Satellite television


.... Date, September 29th 2006

Satellite television

The faculty of ... gives an assignment in the third year for the course ... At the beginning of the assignment an article from Space News 13 September 2004 was handed out to us in which the main subject is satellite television. With a group of three students a literature study is done on the most important aspects of satellite television. This assignment serves to broaden the aerospace engineering students’ knowledge and general insight into the ways how space technology is implemented in society. Chapter 1 will introduce the subject, after which Chapter 2 will review the history and recent history of the rise of satellite television. Chapter 3 will elaborate on all the technological details of direct television. An introduction to other television services will be given in chapter 4, after which these will be compared to satellite television in chapter 5. Chapter 6 will pick up the story line of chapter 2 and extent this to the future. Chapter 7 concludes in reviewing the answers given throughout the paper in the introduction. We would like to thank our lecturer ... and the student assistants for all the answers to our questions. Delft, September 29th 2006


Satellite television


The first television satellite was launched in the sixties, and the commercial business of satellite television services took off seriously in the beginning of the nineties. Within one year after direct television was offered in the United States using so-called high power satellites and small dishes as antennas, half a million subscribers were reached. Many of these early users were hooked by the number of channels or its properties, being international for example, or by the fact that no cable was available to a number as high as 10-15 million people in the US had no availability to cable television. Within a decade this number of users rose to far in the millions, and not only in the United States but in the whole of Europe and upper regions of Africa and South America as well, along with Canada and Mexico. Also the number of television satellites reaches in the hundreds. The main difference between cable television and satellite television, and also between the latter and terrestrially based services, using pure broadcasting techniques, are as laid down in this section. To consider the first two, the number of channels is a big marker, and also the fact that satellite television reaches a far larger optional number of users, so allows for more exotic channel viewing. Although cable can be cheaper, nowadays on the average satellite television seems to cheaper when a certain reasonable number of channels is reached. Also the latest high definition television signal is slightly better implemented in present day satellite television, due to elaborate recent updates. To compare direct television to broadcasting services, this latter has potential but still allows for a far smaller number of users to be reached, and is badly promoted. Although it has potential, it is doubtful whether is not too late for that. The trend lately in the countries on the head of television technology seems to be aggressively increase the number of satellites, updating all outdated satellites and preparing for continuous rises in users. A steady rise of at least 6 percent of the satellite industry growth is noticeable the last couple of years. The overall industry view tends to be very positive, and satellite television might take the lead as number one television provider anytime. Although the countries and regions as discussed above are at the head of technology, other regions are obviously behind. Although much less wealthy regions in Africa and South America are obviously lacking, also the most of Asia, including the whole of China, is slow to pick up direct television. A satellite in geostationary earth orbit does not require antenna tracking and there are just three satellites necessary to cover the whole earth. These properties make the GEO the most appropriate orbit for direct television satellites. Some disadvantages are the high cost involved, station-keeping and signal delay. Station-keeping is mainly required due to luni-solar perturbations, Earth triaxiality and solar radiation pressure. Nowadays, the Ariane 5 launcher is mostly used to launch the satellites into GEO. As an example DirecTV Group has a contract with Boeing to launch three large Boeing 702-model telecommunications satellites. This design has some major advantages, namely low cost and high reliability. The signals to be transmitted by a communications system normally consist of a band of rather low frequencies, ranging from a few tens of Hz to a few MHz in the case of television. These baseband frequencies, those which constitute the original signal, are unsuitable for direct transmission as radio waves. For transmission purposes the signal is imposed on a ‘carrier’ wave of much higher frequency. This process in know as modulation. For a given type of


and Ka-band. An important factor that describes the overall performance of the system is the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). C/N0. due to overcrowding in other parts of the spectrum. at the receiver. Direct television satellites make use of the Ku. the overall performance depends upon the RF carrier-to-noise-power-density ratio. electrical noise is a result of the random thermal motions of atoms and electrons in matter. 4 . Most of the satellite’s power is destined for transmitting the signal back to earth. Therefore a very important component of the satellite is the antenna. A disadvantage of these bands is the high frequency. namely ‘noise’. Telecommunications has one major problem.Satellite television modulation. which results in small randomly varying electromotive forces and currents. which leads to increased atmospheric loss. The optimum antenna size depends on a trade-off between antenna gain and beam width. Telecommunications satellites receive a signal and transmit the signal back to earth. In radio communications.

....21 4..............................................................................................................................................................7 Noise.....6 2....2 Chapter 1: Introduction.............................................8 2.......................................................................22 Chapter 5: Comparison of satellite television to its competitors........................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 Telecommunications.......................................................................................3 Conclusion...............................................2 Terrestrial and satellite television..1 Cable and satellite television..........2 The DV budget....................................................................17 3..............24 5......................................................................................................................13 3.............................................................................................................11 3....................................................................................................................................................................................................8 Antennas.................................4 Boeing 702..7 2............................................................................................................................21 4..............9 Link budget......................................................29 Bibliography..................................................................................................15 3......................................................................................................25 Chapter 6: Latest and future trend of direct television.....................................................................................................................................2 Rise of ‘true’ DBS.............................1 First television satellites..............................1 GEO..........................................26 6...........................................................................23 5...........................................................................................................................1 Satellite television in the West..................................................................................................................................................2 Cable television...............................................11 3.......................Satellite television Table of contents Preface...........................................................................13 3................................................................................................................23 5................................................................................................16 3...................21 4.................12 3..................30 5 .........................9 Chapter 3: The technology behind direct television.....................3 Costs...........3 The third millennium...............18 Chapter 4: Competitors to satellite television...........................................................1 A little history.........16 3.............................................................................................3 Terrestrial television.....................................................................................................................6 Modulation...............................................26 Chapter 7: Conclusion....

The average price for satellite television is even (slightly) less than what the average household pays for cable in the US! Now what exactly are the reasons for its initial rise. and a prediction will be made on the years to come. In chapter 7. until the need for more new services as high definition television and broadband internet by satellites are presented. the growth of the satellite television industry will be illustrated with examples of companies and general numbers. Whilst also serving as an introduction to entire topic of satellite television. 6 . in its first years quickly a million users were reached. Also the worldwide situation will be reviewed quickly. a technological background. For example in the Unites States. and for its reaching of absolute high numbers of users nowadays? Also how can a complex system involving satellites over a simple ground based system as a cable coming from a distribution centre can be cheaper? Or compared to ground based broadcasting systems? Will this overall rise in users be continued the next following years. a comparison to other television services and cost research in order to. the rise until roughly 2004/2005 will be reviewed in Chapter 2. in Chapter 3. and whilst reviewing the situation in roughly the last couple of years. To review the overall trend throughout the years. commercially available satellite television services exist. how is this situation of direct TV in other places of the world. all originating out of either the United States or Europe. This will happen in Chapter 6. Other television services will be reviewed in Chapter 4. in order to be able to compare these services to satellite services in Chapter 5. or whilst trying to find answers to the questions mentioned above. the conclusion all mentioned questions will be brought forward again and tried to be answered. namely Europe but also Asia. and nowadays many millions more are added. This will be taken as an argument to go on a side trip to review the overall technology and some budgeting of satellite television.Satellite television Chapter 1: Introduction Since the beginning of the 1990’s. experiencing a big rise in its users with small ups and downs. with answers directly derived from or actually as derived in the preceding chapters. providing a history. or are the providers of satellite television or direct television anticipating this? Also. With all this information now provided the storyline will be picked up again. South America and Africa? The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad ‘leap’ into the total topic of satellite television.

This will be elaborated on in Chapter 3. and also to gain a feeling for how the system works. was launched into geosynchronous orbit on April 6. was created in Soviet Union in 1967. via the use of a relatively small dish.Satellite television Chapter 2: The rise of direct television To obtain a good comprehension of the present day situation of direct television services. and was based on the principle of using the highly-elliptical Molniya satellite for re-broadcasting and delivering of TV signal to ground downlink stations. used by governments or used as relay systems for television companies. is a highly elliptical orbit. to send signals from one ground control facility to another. 7 . Two synonyms for direct television are Direct Broadcasting Satellite (DBS) and Direct-To-Home Television.e. called Early Bird. without seriously going into detail about all specifics of the article. The first systems to resemble this idea arose in the 1980’s. The former is actually a description of the satellite but came into use as a term for the service. The world's first commercial communication satellite. to distribute the signal to other facilities in for example the United States or Russia (or Soviet Union). Also this knowledge will be used to try and establish a trend in present day use of these services. and is not of much use in most of the world so often the geosynchronous orbit is used. After these pioneers there of course were recurring launches of television satellites. channel distributors started to encrypt their signal and made these ‘tappings’ impossible. Syncom 2 was launched in 1963. number of channels) of the systems have not seriously changed throughout the last fifteen years. Starting in 1986. for its intention was not to provide this service. The first national network of satellite television. and to analyze motives of its users. size of dishes. the technical specifications (i. These first satellites were either experimental. to be pointed at the satellite. 1965. Throughout this chapter multiple articles will be mentioned. a quick look at the past is useful and interesting. Let’s further define direct television.1 First television satellites The first satellite television signal was relayed from Europe to the Telstar satellite over North America in 1962. From these facilities the television signal could be forwarded to homes by the use of broadcasting and cable. just as the other two mentioned. (This Molniya orbit however. which actually received the signal from satellites. or impractical. The first geosynchronous communication satellite. called Orbita. Around this time dishes came into households. The idea of this service is to provide television directly to be received from the satellite by the consumer. but are not actually to be seen as direct television. however all the aforementioned satellites were not yet examples of direct television satellites. which was actually meant to be received just by the satellite’s owner’s or leaser’s own ground station. 2. Also. all this information plus a short description of these articles can logically be found in Chapter 9.

Hartenstein said. thus permitting to receive the signal without any monthly costs to affectively lease a decrypter. Free-to-air stands for unencrypted. about 46 centimeter). at least in these early times. Paul. while cable officials believe DBS will serve only a niche market. have signed up nearly 500. this service does not really add valuable information to our present day discussion of DBS. other data comes from different sources. At the time.000. of Los Angeles. “In the eight months since its debut. since the latter provided the let us state truer DBS in the meaning it has nowadays. (USSB) of St. and / or to observe a target group of users. Satellite executives say DBS will continue to grow into a healthy business. The data of the start of the services of DirecTV is taken from an article out of Space News. Quotes shall be used throughout the next section. Sky Television plc (now BSkyB). For these reasons. dent in the cable television market in the United States. offering a high number of channels (at that time up to 175 channels). along with the high power satellites. Sky TV started as a four-channel free-to-air analogue service on the Astra 1A satellite.. and was joined by DirecTV in 1994. of Los Angeles and United States Satellite Broadcasting Co. A distinction should be made between these two companies. these shall be marked. This worldwide availability will be discussed later on. required a very large dish (30-40 inches.000 subscribers so far. was launched in 1989. from 13 March 1995. sports and pay-per-view programming to owners of 18-inch dish antennas. Two-thirds of the DirecTV subscribers from areas with cable television have turned off their cable service. he said. It thus can be said that consumer access arose in the start of the 1990’s. about 1 meter in diameter). Minn. which next to offering much less channels. serving the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. Also starting from this time the largest portion of the world began to have availability to direct television. will be the only ones considered throughout this paper.Satellite television The first commercial DBS service.” 8 . The two companies beam their programming from two satellites built by Hughes Space and Communications Co. and requiring a dish of half the size as the earlier ones (18 inches. which can be purchased at major electronics and department stores. 2. but noticeable.2 Rise of ‘true’ DBS PrimeStar began transmitting in the United States in 1991.” “DirecTV President Eddy Hartenstein said the fast start for DBS represents more than just wealthy early adopters and technology fans buying the user equipment and service. DirecTV's introduction was the most successful consumer electronics debut in American history. to try and find pattern in the use of satellite television. Current subscribers have an average household income of less than $50. direct broadcast satellite (DBS) television has made a small. A third Hughes satellite is scheduled for launch on a European Ariane rocket in 60 to 90 days. These services.” “DirecTV Inc. DirecTV and USSB combined are broadcasting about 175 channels of entertainment. Let us illustrate this situation in the United States somewhat more. news. The former used a medium power satellite or satellites. with 60 percent of them coming from areas that have cable television available. The DirecTV satellites and all of those by other companies to have been put in use after the first DirecTV satellites where so-called high power satellites.

but let us say average people as well. discussed earlier. illustrating a certain charm for DBS adopted by a large number of homes. and nowadays these two providers are the largest of the US. SES Global leases many ‘satellite uses’ to DirecTV. Thus at this time. starting end 2001. A more important aspect of this statement however is the second part. the terrestrial and satellite services shall be compared in chapter 5. An article about a probable upturn after this downfall in 2003 out of Space News reports many orders of satellites being cancelled. After these starts of companies in the beginning of the 90’s.3 The third millennium To not get lost in history. we will quickly advance to 2001/2002. since nowadays the average income in the Netherlands is also just 32. this average income of subscribers does not warrant a use only for millionaires. The article mentions the following at it end: “The major satellite producers have all responded to the market downturn by shedding plant capacity. worldwide more services arose. a price difference being the other main difference. 40 percent chose a DBS subscription out of necessity or to escape the only available terrestrially broadcasted television. freezing plant expansions and reducing their staff.” 9 . Later on this paper will turn its attention to this topic. as stated before.000 subscribers vow for maybe even double as many people.000 euros from the top of the writer’s head. This obviously is above the domestic average in the US. and 60 percent fell for the probably higher number of available channels. 2. still a large growth is noticeable. and the state of the dollar in general at that time. and continued to grow quite regularly. which should not be too far off in the US probably. Afterwards half a million of users are noticed. This steady growth suddenly came to a stop in 2002. subscribed in only 8 months. Clearly noted in the first section is the difference in visions of let us state leaders of the two sides of the television market. What they cannot do is continue to survive in a market like that of 2002. summarizing the next seven years in the following sentence. The biggest satellite operators at this time are SES Global. the two last ones being based in the US. this clearly is also above this average in the Netherlands. Taking into account the difference in time thus value of the money. which could lead to possible bumps with the law as here in the Netherlands at some places. when just three new commercial satellites were ordered worldwide. Although a numbers of these users were probably former subscribers to the lesser services needing larger dishes. which notes that 60 percent comes from owners with availability to cable. they can now be profitable with fewer orders than before. and thus two of the largest providers worldwide. Less then half a year after this article was published Echostar’s Dish Network launched two similar satellites to offer similar services. located in Luxembourg. As a result. France. A fourth competitor is Eutelsat based in Paris. Intelsat and PanAmSat. first noting the average income. Note that satellite operator does not automatically mean provider of DBS services. However.Satellite television Let us analyze the information provided by these three consecutive parts of the article. These percentages will be tried to be compared or even yield a present day ratio. and help influence the predicted trend. Another argument would be the necessity to own and place a dish. Also. Take into account 500. A final and quite important statement is made in the third section.

Basically the situation in let us say the west.” A probable proof of the motive to the decline in satellite orders in 2001/2002 is given first by mentioning the 2% in 2001. one of an upturn or downturn in satellite orders. “2005 Residential Cable/Satellite TV Satisfaction Study. Now the article supplied can be put into enough contexts to add valuable information in the development of DBS services and it’s satellites itself. “Satellite television is adding subscribers at its fastest clip ever. 10 . New Skies and other operators by private equity. not only the need for new satellites. This brings attention to the point that there are always two sides of the story. and nothing was provided to attract new customers? Maybe these uncertainties still allow for an estimation of the trend after from 2006 and on. Maybe this allows us to conclude the market in the west was saturated. after a slump in 2004. up from 19 percent in 2004 and 2 percent in 2001. which in its turn caused the decline in growth or satellite orders. however the situation was also not that shady that it caused an actual decline in the number of users. these two sides continuously being affected by one another. This article starts off to report a positive forecast for actual direct broadcast satellites orders.” Exactly these developments marks a true revolution of renewments accompanied by many satellite orders in 2005 and 2006. when satellite orders and new subscribers were at a low. which again was preceded by an initial upturn in orders of these in 2003. The article states as a reason for the predicted upswing in 2005 that it is “driven by pent-up demand for additional TV broadcasting requirements for new services such as high-definition TV and high-speed broadband. The article states that “Industry officials attributed the decline primarily to the acquisition of Intelsat. About the 2003 upturn. causing investments decisions to be delayed. […]” So this illustrates the fact that actually after a slump in 2001/2002. but also the availability of services as these. This 2005 brief news message notes “The report. The second important aspect is the very healthy number of new subscriptors in 2004 and 2005. was based on responses from 11. the actual services been rising in wealth from 2003 on. households subscribe to a direct-to-home satellite television service.S. 17. with everybody wanting satellite television was ‘hooked up’. out of the magazine Aviation Week & Space Technology. released Aug. so let us move on.Satellite television It is not found to be really clear what caused the decline in growth of number of subscribers (a fact to be illustrated by an article quoted below). and leads to article’s predictions in the years to come. This article is written at the end of 2004. including mainly Europe and the US was just freezed for a little over a year. and one of a likewise situation in actual subscribers to DBS services.586 households.” This actually suggests that not all different providers were responsible for the over all statistical decline in satellite orders. as the article mentions.” said 27 percent of U. Even more so. basically this was a logical consequence of the slump in 2001/2002. and thus probably the number of new subscribers was not directly affected by this smaller slump. The study. Evidence for this is information straight from another article. once again out of the Space News magazine.

1. The period of this orbit is exactly equal to the period of the earth. The transfer orbit is has an inclination of 7˚. Nowadays one of the largest providers of direct television. There are however some disadvantages. Several transfer orbit revolutions occur before the satellite is injected into a near-GEO. and an apogee near geostationary altitude. antennas.Satellite television Chapter 3: The technology behind direct television This chapter discusses the technical side of direct television. The chapter ends with a description of technical aspects of the actual telecommunications. noise and the link budget. 3. so the cost of ground stations is less because no antenna pointing control is necessary. with 0˚ latitude. This implies that the sub-satellite point is fixed at a selected longitude.1.786 km altitude. uses the Ariane 5 rocket. Separation from the launch vehicle occurs after a powered flight of ~27 minutes. There is also a need for station-keeping and there will be some propagation delay of the transmitted signal. Next an example of a telecommunications satellite is discussed. the Boeing 702 model. starting with the orbit of a telecommunications satellite and a delta-V budget.1 GEO Virtually all communication relay satellite systems are in a geostationary earth orbit (GEO). 11 . DirecTV. The satellite is placed in a nearzero degree inclination orbit at 35. This means that the GEO is very useful for fixed-point to fixed-point communications to any site within the beam of their antennas. global coverage During the 1980s the space shuttle was used to launch commercial communication spacecraft into GEO. This orbit is particularly useful for a direct television satellite. The last disadvantage is that the Polar Regions can not be covered. and there is no need for switching between them as can be seen from figure 3. the frequency bands. Fig 3. there is a high-cost launch and a high-cost satellite. The final stage of the Ariane 5 rocket places the payload (satellite) directly into a geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) with a perigee between 200 and 650 km altitude. signal modulation. Another advantage of a GEO is that almost complete global coverage can be reached from three satellites. A positive consequence of this is that ground station antenna tracking is not required.

changing both the semi-major axis and the eccentricity. It is a re-ignitable engine and produces a thrust of 29 kN over a nominal run of 1. In order to see how much fuel there has to be in the Boeing 702 satellite a ∆V budget is made. It produces a force which induces a positive ΔV. So for the ABM of the Ariane 5 this could be two firings.6 km/s to ~3 km/s at apogee. The ABM circularizes and changes the plane to become equatorial. Solar radiation perturbation is complex to model and depends critically upon both the ration of projected area to the mass of the vehicle and the surface of characteristics. the Ariane 5 is a typical launcher for communications satellites.6 years of the lunar orbit plane. from here on the propulsion is done by the Boeing 702 itself. The ABM increases the velocity of the satellite from ~1. Earth triaxiality and solar radiation pressure. Luni-solar perturbations mainly cause out-of-plane forces acting on the spacecraft. The engine of the upper stage is fed by 9. A positive ΔV will expand an orbit. The ABM of the new Ariane 5 ECA is a liquid apogee motor (LAM). This is due to the low thrust compared to solid rockets. Solar radiation pressure can also be used to help control three-axis controlled spacecraft by balancing other longitude influences. The Earth triaxiality perturbation is due to the J22 Earth tesseral harmonic. The periodic change of the 18. this launcher brings the satellite in GTO. plus the precession of the Earth’s spin axis. Its predominant influence is upon the orbit eccentricity vector e.005m2/kg the effect can be neglected. When a very effective area-to-mass ratio is used and the reflectivity coefficient is less than ~0.7 metric tons of propellant (MMH fuel and N2O4 oxidizer). for tracking of the satellite and determining its orbit before the apogee boost motor (ABM) is fired. a single firing at apogee is insufficient to transfer the vehicle into the near-GEO. It delivers a vacuum specific thrustimpuilse of 324 seconds. GEO station-keeping requirements: The primary disturbances for GEO satellite are luni-solar perturbations. The net force on the orbit plane evolution must be accounted for by an opposite ΔV. results in a 54-year period for the evolution of an uncontrolled geostationary orbit. For vehicles that utilize liquid apogee motors. leading to changes of inclination of the orbit. 3.2 The DV budget As said. For liquid motors with a thrust of ~102 N three firings will be necessary to achieve a near-GEO. which with a thrust of ~104 N need only one firing.Satellite television This period is essential for attitude maneuvers and determinations.100 seconds. The magnitude of this ΔV is ~50m/s/year. From the website of the faculty Aerospace Engineering at the TU Delft: Manoeuvre From GTO to GEO Attitude control: 3-axis control Spin-up or despin Stage separtion Momentum wheel unloading ∆V (m/s) 3200 Max 6 m/s per year 10 m/s per manoeuvre 10 m/s per manoeuvre 6 m/s per year 12 .

The three satellites. are intended to broadcast direct television. there is one stage separation and it is assumed that the satellite makes one manoeuvre.6 years.4 Boeing 702 Often direct television providers do not actually launch a satellite into orbit. DirecTV Group has a contract with Boeing to launch three large Boeing 702-model telecommunications satellites. so the Boeing 702 will cost 66 million dollar. The payload mounts to the common bus module at only four locations and with only six electrical connectors. these two apply both to a number of the satellites launched in order of DirecTV. As mentioned before. The total launch cost of a Boeing 702 satellite is 190 million dollar.Satellite television The expected lifetime of the Boeing 702 is 12.2 / 37278 ) = 5474. DirecTV-11 and DirecTV-12. 3.8kg So the Boeing 702 has to bring 5474.81 = 37278m / s m prop = 5993 ⋅ e −( 3371.8 kg of propellant. 3. This design has some major advantages. 13 . this makes a total ∆V of: ∆V = 3200 + 10 + 10 + ( 6 + 6 ) ⋅12. named as DirecTV-10. The Boeing 702 evolved from the Boeing 601 and 601HP spacecraft.6 = 3371. The launch cost to GTO of an Ariane 5 is 124 million dollar for a payload of 6000 kg (see reader Space Engineering & Technology II Part B: Space Vehicle Engineering page 165). The Boeing 702 has payload/bus integration.3 Costs To give an indication of the costs of a television satellite.2m / s To find out how much propellant there has to be on board of the satellite formula 7-14 in SMAD is used m prop = m0 ⋅ e −( ∆V / V0 ) From the website of Boeing the initial mass and the specific impulse of the Boeing 702 can be found: m0 = 5993kg I sp = 3800 s Now v0 can be calculated and then m prop v0 = I sp ⋅ g0 v0 = 3800 ⋅ 9. For example they are not concerned with what it takes to keep a satellite in its orbit or all the aspects of a ground station. this paragraph will very shortly indicate this.

which increase packageable radiator area. which leads to a third advantage: a short production schedule. and Sea Launch. The Boeing 702 offers a range of power up to 18 kW. The Boeing 702 also incorporates a bipropellant propulsion system. Four 25-cm thrusters provide economical station-keeping. These include the Delta IV. This increases unit reliability over service life. The innovation extends to the Boeing 702 power systems as well. Atlas III and Atlas V families. as to be viewed in figure 3. Ariane 5. a Boeing 702 14 . This all implies that there is a lower cost involved. because the bus does not need to be changed for every payload and payloads can be freely tailored without affecting the bus. is compatible with several launch vehicles. The design also permits significantly faster parallel bus and payload processing. The Boeing 702 separates the bus and payload thermal environments and substantially enlarged the heat radiators to achieve a cooler. Fig 3. XIPS is 10 times more efficient than conventional liquid fuel systems.2. needing only 5 kg of fuel per year .Satellite television Starting with the reduction of non-recurring program costs. Dual and triple-junction gallium arsenide solar cells enable such high power levels. Further thermal control occurs through passive primary rejection via heat pipes. Deployable radiators use flexible heat pipes.a fraction of what bipropellant or arcjet systems consume. The baseline Boeing 702. Proton.1. Using XIPS for final orbit insertion conserves even more mass as compared to using an on-board liquid apogee engine. Further efficiency derives from the 702's advanced xenon ion propulsion system (XIPS). more stable thermal environment for both bus and payload. which can lift the satellite into final orbit after separation from the launch vehicle.

Satellite television 3. the available frequency bands are subjected to these regulations. the customers. For a terrestrial microwave link this is typically about 50 km and for direct television satellite in GEO this is about 36000 km. since this is the most important aspect in a direct broadcast satellite. Higher frequencies usually mean less transmitter power and increased atmospheric loss. 15 .and K-bands (respectively 30 and 20 GHz). Echostar concluded a deal with Telestar of Canada to supply all available Ku-band capacity on Anik-F3. provided by the satellite is typically in the region of 1012-1015 (120150dB).3. The power amplification factor. or gain. where the transmitter power is one of the major demands on the primary satellite power. is already in orbit. This means that they broadcast data from a ground station to multiple ground stations. DirecTV’s first Ka-band satellite. For clarity a picture can be found below. there is however a major disadvantage. Anik-F3 is a C-/Ku-/Ka-band satellite built by the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS). Fig 3. So far. Thus the following will be mostly about downlink. This is particularly the case if on the downlink. Thus overcrowding of the spectrum has led to a shift towards higher frequencies. International regulations may pose some constraints on your satellite. which represents the gain. Among others. A direct broadcast satellite falls under the category of data-relay satellites. But overcrowding in this part of the spectrum has led to the increase in use of the Ku-band (14. The consequence of this increase in path length is that the most critical parameter in a satellite system is the available transmitter power.5 Telecommunications Some early experimental systems used orbiting objects as passive reflectors or scatterers in order to achieve intercontinental communications. most of the television traffic has been in the C-band (four to six GHz).5 GHz) and the X-band (11GHz). The power ratio here is the ratio of output power to input power. However in order to meet the demand for high traffic capacities it would be necessary top use active satellite systems containing transponders that receive the signals transmitted from the ground (uplink). DirecTV’s archrival. data relay The biggest difference between a satellite link and a terrestrial link is the length of the transmission path. converted from broadband to high-definition television service. change their frequencies and amplify them before re-transmitting them to Earth (downlink). In telecommunications engineering. a power ratio is often expressed on a logarithmic scale with decibels as units. Nowadays overcrowding of these bands has led to the use of Ka.

This simply means that there are separate narrow beams transmitted to different regions on the Earth’s surface. the tree types of modulation are known as amplitude-shift keying (ASK). depending in particular on the type of modulation in use. PM and FM are different forms of ‘angle modulation’. The importance of noise is that it sets a fundamental limit to the sensitivity of a telecommunications receiver. m in the case of amplitude modulation (AM) and β in the case of phase modulation (PM) or frequency modulation (FM). ranging from a few tens of Hz to a few MHz in the case of television. in comparing the performance of different types of modulation it is usual to refer to the input SNR (S/N) i. electrical noise is a result of the random thermal motions of atoms and electrons in matter. An increasing proportion of telecommunications traffic consists of digital signals. If the high-frequency signal is represented by a cosine wave (see the equation below). β. These baseband frequencies. A more important factor for the system user is the SNR at the final (baseband) output of the system (S/N)0. 3. It is usually convenient to express C/N0. For transmission purposes the signal is imposed on a ‘carrier’ wave of much higher frequency. the peak phase deviation (in radians). which is the ratio of the RF signal power to the noise power in an RF bandwidth equal to the base bandwidth. the baseband signal may then be represented by a variation with time of either the carrier amplitude (Vc). This is the ratio of signal power to noise power. For a sinusoidal waveform. quantization and encoding. are unsuitable for direct transmission as radio waves. Although (S/N)0 must clearly depend upon the RF signal (or ‘carrier’)-to-noise ratio (C/N) the relationship can be complicated. which means that they can take only a finite number of discrete values. namely the binary digits 0 and 1. frequency-shift keying (FSK) and phase-shift keying (PSK).Satellite television A solution to this is the use of the same frequency for two or more signals which can be accomplished via spatial discrimination. 3. In radio communications. Furthermore. is equal to Δf/fm where Δf is the peak frequency deviation and fm the modulating frequency. which results in small randomly varying electromotive forces and currents. V = Vc cos(2π fc t + φc ) The magnitude of modulation is represented by a modulation index. 16 . is known as demodulation. The conversion of analogue signals to digital form may be described in terms of three steps: sampling. An important factor that describes the overall performance of the system is the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). These are often only two values.7 Noise Telecommunications has one major problem. its frequency (f c) or its phase (φc). those which constitute the original signal. recovery of the baseband signal from the received signal. The reverse process. namely ‘noise’. The sine and cosine carrier waves are examples of analogue signals. in which N0 is the noise power per Hz of bandwidth.6 Modulation The signals to be transmitted by a communications system normally consist of a band of rather low frequencies. In the case of digital signals. Any FM waveform can be represented as phase modulation and vice versa. This process in know as modulation.

No antenna radiates or receives signals with equal intensity or sensitivity in all directions. 17 . Or in other words. as seen below. FIG pg 422 SSE When looking at the highly directional pattern of the second figure. C / N = C /( N 0 B) ( S / N )i = C /( N 0 Fm ) 3. Most antennas are designed specifically so that they radiate very strongly in one direction. The importance of using highly directional antennas is that they provide signal power gain as compared with the same system using hypothetical isotropic antennas. This will also be the case for telecommunications satellites when compared to an isotropic antenna. Therefore a very important component of the satellite is the antenna. The directional properties can be represented by a polar plot of the radiated field intensity of power as a function of direction. directive gain = actual power flux density power flux density from an isotropic radiator with the same total radiated power power gain = actual power flux density power flux density from a loss − free isotropic radiator with the same input power from the generator It is assumed that the flux densities are measured at a fixed large distance from the antenna. The figure also shows the concept of beam width. Beam width is related to antenna size as shown in the following equation. which is usually measured between -3dB points. The following two equations represent directive gain and power gain respectively (they are valid in any direction). Most of the satellite’s power is destined for transmitting the signal back to earth. no antenna is isotropic. where B is the bandwidth of the receiver and Fm is the maximum baseband frequency. The power gain is slightly less than the directive gain because of the power dissipated in losses in the antenna. it can be seen that most of the radiation is emitted within a narrow range of directions known as the main beam.Satellite television The following presents relationships for C/N and (S/N) i.8 Antennas Telecommunications satellites receive a signal and transmit the signal back to earth. 3dB beamwidth = 70λ D(deg rees) λ = wavelength D = antenna diameter This equation applies to a circular aperture with a typical distribution of illumination but it may be used as a rough guideline for most antennas of the ‘aperture’ type.

9 kW. D = antenna diameter in meters k = 6*103 d = satellite range in km f = carrier frequency in Hertz b = telemetry bit rate in bits per second p = satellite transmitter power in Watts Direct television satellites do not transmit their signal to a single point on earth. With these values it is tried to calculate a received antenna power. There exists an equation to approximate the antenna diameter. however this results in a received power of 9. This diameter can be calculated by the following equation. In order to optimize performance at the edge of coverage the gain in this direction should normally be about 4.9 Link budget 18 . which does not make sense since the satellite‘s total power is 18 kW. f (30*109). 3. The unknowns in the equation are the telemetry bit rate and the satellite transmitter power. Ae = λ2 G 4π Non-uniform illumination results in the effective aperture being less than the physical area. the directive gain at the centre of the main beam is given by G= 4πA λ2 From which an effective aperture Ae for any antenna can be derived. The most prominent hardware of direct television customers is the antenna. D= k *d b * f p Where. or actually the dish diameter. thus the satellite transmitter power can not be used to calculate the antenna diameter of a customer. Research on internet resulted in a bit rate of 40 Mbits/s for a direct television antenna and an antenna diameter of 18 inch.Satellite television For a uniform illuminated antenna with physical area A. We may define an aperture efficiency by η= Ae A The optimum antenna size depends on a trade-off between antenna gain and beam width. The known values in the equation are d (36000).2 dB less that at beam centre. There are multiple receivers at the same time.

the power flowing through a unit area) at a distance r from the source is S= PT GT 4π r 2 If atmospheric attenuation results in power loss by a factor LA.14 dB 19 . giving a signal-to-noise-power-density ratio of C P G G λ2 = T 2 T2 R N 0 16π r LATsys k This is known as the telecommunications equation.6 + 20 log10 30 = 213. how is C/N0 related to the transmitter power. the overall performance depends upon the RF carrier-to-noisepower-density ratio. The remaining factors refer to the propagation path.Satellite television For a given type of modulation.6 + 20 log10 f (GHz ) Since the newest direct television satellites make use of the Ka-band (30GHz). at the receiver. C/N0. The definition of antenna gain implies that a transmitter with output power PT associated with an antenna of gain GT can be replaced by an isotropic radiator with output power PTGT. From an isotropic radiator this power would spread out uniformly so that the power flux density (i.e. This quantity PTGT is known as the equivalent isotropic radiated power (EIRP). the factor PTGT can be regarded as a figure of merit for the transmitter and the term GR/Tsys as a figure of merit for the receiving system.6dBJ/K). the space loss from the transmitter to the sub-satellite point is given in decibels by LS ( dB) = 183. then the flux density at the receiver is S= PT GT 4π r 2 LA The effective area of a receiving antenna with gain GR is AR = λ 2GR 4π Thus the signal power at the input to the receiver is C= PT GT GR λ 2 16π 2 r 2 LA For a system temperature Tsys the noise power density referred to the receiver input is k Tsys. LS ( dB) = 183. the space loss can be calculated by filling in 30 for f(GHz) in the above equation. except for the constant 1/k where k is the 2 Stefan Boltzmann constant (-228. For a telecommunications satellite in geostationary orbit. It may be thought of as the attenuation between two isotropic antennas separated by a distance r. The question now is. The quantity LS = (4π r / λ ) is known as the freespace loss.

PT. 20 . depending on the elevation of the satellite as viewed from the ground station. This increase in path length results in additional space loss of up to 1.3 dB. because there are too many unknowns and assumptions to be made. No further calculations will be done on the link budget. In terms of space loss C/N0 is given by C PG G = T T R N 0 LS LATsys k Since the required C/N0 can be determined from the system specification.Satellite television However practically in all cases with respect to direct television the dish will not be at the subsatellite point. this expression can be used to calculate the required transmitter power.

so only televisions in the “line of sight” of the source could receive the signal. which go in straight lines. These two alternatives or actually predecessors to DBS services will be reviewed in this chapter. even if you speak of cable television.2 Cable television In 1975 the first cable company sent a signal to a satellite in order to send this signal back to the cable house which distributes the signal though cables to the users. 21 . This system is still used these days. 4. The first is cable television. each standard television channel uses 6 MHz of the radio frequency spectrum. The technology for recording was not invented yet. So the bandwidth increased to 550 MHz which was good for 90 channels and nowadays a bandwidth of 750 MHz or more is used which gives 110 channels. where the electrical pulses were converted back to the original image and sound. this was the beginning of cable television system. 200 MHz is good for 33 channels. So a camera caught an image and transmitted this via an electric current to a television. As the number of channels increased the bandwidth had to increase as well. In the beginning a bandwidth of 200 MHz was used. These signals were transmitted over radio frequencies. Take notice of the fact that thus. some type of broadcasting is also used to relay the signal from the ‘recording studio’ to the distribution centre. In the next chapter these systems will be compared to satellite television. When digitalized signals are used instead of analog signals even 350 channels of programming is reached and this number is still growing with better compression standards and increasing bandwidths. This was very unpractical and soon in Pennsylvania it was invented that the signal could be received by an antenna at a high point and then from the antenna the signal goes through cables to the houses of the users. 4.Satellite television Chapter 4: Competitors to satellite television There are two major competitive television systems to satellite television.1 A little history The first televisions could only receive live television. and the other is ‘terrestrial television’ which is discussed after cable television.

DTTV is transmitted on the same radio frequencies (UHF or Ultra High Frequency and VHF or Very High Frequency) as analogue television signals with one difference. only for people not seriously watching television. The oldest method of television programming distribution is broadcasting analogue signals without a use of satellites. 22 . namely the use of multiplex transmitters to allow reception of more channels on one frequency range. In some part of the Netherlands still the only alternative to satellite television is this type of television service. who severely fall out of the target group of the pay services mentioned. However this latter type is barely to be seen as a competitor. further pushing analogue broadcasts to the past. Everyone will know this who has ever owned a portable television with a small antenna on top.Satellite television 4. DTTV is digital television (DTV) broadcast entirely over earthbound circuits. There is not any part in the link where a satellite is used between the broadcaster and the user. also because of the rise of High Definition Television. which in the Netherlands only allows for a reception of Nederland 1.3 Terrestrial television Another competitor to satellite television besides cable television is terrestrial television and especially the digital variant of terrestrial television (DTT or DTTV). Only the digital variant shall thus further be considered. 2 & 3.

g. and more HDTV (high definition TV) programming than cable television. satellite television offers more sports programs. One should wonder why these devices are not altered as a lucrative alternative.1 Cable and satellite television Price A report. except that for satellite television also a dish has to be installed. since such dishes are not too nice on the eye. Programming Both cable and satellite companies can deliver with the digital technology an enormous amount of channels. These devices are programmed in such a way that they allow only the viewing of one channel at a time. since the roofs are swamped with dishes. In the U. being the two most competitive services available.Satellite television Chapter 5: Comparison of satellite television to its competitors The two alternatives to direct television provided in the last chapter will be compared to the latter in this chapter.) of cable television had an average of 58. “2005 Residential Cable/Satellite TV Satisfaction Study”. notifies that last year the price (in the U. 23 . and are busy converting from analogue to digital television. A couple of topics in which cable and satellite services differ will me mentioned. and need smaller infrastructure. there is no extra equipment needed.51 dollar per month. mentioned in a Space News article. the lowest-end price of cable is lower and there is a significant group of users which want to pay the minimum for e. while satellite television had an average cost of 57. In a more quick fashion the terrestrial option shall be compared.S. A disadvantage for the users of satellite television is that companies charge fees per provider specific device that is used to receive the signal (however some cable companies do the same). which is expensive. Satellite providers do not have to pay taxes to local governments in contrast to cable companies. a remote and a compatible television. more international programming. but cable television offers more local channels than satellite television. Also. For the digital receivers. Satellite television offers up to 500 channels and cable television up to 350 channels from which the most have digital quality and thus require a digital receiver.72 dollar per month. As a consequence of this the cost per channel via cable television is higher than of satellite television. Equipment An advantage of cable television is that when a user does not want digital television. both cable and satellite telvision need in principle the same equipment: a converter box. Anyone that has ever been to a city as Athens knows this first hand. but as of right now no satellite or cable television provider has implemented this option. Cable companies nowadays have millions of kilometres of outdated cable in the ground. Although the cost per channel is higher. governments can have rules in place to prohibit dish placements. 5. only twenty channels.S. as mentioned earlier in this paper.

A steeply growing number of channels using HDTV is offered by satellite companies.Satellite television Availability To lay it down simply. as mentioned by an already referred to Space News article dated March 1995. An availability disadvantage of the dish is that it needs an unobstructed view to the satellite in order to receive the signal. digital cable 5. which is not the case by the cable signal. For example in 1995 in the U. there is no cable infrastructure there and it would be relatively expensive to install such a cable system for the small amount of users in Africa. on the market it is not selling very well. cable and satellite television companies are quite similar in its services.2 percent and DTTV only 1. due to this limited knowledge consumers tend to subscribe to more known television systems (cable and satellite). The analogue signal is less strong and of lower quality than the digital signal. Besides this there are also restrictions on the development of DTTV services due to its uncertain business potential. There are a number of reasons to explain this difference in percentages. This is because of the fact that the DTTV broadcasting standards were defined later than the broadcasting standards for cable and satellite. while all satellite channels are completely of digital quality. thus before the DTTV services ever existed. A final reason is that cable and satellite television converted to digital before terrestrial services did. The consumers have a limited knowledge about DTTV. 24 . were already settled either by using digital cable or satellite television. most of the users.S. So a satellite television service for these wealthier users is more practical and economical here. 5. who were interested in digital television. A disadvantage for the satellite signal is that it can be influenced by the weather. there were about 15 million people who were not able to receive cable television. Regular digital and HDTV Concerning regular digital television and HDTV. This scepticism results in a lower sale of DTTV. These restrictions on the development had the effect that DTTV gets behind the very fast developing satellite television. and this number is rapidly increasing for cable companies as well. so in a few years there will be no difference in this aspect between satellite and cable. cable television cannot be received everywhere. Thus.7 percent.9 percent.2 Terrestrial and satellite television Although DTTV can compete in quality with satellite television. All television will be changed from analogue to full digital television in a couple of years. Another example would be Africa. Signal quality Cable companies offer both analogue and digital channels. In the EU the percentages of digital television of all television households at the end of 2002 are as follows: satellite television 13. A second reason is that here is a widespread scepticism resulting from the failure of DTTV performance to live up to expectations and predictions. high financial risks and limitations on capital availability.

consumers have little knowledge about this television system. because the maintenance of the satellite infrastructure is cheaper. Cable television offers different packages of channels however. Especially regarding the digitalization. but will become more complementary than competing. also having had a considerate head start of course. DTTV seems to have missed the competition. for example a package with a lower lower-end price than satellite television. its number of channels is still growing very fast and its availability is better. there are restrictions on the development and conversion to digital television.Satellite television 5. whereas cable and satellite television have already vastly started or almost finished this process. Over the longer term satellite television will probably win the competition. its quality and number of channels does not differ very much from satellite television. 25 .3 Conclusion Cable television is competing well with satellite television. This does not mean that cable television will vanish.

these extra services can be provided merely by having satellites with higher bit rates and newer techniques. and with that information in mind we will continue the story and try to predict the state of business in the years to come. Also mobile television fall under this header.”” A demonstration of the similar attitude of Eutelsat: 26 . to be followed by big rises in users later on (probably).1 Next the worldwide situation shall be reviewed somewhat more. As far as this paper is concerned. that compared to satellite television. meaning as stated before the United States and Europe in special. owner of the Dish direct-to-home satellite television service. but the two-way broadband services scheduled to be offered to U. the trend seems to be to create a kind of ‘overkill’ situation. and since these broadband services can not be decoupled from the modern television services. The fact is. thus not only downloading information but also uploading. Articles mention similar tactics by for example Eutelsat of Europe and Echostar. about twice as much satellite capacity per channel as standard-definition television. There’s going to be a lot of roadkill in the telecommunications business. shall be discussed in paragraph 7. To quote.” Articles dated at the end of 2005 note exactly this rise in satellite orders..” Actually.Satellite television Chapter 6: Latest and future trend of direct television Chapter 2 ended with a positive prospect for the satellite television market. thus being affected equally by the shift from older satellites to newer. and the topic is actually satellite television. said EchoStar Chairman Charlie Ergen. A big difference with internet services provided however that internet is supposed to be two-way. to actually state that this item will be somewhat isolated from now on.” And: “On broadband in particular.S. the ability of providing internet services is a reasonably logical consequence. However the data rate provided to the user is usually lower. Since some limits have to be placed on the size of this paper. since it can use the same data travel logistics. after accounting for data compression. the satellites performing all these mentioned functions will be reviewed in light of the television business. in paragraph 7. and our job is to make sure it’s the other guy. thus television services on mobile phones. First the business in the west. both on EchoStar: “EchoStar Communications Corp.2. arguing for caution in deployment. 6. “Central to that growth will be the introduction of highdefinition television (HDTV) in Europe. a technology that requires. Ergen said the return on investment is not certain. Usually at least one satellite is added to the providers ‘entourage’ each year. consumers starting late this year is one of the targeted markets. multifunctional HDTV satellites. has more satellites on order than it knows what to do with.1 Satellite television in the West First the remark about internet services at the end of chapter 2 must be mentioned. even in the cable business. At the end of chapter it was stated: The article states as a reason for the predicted upswing in 2005 that it is “driven by pent-up demand for additional TV broadcasting requirements for new services such as high-definition TV and high-speed broadband. as evidenced by the fact that even phones without any dishes or even big antennas have to be in place. “We don’t have it figured out. I don’t think anybody can tell you honestly they’ve got it figured out.

with minor exceptions. PanAmSat Holding Corp. “Intelsat Ltd.. there are 14 million homes with HDTV. the U.” (It may be mentioned that New Skies Satellites actually is a Dutch company. Investment in new satellite capacity.7 and 7.Satellite television “We’re launching five new satellites in the next four years and we’re not lowering our guard. Little concluding articles or information about the latest situation in 2006 is available.S.”.7 billion.3-percent rise is a direct cause of the slump in 2001/2002. “HDTV is being introduced in Europe more slowly than in the United States. We expect that to grow to more than 20 million by year-end. do not be surprised if satellite television takes over the lion’s share of the market within a decade. where SES Global has booked HDTV capacity for cable broadcasters and for satellite-television provider EchoStar Communications Corp. as Echostar’s.7-percent growth rate so far in this decade. McGuirk being a spokesperson of SES Americom. or ‘parts’ to other providers: “Satellite-fleet operator Eutelsat Communications raised its revenue forecasts through 2009 and said it would increase spending on new satellites this year to seize a specific — and undisclosed — growth opportunity. a continuously increasing grip on the television market cannot be denied. and New Skies Satellites all reported strong cash flows aided by the fact that all three will spend at least two years enjoying a capital-expenditure holiday. “We have to do this to maintain our growth. After a draught numbers will logically increase much more rapidly again. also leasing many satellites. since these have to be paid for.) SES is also responsible for many providers’ HDTV capabilities. and still a growth is obviously noticeable. but a final article mentions another optimistic and growth-prepared view by Eutelsat.4-percent industry growth rate in 2005 was slightly above the average 6. After this the market once again was a bit more stabilized. Revenue during that period increased from $74. 11 briefing. 27 . So basically a pattern is starting to emerge. with seven satellites on order and new investment in Canadian and Mexican satellites also expected soon. While the line is bumpy.” Notice the 11. These articles mention mainly the increase in numbers of satellites. HDTV being an obvious reason for the growth in satellites.4 percentages.” McGuirk said. with the 6. clearly nicely active on the market as well. “Right now. and to analyse the text afterwards: “The 7. SES Global of Luxembourg is the exception.3-percent growth posted from 2003 to 2004. now with the addition of HDTV and other services. To illustrate somewhat more that bumpy line. will not be needed until 2007 at the earliest for these companies. but this is a logical consequence of an increase in satellites. when talking about a basically healthy business.” Berretta told the Oct. but of course these also account for a rise in customers. Also chapter 5 made it obvious that satellite television is starting to win terrain.” More articles talk about a drop of revenue in 2005. the third-largest satellite operator in the business. but substantially lower than the 11. and obvious increase is continuously taking place in satellite users.3 billion to $82. unit of Luxembourgbased SES Global.” This all being said.” Another article stated the size of the present day market (in 2005) of HDTV: “HDTV is a great bandwidth user that is fantastic for our business.

Apparently resistance is widely demonstrated throughout the whole of China. Surprisingly little (read: nothing) was found about the situation in Japan. A fact is of course that Europe’s satellites are not that far away from these regions in relative terms. Obviously human populations in countries beneath the Sahara in Africa are much less wealthy. although information about these regions can probably be found. Africa and the Middle East offset continued softness in Latin America and East Asia. The same argument for these two as with the upper regions of Africa holds. India and Malaysia. in other sources. there are a few million of users there. it can be deducted that satellite television is far from ‘take over’ in the less western regions of the world. Fact is. The culprit: A sharp decline in economic conditions across Asia that has sapped interest among potential users of satellite TV facilities in putting the new transponders to use to serve Hong Kong. ever since the beginning of time. But today. few satellites above Indonesia. especially Egypt. notes are found about SES Global leasing satellites to these regions.Satellite television 6. so simply these can be adjusted to include the upper regions of Africa and the Middle East. but this will lead astray too far. A lot can probably be mentioned about this as well. that optimism has disappeared and the government has backed away from plans to hand out additional direct-to-home licenses to AsiaSat or other companies. Emphasizing the ‘North America’ part. Canada would logically also be tagging along with the United States. with the launch of the company’s satellite TV platform just weeks away.2 Satellite television worldwide This paragraph will quickly introduce the reader to the satellite television situation throughout the world. As a main point. the situation in large parts of the world is far from ‘ours’. about Latin America. 28 . and also in China very little is noted to be going on when it comes to this topic.” Regarding Africa and the Middle East. once again. making satellite television slow to emerge. other than in the already much mentioned places as the United States and Europe. since these cannot be anything but lacking. Characterized simply by the availability of information. as said before. Europe. Another statement is made about Latin America and East Asia. but basically all located in Brazil and Mexico. company officials were bubbling with enthusiasm over the prospect of developing a direct-to-home broadcasting platform. which apparently do have their businesses in place. Finally. but the whole of South America next to Brazil is obviously low on direct television. when talking about DBS. No predictions shall also be made based on the information mentioned. a much larger assignment could and would be fulfilled by this.” Mentioned also. with its far-stretching regions and population density obviously very suitable for satellite television. as reviewed in an article of 2003: “When telecommunications regulators in this Chinese city awarded a satellite TV license to AsiaSat in mid-2000. in 2005 the following is mentioned regarding worldwide satellite growth: “Strong demand in North America. so also here satellite television developments are not as far as in the top of Africa.

but a slow rise in large parts of Asia is remarkable. or are the providers of satellite television or direct television anticipating this? Also. for example Egypt. South America and Africa?” These questions seem to vow largely for the content of this paper. or international channel being relayed via satellite. These first numbers indicated a special interest in a high number of channels. and for its reaching of absolute high numbers of users nowadays? Also how can a complex system involving satellites over a simple ground based system as a cable coming from a distribution centre can be cheaper? Or compared to ground based broadcasting systems? Will this overall rise in users be continued the next following years. how is this situation of direct TV in other places of the world. Fiercely satellites providing the latest technology are launched in anticipation of a constant rise. namely Europe but also Asia. Not to be ignored is the present day development of new services as high definition television. the Middle East. easily implemented into satellite services and to be combined with television services. because of a very high number of channels. When serious commercial satellite television became first available in the west. The future trend seems to be an aggressive preparation for a continuing upturn in users the coming years. Also countries nearing these two regions topographically can be counted towards these standards. mobile television and importantly internet. It should be understood however that this information applies only to what is mentioned as the west. this however is only valid for users willing to have a relatively large number of channels altogether. the upper regions of South America. “Now what exactly are the reasons for its initial rise. Nowadays the numbers of users continue to increase. as Brazil and also Mexico and Canada.Satellite television Chapter 7: Conclusion In the introduction a number of questions are brought forward. and the complementation of other services as satellite telephone. The following section will try to summarize the answers to these questions. Because of high maintenance costs for cable television and continuously higher efficiency of satellites. the latter option’s average prices even seem to have dropped below cable television’s. meaning the United States and Europe. 29 . also with satellite television as an industry experiencing a continuing growth of between about 6 and 11 percent each year throughout the last years. and far less for terrestrial broadcasting services. First let us restate these questions. These include the upper regions of Africa. in which satellite television is actually ahead of all other services. up to 500 numbers and rapidly rising. The rest of the world seems to be slow to pick up the trend. The terrestrial broadcasting services seem to have missed the queue. especially when the smaller 18 inch dishes belonging to the services of high power satellites arrived on the market. or at least increasingly. compared to a lower number of channels for cable television. or has no real intention or use to do so shortly. and throughout the paper the answers have been derived for as far as possible. Also places were no cable television was available adopted this direct option without any problems. Of course for less wealthy countries this is to be expected. and might still catch on later but there is no real reason to assume that as of right now. a rapid rise was quickly emerging.

html 25 May 2004 Worldwide satellite television information 14 January 2003 http://www.html 23 September 2003 http://www. 4 March 2003 http://www. the following information is to be used: Name: ejournals Password: D7SDMb6z General information about the topic 30 .howstuffworks.html 20 February 2006 * 21 March 2005 25 October 2004 19 June 2006 * http://www. Satellite television business links throughout time 13 March 1995 http://www. To access the Space News articles 31 January 2005 Provided literature: Satcom Uptick Source: Aviation Week & Technology.Satellite television Bibliography All internet sources are last accessed on the 29th of 25 April 2005 http://electronics.html 14 November 2005 http://en.html 21 November 2005 18 October 2005 http://www.html 22 August 2005 http://www. dated: September 13.

space. “Spacecraft systems engineering”.jsp?id=140fb8a8-0bfa-43dc-8ff9-02c923a2a8cb&lang=en Costs http://www.html Ariane 5 31 .ulaval.html http://www. “Space mission analysis and design”.html http://www.pdf?arnumber=738179 Delta V http://www.html Cable television http://en. Larson. El Segundo: Microcosm http://www.wikipedia.boeing.%22 Swinerd. Boeing 702 http://www. Stark.html Bit rate HDTV DTTV information http://www. J.php/ http://www. Wertz. Chichester: The Atrium .howstuffworks.htm Cable television compared to satellite http://tv.html television Telecommunications [1] [2] P.html http://www.

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