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1 PLANNING IN THE NEW DISASTER MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK A Study Paper by Puji Pujiono UNDP Policy and Legislation Adviser

for Disaster Risk Reduction And Sugeng Triutomo Head of Formulation Team for DM Law Ancillary Regulations Delivered during the Launch of Safer Community through Disaster Risk Reduction BAPPENAS, 26 July 2007

The enactment of the Disaster Management Law No. 24/2007 brings about a new change in the way of managing disasters in Indonesia. From the outset, the Law calls for a disaster management system that is planned, integrated, and comprehensive. This marks the end of reactive mode of responding to disasters and the beginning of a conscientious and deliberate course of actions largely being undertaken during non-disaster situations. This study paper seeks to outline the basic arguments for disaster management planning to generate wider inputs and comments for consultation purpose. Result from this consultation will be submitted to the national teams currently formulating ancillary regulations to the Disaster Management Law.

DEVELOPMENT PLANNING REGIME Law on National Development Planning System No. 25/2004 stipulates that unlike practices in the past, development planning is no longer a shopping or simply wish list, rather it is now an input process output flow of plans. As such, elements of realism, purposeful and purpose-oriented, and effectiveness are the premium in addition to the general principles of good governance such as being participatory, inclusive, transparent and accountable, etc. The Law provides three formal development planning documents, i.e. Long-Term Development Plan (LTDP); Medium-Term Development Plan (MTDP); and Government (annual) Workplan (GaW). These plans are to be formulated through participatory mechanisms of Development Planning Deliberations (Musrenbang) incrementing from village to central level as a mean to harmonise sectoral plans, various central governments schemes, and to ascertain adequate citizen participation.

2 Development plans both as provided by the Law as well as usually being practices are as follow: 1. Long Term Development Plan(LTDP) / RPJP is a document translating national / local goal into vision, mission and development direction. 2. Medium-Term Development Plan (MTPD) / RPJM. Law 23/2003 on Presidential Election provides that elected officials are to submit their vision, mission and programmes following their confirmations in the form of MTDP. Such document would be guided by the Long-term Development and, in the case of local planning, taking into consideration the National Medium-Term Development Plan. The Medium-Term Plan contains: development strategies general policies economic and finance policy direction sectoral and inter-sectoral programmes, jurisdictional and interjurisdictional programmes containing activities regulating and budgeting frameworks 3. Sectoral Strategic Plan (Renstra) is to be guided by the Medium-Term Development Plan. It contains Vision and mission, statement of goals, strategies and policies; programmes, and indicative activities 4. Government (annual) Workplan (RKP), on the other hand, is a translation of the Medium-Term Development Plan and, in the case of local planning, making reference to National Government (annual) Workplan. The workplan contains: Development priorities for the year Framework design for macro economics Direction for fiscal and / or financial policies sectoral and inter-sectoral programmes, jurisdictional and interjurisdictional programmes containing activities regulating and budgeting frameworks 5. Sectoral (annual) Workplan is the detailing of the mentioned Sectoral Strategic Plan, containing sectoral policies, programmes and activities both in terms of governments own activities and those aiming at stimulating peoples participation In general, development planning process as prescribed by the Law involves the following steps: 1. As appropriate, elected officials formulating their vision and mission 2. Technocratic drafting by development planning agencies 3. Sectoral planning based on the prepared draft to be followed by either or both sectoral or joint sectoral planning forum

3 4. Development planning deliberation involving stakeholders (involved in the development activities or their consequences in terms of being the one paying, implementing, enjoying the outcomes and/or shouldering the risks). This is also mechanisms to harmonise sectoral plans as well as deconsentration and assistance programs. 5. Formulation of final plans 6. Formalisation of the plans with appropriate legal instruments. National LTDP is formalised by national legislation and at local level by ordinances. National MTDP by presidential regulations and at local level by local ordinance. Annual government workplans are formalised through regulations of the head of government and sectoral plans are formalised by head of agencies. With regard to relations between development plan and finacing, the Law of State Financing No. 17/2003 stipulates that formulation of National Budget Formulation is to be guided by Naitonal Government Workplan while formulation of Local Budget Formulation is to be guided by Local Government Workplan.

DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLANNING Disaster Management Law No. 24/2007 pointedly articulates the countrys policy for integrating disaster management into governance and development. There are several running themes with regard to disaster management planning, i.e. Government has the authority to formulate development plans that integrate elements of disaster management policies Planning as part of implementation of disaster management Integration of disaster management plans into development plans Disaster management plan Participatory disaster management planning Formulation of disaster response plans With regard to how disaster management planning is to be undertaken: To be ratified by governments appropriate to their levels To be coordinated by the Disaster Management Agencies To be formulated through organised data regarding (disaster risks at particular place in particular time based on an official document containing disaster management activity programmes) To be reviewed on periodical basis The term planning itself consists of: Disaster risks identification and assessment Understanding communitys vulnerabilities Disaster impact analysis Disaster risk reduction measures options Determination of mechanisms for preparedness and impact response Allocation of tasks, authorities, and available resources

In the interest of coordination, government may require disaster management actor(s) to submit their disaster management plans In a guideline for disaster local management planning1, BAKORNAS PB outlines disaster management planning aims to be reducing uncertainty and to promote disaster management effectiveness through specific planning There are certainly more than one way of describing and enumerating disaster management related planning and in this context it is important to find coherence between the development planning regime and disaster management regime. The following section is an attempt to situate disaster management planning vis--vis development planning as provided by the law. Disaster Management Organic Plans Organic plan refers to document being put together with the coordination of the Disaster Management Agency although the actual planning may be done independently by the head of government and the sectors/stakeholders. The Plans are being drawn to be part of development planning with or without the presence of the actual disaster occurrence. And thus topics such as preparedness, human resources, equipment, mechanisms, etc., remain to be addressed even if there is no clear presence of disaster hazard. These writers propose that realm of organic planning is actually mainstream development planning regime. It is, therefore, understandable that disaster management agency would be the subject matter expert and authority in disaster management. Such role, however, ends when the planning makes crossover to the mainstream planning for which BAPPENAS would take charge and assumes more prominent roles. 1. Disaster Management Chapter in National/Local LTDP A chapter on disaster management should be featured to be one prominent rubric and thus the provision would ascertain its strategic positioning throughout the development planning regimes. The chapter should ideally contain the longterm vision of disaster management in consonance with the larger development vision. As such it serves as general direction and an inspiration that would guide development programmes to take onboard disaster management considerations. 2. National/Local Action Plan on Disaster Management to be synchronised with the Medium-Term Development Plan (MTDP). An action plan is a platform bringing together various medium-term planning perspectives into one coherent and strategic framework. When there is already existing new Medium-Term Development Plan, this should serve as the basis for the formulation of the Action Plan that would carry similar implementation power.

Pedoman Penyusunan Rencana Penanggulangan Bencana di Daerah, BAKORNAS PB, 2007

5 If the MTDP is nearing expiration, conversely, it is recommended that an Action Plan is formulated to provide reference for the formulation of the subsequent MTDP and to be incorporated to constitute a chapter in the MTDP. An Action Plan would ideally outlines the development vision for the particular term, stating general goals to be attained and the accompanying policies and strategies towards attaining the goals. As a cross-sectoral plan, the Action plan should be formulated from a strategic planning exercise involving sectors and other stakeholders. For the Action Plan to extract compliance from sectors and other stakeholders, it needs to be formalised through a decree by Head of Government. It goes without saying that, for the sake of inter-governmental coherence and coordination, Local Action Plans make reference to the National Action Plan. 3. National/Local Disaster Management Plan to be synchronised with the Government (annual) Workplan. Disaster Management Plan is translation of the Action Plan into yearly Workplan for implementation in conjunction with the Government (annual) Workplan. As Disaster Management Plan is closely associated with budgeting processes, it is envisioned that Disaster Management Agency would take the leadership in the conduct of sectoral planning forum on disaster management. At the end of the exercise, there should be a disaster management portfolio for the subsequent fiscal year consisting activities to be undertaken in the fiscal year. Budget structure of the Plan may include: Disaster Management Agency operational and programme Sectoral programme On-call budget item Other incomes including grants, deconcentration, and assistance packages 4. Disaster Management portion in Sectoral Strategic Plan. As a matter of strategy, department/offices/sectors add a section on disaster management in their respective strategic plan 5. Disaster Management Sectoral Workplan: In this plan each implementing sector would control its own assets and processes but the Disaster Management Agency would ascertain the coordination through quarterly coordination conferences. 6. Disaster Management portion in Sectoral Budget Activity Plan: List of activities enumerated and monetised by sectors that constitute the sectors part in the budget proposal. This part is being managed solely by the sectors. 7. Disaster Management portion in the Budget Details. Budget appropriation for disaster management activities as allocated by the budget in the relevant fiscal year. This portion is also fully controlled by the sectors.

Disaster Management Specific Plans Specific plans are documents being prepared particularly in relation to disaster management. Compared to organic plans, these generally require specific reference, skills and processes. It is therefore appropriate that this portion is under the jurisdiction of Disaster Management Agency. Strictly speaking, each and every element of disaster management could be planned separately from the organic planning while, at all time, maintaining the relevance and coordination between the two regimes. The list could include but not limited to: 1. Mitigation / Risk Reduction Plan This plan pays particular attention to measures for mitigating, preventing hazards or altering the vulnerability. This may include structural/physical construction, repair, and retrofitting and other engineering interventions including spatial planning and land zonation as well as non-structural measures such as political/administrative and policy measures, socio-cultural-education and economic interventions. 2. Response Preparedness Plan This refers to a plan to be prepared by the Disaster Management Agencies to improve the general and overall response preparedness to all known hazards. It lays down the general norms and principles for emergency response operation. The Plan could contain both outline of hazards, responders and their assets, resources, and mechanisms both in general term as well as for specific known hazards as its chapters but usually without timeline. While it may list down capabilities of stakeholders, the ultimate control of the assets and services remain at the hand of the owners. 3. Contingency Plan Contingency Plan is undertaken in light of specific hazard or expected occurrence with high probability and considerable impact. This is designed to be rather highly technical and to be participated by those parties most likely to be responsible and / or involved in the actual responses being planned. Commitment of response assets stated in contingency planning usually is binding. Should event for which response is being planned is not taking place, the alert level may be lowered, commitment released, and timelines of the plan is being removed and the plan could be filed as a chapter in the Response Preparedness Plan. 4. Operation Plan In the occurrence of disaster, particularly that of sudden onset emergencies, an operation plan is conducted. When there is contingency plan exist for the particular disaster, what need to be done is to add result of emergency rapid assessment into the plan and alter the variables accordingly. Otherwise the

7 operation plan has to be drawn afresh. Usually this plan is participated by those actually being responsible or participating in the emergency response. 5. Recovery Plan Right after the occurrence of disaster, while the emergency response is ongoing, separate arm of the government is expected to undertake damage, loss, and need rapid assessment to determine the need for recovery. In case of large-scale disaster, there is always the possibility of crafting Recovery National Action Plan that outlines the medium-term recovery efforts committed by the state. In conclusion, there is no apparent conflict between development planning and disaster management planning regimes. In fact there is sufficient space to harmonise the two into seamless planning series. What required is joint effort to inspire and contribute to the ongoing effort of formulating the ancillary regulations to the Disaster Management Law. Provided that the regulations indeed come up with such convergence, then there will be clearer demarcation but at the same time improved coordination between BAPPENAS and the new disaster management agency.