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**Fiber and Integrated Optics
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**Influence of the Laser Diode Nonlinearity in Fiber-Fed Microcellular Networks
**

A. Gameiro Available online: 29 Oct 2010

To cite this article: A. Gameiro (2000): Influence of the Laser Diode Nonlinearity in Fiber-Fed Microcellular Networks, Fiber and Integrated Optics, 19:2, 99-117 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/014680300244396

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**Influence of the Laser Diode Nonlinearity in Fiber-Fed Microcellular Networks
**

A. GAME IRO

Unive rsity of Ave iro r Inst. Te le c. Ave iro, Portugal

In this paper, the use of an optical fiber-based fixed infrastructure for code div ision m ultiple access (CDMA ) m obile networks is considered. One of the m ajor problem s associated with optical subcarrier m ultiplexing (SCM ) is the nonlinearity of the laser diodes (L D ). T he L D is m odeled by a m em oryless nonlinearity, and the effect of the nonlinearity on the SCM transm ission of CDMA signals is ev aluated. The behav ior departs significantly from what happens in frequency div ision m ultiple access (FDMA ), and depends critically on the nonlinearity being com pressing or expanding. In the form er case, significant perform ance degradation m ay occur, whereas for the latter this is usually not dram atic. When com pared against FDMA , the m ajor adv antage of CDMA com es from the tight power control function that m ust be built in such system s, which m eans that situations of a weak signal corrupted by strong signals do not occur, unlike what happens in FDMA . Keywords

CDMA, code division multiple access, ce llular networks, spre ad spe ctrum, nonline arity, lase r diode

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The obje ctive of pe rsonal comm unication ne tworks ( PCN ) is to provide a re liable and cost-e ffe ctive comm unication se rvice to a large number of mobile subscribe rs through sm all and portable te rm inals. Pre sently, DCS-1800, which ope rate s at 1.8GHz, is be ing de ploye d, while the ne xt ge ne ration of syste m s that aim at high re quire me nts on fle xibility, cap acity, and quality are planne d to ope rate at 2G Hz. The se syste ms will be base d on Code division multiple acce ss (CDMA ) , and are e xpe cte d to be launche d by the ye ar 2002 . In the PCN syste m, the are a to be cove re d is divide d into sm all ce lls with typical diame te rs of a fe w hundre d me te rs ( microce lls ) for outdoor applic ations, or 10 ] 30m ( picoce lls ) for indoor office e nvironm e nts. Such an approach incre ase s signific antly the numbe r of base stations ( BS ) , and, the re fore, cost and size of the se B S be come ke y param e te rs for achie ving e conom ical PCN. In curre nt ce llular syste ms, the B S are usually large since the y contain transm itte r r re ce ive r, modulator r de m odulator, and controlle r. The base band signals are the n linke d to the ce ntral station ( CS ) ofte n through E 1 or T1 line s. It would be de sirable if this e quipm e nt could be move d to the CS. To do this, subcarrie r multiple xe d ( SCM ) optical fibe r syste m s have be e n proposed w1, 9 ] 12 x to link the BS to the CS le ading to the syste m configuration of Figure 1.

Received 14 March 1999; accepted 20 July 1999. This work was funde d in part by the Europe an Union, under the proje cts RACE R2005-MO DA1 and ACTS 083-FRANS. Addre ss correspondence to Prof. A. Game iro, Dept. de Electronica e Te lecomunicac oes, Ë Ä Â Univ. de Ave iro, 3810 Ave iro, Portugal. E-mail: amg@ ua.pt

99

In the uplink. fe w re sults are available . O ne of the m ain proble ms that has be e n recognize d with fre que ncy duple x mode r time division multiple acce ss (FD M r TD MA) is the nonline arity of the lase r diode s. e spe cially in high-de nsity urban are as. For FDMA. In the ne xt se ction. 11 x .100 A . Lase r diode ( LD ) characte ristics have signific antly improve d in re ce nt ye ars. but the intermodulation distortion ( IMD ) characte ristics of mode rate cost lase r diode s still fall far from the figure s achie ve d in the e le ctronic part. which e nable d accurate e valuation of intermodulation products ( IMP ) up to the third orde r. and finally in the last se ction the m ain conclusions of the work are outline d. we prese nt in the se ction on Nume rical Re sults some nume rical e xample s. the ante nna rece ive s a composite radio-fre que ncy ( RF) signal coming from K mobile s. Although optic al fibe r SCM syste m s have cle ar advantage s to be coming the technology of choice for the fixe d infrastructure of future PCNs. we pre sent the syste m mode l and the n in the ne xt se ction we de rive an e xpre ssion for the signal to inte rfe rence ratio ( SIR ) conside ring the LD mode le d by a me moryle ss nonline arity. and it is the purpose of this pape r to address the proble m of lase r diode s’ nonline arity in CDMA ne tworks. the proble m of intermodulation has alre ady be e n the subje ct of seve ral studie s w2 ] 6. Afte r am plification. and the resulting optic al signal is se nt through . PCN system configuration with an optical fiber fixe d infrastructure . G am eiro Downloaded by [ ] at 01:41 08 February 2012 Figure 1. The pape r is organize d as follows. the re are still some proble ms. while in w11 x a de taile d mode l close to the one e ncounte red in a GSM r DCS-1800 syste m was an alyze d re sorting to simulations. For the case of CDMA. which is the technology m ost like ly to be use d in third-ge ne ration m obile syste ms. In w6 x . the most significant in a we akly nonline ar narrowband SCM syste m. Optical Links for Mobile CDMA Networks The syste m we conside r is shown in Figure 2. this signal m odulate s a LD. this proble m has be e n studie d by de scribing the LD nonline arity through the use of the V olte rra se rie s. B ase d on the se re sults.

and c i ( t ) the re spe ctive coding wave form . Le t us conside r the n an ide al powe r control circuit. q ( t ) a rectangular pulse with am plitude 1. v a(ki ) 4 the i th inform ation se que nce .. Furthe rmore. Downloaded by [ ] at 01:41 08 February 2012 optical fibe r to the CS.d. (4) .e . which consists of i. For the downlink the process is similar. we assume that the modulation use d is binary phase -shift ke ying ( BPSK) and that the spre ad spe ctrum te chnique is dire ct se que nce. so that the signals from the m obile s arrive at the BS ante nna all with the sam e powe r.i. am plifie d. whe re it is conve rte d to e le ctrical by a photodiode . re spe ctive ly. T s N Tc . (1) whe re f o is the fre que ncy of the common c arrie r. The composite signal give n by ( 1 ) is am plifie d and fed to the lase r diode ( LD ) . The re ce ive d signal is the n give n by Ky 1 ri n ( t ) s is 0 p Ö 2 Pi n c i ( t y t i ) d i ( t y t i ) cos ( 2 p fo t q w i) . and the n se nt to the de modulators and re ge ne ration circuits. It is we ll known that a CD MA syste m ne e ds a ve ry accurate powe r control function for good pe rform ance w7 x . The inform ation carrying signal and the coding wave form are give n by ` di( t) s ks y ` ` p p a(ki ) p ( t y kT ) (2) ci ( t ) s ks y ` c ( i ) q ( t y kT c ) . and duration T c and v c ( i ) 4 a k pe riodic binary seque nce taking value s " 1. k (3) whe re p ( t ) is a rectangular pulse with am plitude 1 and duration T . symbols taking value s " 1 with e qual probability. w i and t i the phase and time de lay of the i th use r.Effect of L aser Diode N onlinearity on CDMA Signals 101 Figure 2. i. The curre nt that modulate s the optical c arrie r is Ky 1 iL D ( t ) s is 0 p Ö 2 PL D c i ( t y t i ) d i ( t y t i ) cos ( 2 p fo t q w i) . d i ( t ) the inform ation c arrying signal from use r i . It is assum e d that e ach data bit is e ncode d with N chips. Block diagram of the optical conne ction betwe en base and ce ntral station.

If the fre que ncy range of the m odulating signal is sm all compare d to the LD resonance fre que ncy f r and we ll be low this fre que ncy. Anothe r de trime ntal e ffe ct is the chrom atic dispe rsion of the fibe r. and suffe rs some atte nuation whe n trave ling along the fibe r from the transmitte r to the re ce ive r. can be obtaine d using simplifie d mode ls for the statistics of the input signals and the n applying the re sults of Mazo w13 x . The LD prese nts. In this pape r the tre atm e nt for the distortion c ause d by the we ak nonline aritie s shall be de rive d. the optical output carrie r is give n by P ( t ) s PT 1 q ( h PT iL D ( t ) . the optical signal at the lase r output can the n be re prese nte d by a powe r se rie s 2 P ( t ) s PT ( 1 q a1 i L D ( t ) q a 2 i L D ( t ) q a 3 i 3 D ( t ) q ? ? ? ) . whe re the line ar is dom inant while the othe rs give rise to n th orde r distortion. The e ffe ct of clipping is diffe rent. G am eiro In the abse nce of nonline aritie s. The de vice ope ration will consist in large pe riods within the we akly nonline ar re gion inte rle ave d by short duration random burst e ve nts corre sponding to the inte rval be twe e n a downcrossing and upcrossing of the threshold whe re the signal is lost. the nonline ar e ffe ct incre ase s with fre que ncy.102 A . while for 2 ) . For a bias point and input signal le ve ls such that the input LD curre nt is always above the thre shold. The nonline arity caused by 1 ) is fre que ncy inde pe nde nt. E stim ate s for the ave rage rate of burst e rror e ve nts. the se two e ffe cts can be accurate ly mode le d by a we ak me moryle ss nonline arity. Conside ring the n the we akly nonline ar mode of ope ration. threshold crossings are e xpe ctable . which for CDMA signaling will be like ly whe n the numbe r of use rs is high. but for the signals of third-ge ne ration ce llular syste ms. If. ) (5) whe re PT is the ave rage optical output powe r and h is the lase r e fficie ncy ( in W r A ). which cause s the diffe re nt fre que ncy compone nts of the signal to e xpe rime nt diffe rent phase shifts. The optical powe r impinging the photodiode is the n give n by Pr ( t ) s g PT ( 1 q a1 i L D ( t ) q a 2 i 2 D ( t ) q a 3 i 3 D ( t ) q ? ? ? ) q g D L L P (t). This e ffe ct can be signific ant if e xte rnal modulation is use d for transmission of mm-wave s w14 ] 15 x . The de vice ope ration can the n be de scribe d by a powe r se rie s with a sm all numbe r of te rms. that acts only if the input signal has large e nough ne gative swings to drive the LD input curre nt be low the thre shold. 2 ) dyn am ic nonline arity due to intrinsic photone le ctron nonline ar interaction. the nonline ar distortion will only be c aused by the we ak nonline aritie s. the n one will ge t some kind of bursty behavior. howe ve r. Clipping is a me moryle ss strong nonline arity. as we ll as the ir duration distribution. and obtain the SIR in this mode of ope ration. the fre que ncy of 2GHz is low e nough for this e ffe ct to be ne gle cte d. L Downloaded by [ ] at 01:41 08 February 2012 (6) The optical signal at the lase r output e xhibits random fluctuations of the optical c arrie r which is calle d intensity noise . (7) . howe ve r. some nonline ar be havior which has origin on: 1 ) inje ction curre nt ve rsus light ( I-P ) curve nonline arity. 3 ) nonsymm e tric thre shold clipping ( ove rmodulation distortion ) .

respe ctive ly. (9) Downloaded by [ ] at 01:41 08 February 2012 whe re Z is the transim pe dance of the rece ive r. Furthe rmore. and D P ( t ) the lase r inte nsity noise . Furthe rm ore . the proble m re duce s to the study of y ( t ) s s( t ) q a s3 ( t ) q n ( t ) . The photodiode conve rts the incoming light and in this proce ss shot noise is adde d to the signal. ( 13 ) . and bandpass filte r (B PF ) de notes a bandpass filte ring ope ration inte nde d to re cove r the te rm s at f o . ( 10 ) L The notation can be som e wh at simplifie d and. (8) whe re i s( t ) and i t h ( t ) re pre sent the shot and the rm al noise . the powe rs highe r than 3 m ay be ne gle cte d and the signal of inte rest is v ( t ) s B PF R g PT Z ( a1 i L D ( t ) q a 3 i 3 D ( t ) ) q Z i s ( t ) q Z i t h ( t ) q Z I R I N ( t ) . the re ce ive r front e nd also adds the rm al noise and the photodiode curre nt is give n by i p h ( t ) s RPr ( t ) q i s ( t ) q i t h ( t ) . and the composite signal that goe s to the de modulator and de spre ading circuits is give n by v ( t ) s B PF R g PT Z ( 1 q a1 i L D ( t ) q a 2 i 2 D ( t ) q a 3 i 3 D ( t ) q ? ? ? ) L L q Z i s ( t ) q Z i t h ( t ) q Z IR I N ( t ) q Z g R D P( t) . the n the nonline ar te rms originate d by the e ve n powe rs fall outside the bandwidth of inte rest. If the composite signal spans le ss than one octave . The curre nt give n by ( 8 ) is am plifie d and bandpass filte red to prese rve the signal compone nts around fre que ncy f o . ( 12 ) whe re the re lation be twe e n P and the notation used in the pre vious se ction can be e asily de duced.Effect of L aser Diode N onlinearity on CDMA Signals 103 whe re g is the fibe r atte nuation from the B S to the CS. ( 11 ) whe re n ( t ) include s all the noise te rms in ( 10 ) and a s a 3 r a1 s a 3 PT r h . m athe m atically. Nonlinear Distortion for CDMA Signals Le t us conside r s ( t ) of the form Ky 1 s( t ) s is 0 p Ö 2 P c i ( t y t i ) d i ( t y t i ) cos ( 2 p fo t q w i ) . The study of the inte rfe rence cause d by a cubic nonline arity of the type x q a x 3 is done in the ne xt se ction. for a we ak nonline arity. and R is the photodiode responsivity. Le t us de fine to simplify the notation si s Ö 2 P c i ( t y t i ) d i ( t y t i ) cos ( 2 p f o t q w i ) .

( 16 ) Le t us conside r the cohe rent re ceive r for channe l i shown in Figure 3. t . G am eiro The output of the nonline arity N L ( x ) s x q a x 3 is give n by Ky 1 ys is 0 Ky 1 p p si q a (p ) si is 0 Ky 1 3 s si q a is 0 u 3 2 Ky 1 is 0 K y 1 Ky 1 Ky 1 Ky 1 Ky 1 p si3 q 3 is 0 p js 0 j/ i p s i s j2 q 6 is 0 js i q 1 k s j q 1 p p p si s j sk . Using (15 ) . the signal of intere st c an the n be writte n as Ky 1 v ( t) s is 0 K y 1 Ky 1 p Ö 2P« i cos ( 2 p fo t q w i) q 3 2 a PÖ 2 P Ky 1 is 0 p « i cos ( 2 p fo t q w i) y w i) q 3 a PÖ 2 P is 0 p js 0 j/ i Ky 1 p « i ( p cos ( 2 p fo t q w i) q cos ( 2 p fo t q 2 w 2 j ) Ky 1 Ky 1 q 3 a PÖ 2 P is 0 js i q 1 k s j q 1 p p « i« j« y w k) k = (cos ( 2 p fo t q w i qw j q cos ( 2 p q cos ( 2 p fo t q w fo t q w i y w y w j qw y w k) i j k ) ). whe re « i s c i ( t y t i ) d i ( t y t i ). O nce c i2 ( t ) s d i2 ( t ) s 1. i. the compone nts that fall around f o can be e asily found for e ach of the nonline ar te rms in ( 14 ) to be Downloaded by [ ] at 01:41 08 February 2012 IB PF í si3 s PÖ 2 P « i i cos ( 2 p fo t q w i ) fo t q w i ) q cos ( 2 p B PF si s j2 s PÖ 2 P « B PF w s i s j s k x s PÖ 2 P 2 ( cos ( 2 p fo t q 2 w 2 j y w i ) ) ( 15 ) « i« j« i k j (cos ( 2 p qw k fo t q w i qw j y w i k ) j J q cos ( 2 p fo t q w y w ) q cos ( 2 p fo t q w y w y w k ) ). we assume that the code and c arrie r synchronization circuits ope rate pe rfe ctly.104 A . . For simplicity. 0 ( 14 ) The various nonline ar te rms produce compone nts at the harm onics of f o . . we will conside r without any loss of ge ne rality the sam ple take n at t s T in the re ceive r of user 0. In the an alysis. which are not of intere st since the bandpass filte ring ope ration re move s the m. and adjust the time re fere nce so that t 0 s 0 and w 0 s 0.

) ( 18 ) Afte r straightforward but te dious calculations. Block diagram of the spre ad-spectrum receiver for channe l i.Effect of L aser Diode N onlinearity on CDMA Signals 105 Figure 3. 2 p x .e . the term proportional to the inform ation bit a(0) is 0 Downloaded by [ ] at 01:41 08 February 2012 r0 w s Ö P H T 0 d 0 ( t ) dt q T 0 3 2 a PÖ P H T 0 d 0 ( t ) dt Ky 1 js 1 Ky 1 js 1 q 3 a PÖ P H d0 ( t ) K y 1 q s a(0 ) Ö P T 1 q 0 ( 3 2 a P 2K y 1 q ( ( p cos ( 2 w 2 cos ( 2 w 2 j ) p j ) )) dt ) . the interfe rence compone nt of the sign al z ( t ) at the input of the integrate and dump circuit c an be shown to be Ky 1 z in t ( t ) s Ö P is 1 p A i ( 1 q 3 a PK ) cos ( w i ) q 3a P 2 Ky 1 js 1 j/ i p cos ( 2 w j y w i ) Ky 1 Ky 1 q 3 a PÖ P is 1 js i q 1 Ky1 Ky 1 p p p p B i j (2 cos ( w Ky 1 i y w j ) q cos ( w i qw j )) q 3 a PÖ P is 1 js i q 1 k s j q 1 p C i jk = (cos ( w y w qw i qw j y w k ) q cos ( w i j k) q cos ( w i y w j y w k) ).. ( 19 ) . ( 17 ) Assuming the phase s w j to be uniformly distributed in the inte rval w0. i. The de sire d compone nt ( r0 w ) of the sam ple r0 . the e xpe cte d value of the am plitude is A s E r0 w < a(0) s 1 s Ö P T 1 q 0 ( 3 2 a P (2 K y 1 ) .

Bi j s d0 ( t ) ci ( t y t i ) d i ( t y t i ) c j ( t y t i ) d j ( t y t i ) JC i jk s c 0 The de rivation of the interfe rence powe r give n by (19 ) .106 whe re A . ( 21 ) which give s for the SIR SIR s A2 Pint s 3N Ky 1 ( 2 1 q 2 3a P 2 (2 K y 1 ) ( 1 q 3 a PK ) q a P 2 ( K y 2) ( 99 4 ) 2 q 27 10 ( K y 3) ) ( 22 ) s SIR l ( 2 1 q 2 3a P 2 2 (2 K y 1) ( 1 q 3 a PK ) q a 3N P ( K y 2) ( 99 4 ) 2 q 27 10 ( K y 3) ) . are inde pe nde nt. whe re SIR l s abse nce of nonline aritie s. 2 p x . 3 ) The phase s w i are assume d uniformly distribute d ove r the inte rval w0. The noise c an be e asily include d in the analysis. T c x . W ith the se assumptions the interfe re nce powe r is found to be Downloaded by [ ] at 01:41 08 February 2012 Pin t s N Tc2 P ( K y 1 ) 3 ( 1 q 3 a PK ) q a 2 2 P 2 ( K y 2) ( 99 4 q 27 10 ( K y 3) ) . . G am eiro í IA i s c 0 ( t ) ci ( t y t i ) di ( t y t i ) ( 20 ) ( t ) ci ( t y t i ) d i ( t y t i ) c j ( t y t i ) d j ( t y t i ) c k ( t y t i ) d k ( t y t i ) . K y 1. . the variance of the interfe re nce compone nt c aused by noise is n o T r 2. j s 1. ( 23 ) whe re SN R s 2 E b r n o is the signal-to-noise ratio that would arise in the abse nce of nonline aritie s with the transm ission of a single CDMA channe l. Assuming additive white noise with powe r spe ctral de nsity n o r 2. is done in Appe ndix A unde r the following assumptions: 1 ) t i mod( T c ) is uniformly distributed ove r the inte rval w0. and the total SIR turns out to be Ky 1 is the signal to inte rfe rence ratio that would arise in the SIR s 1 SN R q 1 SIR l ( ( 1 q 3a P 2 2 (2 K y 1 ) 2 2 ) 2 ( 1 q 3 a PK ) q a P ( K y 2) ( 99 4 q 27 10 ( K y 3) )) . O ne conclusion that re sorts from ( 22 ) . is that unlike the c ase of FD MA whe re an incre ase of the nonline arity ( incre ase of < a <) always le ads to an incre ase in the . . 4 ) The variable s (t i . w j ) . 2 ) The code se que nce s are approxim ate d by true random and inde pe nde nt se que nce s. . i .

Assuming e qual powe r.0. j Downloaded by [ ] at 01:41 08 February 2012 w si3 ( t ) s PS i ( t ) si ( t ) s j2 ( t ) s Psi ( t ) . ( 27 ) This me ans that whe n we substitute the line ar syste m by a nonline ar one of the type x q a x 3 . the term corre sponding to the de sire d signal ( 0 ) at the input of integrate and dump de tector is give n for the line ar and nonline ar case s ( subscripts L and NL. re spe ctive ly) by í Iz w L ( t ) s J Ö P d0 ( t ) zw N L ( t ) s Ö P d0 ( t ) 1 q ( 1 3a 2 ( 3 q cos ( 2 w 1 )) . W ith this assumption. it is possible within some range of a .e . re sults from the assumption that e ithe r the inform ation c arrying signal or the coding wave form are bipolar binary seque nce s with rectangu lar form at. whe re the nonline ar products are uncorre late d with the inform ation carrying signals on which carrie r the y fall. i. with CDMA syste m s the situation c an be diffe rent. for e xample . re sulting in an incre ase of signal i ( a ) 0 ) or a de cre ase of it ( a . the optimum processor should have some nonline arity.Effect of L aser Diode N onlinearity on CDMA Signals 107 powe r of the interfe re nce cause d by inte rmodulation. whe n compare d against FD MA syste m s. Le t us conside r.0 ). the c ase of two DS-SS signals. i. the am plitude of the de sire d signal ge ts am plifie d by the factor Gw s 1 q 3 2 a ( 3 q cos ( 2 w 1 )) . ( 29 ) . The optimum value for a can be e asily found by a simple de rivation of ( 22 ) .e . ( 24 ) This fundam e ntally diffe re nt be havior of CDMA syste ms. If a . ( 28 ) while the am plitude of the interfe re nce term is am plifie d by Gd s 1 q 6 a . ( 25 ) and thus the contribution from the se kinds of nonline ar terms adds dire ctly to the inte rfe ring line ar te rm s i ( t ) . This corre lation betwe e n some nonline ar terms and the inform ation carrying signals is the m ajor diffe re nce re lative to FDMA syste ms. and in the limiting c ase of ne gligible noise one finds a o pt Ps y 9 K q ( K y 2) 3 ( 99 2 q 27 5 ( K y 3) ) .. for the SIR to de cre ase with incre asing < a < and the value of a that le ads to the minimum SIR is usually diffe rent from 0. ) ( 26 ) while for the inte rfe rence term we have in the abse nce of noise w z in t L ( t ) s Ö P c 0 ( t ) d 1 ( t y t ) c1( t y t 1 1 ) cos ( w 1 1 ) 1 z in t N L ( t ) s Ö P c 0 ( t ) d 1 ( t y t ) c1 ( t y t ) ( 1 q 6 a ) cos ( w ).. the bandpass filte re d nonline ar terms of the type x i3 or x i x 2 are proportional to the original signals.

In this asymptotic case of K high. G am eiro In this situation of two channe ls. but for the particular case of w 1 s 0. which me ans that contrary to wh at occurs with FD MA syste m s. but this e ffe ct is ge ne rally ne gligible . If the number of j channe ls is highe r than 2. In the c ase above of only two channe ls.0. In this c ase .108 A . Furthe rmore. incre ase of a PK le ads to the incre ase of e ithe r the am plitude of the de sire d signal or the interfe rence . The situation is diffe rent as a ) 0. which agre e s with ( 24 ) by le tting K ª ` . In this latte r case . x i3 and x i x 2 is represe nte d by the factor ( K y 1 )( 1 q 3 a PK ) 2 f K ( 1 q 3 a PK ) 2 . the interfe rence cause d by the term s x i x j x k is repre sented in (21 ) by the factor Downloaded by [ ] at 01:41 08 February 2012 27 10 a 2 P 2 ( K y 1) ( K y 2) ( K y 3) f 27 10 a 2 P2K 3. The nonline arity also cause s inte rfe re nce from the e xisting carrie r on itse lf. In CDMA. This is a situation ide ntic al to the one occurring in FD MA syste ms with the double and triple products. the n we ge t anothe r type of nonline ar term s. whe re it is we ll known that for a large numbe r of channe ls the IMD is dominate d by the triple products. which on ave rage re prese nts a re duction of 6dB. uncorre late d with any of the signals x i . The pe rform ance de grade s as the nonline arity incre ase s ( < a < incre ase s ) and the de grad ation m ay be conside rable if a PK approache s y 1 r 3. j which e xp ande d in a powe r serie s of K give s K q 6 a PK 2 q 9 ( a P ) K 3 . one must have 3 a PK ) y 1. If the num ber of channe ls is ve ry high. Such a value also le ads to a re duction 1 of the am plitude of the de sire d term by a factor 1 y 4 ( 3 q cos ( 2 w 1 )) . le ads to a com ple te vanishing of the de sire d signal. which add dire ctly to the line ar te rm x i .14d B. The SIR de grade s as a incre ase s. the nonline ar te rms x i x j x k ne ve r ge t dominant. x i3 and x i x 2 . the se kinds of nonline ar te rms are the m ost nume rous ( about K 3 ) and one could think that the se te rms would dictate the value of the interfe rence . the proble m of the nonline arity arise s be cause a wide num ber of inte rfe rence ge ne rate d by the nonline ar combination of the e xisting carrie rs m ay fall on one inform ation c arrying c arrie r. the nonline ar te rms are just of two type s. x i x j x k . ( 30 ) a 2 P K 2 2 Le t us conside r the case of a . Cle arly. but this de grad ation is e asily ve rifie d to be limite d to 1. for this asymptotic c ase the optim um a reduce s to a s 0. Thus in CDMA. the e ffe ct on the am plitude variation of the de sire d signal is not . one could cle arly m ake the inte rfe rence vanish if a nonline ar circuit with a s y 1 r 6 is use d. the e ffe ct of we ak nonline aritie s that can be de scribe d by a cubic polynomial is ve ry diffe rent from the case of FDMA communications. In the c ase of CD MA . othe rwise . SIR is approxim ate ly give n by 2 while the interfe re nce cause d by the line ar te rms and the nonline ar terms of type SIR f SIR l ( 1 q 3 a PK ) ( 1 q 3 a PK ) q 2 2 27 10 . The coe fficie nt of K 3 e xce e ds the one obtaine d for the products x i x j x k . the de cision rule should be inve rte d.

while Figure 4b . this is a fundam e ntal point. howe ve r. This compression characte ristic m ay be dictate d. the e ffe ct of a nonline arity is usually spe cifie d in te rms of the carrie r to inte rmodulation distortion powe r in a two-tone test (( C r I ) 2 t ) . thus cle arly positive . Downloaded by [ ] at 01:41 08 February 2012 Numerical Results In terms of the param e te rs use d with optic al links and de fine d in the se ction on O ptical Links for Mobile CD MA Ne tworks. a ) 0 and a . W hat re sults is that the sign of the coe fficie nt of the line ar term can be diffe rent from LD to LD and characte rization is ne e de d to de termine it. H igh le ve ls of inte rfe rence le ad to a significant change in am plitude . It must be pointe d out. The e xact sign of a in a LD de pe nds on se ve ral factors and thus is not e asy to pre dict. The DC I-P curve has obviously a compressing characte ristic since we have an output powe r limitation. whe re the sign is not of importance for CDMA syste ms. the n it is ne ce ssary to solve the rate e quations which le ad to fre que ncyde pe nde nt solutions. If we conside r the dynam ic nonline arity due to intrinsic photone le ctron nonline ar inte raction. by highe r orde r nonline aritie s and in a we akly nonline ar zone we m ay have positive coe fficie nts for some bias points. In Figure 4.52) r 20 that can also be writte n using the param e te rs of ( 31 ) as <a <s 2h 2 2 m 2 h PT c 10 y (( C r I ) 2 t q 3 . The re sult of a two-tone test c an be e asily ve rifie d to have the following relation with the param e te rs a and P : <a < P s 10 y (( C r I ) 2 t q3 .Effect of L aser Diode N onlinearity on CDMA Signals 109 ne gligible and is dire ctly relate d to the e ffe ct on the inte rfe re nce .0. W e have conside re d two diffe re nt case s. ( 31 ) 4h ( K y 2) ( ) whe re m ch is the modulation inde x pe r channe l.52 ) r 20 . Unde r some approxim ations Abue lm a’ atti w8 x was able to find an asymptotic solution a 3 r a1 ª 1 r ( 12 Pi n ) . ( 32 ) Le t us conside r an optical link with the param e te rs shown in Table 1 below. the SIR of ( 22 ) is give n by SIR s SIR l ( 1 q 3a K m 2 ch P 2 2 T 2h ( ) 2 1 q 3a 2 2 (2 K y 1 ) 2 m 2 h PT c 2h 2 qa m 4 ch P 4 4 T ) 99 4 q 27 10 ( K y 3) 2 . howe ve r. which sugge sts that a ne gative a would occur. Figure 4a shows the re sults obtaine d with a LD whose nonline arity is de scribe d by a positive a . and be cause this me asure is the most familiar to communication e ngine e rs we will use it in the following. that a two-tone test ignores the sign of the coe fficie nt a and so is not sufficie nt for characte rization of me m oryle ss nonline aritie s in CD MA syste ms. In radio-fre que ncy e ngine e ring. we plot SIR for a case of ne gligible noise as a function of the numbe r of users for some value s of ( C r I ) 2 t . bec ause unlike FD MA syste ms.

110 A . It m ust be pointe d out that this numbe r is the num ber of use rs for which the inte rfe re nce te rms that add dire ctly to the de sire d signal do not change the polarity of the re cove re d bit. we ge t the e xpe cte d result of de cre asing SIR as the num ber of users incre ase s and de cre asing SIR as the nonline arity of the lase r ge ts more pronounce d. In both case s. the SIR curve s for the line ar c ase and for ( C r I ) 2 t s 70dB are almost coincide nt up to 200 use rs. This can be ve rifie d in Figure 5. for a high num ber of users the clipping e ffe cts will also be come significant. The plots we re done using a value of a such that with the . Howe ve r. Be cause the am plitude of the de sire d signal de cre ase s with the nonline arity.16 mW r mA LD intensity noise : RIN s y 150d B r Hz Photodiode responsivity: R s 0.. shot noise . the de grad ation can be ve ry signific ant as the numbe r of users incre ase s.8A r W Front-e nd the rm al noise : S i s 8 pA r Ö H z Downloaded by [ ] at 01:41 08 February 2012 re prese nts the c ase of ne gative a . for e xample . In Figure 6 we plot the SIR as a function of the LD nonline arity e xpre sse d in term s of ( C r I ) 2 t ( a .0 ) for som e value s of K . but for value s be low the kne e . K max s Int 1 2 ( 1y 2 2h 2 2 3 m 2 h PT c ) . for the c ase of a ) 0. It can be ve rifie d that some improve me nt relative to the line ar case is inde e d possible . ( 33 ) whe re Int ( . The plots of Figure 6 show curve s with ve ry pronounce d kne e s. quality communications re quire the thre shold to be significantly highe r than 0dB and we ne e d to conside r noise . on the LD bias curre nt in orde r to ge t the optimum value for a . i.0. For a . and the m aximum numbe r of use rs in a practical syste m shall be we ll be low the numbe rs of Figure 5.e . It see ms pointle ss to atte mpt som e inte rfe rence re duction by acting. the de grad ation relative to the line ar case is ne gligible . ( 34 ) g s Pr r PT being the fibe r atte nuation from transmitte r to rece ive r and q the e le ctronic charge .) m e ans the inte ge r part. and if the nonline arity of the LD is signific ant the numbe r of possible users m ay ge t ve ry sm all. which shows the numbe r of possible use rs as a function of the nonline arity of the LD e xpresse d in te rms of ( C r I ) 2 t . For value s of a above the kne e . we note that the re is no dram atic de grad ation relative to the line ar case . In Figure 7. Furthe rmore . and front-e nd the rm al noise according to the param e ters of T able 1. the pe rform ance quickly de grade s. In practical situations. G am eiro Table 1 LD output powe r: PT s y 3dBm LD sensitivity: h s 0. Inde e d. due to RIN. The SIR is give n by ( 23 ) whe re SN R is 2 Eb SN R s no s m 2 ( g RPT ) ch 2 2 RIN ( g RPT ) q 2 qg RPT q S I . we pre sent furthe r re sults by conside ring in this c ase the pre sence of the additive noise . the situation is diffe re nt. but this is rathe r ne gligible .

0. a) a b ) a . N s 511.Effect of L aser Diode N onlinearity on CDMA Signals 111 Downloaded by [ ] at 01:41 08 February 2012 Figure 4. ) 0. . SIR as a function of the number of use rs for some value s of ( C r I ) 2 t .

the two case s of a ) 0 and a . Howe ve r. Maximum number of use rs as a function of ( C r I ) 2 t for a . For the case a ) 0. as far as the modulation inde x is high e nough for the nonline ar and line ar channe l .0 pre se nt som e diffe re nce s.1 . param e te rs give n in T able 1 ( C r I ) 2 t s 45dB @ PT s y 3dBm & m c h s 0 . N s 511.0. SIR as a function of ( C r I ) 2 t for a .0. Figure 6. G am eiro Downloaded by [ ] at 01:41 08 February 2012 Figure 5. Both figures show that the modulation inde x can be optimize d. The numbe r of use rs was take n to be K s 50 and the proce ssing gain N s 511.112 A .

) 0. a) a b ) a .1. N s 511. Decision signal to noise ratio as a function of the modulation inde x. ( C r I ) 2 t s 45dB for m c h s 0.0. .Effect of L aser Diode N onlinearity on CDMA Signals 113 Downloaded by [ ] at 01:41 08 February 2012 Figure 7. K s 50.

In a practic al situation the probability of all carrie rs being uniformly space d m ay be sm all and inde e d channe l allocation sche me s inte nde d to minimize the IMD m ay be conside red w2 x . we compare the SIR in the abse nce of additive noise for the CDMA and FD MA case s. Comparision of the SIR for FDMA and CDMA. the n the am plitude of the de sire d signal ge ts ve ry sm all and the SIR de grade s signific antly. the dynam ic range that must be accommodate d in com me rcial mobile syste m s m ay be ve ry high ( up to 90dB ) . The re ason the SIR for CDMA conve rge for a finite value as ( C r I ) 2 t incre ase s. we conside re d for CD MA a compre ssing nonline arity. For the plot of Figure 8. 3 ) All carrie rs are assume d to have e qual powe r. 2 ) The SIR is compute d at the ce ntral carrie r. the situation is diffe re nt. A worst case situation should the n conside r the ce nte r carrie r at minimum le ve l and all othe r carrie rs at m aximum powe r. is highly unre alistic with FD MA or FD MA r TD MA . arise s bec ause we . which in the plot of Figure 8 would me an lowe ring the curve s corre sponding to FD MA of a value e qual to the dyn am ic range of the syste m. In orde r to com pute the SIR c aused by a cubic nonline arity in the FDMA sche me . This re sults in a much narrowe r re gion for good ope ration than the one obtaine d with a ) 0. If the modulation inde x incre ase s too much. since it was se e n pre viously that such has a m uch more adve rse e ffe ct than an e xp anding one . G am eiro Downloaded by [ ] at 01:41 08 February 2012 Figure 8. and the curve s rem ain ne arly flat. while m andatory for CD MA sche me s. Assumptions 2 ) and 3 ) re pre se nt a worst c ase situation. the following assumptions we re use d: 1 ) The carrie rs corre sponding to the various use rs are uniformly space d. furthe r incre ase in the modulation inde x doe s not alte r significantly the SIR . inte rfe rence to be the m ain source of disturbance . The proce ssing gain was conside red to be N s 511. In Figure 8.0. Assumption 3 ) . The numbe r of carrie rs falling on a give n fre que ncy is m aximum for the ce nte r fre que ncy and for uniform spacing and this num ber is approxim ate ly give n by 3 r 8 K 2 w9 x . For a . In this latte r case .114 A .

IEICE Trans. 1993. The advantage of CDMA sche me s arise s bec ause any CD MA syste m must have ve ry pre cise powe r control functions.Effect of L aser Diode N onlinearity on CDMA Signals 115 conside red the total signal to inte rfe re nce ratio. Pe dro. the re sulting SIR was de rive d. M. which is whe n ( C r I ) 2 t ge ts high the constant value re prese nts the SIR that arise s in a line ar situation. This case le ad to a signific ant de gradation in the SIR . and unlike this latte r case one ge ts significantly diffe re nt results by conside ring a compressing or an e xpanding type of nonline arity. The re sults show that with an e xp anding type . Such a characte rization in term s of computing for both syste ms the outage probabilitie s still require s ve ry signific ant work. Fiber-optic microce llular radio communication systems and the ir te chnologie s. while for FD MA syste ms we m ay ge t situations ve ry favorable with some combinations of nonuniform spacing and powe r distribution of the carrie rs. C.. othe rwise . the curve s for FD MA m ust be conside rably lowe red ( although lowe ring of a value e qual to the dyn am ic range is highly pe ssimistic ) and CDMA will ge t significant advantage . A. but we m ay also ge t som e unfavorable situations whe re the pe rform ance m ay drop below the acce ptable le ve ls. i. in ge ne ral. a situation that in CD MA will ne ve r occur be cause of the tight powe r control function.. Gameiro. we obse rve that within the range of re asonable SIRs the re is not a dram atic diffe rence be twe e n CD MA and FDMA for the assumptions conside re d. A low cost Ë optical link for personal communication ne tworks. Downloaded by [ ] at 01:41 08 February 2012 Conclusions In this pape r. we observe that be low the kne e the SIR for CD MA de cre ase s ve ry sharply ( such a situation doe s not occur. 2. For re al syste ms. The conclusion is comple te ly diffe re nt for a compre ssing type . F. From the plot. . howe ve r. the inte rfe rence c ause d by nonline aritie s doe s not re prese nt. the authors have conside red the e ffe ct of LD we ak nonline aritie s in the SCM transmission from base stations to a ce ntral station of dire ct se que nce spre ad spe ctrum signals from a CD MA mobile ne twork. 1995. R amos. whe re as mobile syste ms base d on FD MA or FD MA r TD MA e xhibit ve ry high dynam ic range s. J. In Proceedings of 1995 IE EE MTT -S Sym posium on T echnologies for Wireless A pplications.e . 57 ] 62. with an e xpanding nonline ar characte ris tic ) . a dram atic de gradation as long as the inform ation carrying signals and coding wave forms are bipolar binary with re ctangular form ats. the polarity of the de sire d signals m ay ge t reve rse d le ading to a syste m atic e rrone ous de coding rule . whe re the nonline arity also le ads to a de cre ase in the am plitude of the de sire d signal. Grac a. Furthe rmore. V ancouve r. The re sults have shown that the e ffe ct of the nonline arity de parts signific antly from wh at happe ns in FD MA syste ms. CDMA syste ms with ve ry good powe r control and FD MA syste ms with a ve ry large dyn am ic range . A wide dyn am ic range can le ad to significant pe rform ance de grad ation for situations whe re one carrie r is at minimum powe r and the inte rfe ring one s have an appre ciable powe r. A. W hat results is that the distortion in CD MA syste ms is a rathe r smooth function of the numbe r of use rs. Com . References 1. Special Issue. Mode ling the LD as a me moryle ss cubic nonline arity. Comparison against FD MA shows that the re are not significant conce ptual disadvantage s or advantage s of CDMA relative to FD MA in what distortion caused by nonline arity is concerne d. Canada. Da Rocha. and J. J. and inde e d the numbe r of use rs must be limite d. E-76B.

1997. W. Subcarrie r multiple xe d lightwave syste m design conside rations for subscribe r loop applications. CO M-33:246 ] 248. Gans. and M. E76-B:1091 ] 1102.. J. K. T. Y ate s. Daly. conditione d to a se t of phase s is 2 E rin t <v w i 4 s P Ky 1 is 1 p E AÃ 2 i ( 1 q 3 a PK ) cos ( w i ) q 3a P 2 Ky 1 js 1 j/ i 2 p cos ( 2 w j y w i ) Ky 1 Ky 1 q 9a 2 P2P is 1 js i q 1 Ky 1 Ky 1 Ky 1 p p p p Ã E B i2j (2 cos ( w E CÃ i2jk i y w j) q cos ( w i qw j) ) 2 q 9a 2 P2P is 1 js i q 1 k s j q 1 p = (cos ( w i qw jy w k ) q cos ( w i yw j qw k ) q cos ( w iy w j yw k )) . 14:1400 ] 1409. G aussian noise. Veh . 671 ] 672. and J. IEE E T ransactions on Com m unication. Shibutani. SAC-11:1118 ] 1126. 1985. 5. 2 ( A . M. T. IE EE J.1 ) .. T. A.. Dispersion e ffects in optical millime te r wave systems using se lf-heterodyne me thod for transport and gene ration. Stube r. O ’ Re illy. IEEE T rans. Fibe r optic microcellular radio.. IEEE Trans. Smith. S. IEEE J. 1982.. L. B. 13. Analysis of a multiple-ce ll direct se que nce CDMA È ce llular mobile radio system. IEEE T rans.. 1995. A reas on Com m un. Emura.. Koshy. Tech . W. In Proc.. and D. W ay. C. O . Domon. R. Select . He ide m ann. J. Namiki. of ECOC ’ 98 . 1996. 8. 7. Appendix A All the te rms composing the various sums in ( 19 ) are uncorre late d and the n the variance of the disturbance compone nt ( rin t ) of the sam ple at t s T .. SAC-10:669 ] 679. and J. H. Sp ain. Abue lm a’ atti. and C. I. J. 15. IEEE Journal of L ightwav e T echnology. Expe rime ntal validation of V olte rra series nonline ar modelling for microwave subcarrier optical systems.116 A . I. 14. W. G. IE EE Proceedings Optoelectronics . Kchao. G. 1982. 10. W ay. V T-40:599 ] 606. Select . K. IEEE J. 7:1806 ] 1818. 12. 43:209 ] 213. IE EE T ransactions on Com m unications. Hofstetter. and H. CO M-40:1339 ] 1344. MT T 43:2263 ] 2269. M. Pe rsonal communications access ne tworks using subcarrier multiplexed links. 1998. and P. CO M-30:1954 ] 1958. Schmuck. Salgado. H. 11. Madrid. Junk. J. 4. L ightwav e Techno. 9. Chu. Com m un. 1989. IEICE Trans. Select . Nirm alathas. H. 6. Fiber optic intermodulation distortion. and R. 1991. J. 1992. 1996. E. M. E fficie nt mode ling and e valuation of fibe r-fed microcellular networks in a land mobile channe l using a GMSK mode m sche me. Asymptotic distortion spectrum of clippe d dc-biase d. J. Mazo. Sankar. A reas Com m un. Tonguz. O ptical fiber-based microcellular systems: An overview. J. C arrie r-to inte rmodulation pe rform ance of multiple FM r FDM carriers through a GaAlAs heterojunction lase r diode . Millimete r-wave fibre radio system incorporating broadband radio CDMA. 1993. SAC-15:694 ] 706. G am eiro Downloaded by [ ] at 01:41 08 February 2012 3. Kanai. A reas Com m un . Novak. O ptical fibe r fe eder for microce llular mobile communication systems. 1993. Com m un .

. taking the e xpe ctancy of ( A.D.2 ) J CÃ i jk s H 0 C i jk dt m od ( T c ) is uniformly distributed ove r w0.1 ) ove r v w i 4. He is currently a Profe ssor in the Department of Electronics and Te lecom. degree s from the Unive rsity of Ave iro in 1985 and 1993. of the Unive rsity of Aveiro. 2 p x . and within this re se arch line he has done work for optical and mobile communications. and has publishe d ove r 50 te chnical papers in inte rnational journals and confe rence s. Biography A. He has bee n involve d in se veral national and Europe an proje cts.Effect of L aser Diode N onlinearity on CDMA Signals whe re 117 í Assuming that t show that i IAÃ i s H T 0 A i dt B i j dt T Ã Bi j s H T 0 . one ge ts ( 21 ) . whe re he is he ad of the group. e ither at the theore tical or e xperimental le vel. His m ain inte rests lie in signal proce ssing technique s for digital communications. N Tc2 ( A . Polo de Ave iro. Gameiro re ce ived his Licenciatura and his Ph. it is possible to Downloaded by [ ] at 01:41 08 February 2012 í IE AÃ 2 s i 2 3 2 N Tc2 N Tc2 . and a re se archer at the Instituto de Te lec. ( A .3 ) E BÃ i2j f J E CÃ i2jk s 3 2 5 Assuming now that the various phase s are uniformly distribute d ove r the inte rval w0. T c x . re spe ctively..

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- GSM-To-UMTS Training Series 01_Principles of the WCDMA System_V1.0
- nagendra
- Cellular 455
- Wcdma Basics
- Final Report on CityCell
- Medical Electronics
- Advanced Topics for Wireless Communications
- Cellular-Concept
- An improved Spread Spectrum Watermarking technique to withstand Geometric Deformations

- Steelhead Licensing v. ZTE et. al.
- DCT- SLM Technique for Peak-To-Average Power Ratio Reduction in OFCDM System
- Steelhead Licensing v. Research In Motion et. al.
- Steelhead Licensing LLC
- Steelhead Licensing v. Pantech et. al.
- Steelhead Licensing LLC
- 2008-5-28 Brief Note for FM
- Steelhead Licensing v. NEC Casio Mobile Communications
- Analysis of Simulation Parameters of Pulse Shaping FIR Filter for WCDMA
- Analysis of Residue Number System based PN sequence in AWGN channel
- 2008-4-29 FS Note to FM
- Steelhead Licensing LLC
- Steelhead Licensing LLC
- IIFL Telecom Spectrum Payout

- UT Dallas Syllabus for cs6v81.502 05s taught by (wxw021000)
- Prism Technologies v. United States Cellular
- Analysis of Handoff techniques used for hybrid networks
- UT Dallas Syllabus for cs6v81.521 05u taught by (wxw021000)
- Tadayon et. al. v. Concord Coach Lines
- Cellular Telephone Company, Doing Business as at & T Wireless Services v. The Town of Oyster Bay and the Town Board of the Town of Oyster Bay, 166 F.3d 490, 2d Cir. (1999)

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