An Introduction to Second Quantization

Sandeep Pathak

January 27, 2010
1 Introduction
We all know single particle quantum mechanics very well. The state of a system can be represented by
a ket |ψ and the space in which these states lie is called the Hilbert space. This Hilbert space contains
states which can accomodate one particle. Thus, there is no room for more than one particles! What
do we do to accomodate more guests? The answer is simple and that is to EXPAND!
⇒H
N
= H⊗· · · ⊗H
. ¸¸ .
n−copies
The idea is pretty similar to the idea of extension from 1-dimension to 2-dimensions. A point in
1-dimension is represented in R as x or y. If we take two copies of R, we get the space R ⊗ R in
which we can represent a 2-dimensional point i.e. we go from x →(x, y). The operation ⊗ is known
as direct product.
Let us now examine how we can write a two particle state using two single particle states |1,
|2. Suppose the particle 1 is in the state |1 and particle 2 is in the state |2. Using the above idea,
we can straight away write a state |1 ⊗|2 in H⊗H. What is the meaning of this state?
r
1
, r
2
| |1 ⊗|2 = r
1
|1r
2
|2 = φ(r
1
)φ(r
2
) (1)
If the particle 2 is in the state |1 and particle 1 is in the state |2, the two particle state can be
written as |2 ⊗|1 and
r
1
, r
2
| |2 ⊗|1 = r
1
|2r
2
|1 = φ(r
2
)φ(r
1
) (2)
Thus, a general two particle state in H
2
can be written as

2
= α|1 ⊗|2 + β|2 ⊗|1 (3)
We know that the particles in quantum mechanics are indistinguishable and occur only in two
possibilities
Fermions Bosons
Wavefunction Anti-symmetric Symmetric
Allowed |ψ
f
2
= (|1 ⊗|2 −|2 ⊗|1) |ψ
b
2
= (|1 ⊗|2 +|2 ⊗|1)
Consider the anti-symmetric state. We can drop ⊗ for brevity: |ψ
f
2
=
1

2
(|1|2 −|2|1). The real
space representation is given by
r
1
, r
2

f
2
=
1

2

1
(r
1

2
(r
2
) −φ
2
(r
1

1
(r
2
))
=
1

2
φ
1
(r
1
) φ
1
(r
2
)
φ
2
(r
1
) φ
2
(r
2
)
≡ |1, 2| (4)

psandeep@physics.iisc.ernet.in
1
This form |1, 2| is known Slater determinant and is used to represent anti-symmetric wavefunctions.
The generalization to the N-particle anti-symmetric wavefunction is trivial. If we have N states |n,
(n = 1, 2, . . . , N). Then the slater determinant |1, 2, . . . , N| is given by

f
N
=
1

N!
φ
1
(r
1
) · · · φ
1
(r
N
)
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
φ
N
(r
1
) · · · φ
N
(r
N
)
(5)
The subspace spanned by these anti-symmetric states is known as Fock’s space for fermions.
There is an ambiguity in the way we have deﬁned (4). There is nothing which prevents us from
writing a slater determinant as
r
1
, r
2

f
2
=
1

2
φ
2
(r
1
) φ
2
(r
2
)
φ
1
(r
1
) φ
1
(r
2
)
(6)
Thus, we need a convention. If we have a two particle slater determinant |l, m|, then
r
1
, r
2

f
l,m
= |l, m| =
1

2
φ
l
(r
1
) φ
l
(r
2
)
φ
m
(r
1
) φ
m
(r
2
)
(7)
for l < m.
For bosons, we get a space of symmetrized states which is the Fock’s space for bosons. The
bosonic wavefunctions are represented by permanents.
2 Occupation number formalism
Instead of writing Slater determinant state (7) as |ψ
f
l,m
, we can write it as

f
l,m
≡ |0, . . . , 0, 1
.¸¸.
l
, 0, . . . , 0, 1
.¸¸.
m
, 0, . . . (8)
i.e. we write ’1’s at positions l and m corresponding to participating single particle states in the
slater determinant and ’0’s at all other positions. This is known as occupation number representation.
Note that we have written (8) for a fermionic state. The same representation can be used to describe
bosonic states as well. It is easy to see that, by construction, the state written in occupation number
representation contains the information about the nature of particles (symmetry or anti-symmetry).
Since, we are interested in situations where particle number is not ﬁxed, we want operators which
can take us from one Fock space to another Fock space with diﬀerent particle number, say from F
n−1
to F
n
. Thus, the states in a Fock space can be obtained by successively applying such operators on
the vaccum state (the state with no particles).
2.1 Fermionic Operators
Let us deﬁne operator c

n
to be the operator which creates a particle in state |n. This is known
as creation operator. There is a conjugate operator c
n
as well that destroys a particle from state
|n and hence called an annihilation operator. Now we can create |ψ
f
l,m
from the vacuum state by
operator of c

l
and c

m
successively.
|0 = |0, . . . , 0, 0
.¸¸.
l
, 0, . . . , 0, 0
.¸¸.
m
, 0, . . .
c

m
|0 = |0, . . . , 0, 0
.¸¸.
l
, 0, . . . , 0, 1
.¸¸.
m
, 0, . . .
c

l
c

m
|0 = |0, . . . , 0, 1
.¸¸.
l
, 0, . . . , 0, 1
.¸¸.
m
, 0, . . . ≡ |ψ
f
l,m
(9)
2
Now consider
c

m
c

l
|0 = |ψ
f
m,l
= −|0, . . . , 0, 1
.¸¸.
l
, 0, . . . , 0, 1
.¸¸.
m
, 0, . . . (10)
Thus
_
c

l
c

m
+ c

m
c

l
_
|0 = 0
_
c

l
c

m
+ c

m
c

l
_
= 0 (11)
We get the anti-commutation relation as a result of the anti-symmetry of the state. Using this, we
can deﬁne the operation of c

l
on any state |n
1
, n
2
, . . .
c

l
|n
1
, . . . , n
l−1
, n
l
, . . . ∝ (−1)
n
1
+n
2
+···n
l−1
|n
1
, . . . , n
l−1
, n
l
+ 1, . . . (12)
The proportionality constant is ﬁxed using normalization condition which give
c

l
|n
1
, . . . , n
l−1
, n
l
, . . . = (−1)
P
l−1
i=0
n
i

n
l
+ 1|n
1
, . . . , n
l−1
, n
l
+ 1, . . . (13)
For fermions, n
l
+ 1 has to be considered modulo 2 due to Pauli exclusion principle. Similarly, the
conjugate of this operator is deﬁned as
c
l
|n
1
, . . . , n
l−1
, n
l
, . . . = (−1)
P
l−1
i=0
n
i

n
l
|n
1
, . . . , n
l−1
, n
l
−1, . . . (14)
Using these relations, we can check that, for fermions,
c
l
c
m
+ c
m
c
l
= {c
l
, c
m
} = 0
c
l
c

m
+ c

m
c
l
= {c
l
, c

m
} = δ
lm
(15)
2.2 Bosonic Operators
Bosonic creation and annhilation operators can be deﬁned as
b

l
|n
1
, . . . , n
l−1
, n
l
, . . . =

n
l
+ 1|n
1
, . . . , n
l−1
, n
l
+ 1, . . .
b
l
|n
1
, . . . , n
l−1
, n
l
, . . . =

n
l
|n
1
, . . . , n
l−1
, n
l
−1, . . . (16)
b
l
b
m
−b
m
b
l
= [b
l
, b
m
] = 0
b

l
b

m
−b

m
b

l
= [b

l
, b

m
] = 0
b
l
b

m
−b

m
b
l
= [b
l
, b

m
] = δ
lm
(17)
Irrespective of the nature of particles, one can check that {|n
1
, n
2
, . . .} forms a orthonormal basis
for a N-particle system.
n

1
, n

2
, . . . |n
1
, n
2
, . . . = δ
n

1
,n
1
δ
n

2
,n
2
· · · (18)
Also, a general state |n
1
, n
2
, . . . can be written as
|n
1
, n
2
, . . . =
(a

1
)
n
1

n
1
!
(a

2
)
n
1

n
2
!
· · · |0 (19)
where a

’s can be either bosonic or fermionic creation operators.
3
3 Observables
Does it make sense to talk of the momentum p
i
of a single particle i? The answer is NO, since the
particles are indistinguishable. We can only talk about sums such as

i
p
i
3.1 Single Particle Operators
The operators which involve sum over only single particles are known as single particle operators
ˆ
F
1
=

i
ˆ
f
1
(r
i
, p
i
) (20)
In second quantization, this operator can be written as
ˆ
F
1
=

l,l

l|
ˆ
f
1
|l

a

l
a
l
′ (21)
where,
l|
ˆ
f
1
|l

=
_
r
φ

l
(r)
ˆ
f
1
(r, p)φ
l
′ (r) (22)
3.2 Two Particle Operators
The operators which involve sum over two particles are known as two particle operators
ˆ
F
2
=
1
2

i=j
ˆ
f
2
(r
i
, p
i
; r
j
, p
j
) (23)
In second quantization, this operator can be written as
ˆ
F
2
=

l
1
,l
2
,l
3
,l
4
l
1
l
2
|
ˆ
f
2
|l
4
l
3
a

l
1
a

l
2
a
l
3
a
l
4
(24)
where,
l
1
l
2
|
ˆ
f
2
|l
4
l
3
=
_
r
1
,r
2
φ

l
1
(r
1

l
2
(r
2
)
ˆ
f
2
(r
1
, p
1
; r
2
, p
2

l
4
(r
1

l
3
(r
2
) (25)
The good thing about this representation is that it is independent of the nature of the particles.
4 Change of Basis
Suppose we have creation operators a

λ
corresponding to the basis {|λ}. Now we want to go to a
diﬀerent basis {|
˜
λ}. What are a

˜
λ
s in terms of a

λ
s?
Since {|λ} is a basis, we can write a state |
˜
λ as
|
˜
λ =

λ
λ|
˜
λ|λ (26)
Thus,
a

˜
λ
|0 =

λ
λ|
˜
λa

λ
|0 (27)
4
This gives
a

˜
λ
=

λ
λ|
˜
λa

λ
(28)
Taking conjugate of the above equation, we get
a
˜
λ
=

λ

˜
λ|λa
λ
(29)
Example: Suppose a

i
creates a particle at site i on a lattice. What is operator a

k
in the momentum
space? Using the above formula, we have
a

k
=

i
i|ka

i
=
1

N

i
e
ik·R
i
a

i
(30)
5 Applications of Second Quantization
5.1 Single spin-
1
2
operator
A spin-
1
2
can be represented as
{
ˆ
S
i
}
α,α
′ =
1
2
{ˆ σ
i
}
α,α
′ (31)
where, ˆ σ
i
s are Pauli matrices
σ
x
=
_
0 1
1 0
_
, σ
y
=
_
0 −i
i 0
_
, σ
z
=
_
1 0
0 −1
_
(32)
The basis states here are eigen states of S
z
i.e. | ↑ ad | ↓. This operator in second quantized
language can be written as
ˆ
S
i
=

α,α

c

α
ˆ
S
i
α,α
′ c
α
=
1
2

α,α

c

α
ˆ σ
i
α,α
′ c
α
(33)
which gives
S
x
=
1
2
(c

c

+ c

c

)
S
y
=
1
2i
(c

c

−c

c

)
S
z
=
1
2
(c

c

−c

c

) (34)
5.2 Local Density Operator
Local density ρ(r) is deﬁned as
ρ(r) =

i
δ(r −r
i
) (35)
5
In second quantized language, it is written as
ρ(r) =
_
d
d
r

a

(r

)δ(r −r

)a(r

)
= a

(r)a(r) (36)
Total number of particles are given by
ˆ
N =
_
d
d
ra

(r)a(r) (37)
5.3 Free Electrons
If the potential is constant, then we have free particles. The free particle Hamiltonian is given by
H
0
=

k
2
2m
c

c

(38)
The ground state of such system can be easily determined. For a system of size L
x
× L
y
× L
z
, the
allowed momentum states

k have components k
i
= 2πn
i
/L
i
where n
i
ǫ Z. Each such state because
of Pauli exclusion principle can accomodate two electrons (↑, ↓). Thus, if we have N electrons, all
states upto an energy E
F
, called Fermi energy, are occupied. The momentum k
F
corresponding to
Fermi energy (
k
2
F
2m
) is called Fermi momentum. All the k points which have smaller momentum than
Fermi momentum forms the Fermi surface. In second quantized language, the ground state can be
written as
|FS =

|k|<k
F

c

|0 (39)
In most of the problems, we are interested in excitations about this state. For example, destroying a
electron inside Fermi surface and creating one outside. Can we deﬁne operators such that this state
is the ”physical vacuum” of the theory?
˜ c

=
_
c

if k > k
F
c

if k ≤ k
F
_
˜ c

=
_
c

if k > k
F
c

if k ≤ k
F
_
(40)
We can see that if we apply ˜ c

on |FS, we will get zero.
5.4 Free electrons in a magnetic ﬁeld
Suppose we have N electrons in a magnetic ﬁeld. The Hamiltonian for such a system is given by
H =

i
1
2m
_
p
i

e

A(r
i
)
c
_
2
−γ

i
σ
i
·

B(r
i
) (41)
The Hamiltonian in the second quantization language can be written as
H =

σ
_
d
d
r
1
2m
c

σ
(r)
_
−i

r

e

A(r)
c
_
2
c
σ
(r) −γ

α,α

_
d
d
r
_
c

α
(r)σ
α,α
′ c
α
′ (r)
_
·

B(r) (42)
6
5.5 Non-interacting particles
Consider spinless non-interacting particles. The Hamiltonian is given by
H =

i
_
ˆ p
2
i
2m
+ V (r
i
)
_
(43)
In real space basis, the second quantized Hamiltonian can be written as
H =
_
d
d
ra

(r)
_
ˆ p
2
2m
+ V (r)
_
a(r) (44)
where
ˆ
p = −i

r
5.6 Electrons in a periodic potential
Eigen-states of a periodic Hamiltonian are the Bloch states which are represented as
ψ
kn
(r) = e
ik·r
u
kn
(r) (45)
where u
kn
(r) has the same periodicity as V (r). k is the crystal momentum which takes values inside
the Brillouin zone and n is the band index. Let us assume that the bands are well separated and we
are interested in the lowest band only. The Hamiltonian in the momentum space can be written as
H =

ǫ
k
c

c

(46)
5.7 Coulomb Interaction
The term corresponding to Coulomb interaction is given by
H
ee
=
1
2

i=j
e
2
|r
i
−r
j
|
(47)
In momentum basis, this can be written as
H
ee
=
1
2

{k
i
},{σ
i
}
k
1
σ
1
, k
2
σ
2
|
e
2
|r
i
−r
j
|
|k
4
σ
4
, k
3
σ
3
c

k
1
σ
1
c

k
2
σ
2
c
k
3
σ
3
c
k
4
σ
4
(48)
Then, the overlap matrix element is given by
k
1
σ
1
, k
2
σ
2
|
e
2
|r
i
−r
j
|
|k
4
σ
4
, k
3
σ
3

=
_
d
3
r
_
d
3
r

e
−ik
1
·r

V
·
e
−ik
2
·r

V
·
e
2
|r −r

|
·
e
ik
4
·r

V
·
e
ik
3
·r

V
δ
σ
1
σ
4
δ
σ
2
σ
3
=
δ
σ
1
σ
4
δ
σ
2
σ
3
V
2
_
d
3
r
_
d
3
r

e
−i(k
1
+k
2
−k
3
−k
4
)·r

e
−i(k
1
−k
4
)·(r−r

)
e
2
|r −r

|
=
δ
σ
1
σ
4
δ
σ
2
σ
3
V
2
_
d
3
r

e
−i(k
1
+k
2
−k
3
−k
4
)·r

. ¸¸ .
V δ(k
1
+k
2
−k
3
−k
4
)
_
d
3
ρ e
−i(k
1
−k
4
)·ρ
e
2
ρ
. ¸¸ .
Change of variable: r−r

= ρ
=
δ
σ
1
σ
4
δ
σ
2
σ
3
V
2
×V δ(k
1
+ k
2
−k
3
−k
4
) ×
e
2
(k
1
−k
4
)
2
=
δ
σ
1
σ
4
δ
σ
2
σ
3
V
δ(k
1
+ k
2
−k
3
−k
4
) (49)
7
Figure 1: Feynman diagram depicting the interaction of two particles via Coulomb interaction.
We see that the Coulomb interaction conserves the total momentum. Thus,
H
ee
=
e
2
2

k,k

,q,σ,σ

c

(k+q)σ
c

(k

−q)σ

_
1
q
2
_
c
k

σ
′ c

(50)
This interaction of two particles via Coulomb interaction is shown in the Feynman diagram in ﬁg. 1.
Note that for q = 0, the matrix element diverges but this term in a lattice is cancelled by the uniform
background of positive ionic charge. This model is known as Jellium model.
5.8 Tight Binding Model
5.8.1 Wannier States
Suppose we have atomic orbitals localized at atomic sites in a lattice. Let’s assume that the ”physical
extent” of such orbitals is smaller than the inter-atomic spacing. In such cases, we say that the
orbitals are tightly bound to the lattice centers. It is thus, convenient to work in the local basis that
corresponds to the atomic orbital states of the isolated ion. Wannier state localized at site R
i
is
deﬁned as

i
=
1

N

k
e
−ik·R
i

k
(51)
where |ψ
k
’s are the Bloch states. It is easy to see that this set of states forms an orthogonal basis.
Thus,
|r =

i
ψ
i
|r|ψ
i
(52)
This gives us
c

σ
(r) =

i
ψ

i
(r)c

(53)
Similarly, invertng (51) gives us
c

=
1

N

i
e
ik·R
i
c

(54)
8
Thus, Bloch Hamiltonian (46) in this basis becomes
H =

ǫ
k
c

c

=
1
N

ij

e
ik·(R
i
−R
j
)
ǫ
k
c

c

ijσ
t
ij
c

c

(55)
where t
ij
=
1
N

k
e
ik·(R
i
−R
j
)
ǫ
k
is known as hopping amplitude for the electron to go from site i to
site j.
9

.m 1 φl (r1 ) = |l. . . 0. . . 0 . m i. by construction. 0. 0. Then the slater determinant |1. . 1 . .m = |0. . . Thus. 0. . . 0 . . . l m = |0. 2. . The generalization to the N -particle anti-symmetric wavefunction is trivial. . Instead of writing Slater determinant state (7) as |ψ |ψ f l. . 0. The bosonic wavefunctions are represented by permanents. r2 |ψ f 2 1 φ2 (r1 ) =√ 2 φ1 (r1 ) φ2 (r2 ) φ1 (r2 ) (6) Thus.1 Fermionic Operators operator of c† and c† successively. 1 . 0. . N | is given by |ψ f N 1 =√ N! φ1 (r1 ) . 0. There is an ambiguity in the way we have deﬁned (4). . 1 . If we have a two particle slater determinant |l. This is known as occupation number representation. . say from Fn−1 to Fn . . 0. the states in a Fock space can be obtained by successively applying such operators on the vaccum state (the state with no particles). 2. . Note that we have written (8) for a fermionic state. . φN (rN ) (5) The subspace spanned by these anti-symmetric states is known as Fock’s space for fermions. the state written in occupation number representation contains the information about the nature of particles (symmetry or anti-symmetry). 0. Since. 1 . . . . N ). φN (r1 ) ··· . l m = |0. 0. (n = 1.e. . . For bosons. 1 . This is known n as creation operator. we write ’1’s at positions l and m corresponding to participating single particle states in the slater determinant and ’0’s at all other positions. . . 2| is known Slater determinant and is used to represent anti-symmetric wavefunctions. then r1 . 0. . . 0. . . . The same representation can be used to describe bosonic states as well. . 0. . we get a space of symmetrized states which is the Fock’s space for bosons. m| = √ 2 φm (r1 ) φl (r2 ) φm (r2 ) (7) for l < m. . . . There is a conjugate operator cn as well that destroys a particle from state |n and hence called an annihilation operator. . . . m|.m (9) 2 .This form |1. .m l we can write it as (8) ≡ |0. 0. ··· φ1 (rN ) . 0. r2 |ψ f l. we need a convention. . 2 Occupation number formalism f l. . There is nothing which prevents us from writing a slater determinant as r1 . . 0 . . . .m . ≡ |ψ l m f l. . . 2. we want operators which can take us from one Fock space to another Fock space with diﬀerent particle number. . . Now we can create |ψ f from the vacuum state by l. . . . m l |0 c† |0 m c† c† |0 l m Let us deﬁne operator c† to be the operator which creates a particle in state |n . we are interested in situations where particle number is not ﬁxed. . 0. It is easy to see that. If we have N states |n . .

b† ] = δlm m m m (17) Irrespective of the nature of particles. we can check that. 1 . . . .n1 δn′ . . . the conjugate of this operator is deﬁned as cl |n1 . ∝ (−1)n1 +n2 +···nl−1 |n1 . = √1 n1 ! n2 ! where a† ’s can be either bosonic or fermionic creation operators. . . 0. .l = −|0. nl−1 . . . . . . . |n1 . . . . . . Bosonic operators follow commutation relations bl bm − bm bl = [bl . . . . . . nl . . . . . cm } = 0 cl c† + c† cl = {cl . . nl−1 . . . (14) Using these relations. . . . . = δn′ . nl−1 . . . nl−1 . . nl−1 . b† ] = 0 m l l m l m bl b† − b† bl = [bl . n′ . n2 . nl−1 . . . . . . . 0. . n2 . . . . . . n2 .Now consider c† c† |0 = |ψ m l Thus c† c† + c† c† |0 m l l m c† c† + c† c† m l l m = 0 = 0 (11) f m. n2 . nl − 1. bm ] = 0 (16) b† b† − b† b† = [b† . nl . . l The proportionality constant is ﬁxed using normalization condition which give c† |n1 . . . . . . nl . can be written as (a† )n1 (a† )n1 √2 · · · |0 |n1 . . nl + 1. . . = l √ bl |n1 . . . . . . . l c† |n1 . . . . . . (13) For fermions. } forms a orthonormal basis for a N -particle system. nl − 1. = (−1) l Pl−1 i=0 (12) ni √ nl + 1|n1 . nl + 1. b† |n1 . . . . 3 (19) (18) . . . . n′ . l m (10) We get the anti-commutation relation as a result of the anti-symmetry of the state.n2 · · · 1 2 1 2 Also. a general state |n1 . . . 1 . . . = nl |n1 . . for fermions. nl . . . . nl + 1. nl + 1 has to be considered modulo 2 due to Pauli exclusion principle. cl cm + cm cl = {cl . . 0. nl . . Using this. one can check that {|n1 . nl−1 . . . . . Similarly. . . c† } = δlm m m m (15) 2. . nl−1 . . nl−1 . = (−1) Pl−1 i=0 ni √ nl |n1 . .2 Bosonic Operators Bosonic creation and annhilation operators can be deﬁned as √ nl + 1|n1 . . . 0. we can deﬁne the operation of c† on any state |n1 . nl−1 . n2 . . .

this operator can be written as ˆ F2 = l1 .l′ ˆ l|f1 |l′ a† al′ l (21) where. p1 . r2 . We can only talk about sums such as i pi 3.l3 . Now we want to go to a λ ˜ diﬀerent basis {|λ }.l4 ˆ l1 l2 |f2 |l4 l3 a†1 a†2 al3 al4 l l (24) where. a† |0 = ˜ λ ˜ λ|λ a† |0 λ (27) λ ˜ λ|λ |λ (26) λ 4 . 4 Change of Basis Suppose we have creation operators a† corresponding to the basis {|λ }.r2 The good thing about this representation is that it is independent of the nature of the particles. pi . ˆ l|f1 |l′ = ˆ φ∗ (r)f1 (r.3 Observables Does it make sense to talk of the momentum pi of a single particle i? The answer is NO. What are a† s in terms of a† s? ˜ λ λ ˜ Since {|λ } is a basis. pj ) i=j (23) In second quantization.1 Single Particle Operators The operators which involve sum over only single particles are known as single particle operators ˆ F1 = i ˆ f1 (ri . this operator can be written as ˆ F1 = l. we can write a state |λ as ˜ |λ = Thus. rj .l2 . since the particles are indistinguishable. pi ) (20) In second quantization. p2 )φl4 (r1 )φl3 (r2 ) l l (25) r1 . ˆ l1 l2 |f2 |l4 l3 = ˆ φ∗1 (r1 )φ∗2 (r2 )f2 (r1 .2 Two Particle Operators The operators which involve sum over two particles are known as two particle operators 1 ˆ F2 = 2 ˆ f2 (ri . p)φl′ (r) l (22) r 3.

e.α′ = which gives Sx = Sy = Sz = (33) 1 † (c c↓ + c† c↑ ) ↓ 2 ↑ 1 † (c c↓ − c† c↑ ) ↓ 2i ↑ 1 † (c↑ c↑ − c† c↓ ) ↓ 2 (34) 5. This operator in second quantized language can be written as ˆ Si = α.α′ cα αˆ α. we have a† = k i i|k a† i 1 √ N eik·Ri a† i i = (30) 5 5. we get aλ = ˜ λ ˜ λ|λ aλ (29) Example: Suppose a† creates a particle at site i on a lattice.α′ σ 2 where. σz = 1 0 0 −1 (32) (31) The basis states here are eigen states of S z i. What is operator a† in the momentum i k space? Using the above formula.α′ cα α 1 2 i c† σα.This gives a† = ˜ λ λ ˜ λ|λ a† λ (28) Taking conjugate of the above equation.α′ = {ˆ i }α.α′ ˆi c† Sα.2 Local Density Operator Local density ρ(r) is deﬁned as ρ(r) = i δ(r − ri ) 5 (35) . σ i s are Pauli matrices ˆ σx = 0 1 1 0 .1 Applications of Second Quantization 1 Single spin.2 operator A spin.1 can be represented as 2 1 ˆ {S i }α. | ↑ ad | ↓ . σy = 0 i −i 0 .

For a system of size Lx × Ly × Lz .α′ dd r c† (r)σα. then we have free particles. ↓). we are interested in excitations about this state. For example. called Fermi energy.σ In most of the problems. All the k points which have smaller momentum than Fermi momentum forms the Fermi surface. we will get zero.α′ cα′ (r) · B(r) α (42) 6 . In second quantized language. are occupied. The free particle Hamiltonian is given by H0 = k2 † c ckσ 2m kσ (38) kσ The ground state of such system can be easily determined. The Hamiltonian for such a system is given by H= 1 2m eA(ri ) pi − c 2 i −γ i σi · B(ri ) (41) The Hamiltonian in the second quantization language can be written as H= eA(r) 1 † cσ (r) −i∇r − d r 2m c d 2 σ cσ (r) − γ α. the ground state can be written as |F S = c† |0 kσ (39) |k|<kF . the allowed momentum states k have components ki = 2πni /Li where ni ǫ Z.In second quantized language. destroying a electron inside Fermi surface and creating one outside. The momentum kF corresponding to 2 kF Fermi energy ( 2m ) is called Fermi momentum. Thus. ˜ 5. it is written as ρ(r) = dd r′ a† (r′ )δ(r − r′ )a(r′ ) (36) = a† (r)a(r) Total number of particles are given by ˆ N= dd ra† (r)a(r) (37) 5.4 Free electrons in a magnetic ﬁeld Suppose we have N electrons in a magnetic ﬁeld. all states upto an energy EF . if we have N electrons.3 Free Electrons If the potential is constant. Can we deﬁne operators such that this state is the ”physical vacuum” of the theory? c† = ˜kσ c† kσ ckσ if k > kF if k ≤ kF ckσ = ˜ ckσ c† kσ if k > kF if k ≤ kF (40) We can see that if we apply ckσ on |F S . Each such state because of Pauli exclusion principle can accomodate two electrons (↑.

5 Non-interacting particles p2 ˆi + V (ri ) 2m Consider spinless non-interacting particles. The Hamiltonian is given by H= (43) i In real space basis. k is the crystal momentum which takes values inside the Brillouin zone and n is the band index.7 Coulomb Interaction e2 |ri − rj | The term corresponding to Coulomb interaction is given by Hee = In momentum basis. k3 σ3 c† 1 σ1 c† 2 σ2 ck3 σ3 ck4 σ4 k k |ri − rj | (48) 1 2 (47) i=j {ki }.{σi } Then. this can be written as Hee = 1 2 k1 σ1 .6 Electrons in a periodic potential Eigen-states of a periodic Hamiltonian are the Bloch states which are represented as ψkn (r) = eik·r ukn (r) (45) where ukn (r) has the same periodicity as V (r). Let us assume that the bands are well separated and we are interested in the lowest band only. the overlap matrix element is given by k1 σ1 . k2 σ2 | e2 |k4 σ4 . The Hamiltonian in the momentum space can be written as H= ǫk c† ckσ kσ kσ (46) 5.5. k2 σ2 | e2 |k4 σ4 . the second quantized Hamiltonian can be written as H= ˆ where p = −i∇r dd ra† (r) p2 ˆ + V (r) a(r) 2m (44) 5. k3 σ3 |ri − rj | = = = eik4 ·r eik3 ·r e−ik2 ·r e2 · √ · √ δ σ1 σ4 δ σ2 σ3 d r d r √ · √ · |r − r′ | V V V V e2 δ σ1 σ4 δ σ2 σ3 ′ ′ d3 r d3 r′ e−i(k1 +k2 −k3 −k4 )·r e−i(k1 −k4 )·(r−r ) V2 |r − r′ | e2 δ σ1 σ4 δ σ2 σ3 ′ d3 ρ e−i(k1 −k4 )·ρ d3 r′ e−i(k1 +k2 −k3 −k4 )·r V2 ρ 3 −ik1 ·r 3 ′e ′ ′ = = δ σ1 σ4 δ σ2 σ3 V2 δ σ1 σ4 δ σ2 σ3 δ(k1 + k2 − k3 − k4 ) V 7 Change of variable: r−r′ =ρ e2 × V δ(k1 + k2 − k3 − k4 ) × (k1 − k4 )2 V δ(k1 +k2 −k3 −k4 ) (49) .

σ ′ 1 q2 ck′ σ′ ckσ (50) This interaction of two particles via Coulomb interaction is shown in the Feynman diagram in ﬁg. It is easy to see that this set of states forms an orthogonal basis. Note that for q = 0. convenient to work in the local basis that corresponds to the atomic orbital states of the isolated ion. Thus. the matrix element diverges but this term in a lattice is cancelled by the uniform background of positive ionic charge.8. 1. we say that the orbitals are tightly bound to the lattice centers. Wannier state localized at site Ri is deﬁned as 1 |ψi = √ N e−ik·Ri |ψk (51) k where |ψk ’s are the Bloch states. It is thus. We see that the Coulomb interaction conserves the total momentum. Thus.k′ . Let’s assume that the ”physical extent” of such orbitals is smaller than the inter-atomic spacing. This model is known as Jellium model.8 5.σ. invertng (51) gives us 1 c† = √ kσ N eik·Ri c† iσ i (54) 8 . In such cases.Figure 1: Feynman diagram depicting the interaction of two particles via Coulomb interaction. 5. Hee = e2 2 † c† (k+q)σ c(k′ −q)σ ′ k. |r = This gives us c† (r) = σ i ∗ ψi (r)c† iσ i ψi |r |ψi (52) (53) Similarly.1 Tight Binding Model Wannier States Suppose we have atomic orbitals localized at atomic sites in a lattice.q.

1 N k ǫk c† ckσ = kσ kσ 1 N ij kσ eik·(Ri −Rj ) ǫk c† cjσ ≡ iσ tij c† cjσ iσ ijσ (55) eik·(Ri −Rj ) ǫk is known as hopping amplitude for the electron to go from site i to 9 . Bloch Hamiltonian (46) in this basis becomes H= where tij = site j.Thus.