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Abstract: The dynamics of micro sized particle has been modeled considering all the dominant forces. At macro scale, gravity and inertia are the dominant forces. Friction coefficient is considered as constant. On micro scale there are additional forces need to be considered. Magnitude of electrostatic force of attraction by contact-electrification and Van der Waal’s force is also comparable to that of the earlier mentioned ones. Friction coefficient, at micro scale is no longer a constant but is a function of applied normal load. Surface forces of attraction being the dominant one at micro scale, the friction factor becomes a strong function of surface forces at static condition. Moreover, surface forces are a function of surface roughness. So friction factor is indirectly a function of surface roughness. This manuscript is an attempt to accommodate these dominant forces while modeling the particle dynamics. It’s an initial attempt to pave the way towards controlled micro-part handling on a flexible surface. 1. Introduction: Motion analysis of macro sized components needs consideration of body forces and applied loads but the motion analysis for micro scale particle requires additional consideration. Surface forces start becoming prominent once the part size starts becoming small and weight becomes negligible [8, 23]. Modeling the dynamics of small particles requires one to accommodate this shift of dominance from body to surface forces. Van Der Waal’s and Casimir surface forces have a strong dependency on the distance from the surface. The effective distance from the surface is a function of the surface roughness thus making surface roughness one of the parameters that affects the magnitude of the surface forces. There have been a number of attempts to mathematically model the dependence of these forces on the surface roughness. The Casimir force has been modeled as the distance derivative of difference of total black energy within the space between two surfaces and the energy in the outer space assuming the only modes of electromagnetic fluctuations having wavelength smaller than the distance between the two surfaces can exist [9, 10]. Others looked at it as distance derivative of the difference of surface energy of in contact surfaces and the surfaces separate from each other as the source of surface force of attraction and tried to develop contact models for pre-assumed shapes in contact. Models proposed by Johnson et. al. (JKR) and Derjaguin et. al. (DMT), which are modifications of Hertz Contact model, are adhesive-contact models to accommodate force of attraction between a sphere and a flat plate [11] [12]. The JKR model is suitable for softer material having compliant contacts while the DMT model is suitable for stiffer materials. The surface roughness models used to generate a numerical equivalent surface of a given pair of surfaces [13,14], along with JKR and DMT contact models, are employed to accommodate the surface attraction force. These solutions were extended to calculate static friction force. The coefficient of friction calculated from these extensions is dependent strongly on the applied net normal force which includes the force of attraction as well which is the case at micro scale.

A mathematical model was proposed by W. The GW model calculates contact pressure and area of contact assuming Hertz contacts. Also. however these models neglect the surface force of attraction and cannot be employed for micro scale [33. . “Contrary to general opinion. the deformation profile of a compressed sphere against a flat is calculated and force of attraction is the integral of the force contributed by each non contacting point calculated by Lennard-Jones potential [Muller]. 36]. 4]. I. 34. where for contacting asperities. 36]. 16]. the results will be conservative. B. 19. The static friction force is often an upper bound of friction force because the strength of junction of the contacting points increases as the time of stationary contact increases [36]. The GW model assumes that one of the surfaces is covered with hemispheres of known radius. The CEB model augmented with this additional pull force and plasticity estimates a different actual area of contact when compared with GW model. modified the CEB model to include the discontinuity in contact load between the elastic and plastic limits and modeled the transition region between elastic and fully plastic deformation [32]. If the static friction coefficient is used. Sliding contact and dynamic friction coefficient between rough surfaces is considered. The CEB model is the extension of the GW surface roughness model by Greenwood and Williamson [13]. force of attraction and friction force between rough surfaces[2. the shear load is not only supported by elastically deformed asperities but some of the asperities in the elastic-plastic transition region also contribute to the net frictional load. Kogut and Etsion modified the CEB model on the basis of FEA results of compression of a sphere with a flat surface and proposed the KE friction model by curve fitting the FEA data [18. The KE model was extended to calculate dynamic friction between lubricated surfaces [27].25. The CEB model assumption that tangential force is only supported by the elastically deformed material was modified. Bogy (CEB model) to calculate real area of contact. the friction force is estimated.21. no distinction can be made between static and kinetic coefficient of friction and experimental observation of the difference between static and kinetic friction coefficient are not necessarily intrinsic properties of dry contact. R. The limit for the initiation of plastic deformation developed by Bush and Gibson is used to accommodate plasticity of contact points [31]. Dynamic properties of experimental apparatus and external perturbations may lead to this difference” [33. 20]. CEB model uses the solution of a sphere against a flat surface by Muller et al [1983 reference] for non-contacting asperities. However. Surface profile of deformed asperities is also modified on the basis of FEA results [19. Once the actual area of contact is known. pressed against another flat surface and these peaks are arranged with some predefined probability density function (PDF). Etsion and D. Cheng. In KE model. The transition region between the two states confirmed by Johnson [reference] was not accommodated in the CEB model. with the assumption that tangential force can be supported only by the areas which are under elastic contact. as noted by Matrinz et al. The CEB model assumed that asperities are either at an elastic or fully plastic state. To estimate the force of attraction. Hertz contact theory is an elastic contact theory and it neither assumes any surface force of attraction nor any plastic deformation [28]. Zhao et al. 3.

.4I . Dynamic friction coefficient is a function of roughness and materials of surfaces in contact and Experimental data in the published literature provides clear evidence that the dynamic friction coefficient value is close to the static one [17. + 3 ∞ 2 ω HA πβK 3 σ ∞ + 0.25 − − . ω ω + 1. . no mathematical model is available in the open literature to calculate the dynamic friction coefficient between non-lubricated rough surfaces at micro scale. Therefore. 21].79 −0. The KE surface roughness / friction model is can be evaluated according to [22] Intersecting Peak ω d hs Asperities with Constant Radius R Mean of surface heights r z Mean of asperity heights z Flat surface a Asperity in contact with flat surface Figure 1: rough surface in contact with flat surface. 0. . Dotted line shows the original asperity profile where as solid red line shows the profile after compression.09I + 0.03 . The compressed asperity has profile Z = f(r) Gaussian distribution of asperity heights = = = = 2 ∞ − − . ∞ ∞ − with = =2 Q = 2 3 . + 1. . .98 ω + 0. .01I + 1. . the proposed analysis considers the value of static friction coefficient as a safe initial guess of dynamic coefficient of friction.52 I + + 0. J and I are given by [22] = 4 3 = − = − − 0. .4 . .85I where Jnc. .19 − 0.To the best of our knowledge.

2. The dynamic model to predict the motion of a micro particle is developed considering all the forces acting on the particle while in contact with or close to a deformable surface. two coordinate systems are used simultaneously as shown below. details are mentioned in “friction logic” ahead. Inertia forces are calculated along local coordinate system. The schematic of the particle on the flexible surface is shown in the Figure 1. The acceleration of particle perpendicular to the surface is the same as the acceleration of surface itself in the same direction. The equations of KE model are used to estimate force of attraction and friction force between the surfaces when the distance between them is known. following set of assumption is used 1. To capture the particle movements.2. this set of equations needs to be embedded into the dynamic model of the system and a sequence of solution steps needs to be defined to. To simulate the system. The local system defined at the center of the particle and is dynamically changing relative to the global system such that one of its axes is always tangent to the deformable surface at the contact point. Y β deforming X Global Coordinates yta α Local Coordinates ytt yt ytb θ -myttb -mytta -mytt (b) θ (a) Figure 2: Acceleration and velocity of the particle while on flexible surface. Acceleration of particle in the direction parallel to the surface is determined by the relative velocity of particle with surface and magnitude of friction force. To calculate inertial force while the particle is on the surface. Bold line represents the instantaneous position of moving surface with any profile (a) Acceleration and resultant force on the particle (b) velocity decomposed along and perpendicular to the surface The system dynamic model is based upon following assumptions . Dynamic Model of System Our objective in this exercise is to capture the motion of a micro-particle while on a flexible surface.

When the distance between two surfaces is very small it indicates high compression and the force due to the compression of asperities is larger compared to the force of attraction. State of the particle to detach from the surface: The forces acting on micro-part while in contact with a surface are shown in Figure 2. i. Therefore by increasing distance a state reaches when the force of attraction is equal to applied load. the surface attraction force pulls the two surfaces together while the compression of asperities generates a repulsion force between the two surfaces. Increasing this distance will decrease the contact load at a larger rate than the rate of decrease of force of attraction as shown in Figure 3 (b/c). generates an inertial force larger than the maximum pull force shown on “Applied Force vs.Fatt Fext = -Fapl Fcont Equivalent Rough Suface d Figure 3: Forces Acting on Micro Particle When the two surfaces are in contact. thus compliance is not considered. The acceleration and velocity generated by the actuator at the bottom of surface are assumed to be the same on the top of the surface due to no compliance. Distance” graph in Figure 3(a). In the proposed model. the surface is assumed to have infinite localized stiffness through its thickness. The minimum point in Figure 3(a) represents the maximum pull force required to separate the two surfaces. the deformation profile at the top and bottom of the surface are assumed to be the same. . The applied load becomes negative beyond a certain distance indicating that the force due to asperity compression is smaller than the surface attraction force.e. The net applied load on the particle is the difference of these two forces. Further increasing the distance. the force of attraction is higher in magnitude than force due to the compression of asperities and it Applied Load gets negative. this load is balanced by externally applied load to keep the equilibrium. Applied load is the difference of attraction force and contact load. This shows that one requires a pull force to increase the distance beyond this point. This state represents the compression of asperities due to attraction force between the surfaces. In the proposed dynamic model.Surface Compliance: The actuation is achieved by a controlled deformation of a flexible surface. Micro particle Fext Particle Fapl Base surface Mean of Asperities height Fatt Fatt = Attraction forces applied by surface Fcont = Repulsion by asperities compression Fapl = Net applied load Fapl = Fcont . the part detaches from or flies off the surface once the acceleration component perpendicular to the surface.

the direction of the suface attraction force is calculated as well. To. Particle Motion in Air: NEED TO REFERENCE DUSCUSSION to figure 3 and 4. requires initial conditions which are set to be the states from the previous time step when the particle was in contact with the surface. . the particle motion is affected only by gravitational force and the surface attraction force. predict the motion of the particle. This net applied force is resolved into its components along global coordinates to estimate system states for next time step. If the input acceleration is such that the particle gains enough energy to overcome the attraction and gravity forces it will detach from the surface and this changes the dynamics of the system. The resultant force acting on particle is the vector sum of force of attraction and gravitational force. At this system state. . In addition to the distance. The surface attraction force is estimated by continuously (at every integration time step) evaluating the shortest distance of the particle from the deformed surface for the current system state using potential field approach as shown in Figure 4. while detached from the surface.Min force point No Applied Force (a) (b) (c) Figure 4: Forces acting on MicroDistance Vs Force Fig: Applied Particle. σ = 20nm Minimum point marked on the applied force graph represents the maximum pull off force required to separate the two surfaces.

Friction Logic: The system dynamics are a function of the nonlinear behavior of the friction force or friction coefficient which in effect is a function of surface roughness. its velocity is decomposed to the local coordinate system into perpendicular and tangential components based on surface deformation. When the particle returns to the surface. surface attraction force and distance of the particle from the surface. The position of micro particle is monitored to identify the time at which it detaches (flies of the surface) and the time at which it returns or re-touches the surface. the asperity density is assumed to be constant. asperity contact and deformation. In proposed system model. Minimum distance of the particle is calculated to estimate the magnitude and direction of force of attraction. Area of contact: Nominal area of contact between the particle and the surface is assumed to be constant even when the surface is deformed. Air Damping: The model assumes that the effects of air damping even when the particle detaches from the surface are negligible and therefore not included in the analysis. Particle Velocity Perpendicular to Surface: The relative perpendicular velocity of the part with respect to the surface is zero while the part stays on or is in contact with the surface due to the non-compliant surface assumption. We are aware that when a surface is deformed it will experience stretching that will cause the characteristics of the surface roughness to change. Resultant force is the vector sum of both forces Asperity Density: The surface roughness has an apriori defined asperity density. The particle velocity after contact is the decomposed tangential velocity and this is conserved and used for the next time step in the analysis while the perpendicular component is eliminated since no impact dynamics are considered. The logic for defining the friction force/coefficient implemented in the proposed dynamic model as described by Woods [37] which considers the relative velocity between the two surfaces to . distance Particle with potential field R W Flexible Surface γ γ Fatt= Surface Attraction Force W= Weight R = Resultant Force Fatt Figure 5: Particle motion in air.Min.

v = Relative Velocity = Base Velocity − Part Velocity v = y −u If the relative velocity of the particle with respect to surface is zero then friction is equal to tangential component of applied force on the particle. The details can be found in Woods [37] Vf = 0 acceleration = Vth − V f / ∆t acceleration = Ftot / m Combining the above three equations Vth = ( FricF × ∆t ) / m When the relative velocity is less than threshold velocity (Vth) and the absolute value of threshold velocity is reducing. In ] . integration step size and particle mass. The governing equations of the system are functions of the state of the particle relative to the surface. In order to implement this logic in a numerical simulation and to capture hysteresis and stick-slip behavior. Contrary to this. thus the value of threshold velocity varies and is estimated at each time step. and the absolute value of relative velocity is increasing. it will decelerate it to complete stop (Vf = 0) within one time step. their surface roughness and the distance between them as input. Numerical implementation of the logic is if [ abs(v) ×Vth ] OR if [ abs(v) < Vth AND abs (total force on mass) ≥ Max value of Friction Force ] FF = Max value of Friction Force × sign(v) x = velocity of particle FF x= mass if [ abs(v) < Vth AND abs (total force on mass) ³ Max value of Friction Force x = velocity of base x = acceleration of base At micro scale. The threshold of velocity is defined as the maximum velocity of the mass. If the relative velocity has a non-zero value. The friction model is used to calculate normal force on the part. friction force is a function of normal force. Inversion of Friction Model: The presented friction model considers the material properties of contacting surfaces. The threshold value of relative velocity depends upon the friction force. the acceleration of the part is determined by the net applied force and the equation of system will be The sign of friction force is always opposite to the direction of relative velocity. This model must be inverted in order to be used in the dynamic model for the part motion. friction force and true contact area. the friction force is equal to its maximum value and friction force direction is opposite to direction of relative velocity.capture hysteresis and stick-slip behavior. . the part will come to complete stop with respect to base and the acceleration and velocity of the part is same as the base. if the value of relative velocity is less than Vth . a threshold of relative velocity is defined. when it is applied by an external force opposing the velocity.

7 × 10 −13 x + 2. (x).5 A rational curve was fitted on the data with the following values of goodness of fit SSE = 0. are solved using a custom written 4th order Runge-Kutta integration scheme.885 × 10 −6 x 2 + 4. The resultant equation for distance. A plot of generated data is shown in Figure 5(a) where the identified curve fit equation for two steel surfaces with σ = 20 nm and ψ = 2. a fixed global coordinate system and a local coordinate system attached to the particle. The states of micro-particle are monitored at each time step as the particle is moving along the surface for stick-slip and part detachment and updated accordingly. The ordinate of the local coordinate system is always perpendicular to .86 x (x 5 4 + 0.0314 × 10 −8 x 2 + 5. The local system not only moves but also orients with the movement of particle.5 is shown in Figure 5(b). Two coordinate systems are employed in parallel. d. representing a non-linear.02223 and R2 = 0.0494 x 3 + 2.249 × 10 −11 x + 1. discontinuous system. The explicit equation is used during simulation to evaluate the friction force at each time step as function of the mean distance between the surfaces. as a function of applied load.37 x 4 + 7. is given by d= ( 69.569 × 10 −4 x 3 + 4.999 using Curve Fit Toolbox of Matlab.proposed model system dynamics. Solution Methodology: The set of derived system dynamic equations. In order to accomplish the inversion task.839 × 10 −16 ) + 1. The set of estimated applied load as function of distance is used to identify an explicit curve fit equation. The friction model is not in the form of explicit equations which can be easily inverted. (a) (b) Figure 6: Estimated Applied Load as function of Distance and Curve fitting corresponding to steel surfaces with with σ = 20 nm and ψ = 2. the applied normal force is input while the friction force and the surface force of attraction are to be calculated.436 × 10 −18 ) This equation is used to calculate the distance which is further used to calculate attraction force between the surfaces and friction force. data for applied load is generated for a range of distance values for defined surface roughness and material properties.

At each time step. varies as the acceleration of surface along ordinate changes. The velocities along abscissa and ordinate are used to estimate updated position in local coordinates. The acceleration along ordinate (abscissa and ordinate will be used only for local coordinates) is used to calculate the inertia forces normal to particle which determine instantaneous value of friction factor. the forces acting on the particle are gravity and surface attraction force (which is a . The threshold velocity is calculated at each time step. The acceleration along abscissa is used to calculate the force on the particle. The two coordinate systems and the particle at two instances (undeformed and deformed surface) are shown in Figure 6 β β Y X (a) Y X. β Global Coordinates Local Coordinates θ Y β X α α (b) α β X α Figure 7: Local and Global coordinates in solution. This value is compared with threshold velocity to determine the relative motion of particle with respect to surface during the next time step. input surface velocity and acceleration at the location of particle are known in global coordinates and are decomposed in local coordinates. depending upon the stick-slip condition.the surface at the point of contact with the particle. These derivatives of the states are transformed to global coordinates and all four states in global coordinates are updated for next time step. being a function of normal force. the particle will continue sliding during the next time step. the particle could stick to the surface or continue slipping. the velocity and acceleration of the particle are the same as those of the surface during the next time step. The stick-slip condition is evaluated according to the derivative of the absolute value of relative velocity. If relative velocity is larger than threshold value. the particle will be captured or stick to the surface. Once it sticks to the surface. The relative velocity of surface and particle are calculated at the particle location in tangential direction. If the value of this derivative is positive. If relative velocity is smaller than threshold value. Global coordinates remain fixed while local coordinates move and orient with the motion of particle. If the input inertia force due to the motion of the surface causes the particle to detach or fly off the surface. The transform is achieved through coordinate transformation u = x cos θ − y sin θ v = x sin θ + y cos θ The friction force. the part will not be captured or stick to the surface during the next time step. if this derivative is negative. Y α.

the only normal load on the part is its weight. the particle is considered re-attached and the system dynamics model switches back to the dynamics of particle while on the surface. Force Direction coefficient of friction and Applied Load are shown Surface in Figure 9. Distance” graph in Figure (3) and the velocity component perpendicular to surface is towards the surface. If the distance of particle from surface is less than the distance corresponding to the minimum force point on “Applied Force vs. Figure 8: Part on flat surface with acceleration along surface Table 1: Input Parameters for feasibility study Input Value Description Parameter Variable Standard deviation of surface roughness σ 20 nm Cross-section area (contact area) An 100µm x 100µm Thickness of micro particle t 10 µm ~100 µm Poisson’s ratio ν 0.33 Plasticity index ψ 2. At every time step. the position of particle is estimated relative to the surface. With no acceleration in normal direction. The states of the particle are monitored and updated in global coordinate system only. distance between the two surfaces is needed. Data of force of attraction. Friction force is calculated from KE model and the acceleration required to initiate acceleration needs to be checked against the capability of available actuation mechanisms to establish possibility of initiation of motion. Approx 1000 MPA Assuming the Micro particle mass = 2 x 10-9 kg To calculate the friction force from KE model. the part will slide along the surface as shown in Figure 8. see the Applied Load vs. If the inertia force generated by acceleration is more than the friction force. The feasibility is estimated by checking the initiation of motion while on a flat surface and by the distance travelled by particle by some possible form of actuation configuration.function of distance between them).5 Difference of surface energy ∆γ 1 Hardness of material H 200 HB. to calculate force of attraction and to check whether the particle re-attaches to the surface. To estimate the distance. Distance curve for corresponding parameters of surface roughness and material constants. Feasibility of Motion: The objective of this exercise is to establish the feasibility of motion of a micro particle while on a flexible surface. Find the distance from the graph corresponding to this . friction force and friction coefficient is generated for the following Particle values of parameters of surface and particle as Inertia Friction Force Acceleration shown in Table 1 and the graphs of friction force. Particle on flat surface with acceleration direction along the surface is the most favorable combination to slide of particle against the surface.

considering the nature of equations. This value is within the range of current piezoelectric actuators which can be used to actuate the system. The second criteria to check the feasibility is a reasonable distance-travel for a specific actuation configuration. Friction Force = 0. . the particle will start slipping on the base surface.normal applied load. no analytical solution can be calculated.8 x 10-7 N To initiate motion. Ffriction = Finertia Finertia = ma so Ffriction = ma a = Ffriction / m = 40 m / sec2 Figure 9: variation of friction force and coefficient of friction with the change of distance between the two surfaces With this value of applied acceleration. To calculate the distance travelled by the particle. the inertial force component parallel to the friction force should be large enough to overcome it. Once distance is known. At the moment of initiation of motion these two forces will be equal. the friction force can be calculated easily by using Distance vs. The numerical simulation scheme elaborated in Figure 13 is employed in MATLAB to calculate the distance travelled. Friction Force curve or using equation for friction force from the set of KE equation mentioned above.

β Y β Y α X α β X α Actuator beneath the surface in retracted position (a) Surface deformation by actuator stroke (b) Figure 10: schematic of the deformation of a surface and the resultant particle motion Surface deformation profile is assumed to be Gaussian. Time curve (Figure 11(b)) it is clear that in the acceleration phase of forward stroke of actuator the particle gains positive velocity but due to smaller slope of surface. The horizontal component of velocity of particle (in global coordinate system) with respect to time is represented in Figure 11 (b). the velocity gain is small. Reverse stroke Forward stroke (a) (b) Figure 11: Particle Velocity and Friction Force during Actuator Stroke From the Velocity vs. Simulation is done to estimate the distance travel.25 mm covered by particle. An actuator placed vertically beneath a flexible surface deforms it vertically upwards. This configuration had been selected because of its viability for real time application. The graph of the distance the particle moved along the surface. during deceleration of forward stroke. The component of inertia force along the surface will move the particle along the surface.The chosen actuation configuration is shown in Figure 10. with the variation of input frequency is shown in Figure 12. with single stroke of actuator. . Micro particle is placed on the surface experiences an inertia force. Variation of friction force plotted against the time is in Figure 11 (a). The similar situation is available in the reverse stroke which results into a net unidirectional distance of 1. the component of inertia along abscissa of local coordinate is high and the velocity gain is larger.

Viability of process depends upon the distance travelled by micro particle. the estimated value of distance travelled by micro particle is estimated to be 1. The process can be tested for variation of material. This lays the foundation of a new methodology in micro part handling. With the help of developed simulation scheme. After estimating the friction force between micro part and base surface.Figure 12: Distance Travelled by Particle with The Variation in Input Frequency of Actuation Conclusion: Motion of a micro part on a surface is discontinuous system with non linear behavior. The dynamics of motion on a surface is modeled on micro scale and simulation scheme is developed.25 mm. . the initiation of motion has been confirmed using simple mechanics. surface roughness and actuation parameters.

Figure 13: simulation scheme to trace the particle motion on the flexible surface .

Stephane Regnier. Tripp “The contact of two nominally flat rough surfaces” [15] K. I. Hyun-Jin Oh. Etsion. Bush. Andreas A. A. Greenwood and J. Jean-Claude Guinot “Simulation of Micro-Manipulations: Adhesion Forces and Specific Dynamic Models” [9] Cyrique Genet. I. O Lavinson. D. Kogut. Halperin. Part 1 : Limit Surface and Moment Functions” [7] Suresh Goyal and Andy Ruina “Planar Sliding with Dry Friction. G. B. “Static friction coeffifient model for rough metallic surfaces” [5] Micheal A Erdmann and M. G. Etsion“A finite element based elastic plastic model for contact of rough surfaces” . Keogh.References [1] Ning Yu. I. R. V. Chang. R. P. I. I. R. “An Exploration of Sensorless Manipulation” [6] Suresh Goyal and Andy Ruina “Planar Sliding with Dry Friction. Etsion “A static friction model for elastic-plastic contacting rough surfaces” [23] Shu-Ang Zhou “On the forces in microelectromechanical systems” [24] Ning Yu. I. Kogut. Hosung kong “The effect of contact area on nano/micro scale friction” [18] L. Gibson. Polycarpou “Adhesive Contact Based on the Lennard Jones Potential: A Correction to the Value of the Equilibrium Distance as Used in the Potential” [25] A. A. Varenberg “Experimental investigation of the Elastic-Plastic contact area and static friction of a sphere on flat” [22] L. Bogy. Etsion “A semi-analytical solution for the sliding inception of a spherical contact” [20] L. P. Chang. B. Shaun R. Bogy. “The limit of elastic deformation in the contact of rough surfaces” [26] L. Maia Neto. R. Toporov “Effect of contact deformation on the adhesion of particles” [13] J. Etsion. Fuller and D. R. Kogut. Derjaguin. D. Kendall and A. N. Etsion. Astrid Lambrecht and Serge Reynaud “Casimir effect with rough metallic mirrors” [11] K. Arvind Singh. D. M. G. Pergande. Etsion. Tabor “The effect of surface roughness on the adhesion of elastic solids” [16] Daniel Maugis “Adhesion of spheres: The JKR-DMT transition using a Dugdale model” [17] Eui-Sung Yoon. Greenwood and J. K. M. B. Muller and YU. Astrid Lambrecht and Serge Reynaud “The Casimir force and quantum theory of lossy optical cavities” [10] Paulo A. A. Etsion “Elastic-Plastic contact analysis of a sphere and a rigid flat” [19] L. “Adhesion model for metallic rough surfaces” [4] W. Polycarpou “Static friction model for rough surfaces with asymmetric distribution of asperity heights” [2] W. A. Chang. “An elastic-plastic model for the contact of rough surfaces” [3] W. L. D. V. H. Bogy. P. Kogut. Etsion “Adhesion in elastic-plastic spherical micro-contact” [21] I. B. Part 2 : Dynamics of Motion” [8] Yves Rollot. Kogut. Roberts “Surface energy and contact of elastic solids” [12] B. I. T Mason. Johnson. W. Williamson “Contact of nominally flat surface” [14] J. D. I.

Sun. K. David M. A. Maietta. Bell “A numerical Model for the Dry Sliding Contact of Layered Elastic Bodies with Rough Surfaces” [35] Johnson K. Gibson. T.[27] Ming Feng. Martins “Models and Computational Methods for Dynamic Friction Phenomenoa” [37] (details Dr woods friction paper) . Jaeger “New solutions in contact mechanics” [29] John Ferrante “Metallic adhesion and bonding” [30] S. Chang “An Asperity Microcontact Model Incorporating the Transition From Elastic Deformation to Fully Plastic Flow” [33] Bharat Bhushan “Contact Mechanics of Rough Surfaces in Tribology: Multiple asperity contact” [34] K Mao. A. L. J. Y. Komvopoulos. D. Keogh. Somorjai “Transitions from nanoscale to microscale dynamic friction mechanisms on polyethylene and silicon surfaces” [31] A. “The Limit of Elastic Deformation in the contact of rough surfaces” [32] Yongwu Zhao. L. [36] J. R. P. Bush. Gracias. “Contact Mechanics”. Takashi Kenjo “Friction and wear of spindle motor hydrodynamic bearings for information storage systems during startup and shutdown” [28] J. D. C. G. W. H. G. Niederberger. Cambridge. Oden. T. Cambridge University Press.

-mytta = Component of inertial force along the surface. ytb = Component of velocity perpendicular to the surface.Nomenclature Nc = number of asperities in contact P = total contact load N = number of asperities per unit area Fs = force of attraction Qd = total shear force Qmax = maximum friction force Ae = elastic area of contact Ap = plastic area of contact R = radius of curvature of asperities η = density of asperities jd = prob. to the surface. ytt = Instantaneous acceleration of microparticle. yta = Component of velocity along the surface. -myttb = Component of inertial force perp. .distribution of asperities peak ε = molecular distance ωc = interference at elasticity limit H = brinnell hardness ∆γ = change in surface energy d = distance between surfaces E = resultant elastic modulus ν = poisson's ratio of material ψ = plasticity index ω = interference of peak with smooth surface Z = distance btw flat surf and noncontacting area σs = standard deviation of asperity heights σ = standard deviation of surface heights v = relative velocity of particle parallel to surface Vth = Threshold velovity u = Acceleration of particle parallel to surface FricF = Friction force on particle m = mass of particle yt = Velocity of surface at the location of part.

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