shapes. Sin e we will use power diagrams extensively we review them in some detail.

For example. The motivation behind the de. the power distan e of an unweighted point on the boundary of a ball from the ball enter is zero.nition: The power distan e between two balls B and B is dpow (B . an unweighted point inside the ball has a negative power distan e from the enter and an unweighted point outside has a positive power distan e from the enter. B ) = d ( . ) .

De.nition of power distan e is that omputing the indu ed weighted Voronoi diagrams is easy.

Just as the regular unweighted Voronoi diagram de.nition: The power diagram P ow(B) of a set of balls is the weighted Voronoi diagram whi h assigns an (unweighted) point x = Bx. x).the sets of points in spa e with two \ losest" samples . If the balls orresponding to the two weighted points determining a fa e interse t. in spa e to the ell of the ball B whi h minimizes dpow (B. The two-dimensional fa es separating the ells of a three-dimensional power diagram . then the fa e is a subset of the plane ontaining the ir le in whi h the boundaries of the two balls interse t. programs whi h ompute the (unweighted) d-dimensional Voronoi diagram by omputing a onvex hull in dimension (d + 1) (the standard approa h in dimensions three and higher) an be easily onverted to ompute power diagrams as well.are subsets of two-dimensional planes. Very onveniently.

the power diagram de.nes the Delaunay triangulation.

nes a dual weighted Delaunay triangulation. De. also known as a regular triangulation (not all triangulations of a set S of samples are regular).

nition: A fa e f of the weighted Delaunay triangulation W DT (B) of a set of balls is the simplex de.

ned by a set Bh of weighted points indu ing 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 0 9 2 .

the maximal empty ball entered at an arbitrary point x is in ident to the samples whi h indu e the fa e of the Voronoi diagram ontaining x. We say that fa es f and h are duals.a fa e h of P ow(B). Similarly in the weighted ase we an des ribe the power diagram fa e ontaining a point x using a ball entered at x. We begin with a de. In the usual unweighted Voronoi diagram. as follows.

nition due to Edelsbrunner. De.

De. We an give a geometri interpretation of orthogonality.nition: Two weighted points are orthogonal if the power distan e between them is zero.

equivalently.nition: The boundaries of two balls B and B interse t in a ir le C . We say that B and B meet at angle . where is the angle between their tangent planes at any point on C . = .

. where .

When a ball with negative weight B = B 1 . is the angle between the normal ve tors to B and B at any point of C . lies inside B and the two balls interse t in a great ir le of B . two orthogonal positively weighted balls meet at a right angle. Considering Figure 2 and using the Pythagorean theorem.2 . 1 2 1 10 1 2 . the larger ball is positively weighted and the smaller is negatively weighted. orthogonal positive balls meet at an angle of =2. Two negatively weighted points annot be orthogonal.i1 is orthogonal to a positive ball B = B 2 . we see that two 1 1 2 2 1 2 Figure 2: On the left. On the right. whi h implies that the enter of either ball is outside the other.

and outside of all the other Voronoi balls. and annot lie in the interior of any other balls in B. Fa e f is the onvex hull of a set Sf of (k + 1) points of S .w ) = dpow (B. we have DT (S ) = P ow(B).w be the ball orthogonal to any other ball B 0 2 B. x)) dpow (B 0 . and 0 = dpow (B. x) (w0) dpow (B 0. x) w so that 2 0 = dpow (B 0. x) w 2 2 2 For example. and let ball B be element of B whi h minimizes dpow (B. Bx. so that f f 0. P ow(B) is the Delaunay triangulation DT (S ). 11 . Then w w0 . x). x) = 0. Consider the ball Bx. for all Bi 2 Bf . Consider a k-fa e f of DT (S ). x). and hen e belongs to the fa e f 0 of P ow(B) determined by Bf (whi h must exist). Ea h point x 2 Sf thus has dpow (Bi. and let Bf be the set of their Voronoi balls. Proof: Ea h point p 2 S lies on the boundary of ea h ball orresponding to a vertex of the Voronoi ell of p. let Vf be the set of Voronoi verti es orresponding to d-simpli ies in DT (S ) ontaining f . It highlights the role of the power diagram in the well-known duality between the Voronoi diagram and the Delaunay triangulation. Sin e this is true of every fa e f in DT (S ).Observation 1 Let x be a point. This fa e f 0 is onvex. and let B be a set of balls. The following Lemma may be obvious to experts. with positive power distan e to the two balls B . will be the enter of a ball Bx.w whi h interse ts both B and B orthogonally.w orthogonal to B . and let Bx. 1 2 1 2 Lemma 2 Let S be a set of points in IR3 and let B be the set of Voronoi balls entered at the Voronoi verti es of S . and is a subset of the aÆne hull of Sf . B indu ing the fa e. The points in Sf all lie on the boundaries of the Voronoi balls in Bf . a point x on a two-dimensional fa e of P ow(B). 0 Proof: We know that dpow (B. and meets every other ball orresponding to a point in B at an angle of less than =2.

2 4 Our onstru tions We now de.

ne our onstur tion of the union of balls representation and the power rust. we shall de. Let S be a suÆ iently dense sample of points from W .

ne \suÆ iently dense" in the following se tion. Again. to avoid dealing with in.

to S . the verti es of a large box surrounding W . so that all the Voronoi verti es of ea h sample in S are . we add a set Z of eight points.nity.

Amenta and Bern [3℄ made the following de.nite points.

nition. De.

Bp2. Amenta and Bern [3℄ show that both poles of s are found orre tly by the following pro edure.1 . p of a sample s 2 S are the two verti es of its Voronoi ell farthest from s. s).2 are polar balls. The Voronoi balls Bp1. Sele t the Voronoi vertex of s farthest from s as the . one on either side of the surfa e.nition: The poles p . with i = d(pi. assuming that S is suÆ iently dense in the te hni al sense des ribed below.

From among those Voronoi verti es v of s su h that the angle 6 vsp > =2. sele t the farthest as the se ond pole p . The intuition behind the de.rst pole p .

S De.nition of poles is that the polar balls approximate medial balls. Let P be the set of poles. The orresponding sets of polar balls are BI and BO . The surfa e W divides the set of poles into the set PI of inside poles and the set PO of outside poles.

and others to balls in BO . and UO = BO be the union of Voronoi balls entered at outside poles. Let UI = ÆUI and UO = ÆUO be the boundaries of these unions.nition: LetSUI = BI be the union of Voronoi balls entered at inside poles. We will show in Se tion 6 that both UI and UO form good approximations of W when S is suÆ iently dense. Some ells of this power diagram belong to balls in BI . Now onsider the power diagram P ow(BI [ BO ). 1 2 1 1 2 Observation 3 Every sample s 2 S lies on both UI and UO . The olle tion 12 .

De.of two-dimensional fa es indu ed by one inside and one outside polar ball separate the part of the domain Q belonging to the inside balls from the part belonging to outside balls.

Observation 5 The power rust is the (possibly non-regular) boundary of a three-dimensional solid.nition: The power rust of S is the set of fa es in P ow(BI [ BO ) separating ells belonging to inside polar balls from ells belonging to outside polar balls. Dual shapes Both the union of balls and the power rust have dual shapes. The dual shapes an be onsidered dis rete analogs to the medial axis. Edelsbrunner [17℄ de. in Se tion 7. We show that the power rust is also a good approximation of W . Observation 4 Every sample lies on the power rust. Some partial geometri results an be found in Se tion 8. skeletal representations by simpli ial omplexes.

ned the dual shape of a union of balls (also known as the weighted -shape). for whi h he demonstrated an elegant orrespondan e with the stru ture of the union. De.

The enters of a subset Bf B are onne ted by a simplex whenever the power ells of all balls in Bf have a point x in ommon. Edelsbrunner proved the following [17℄. He in fa t de. Theorem 6 The dual shape of a union of balls is homotopy equivalent to the union. establishing a topologi al analogy between the dual shape and the medial axis. su h that x 2 U .nition: The dual shape of a union of balls U = [B is a simpli ial omplex.

13 .nes a deformation retra tion. very similar to that whi h establishes that the medial axis is homotopy equivalent to the obje t [12℄.

We make a similar de.

(We abuse notation by writing P ow(B) for the set of fa es of P ow(B).) De. the power rust).nition of the dual shape of a subset of power diagram fa es (eg.

The dual shape of Y is the union of the dual fa es of of every fa e in P ow(B) Y . and let Y be a set of losed fa es sele ted from P ow(B). De.nition: Let B be a set of balls.

nition: The power shape of S is the dual shape of the power rust. Note that the dual shape is the dual. in the standard omputational geometry de.

The dual shape is homotopy equivalent S to (P ow(B) Y ). sele ted from P ow(B). we need to de. The dual shape is a geometri realization of the nerve of the d-dimensional ells in P ow(B) Y . sin e any tuple of weighted points whi h indu e a fa e in the power diagram either indu es a fa e of Y . not of the power rust itself. in whi h ase the orresponding onvex sets fail to interse t. The Nerve Theorem states that the nerve of a family of onvex sets is homotopy equivalent to their union. Proof: The d-dimensional ells of P ow(B) Y form a family of onvex sets. in whi h ase the orresponding onvex sets do interse t. the dual shape of Y is analgous to the medial axis in the following sense. or a fa e of the dual shape. 2 5 Sampling ondition Before we get into the proofs that the unions of polar balls and the power rust are geometri ally a urate. of the omplement of the power rust. Again using te hniques borrowed from Edelsbrunner. we show that when Y is a surfa e sele ted from the 2-fa es of P ow(B). The nerve of a family of onvex sets is a simpli ial omplex.nition. with a vertex for every onvex set and a simplex onne ting every subset of onvex sets whi h have a ommon interse tion. togehter with all their subfa es. Theorem 7 Let Y be a set of (d 1)-dimensional fa es.

ne what we mean by a \suÆ14 .

We use the following de. iently dense" sample S .

nitions and lemmata from re ent papers on surfa e re onstru tion [4℄.[3℄. De.

We use the LF S fun tion to de. Intuitively. written LF S (w). LF S is small where two parts of the surfa e pass lose together.nition: The Lo al Feature Size at a point w 2 W . is the distan e from w to the nearest point of the medial axis of W . sin e they are separated by the medial axis. The medial axis is also lose to the surfa e where the urvature is high.

ne the sampling density we require to produ e a good surfa e re onstru tion. De.

15 .s)= O(r)LFS(u) then d(u. the angle between the ve tor from s to v and the surfa e normal at s has to be small (linear in r) when v is far away from s (as a fun tion of LF S ). q ) minfLFS (p). The following lemma says that the LF S fun tion is Lips hitz. jLFS (p) LFS (q)j d(p. LFS (q )g. whi h will be useful in our proofs later on.s)=O(r)LFS(s) as well. the idea is that when S is suÆ iently dense. Observation 9 If d(u. Sampling assumption: r 0:1. Lemma 8 (Amenta and Bern [3℄) For any two points p and q on W . The way we quantify this is to say that.nition: S W is an r-sample if the distan e from any point w 2 W to its losest sample in S is at most a onstant fra tion r times LF S (w). q). for any < 1=3. The following lemma is a Lips hitz ondition on the surfa e normal with respe t to LF S . for r < 1. the Voronoi ell of every sample s 2 S is long and skinny and roughly perpendi ular to the surfa e. We assume that S is a r-sample from W and The usefulness of this assumption depends on LF S being well behaved. Informally. given a sample s and a point v in its Voronoi region. We need to state one more key lemma. the angle between the normals to W at p and q is at most =(1 3). Lemma 10 (Amenta and Bern [3℄) For any two points p and q on W with d(p.

we de.For onvenien e.

Lemma 11 (Amenta and Bern [3℄) Let s be a sample point from an rsample S . then point v has to be lose to s. Let be the angle between the ve tor sv ~ and the surfa e normal ~n at s. Then ar sin(r0 =) + ar sin r0 .ne r0 = r=(1 r) = O(r). Let v be any point in V or(s) su h that d(v. s) LF S (s) for > r0 . if the angle is large. Spe i. Conversely.

when r < :35. The polar ball Bp entered at p is at least as large as the medial ball entered at m. under the sampling assumption. we get Corollary 12 For any v su h that > ar sin r0 . then d(v. ally. the above lemma shows that the angle between the ve tor to m and the ve tor to p is at most 2 ar sin r0 by Lemma 11. Rearranging things. . while the inside (outside) pole p of s is at least as far away. we have d(v. Corollary 13 Every polar ball ontains a point of the medial axis. 6 Unions of polar balls We will now show that. whenever 2 ar sin r0 < =6. so that m has to fall inside Bp. s) LF S (s). s) LF S (s) with r0 = sin( ar sin r0) The Voronoi ell of a sample s 2 W must ontain the point m of the inside (outside) medial axis for whi h s is a losest surfa e point. Sin e m is at least distan e LF S (s) from s. if ar sin(r0=) + ar sin r0.

We say this in three dierent ways in the lemmata below. Shallow interse tions The main idea in the proof is that inside and outside balls annot interse t ea h other deeply. their surfa e normals agree with those of W . ea h of them is homeomorphi to W .rst. se ond. 16 . UI and UO are both lose to W . and third.

and let x be a point on the segment onne ting them. Observation 14 Let BI and BO be two interse ting balls. below. P s λ ρ x z p α Figure 4: An inside and outside ball an interse t only at a small angle . Any ball entered at x and ontaining point outside of bothBI and BO also ompletely ontains BI \ BO . x Figure 3: Figure 3 illustrates the following observation.We measure the depth of the interse tion by the angle at whi h the balls interse t. The . as in Figure 4.

17 . for whi h we an get the best bound.rst version of the lemma deals with the spe ial ase in whi h the two polar balls are the inner and outer polar balls of the same sample s. where is the radius of the smaller polar ball. Lemma 15 The two polar balls of a sample s interse t at an angle of O(r)LF S (s)=.

s is the nearest sample to x (Observation 14) and d(x. Otherwise x is in the larger of the two balls. Sin e Bp. Sin e I and O lie on opposite sides of W . we have LF S (x) 2. Sin e. ontains a point of the medial axis (Corollary 13). O(r)LF S (s). Let B . but not in the smaller. We have d(x. be the smaller of the two balls BI and BO . using Observation 9. s). Let z be the enter of the ir le C in whi h the boundaries of BI and BO interse t. Sin e LF S (s) . the enters of BI and BO . at s is the same as 6 zps = ar sin(O(r)LF S (s)=). this segment rosses W in at least one point x. BI and BO interse t at an angle of at most 2 ar sin 3r = O(r). the polar ball . and let be the radius of C . The angle between P and the tangent plane to BO is no greater.. Proof: Consider the line segment onne ting I and O . and again de. s) rLF S (x). Let be the enter of the smaller ball. be smaller than the outer polar ball BO . B . so = O(r)LF S (s)=. 2 Now we show that in the general ase. as in Figure 4. If x 2 B . Lemma 16 Let BI be an inside polar ball and BO be an outside polar ball. and so. any pair onsisting of an inner and an outer polar ball must interse t shallowly. The angle between P and the tangent plane to Bp. and BO annot ontain samples. as in Figure 4. The line segment between p and the enter of BO interse ts the surfa e in at least one point x.Proof: Without loss of generality let the inner polar ball Bp. for small enough r this is O(r)LF S (s)=.

) + d (x. z ) So the r-sampling requirement means that q d (z. By Corollary 13. we an simplify to d(x. z ) r[ + d(x. )+. )℄ Sin e d(z. we have LF S (x) d(x. z ) = d (z. But the distan e from x to the nearest sample is at least q q + d (x. z ) + d(z.ne z and as in Figure 4. z)+d(z. ) + d (x. z ) 2r0 2 2 2 2 2 2 18 2 2 . )+ = d(x. ) .

for r 1=3. When 2p m. sin e m itself is a point of the medial axis. we have LF S (x) d(x. z ) So the r-sampling requirement means that q m d (z. ball. ) m . means that LF S (x) 2m. z ) r[d(x.. z ) = 2m d2 (z. m). Lemma 17 Let Bp be an inside (outside) polar ball and let Bm be an outside (inside) medial ball.whi h. We use this bound to show that the angle between the two balls is most 2 ar sin 2r. Again. again as in Lemma 16. at C is thus at most ar sin 3r. We have LF S (x) 2p. as in the proof of Lemma 16. 2 The third lemma shows that a similar fa t holds when one of the balls is a medial. whi h rosses W in at least one point x. and the two balls meet at an angle of at most 2 ar sin 3r. z ) + d(z. m) + d2 (x. for r 1=2. Otherwise. The angle between the plane P ontaining C and a tangent plane on B . z )+ d(z. Proof: Again we onsider the line segment onne ting p and m. z) rm whi h. the distan e from x to the nearest sample is at least q q a = 2 + d2 (x. m) + d (x. m) = d(x. whi h is in Bp but not Bm (sin e the interior of any medial ball is empty of points of the surfa e). sin e Bp ontains a point of the medial axis. Sin e the distan e from x to the nearest sample is at least and at most 3r. the angle between P and the tangent plane of the larger ball is smaller. The angle at whi h Bp and Bm interse t is at most 2 ar sin 2r = O(r). the enters of Bp and Bm . 2 2 2 2 19 . we use this bound to show that the balls interse t at an angle of at most 2 ar sin 2r. we know that 3r. we an simplify to (1 r)d(x. and LF S (x) 3. m)℄ Sin e d(z. rather than a polar. means that x is very lose to B .

we have 3 > 3 ar sin r0. we let p = p1 . be the polar ball entered at p. as a fun tion of the radii of the balls forming the unions. u) 2 os . In either ase d(u. Let p1 be the pole farther from s. Let ~n represent the normal at s. Sin e u is outside the polar ball. the pole nearer to s.Proximity We now turn to the proof that the union boundaries UI and UO approximate W . We extend this to a stronger bound in terms of LF S . The distan e from u to s is O(r)LF S (s). whi h ould be mu h smaller than the radius of either medial ball at a surfa e point x. We . be ause of the way in whi h the poles were hosen. We let Bp. If 6 usp1 =2. Sin e d(s. We an immediadely infer from Lemma 16 that the surfa e W annot penetrate too far into the interior of either union. d(s. Let be the angle between ve tors su ~ and sp ~ . u) . otherwise we onsider p = p2 . Lemma 18 Let u be a point in the Voronoi ell of s but not in the interior of either polar balls at s. s) . Proof: We assume without loss of generality that LF S (s) = 1.

Thus d(u. s) 2r0.nd 6 ~n sp ~ < 2 ar sin r0 by Lemma 11. s) (sin( 3 ar sin r0)) Sin e 3 . 20 . It remains to bound the distan e from any point on the boundary of one union and in the interior of the other to the surfa e. the lemma follows. r0 d(u. ( 3 ar sin r0) 6 . So 6 ~n su ~ > =3 2 ar sin r0 > 0 ar sin r . the distan e to the losest sample s is O(r)LF S (s). for any point u in the Voronoi ell of s. Sin e we assumed LF S (s) = 1. From Corollary 12 it follows that. 2 Corollary 19 Any point u whi h does not lie in the interior of either UI or UO is within distan e O(r)LF S (s) of its losest sample s. the angle. Lemma 20 For a point u ontained in both UI and UO .

sx) d(u. sx) = O(r)LF S (x) Hen e d(u. This and the r-sampling ondition give a bound on d(x. x) + d(x. so that d(u. The line joining the enters of BO and BI interse ts the surfa e at some point x. Let sx be the losest sample to x and let s be the losest sample to u. 21 . A ball entered at x. Assume without loss of generality that u is on the boundary UI . We use the two lemmata above to show that the two union boundaries UI = Æ UI and UO = Æ UO have to be lose to the surfa e. u) d(x. 2 UI or u 2 UO to its losest Proof: Let s be the losest sample to u. 2 u sx x s Figure 5: The point u is loser to x than sx. or u is in the interior of neither UI or UO . The either u 2 UI and u 2 UO . d(x. sx) = O(r)LF S (x) By Observation 9. whi h is outside both the polar balls. d(u. s) d(u. s) = O(r)LF S (s). see Figure 6. s) = O(r)LF S (s) by Lemma 20. Theorem 21 The distan e from a point u point on the surfa e x 2 W is O(r)LF S (x).Proof: Point u is ontained in an inner ball BI and an outer ball BO . must also ontain u (Observation 14). sx). and with radius d(x. u).

The point x is at least as lose to u as s is. u) = O(r)LF S (s) and d(x.the tubular region within O(r) of the distan e to the medial axis . s) = O(r)LF S (s). The result follows from Observation 9. 2 Lemmata 18 and 20 imply that most of Q lies in either the union of inner balls or the union of outer balls.so that d(u. Figure 6: The boundaries of the unions of balls UI and UO must lie lose to the surfa e W . Spe i. while only points in a small part . or neither. as in Figure 6. s) = O(r)LF S (s) by Corollary 19. and hen e d(x.might lie in both.

ally. de. the boundaries are ontained in the tubular region.

at distan e at most k from a point x 2 W . while the nearest point of the medial axis to x is at distan e LF S (x). 22 . be a polar ball. This follows be ause B is a polar ball. Observation 22 Let B = B . so it ontains a point of the medial axis. Then LF S (2x) k . approa hing the orre t normal as O( r) as r ! 0. by Corollary 13.ned as the set u of points su h that the distan e from u to the losest point x 2 W is at most O(r) times the distan e from x to the medial axis. Normals Now we show that the normals on the boundaries UI and UO are also lose to p the normals of nearby points of W .

assume LF S (x) = 1. Sin e B . in radians. the indi ated angle annot be too large.R be the medial ball at x on the opposite side of the surfa e from . We begin by bounding 6 um . be a polar ball ontaining u. Proof: Let Bm. between the surfa e normal at x and the ve tor u ~ is O( r). the thi kness of the lune in whi h they interse t is at most a fa tor of O(r ) times the smaller of the two radii. and d(u. u is normal to the surfa e at x. as in Figure 7. Without loss of generality.to c u Bc ρ y Bc ρ c x u B mR m B’ B mR z B’ y x to m Figure 7: Sin e B annot interse t BM very deeply. Angle . Lemma 23 Let u be a point su h that the distan e to the nearest surfa e point x 2 W is at most O(r)LF S (x).R annot interse t at x at an angle greater than 2 ar sin 2r (Lemma 17). So we an writeh the angle we are interested in as = 6 u m + 6 um . Sin e x is the nearest surfa e point to u. the ve tor x. x) has to be small. Let B . and Bm. Then thepangle. Let B 0 be the ball entered at m and tou hing this lune.

Sin e . 6 um will depend on the ratio of the two radii R and . The worst ase is on the left in Figure 7.

de reases as u moves towards the enter . we assume u is on the boundary of B . For any ..

in reasing R makes .xed .

its minimum value sin e Bm. For any . so we assume R = 1.R is a medial ball at x. smaller.

in reasing makes .xed R.

larger. so we assume that B is in.

Let y be the point at whi h segment . Sin e Bm. m interse ts B 0. the of radius of B 0 is R(1 O(r )).nitely large. We 2 2 23 .R is the smaller ball.

Again we an assume that u is on the boundary of B .. For any . u) = O( r).q p get 6 u m = d (m. We use a similar argument to bound = 6 u m. y) d (m.

xed . and for any . in reasing R in reases .

in reasing de reases . x))=2 = (1) (Observation 22).xed R. so in ontrast to the previous situation. and let R be ome in. we let take on its minimum value of (1 d(u.

nitely q large. u) d ( . The dieren e between the normal nu (where itpis de. 2 2 2 2 2 Theorem 24 Let u be a point on UI or UO . The worst asepis shown on the right in Figure 7. giving 6 u m = d ( . z) = O( r). and let x 2 W be the losest surfa e point to u.

If nu is de.ned) to the union boundary at u and the surfa e normal nx at x is O( r). x) = O(r)LF S (x) (Theorem 21). Proof: Point u is ontained in the tubular region. and the distan e d(u.

ned. then u is ontained in the surfa e of exa tly one ball and nu is the ve tor pointing towards the ball enter. We'll do this using a natural map from U to W . 2 Homeomorphism We use these geometri theorems to show that the surfa e of either UI or UO is homeomorphi to the a tual surfa e W . De. so we an apply Lemma 23.

3 3 Lemma 25 Let U be either UI or UO . The restri tion of to U de.nition: Let : R ! W map ea h point q 2 R to the losest point of W.

Proof: We onsider UI . Sin e UI and W are both ompa t.nes a homeomorphism from U to W . the argument for UO is identi al. it suÆ es to show that de.

nes a ontinuous. one-to-one 24 .

(U ) must onsist of all the onne ted omponents of W . The dis ontinuities of are the points of the medial axis. We establish this formally in this se tion. bounded onne ted omponents of W . By Theorem 24. Thus is ontinuous on UI . for distan e at least 2 os = O(LF S (x)). Any point on UI su h that (u) = x must lie on l(x). Proximity The fa t that the power rust is lose to W is a tually immediate from our results so far. Sin e any point on a fa e separating an inside from an outside ell is ontained in either both of their Voronoi balls or in no Voronoi ball at 25 . Let be the p angle between u ~ and the surfa e normal n(x). and (s) = s for s 2 S . let x = (u0) and let n(x) be the normal to W at x. and u is the outermost su h point. it must be the ase that u = u0 .and onto fun tion. a losed and bounded surfa e. Orient the line l(x) through x with dire tion n(x) a ording to the orientation of W at x. by Observation 22. (U ) must onsist of some subset of the losed. Finally. we need to establish that (U ) is onto W .. For any u0 2 UI . let u be the outer-most su h point. Sin e u0 must be on l(x) but outside of B . Sin e maps U . Now we show that is one-to-one. From Theorem 21. 2 7 The power rust It seems natural that sin e UI and UO are a urate representations of W and its omplement. Let B . be the ball in UI with u on its boundary. = O( r). Meanwhile = (LF S (x)). while l(x) lies in the interior of B . ontinuously onto W . But sin e every onne ted omponent of W ontains samples of S . wheras every point of the medial axis is at least LF S (x) from the nearest point x 2 W . Point u0 is at most O(rLF S (x)) from u. every point of UI is within distan e O(r)LF S (x) from some point x 2 W . that the power rust that they indu e is also an a urate representation of W .

Observation 27 Let p be a point in the tubular neighborhood. in Eu lidean distan e.) = O(r2)LF S 2 (s)=. u y BΟ s B p. Theorem 21 implies the following. s) = O(r)LF S (s). So by Observation 27. x) + d(x. it might belong to the power ell of some other inner (outer) ball B 0 whi h is nowhere near B . and let s be the losest sample to x.all. u is ontained in a ball of radius O(r)LF S (s) entered at s. be the smaller of the two polar balls at s. s) rLF S (x). The 26 . in fa t. Corollary 26 Any point u on a fa e of the power rust lies within O(r)LF S (x) of some point x 2 W . and let s be the sample nearest p. where s0 is the sample nearest x. s) = O(r)LF S (s). and d(x. s) is at most distan e d(p. be too far apart. Noti e that although a point u on the power rust might be nearest to inner (outer) polar ball B . using Observation 9. Proof: Sin e u is in the tubular neighborhood. Then d(u. let x 2 W be the nearest surfa e point to u. as in Figure 8. Let x 2 W be the losest point on the surfa e to p. x) = O(r)LF S (x). Bp. Our proof that the power rust is homeomorphi to the original surfa e hinges on showing that B and B 0 annot. The Observation above follows sin e the distan e d(p. d(u. d(u. s0). that is. Let Bp. Then d(p. ρ a Figure 8: Lemma 28 Let u be a point in the tubular neighborhood outside of any polar ball.

The length of the hord sa is O(r)LF S (s). Proof: If u is inside B . So the total angle 6 ysa = O(r)LF S (s)= as well. for small enough r. by Lemma 15) and b) the radius of BO is as small as possible (whi h is ). the Lemma follows.. Bp. will be maximized when a) the two polar balls interse t in as large an angle as possible (whi h is O(r)LF S (s)=. k(r =). assume without loss of generality that LF S (s) = 1. By Lemma 28. . This gives d(u.) = O(r)LF S (s). If u 62 Bp. . (Observation 1).distan e from u to Bp. Bp. Sin e this ball must also interse t Bp. then d(u. so that LF S (x) = 1 (Observation 9). B cµ u Figure 9: Otherwise. for small enough r.) d(u. then it is inside Bp. Bp. is at most O(r)LF S (s). and the lemma is trivial. be the smaller of the two polar balls at s. and hen e d(u. we laim that the radius of the ball Bu entered at u and orthogonal to B . 2 2 Lemma 29 Let u be a point in the tubular neighborhood.) = O(r )LF S (s)=. at s is ar sin[O(r)LF S (s)=2℄ = O(r)LF S (s)=. for small enough r. with polar ball Bp. From Figure 8. and let p be the inner (outer) pole at minimum power distan e to u. . so the angle between the hord and the tangent plane to Bp. To establish the laim. Let x 2 W be the nearest surfa e point to u and let s be the nearest sample to x. a). for 2 27 . a) = O(r)LF S (s) sin[O(r)LF S (s)=℄. Let B . we have d(u. d(u. Bp.

Note that when we take a point u in the tubular neighborhood to its nearest point x 2 W . the dire tion in whi h fI is de reasing is always within =6 of g. whi h we need to establish the homeomorphism between the power rust and W . Let x 2 W be the surfa e point losest to u with surfa e normal nx . and any angle less than =2 would suÆ e. sin e. The set of points in the tubular neighborhood losest to a point x 2 W forms a line segment g. Observation 30 Let u be a point in the tubular neighborhood. with polar ball Bp . and let p be the inner (outer) pole at minimum power distan e to u. We have.some onstant k. 28 . for small enough r. by Observation 30.~ forms an angle of at most = =6 with nx . Lemma 31 The segment g normal to the surfa e at a point x 2 W and passing through the tubular neighborhood intese ts the power rust exa tly on e. it travels along the segment g orresponding to x. Proof: Consider the fun tion fI (u) whi h returns the minimum power distan e to any pole p 2 PI . as in Figure 9. The ve tor from u. q = + 2(kr =) + k r = q = 2kr + k r = = O(r) 2 2 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 Homeomorphism From Lemma 23 and Lemma 29 we get the following observation. perpendi ular to the surfa e at x. The restri tion of fI to the segment g is a pie ewise quadrati fun tion. We laim that this fun tion is monotoni ally de reasing as u goes from the outer end of g to the inner end.

at a fa e of the power diagram separting the ells of an inside and an outside pole. 2 Theorem 32 There is a spa e homeomorphism taking the power rust to W. We de. Proof: Let Y be the power rust. So fI and fO are equal at exa tly one point. the fun tion fO is monotoni ally in reasing on g.Similarly.

Spe i.ne a deformation of all of the domain Q whi h takes Y into W . and hen e the interior of Y into the interior of W and the exterior of Y into the exterior of W .

ally. we de.

and at time t = 1. Outside of the tubular neighborhood. 1℄. The power rust is stri tly ontained in the tubular neighborhood around W (Lemma 26). one-to-one and onto map. su h that at any time t. we de. f0 (Y ) = Y . for t 2 [0. ft is a ontinuous. f1 (Y ) = W .ne a ontinuous parameterized map ft : Q ! Q. and su h that at time t = 0.

the segment g normal to W at a point x 2 W and passing through the tubular neighborhood intese ts the power rust exa tly on e.ne ft to be the identity. By Lemma 31. at every time t. in a point y 2 Y . By the de.

g interse ts W only in x. We de.nition of the tubular neighborhood. Let gi and go be the inner and outer endpoints of g.

ne ft (y) = tx + (1 t)y. where P ow(B) is the set of fa es of the power diagram and 29 . we an show that the power shape is a good appoximation to the medial axis in some basi ways. 2 8 Medial axis approximation Both topologi ally and geometri ally. Lemma 7 established that the power shape is homotopy equivalent to SProof: (P ow(B) Y ). go to ft (y). y to gi. Theorem 33 The power shape is homotopy equivalent to Q W . ft(y) and y. and we let ft linearly map the segments gi. go.

so that neither of the samples lies on the bump. Here. geometri ally. and r is about 1=2. In addition to this topologi al equivalen e. this means that the power shape is homotopy equivalent to Q Y . is the endpoint of the \hair". The spa e homeomorphism of Theorem 32 shows that Q Y is homeomorphi to Q W . to the true medial axis of W the sampling density goes to in. we show that the set PI of poles onverges. Sin e P ow(B) = Q.S Y is the power rust. 2 C 2γ 11 00 00 11 11 00 00 11 Figure 10: A small bump on the surfa e indu es a long \hair" on the medial axis without having to ontain any samples.

In ontrast to our previous results.nity. we annot guarantee that every medial axis is adequately approximated by an r-sample for a spe i.

as in Figure 10. This is be ause. value of r su h as 0:1. for any .

shallow bump on the surfa e W .nite value of r. This motivates the following de. Note. indu ing a \hair" on the medial axis but without requiring samples on the bump. we an onstru t a a very small. however. that we have to hoose the angle to be small with respe t to r.

nition. De.

nition: A medial axis point belongs to the -medial axis of W when at least two points u . Interestingly. the -medial axis an be dis onne ted. 1 1 2 2 Lemma 34 Let B . be a medial ball su h that belongs to the inner (outer) 30 . u 2 W on the boundary of the medial ball entered at form an angle 6 u u > 2 .

it has to be on the same side of the bise tor of ts as t. -medial axis.p c α u s φ x t Figure 11: Sin e p is in the Voronoi ell of t. for some .

t) LF S (t). Let t be the losest sample to . u) 2 sin =2. Let u 2 fu1 . Then the distan e from the inner (outer) pole p of the nearest sample to is O(r2=3 ). In the Voronoi ell of t. s) rLF S (s) r. We on lude that d(t. s) (1 + r). so that . s) 2(r + sin =2). Let be the maximum of of angles 6 t u1 and 6 t u2 . Let x be the point at whi h segment t interse ts the medial ball. both 6 ~nt~ and 6 ~nt~p are at most 2 ar sin r0. t) d( . t) r. So . so d(x. Sin e 6 x u = .xed . Proof: Without loss of generality let be a point on the inner -medial axis. with = (r1=3 ). d(x. d( . where ~n is the surfa e normal at t. Also. From the sampling riterion we have that d(u. d( . u2g be the one realizing the maximum and let s be u's losest sample. So from Lemma 11.

= 6 tp 4 ar sin r0 = O(r). some tedious al ulations show that 6 uts < ar sin( 2 sin(r 2 ) ) = . So we an bound the angle = 6 pts. with 2 2 + . From Figure 11.

31 . + .

Sin e is point in the Voronoi ell of t. we have d(t. So we an bound d(t. p): (r + sin ) = d(t. p). p) sin( . ) d(t. Sin e p is t's pole. it lies on the same side of the bise tor of ts as t.

p. ) = O((1 + r )) 2 3 2 2 Let q be the point at whi h the ir le entered at t and passing through interse ts the segment t. Sin e .

p) = O(r = ) and . = 6 tp = O(r). we get d( . k) = O(r). also d(k.

with an appropriate modi.nally d(p. a similar statement ould be made for any = o(r = ). 2 2 3 2 3 The value = (r = ) in the theorem above is not ru ial. ) = O(r = ).

from W . Proof: Lemma 34 shows that for every point on the -medial axis. ation of the bound. and any . with the property that ri onverges to 0 as i ! 1. 1 3 1 2 Theorem 35 Consider a sequen e of samples S0 . S1 . The set of inner (outer) poles of Si onverges to the inner (outer) medial axis of W . Now we apply this bound to make a pre ise statement to the ee t that the set of poles onverges to the medial axis as r ! 0. > 0.

there is some .xed radius > 0.

and a . for all j > i. A point on the 0-medial axis (a enter of urvature of W ) belongs to the losure of the -medial axis.nite i su h that. so that. with > 0. there is a pole of Sj within distan e of . for any > 0 there is a suÆ iently small su h that there is a point 0 of the -medial axis within distan e =2 of . again.

let x be the minimum of i . o .and o . We now argue that in the limit the medial axis ontains the set of poles. This shows that in the limit the set of poles ontains the medial axis. Point x is asso iated with an inner and an outer medial axis point. Let the subset of W with x be the -surfa e. First. Now .medial axes.nite i su h that for any j > i there is a pole of Sj within distan e =2 of 0 . belonging respe tively to the i . we assi iate a value x with ea h point x 2 W .

if s 2 Sj 32 .x > 0. The Voronoi ell of any sample s in the -surfa e ontains the interior medial axis point orresponding to s. whi h belongs to the -medial axis. So for any there is some i su h that small enough so that.

and whi h are the outside. Proof: Let p be a point any point on the fa e inside the tubular neighborhood. it is possible to orre tly onstru t the power rust given an r-sample for small enough r. is within distan e if the interior pole of s. outside) polar balls indu ing the fa e. The diÆ ulty of ourse is in determining whi h are the inside. bounded smooth surfa e W . Output:The power rust of S . . We know that the polar balls of an inner and an outer pole an only interse t shallowly.for any j > i. Input: An r-sample S from a losed. If we ould determine that two inner (outer) polar balls whi h indu e a fa e of the power diagram must interse t deeply. 2 This leads to the following algorithm to label ea h pole as either outside (O0) or inside (I 0). 2 Lemma 36 Two inside (resp. 2 9 Theoreti al algorithm Even when the surfa e W is unknown. we ould not establish that adja ent inner (outer) polar balls interse t deeply. Instead. outside) polar balls indu ing a fa e within the tubular neighborhood meet at an angle of at least =2. giving an algorithm analogous to that of Attali [6℄ in IR . so 6 1 p 2 is at most =3. poles. for small enough r. we have the following. then we ould assign all power diagram two-fa es orresponding to shallowly interse tion pairs of balls to the power rust. 2 be the enters of the two inside (resp. The angle between the surfa e normal n(x) at the point x 2 W losest to p and either p 1 or p 2 is at most =6. and let 1 . Unfortunately. by Lemma 34. Step 1: Constru t the Delaunay triangulation of S .

Let BP be the set of polar balls. and sele t two poles for ea h sample.nd the Voronoi verti es. 33 .

Step 2: Constru t the power diagram P ow(BP ). Step 3: Sele t a sample on the onvex hull of S . Label its in.

Proof: Let q be the . To prove that this algorithm is orre t. if the pole q0 opposite q at s is unlabeled: Give q0 the opposite label from q and insert q 0 into the queue. Lemma 37 No pole in I re eives label O0 and no pole in O re eives label I 0 . are identi al to the sets I 0 and O0. we need to show that the sets I and O. and examine ea h unlabeled neighbor q of p in P ow(BP ).nite outer pole with O0 and the opposite inner pole I 0. Step 4: While the queue is non-empty: Remove a labeled pole p from the queue. orresponding to the inside an outside of W . For ea h sample s su h that q is a pole of s. Step 5: Output the fa es of P ow(BP ) separating the ells of one pole labeled I 0 and one pole labeled O0 as the power rust. Insert both poles in a queue. If the Voronoi ball surrounding q interse ts the Voronoi ball of p at an angle of more than =4: Give q the same label as p and insert it in the queue.

The . Either p and q should have opposite labels but they meet at an angle of more than =2.rst mislabeled pole. and let p be the pole from whose label that of q was determined. or p and q should have the same label but they are opposite poles of the same sample s.

2 Lemma 38 Every pole re eives a label.rst ase is impossible by Lemma 16. and the se ond is impossible be ause the two poles of any sample always should have opposite labels. 34 .

De. Therefore if any pole q in the same onne ted omponent of UI re ieves label I 0 .[6℄. a ontradi tion. we are done. The line segment onne ting x to its nearest sample s must ross the medial axis. sin e ea h sample s su h that p is a pole of s appears on the power rust. we laim that there must be a sample on this omponent. Assume not.[5℄ and [2℄. Ea h onn eted omponent of either I or O eventually gets at least one labeled pole. onsider any point x on the boundary of that omponent. onsider some omponent that remains unlabled. Every ball in I has at least one point on the power rust. so that the distan e d(x. If this is true. the dual shape orresponding to rust onstru tions su h as [4℄. The laim must be true. [16℄. then p will eventually as well. s) LF S (x). By Lemma 36 we know that every power rust edge is ontained in two balls whi h interse t deeply (the meet at an angle of at most =2). 2 10 The Anti-Crust We on lude with a brief omparison of the dual shapes des ribed in this paper with the anti- rust. be ause a label will be propogated a ross this sample.[21℄.Proof: We onsider a pole p 2 I . otherwise.[3℄.

the anti- rust is more like the medial axis than the power shape is. as dis ussed below. 35 . This is the main failing of the anti- rust. Observation 39 The dimension of every fa e of A is at most two. Observation 40 Every Voronoi vertex of S is a vertex of A. The anti- rust A is the set of Voronoi fa es of S whose duals do not belong to T . whi h we shall generi ally all a rust.nition: Let T be a triangulated manifold (possibly with boundary) sele ted from the Delaunay triangulation of a set S of surfa e samples. In this.

De.

we an think of A as the approximate MAT dual to T . Again. the anti- rust A is homotopy equivalent to Q W . Another sense in whi h it is good is fun tional: the surfa e approximation an be re overed from it. Corollary 42 When T is homeomorphi to W . we see that T is a subset of P ow(BV ). this follows from Observation 2. This is one sense in whi h A is a good approximation to the medial axis M . Observation 43 The surfa e approximation T an be re overed from A by omputing P ow(BV ) and sele ting the fa es not dual to fa es of A. Q W is homotopy equivalent to both. In the limit. Theorem 7 therefore implies the following. an approximate surfa e representation.nition: Let BV be the set of Voronoi balls of S . Observation 41 A is the dual shape of T in P ow(BV ). as the sampling density be omes in. Thus. From Observation 2 above.

whi h do not orrespond to any feature of M . purely due to quantization. The problem is that even an arbitrarily dense sample an produ e Voronoi verti es very lose to W and far from M : whenever four samples adja ent on the surfa e and determining a Voronoi vertex v are nearly o- ir ular.[2℄). This introdu es unwanted \hairs" on the anti rust A. that this theoreti al diÆ ulty has not had mu h ee t in pra ti e. [3℄. 11 Open Questions We were unable to resolve the following onje ture. 36 . T ! W (eg. Equally erroneous \hairs" are aused by small errors in the sample positions. but this is not in fa t true. It must be admitted. One would like to on lude that A ! M as well. v might be anywhere on the line perpendi ular to the ir le.nite. however.

Conje ture 44 The power rust fa es are exa tly those for whi h the two polar balls determining the fa e interse t in a lune of at most O(r) degrees. Polynomial time TSP-based urve re onstru tion. If the onje ture is true. Amenta. [2℄ N. (2000). then the generalization of their algorithms to three dimensions produ e the power rust. Referen es [1℄ E. Althaus and K. Amenta and M. A simple algorithm for homeomorphi surfa e re onstru tion. Mehlhorn. (2000). Symposium on Dis rete Algorithms (SODA). Surfa e re onstru tion by Voronoi . T. Leekha. Choi. Bern. 16th ACM Symposium on Computational Geometry. pages 686-695. [3℄ N. Dey and N. This is the riterion used in Attali's (and Gold's) two-dimensional surfa e re onstru tion algorithm. S.

An extended abstra t appeared in the 14th ACM Symposium on Computational Geometry. 39{48. and D. The rust and the . Eppstein. To appear in Dis rete and Computational Geometry. 1998. Amenta. Bern. M. [4℄ N.ltering.

[8℄ F. Attali and A. H. pp. Mittleman. Amenta. Silva and G. Bernardini. Computer Vision and Image Understanding. [7℄ D. In Pro . Attali. r-Regular shape re onstru tion from unorganized points. A new Voronoi-based surfa e re onstru tion algorithm. 261{273. and M. 37 . [5℄ N. 1997. 248{253. M. Siggraph 1998. Taubin. C. Bern. To appear in Graphi al Models and Image Pro essing . [6℄ D. 67(3) (1997). Rushmeir. Montanvert. J. Computational Geometry . The ball-pivoting algorithm for surfa e re onstru tion. Computing and Simplifying 2D and 3D Continuous Skeletons. -skeleton: ombinatorial urve re onstru tion. To appear in IEEE Transa tions on Vision and Computer Graphi s. 13th ACM Symp. Also IBM Te h. Kamvysselis. Report RC21463(96842).

Graphi s 3 (1984) 266{286. Natural oordinates of points on a surfa e.W. 223{232. Pa i. Geometri stru tures for three-dimensional shape re onstru tion. P.[9℄ J-D. Design and analysis of planar shape deformation Pro eedings of the 14th Annual ACM Symposium on Computational Geometry pp.Choi. Boissonnat. ACM Trans. [12℄ H. Lam. Mathemati al theory of medial axis transform.I. (2000). [11℄ S-W. Fu. Cheng. Edelsbrunner. (1998). Boissonnat and F. Cazals. and K-P. 29{38. Moon. and H. [10℄ J-D. Choi. H. P. Pro eedings of the 16th Annual ACM Symposium on Computational Geometry pp. S.

K. 38 . Graphi s 13 (1994) 43{72. Levoy. 15th ACM Sympos. Mu ke. Edelsbrunner. 218-231. J. Appeared in Pro . 207{216. and Menger's theorem on length. Dey. A volumetri method for building omplex models from range images. [13℄ T. Dey and P. on Dis rete Algorithms. Culver. Ramos. S893-4.. Theory Appl. Comput. Kumar. A simple provable algorithm for urve re onstru tion. 1999. [20℄ J. 15 (2000). and D. the TSP. [14℄ B. (1996). Journal of Mathemati s. ACM Solid Modeling. [16℄ T. 1999. Pro eedings of the 9th Annual ACM Symposium on Computational Geometry.. (1993). [19℄ L. Visual Computer 11 (1995) 105{112. The union of balls and its dual shape. UNC Te hni al Report TR98-038. de Figueiredo and J. 10th Annual ACM-SIAM Symp. Edelsbrunner and E. A urate omputation of the medial axis of a polyhedron. Computational morphology of urves. Keyser. A previous version appeared in SoCG '99. Comput. [18℄ H. Curve re onstru tion: onne ting the dots with good reason. Mehlhorn and E. pp. 229{244. P. Curless and M. Geom. SIGGRAPH 96. Geom. H. Curve re onstru tion. [17℄ H. Mano ha. 303-312. ACM Trans. 181:1 (1997). Three-dimensional alpha shapes. pp. Giesen. de Miranda Gomes. 5788. Pro . Pro . (1999). [15℄ T.

(1996).. 189{196. Knight. Gold. Approximating urves via -shapes. Geom. M Donald and W. [23℄ H. 9th Eurographi s Workshop on Animation and Simulation. 39 . (1996). X. 71-78. Hubbard. Mat hing and Interpolation of Shapes using Unions of Cir les. C. pp. J. 15(3). Assisted Arti ulation of Closed Polygonal Models. Tei hman and S. [26℄ D. (1996). [24℄ P. [27℄ Takis Sakkalis and Ch. Du hamp. pp. SIGGRAPH 92. [22℄ J. 15(3). [25℄ V. Constru ting dis rete medial axis of 3-D obje ts. Shape des ription by medial axis onstru tion. and L. Sheehy. [28℄ M. 165{179 (1999). 2(1). Surfa e re onstru tion from unorganized points. (1998). pp. Robinson. Goldak. Computational Geometry and its Appli ations 1 (1991) 327{339. A. Ranjan and A. Hoppe. IEEE Transa tions on Visualzation and Computer Graphi s. 179{210. ACM Transa tions on Graphi s. (1999).[21℄ C. Armstrong and D. Computer Graphi s Forum. Crust and anti- rust: a one-step boundary and skeleton extra tion algorithm. (1992). Yu. 62{72. Dong. Teller. pp. J. Pro . 15th ACM Sympos. T. Int. 129{142. Charitos. Comput. DeRose. Graphi al Models and Image Pro essing 61. Fournier. Pro . Stuetzle. T. Approximating polyhedra with spheres for time- riti al ollision dete tion.

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