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NEW PARTNERS FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN SERVICE DELIVERY: SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN ADDIS ABABA

15th of February 2007

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the, Degree of Master of Science in Urban Management at the University of Technology, Berlin

Statement of Authenticity
This thesis contains no material which has been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma in any institution and to the best of my knowledge and belief, the research contains no material previously published or written by another person, except where due reference has been made in the text of the thesis.

Selamawit Alem 15th February, 2006

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First of all I would like to extend my thanks to my advisors Professor Peter Herrle and Dr. Sonia Nebel for their constant encouragement. Secondly, I would like to extend my thanks to all the staff of Urban Management Studies Department. My special thanks goes to Ms Bettina Hamman for her understanding and friendly assistance to make my stay with Technical University of Berlin comfortable. My thanks also go to Mr Guenter Meinert and Mr Rene Hohmann of GTZ, at Eshborne. Their consultation and assistance helped me very much in carrying out this study. I am very grateful to all my informants who are working for City Sanitation, Beautification and Park Development Agency, officials at Addis Ketema Sub City, Kebele 13/15, Ministry of Federal Affairs, Addis Ababa City Government and community and Idir leaders at Kebele 13/15 (Addis Ketema Sub-city) for sharing their experiences and knowledge. I would like to express my gratitude to DAAD for financing my study in Germany and my organisation, Urban Development Capacity Building Office and Ato Gutema Bulcha for granting me a study leave. My heartfelt thanks also go to Ato Yaheya Aman for his support and inspiration during my study. My special thanks and heartfelt gratitude go to Dr. Alexander Wegener for his unreserved assistance and advice and Dr. Seble Mengesha and W/ro Tsion Yenenehe for their untiring support for making my stay in Berlin comfortable. Finally I would like to thank my mother and other family members for their support and encouragement. My special thanks and appreciation go to my sister Genet Alem for her steady support and encouragement. Finally, my humble gratitude goes to the Almighty God for blessing me with health and life opportunities including the opportunity for this study. III

ABBREVATIONS
AACG AAEPA CBO EPA FDRE MOFED FEDB FGE NGO MSSE MSW MOFA SBPDA TIDO UNIDO USD Addis Ababa City Government Addis Ababa Environment Protection Agency Community Based Organisation Environment Protection Authority of Ethiopia Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Ministry of Finance and Economic Development of Ethiopia Finance and Economic Development Bureau Federal Government Ethiopia NGOs Governmental Organisation Micro and Small Scale Enterprises Municipal Solid Waste Management Ministry of Federal Affairs Sanitation Beautification and Park Development Agency Trade and Industrial Development Office United Nations Environmental Program Division of Industry United State Dollar

IV

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ABBREVATIONS ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION III IV VIII 1

1.1 CHALLENGES OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT WITH SPECIAL REGARD TO ADDIS ABABA 1 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT AND HYPOTHESIS 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1.4 SCOPE, LIMITATION AND RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY 1.5 ORGANISATION OF THE STUDY CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 2.1. INTRODUCTION 2.2. GOVERNANCE OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTE SERVICE RESOURCE MOBILISATION AND ALLOCATION THE ECONOMICS OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ACTORS AND PARTNERS IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 4 5 6 7 9 9 10 12 13 14 15 16 20 20

2.3 SUMMARY CBOS IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 3.1 INTRODUCTION 3.2 LEVEL, TYPES AND ORGANISATION OF CBOS PARTICIPATION IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 3.3 3.4 3.5 LESSONS FROM CBOS INVOLVEMENT IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT CBOS IN ETHIOPIA SUMMARY

21 23 24 25 27 27 27 28 32 33 33

METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH 4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.2 RESEARCH AREA 4.3 DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS 4.4 RELIABILITY, VALIDITY AND GENERALIZATION 4.5 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS 4.6 LIMITATIONS

DISCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS OF THE STUDY AREA 5.1 INTRODUCTION 5.2 BACKGROUND INFORMATION ABOUT THE STUDY AREA 5.2.1 THE COUNTRYS PROFILE 5.2.2 URBANISATION IN ETHIOPIA 5.2.3 ADDIS ABABA CITY 5.3 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN ADDIS ABABA 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 TRENDS OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT LEGAL INSTRUMENTS COMPOSITION, VOLUME AND SOURCE OF SOLID WASTE ORGANISATION OF THE SERVICE AND PLANNING

36 36 37 37 38 39 46 47 48 50 55 57 78 81 81 82 82 83 83 84 85 87 88 88 90 91 1

5.3.5 ACTORS OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 5.4 SUMMARY

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 6.1 INTRODUCTION 6.2 SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS 6.2.1 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENT 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.2.4 6.2.5 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 LEGAL INSTRUMENTS RESOURCE MOBILISATION PLANNING PARTICIPATION THEORY VS. FINDINGS CONCLUSION RECOMMENDATIONS FURTHER STUDY

REFERENCE ANNEXES

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LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 1: ACTORS OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT TABLE 2: STATUS AND NUMBERS OF INFORMANTS FORM PUBLIC INSTITUTES TABLE 3: COMPOSITION OF SOLID WASTES IN ADDIS ABABA TABLE 4: ADDIS KETEMA SUB-CITY HUMAN RESOURCE TABLE 5: ADDIS KETEMA SUB-CITY CONTAINER AVAILABILITY TABLE 6: ADDIS KETEMA SUB-CITY TRANSPORTATION TRUCK TABLE 7: BUDGET ALLOCATION IN 2004/05 BUDGET YEAR - ADDIS KETEMA SUB-CITY TABLE 8: HUMAN RESOURCE - SBPDA TABLE 9: SELECTED IDIRS: BASIC INFORMATION TABLE 10: NGOS INDIRECTLY INVOLVED IN SWM IN ADDIS ABABA 17 30 51 59 60 60 61 66 74 78

LIST OF BOXES
BOX 1: GOVERNANCE BOX 2: SUMMARY OF CBOS PARTICIPATION IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT BOX 3: ORGANISATIONAL MODELS OF CBOS PARTICIPATION IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT BOX 4: A CASE OF GURAGE PEOPLES SELF HELP AND DEVELOPMENT (GPSDO) BOX 5: SUMMARY OF THE PROVISIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY OF ETHIOPIA REGARDING SANITATION SERVICE BOX 6: SUMMARY OF ADDIS ABABA CITY WASTE MANAGEMENT, COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL REGULATION 50 49 23 26 11 22

BOX 7: SUMMARY OF OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES OF SWM ADDIS ABABA CITY 86

LIST OF FIGURES AND GRAPHS


FIGURE 1: RESEARCH PROCESS FIGURE 2: MAP OF FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF ETHIOPIA FIGURE 3 MAP OF ADDIS ABABA CITY FIGURE 4: MAP OF ADDIS KETEMA SUB CITY FIGURE 5: ADDIS ABABA SOLID WASTE ORGANISATION CHART 35 38 42 45 57

GRAPH 1: AACG VS SPPDA EXPENDITURE: 2003/04 TO 2004/05 BUDGET YEAR

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ABSTRACT
Solid Waste Management Service is one of the major city services that city governments are expected to provide their residents. However, continuous neglect, inappropriate organisation, inadequate financing, lack of human resource and low community participation have hindered the effectiveness of the service delivery in developing countries, specially in Sub-Saharan African countries like Ethiopia. This study was conducted so as to investigate this serious problem and find out the possible solutions. The required data were gathered through document inspection, interview and field survey. A total of 45 subjects were involved in the study. In addition, informal discussions were held with seven community leaders and other five business men living in the study area. The study reviews the solid waste management system in Addis Ababa city, particularly in Addis Ketema Sub-city, Kebele 13/15. It tries to investigate the roles and responsibilities of the actors, the service providers, service users and partners that are involved in the solid waste management. The findings of the study show that the solid waste management in Addis Ababa specifically in Addis Ketema Sub-city, Kebele 13/15 has not been given due attention. Though an attempt has been made towards reforming solid waste management service, its effectiveness is still influenced by some challenges associated with the legal and policy framework and problems related to sound administration of the service. The study also has come up with the possibilities of involving CBOs in solid waste management service as partners of local governments. The findings have indicated that CBOs can play important roles particularly in educating, raising the awareness, and mobilising the communitys labour and financial contribution for the improvement of the service.

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Challenges of Solid Waste Management with Special Regard to Addis Ababa
In many developing countries solid waste management has become a serious challenge. High urbanization rates and changes in the life styles and steady rise in living standards have resulted in the increase of solid waste both in type and volume. Some studies, for example, Palcyzynski (2002)p;2, estimated that with the existing level of urbanization in developing countries, there would be two fold increase of solid waste generation in the current decade. More serious threat is the disposal of this waste. According to the report by UNIDO (2006), i.e. United Nations Environmental Program Division of Industry, Technology and Economics, in most African cities on average only 50% of the total generated solid waste is collected. Nevertheless, 95% of the collected waste is indiscriminately thrown away at land fill sites without proper measures to control silts or hazardous gas emission. The open damping sites are excellent breeding places for rodents and insects which can cause or transmit some deadly diseases. Moreover, as the existing damping sites are filled quickly, finding other new sites becomes more and more difficult. Hence, the cost of disposing solid waste increases. This in turn brings about additional strain on the already marginal budgets of local authorities (UNIDO, 2006). Basically, waste management is the responsibility of government or municipalities. Nevertheless, small private groups/individuals are seen involved in the work. Municipalities carry out the solid waste management service under legally established local authorities, but it is costly and relatively unaffordable for the majority of the citizens in the overcrowded slums. On the other hand, the small private groups and individuals that operate informally base their livelihoods on collecting, separating, recycling and selling of wastes (UNIDO, 2006).

In fact, to improve the effectiveness of solid waste management, the government has tried to decentralize waste management responsibilities to local authorities. However, Palcyzynski (2002), reported that lack of sufficient budget, limited investment and administrative weakness have hindered the municipalities not to discharge their responsibilities as expected. The study further revealed that direct municipal charges for waste disposal are relatively new experiences that are not widely practiced. In many African cities, dwellers pay taxes directly to central governments coffers. The central governments in turn allocate budget to regional governments. Again, the regional governments distribute the budget to local administrative authorities. This leads to low budget allocation to solid waste management, which in turn causes inefficiency in its accomplishment. For example, some inappropriately organized, under staffed and under financed local governments of sub-Saharan African countries have given up providing the service to the whole areas of cities long time ago (Palczynski, 2002:vi). The condition in Addis Ababa also seems to be similar to most African cities. For instance, SBPDA (2005) reported that the daily solid waste generation of the city is about 2253m3. The Agency also estimated that the solid waste generation increases on average by 3.9% annually. Based on this assumption, by the year 2013, the daily waste generation of city will reach 2828m3. Regarding the waste collection capacity, the Agencys report indicated that the city administration collected only about 65%. This suggests that unless actions are taken to build up the city administration capacity and involve some other capable partners, the problem will become worse. SBPDA officials and technicians of the sub- cities SBPDA team also remarked that the issue has not yet received considerable attention. Their reports show that solid waste management service has been affected by insufficient human resource and low technical capacity. For example, among 1894 employees of the Agency, only 39 are professionals (see table 5). Besides, a total of 991 communal bins for solid waste are placed at central places, i.e., one bin on average for about 3835 people (see table6). 2

On the other hand, until recent time, the City Government is the sole formal solid waste management service provider. It is starting from 2004, that the City Government has involved micro and small scale enterprises (MSSEs) in door to door collection and disposal of solid wastes. The other worth mentioning point is that, till one year ago apart from indirect taxes that are imposed on some service providing organizations such as hotels, restaurants, shops, etc. and factories, the service was delivered to all dwellers free of charge. Though the Citys waste management and collection Regulation No 13/2004 states that anyone receiving sanitation service should pay sanitation fee, standardized charge determination practice and systems are not yet institutionalized. What is worse, the City has only one 40 years- old landfill site which is surrounded by residences. Moreover, this landfill does not have separate disposal area for hazardous wastes and is not protected for leaching and gas emissions. Concerned environmental authorities and the residents are voicing their fear for environmental pollution and spread of related diseases. Due to the seriousness of the problem, one elementary school neighbouring this disposal site has been closed recently1. The revised master plan of the City proposes three additional landfill sites, but because of some other environmental problems, only one site is found appropriate. Although some attempts have been made, the problem has not been solved, rather it seems aggravated. There may no single option to overcome the problems of solid waste management across cities, as the composition of wastes varies from place to place depending on the commercial manufacturing and service sector activities. The attitudes and capacities of people towards waste generation and disposition can also be different. Thus, its vital for the City Government to develop its own policy and approach to waste management services. In fact, the City Government and its local authorities are primarily responsible for solid waste management. And their effectiveness depends on their existing legal framework, environmental policy, institutional arrangement and organization of the

1 The information is taken from the comment of Addis Ababa City Care taker Administration Mayor.

service. In addition, institutional capacity, use of modern management systems and appropriate technology are claimed in improving the service delivery (UNIDO, 2006). However, unless the City Government and the local authorities involve concerned NGOs and CBOs and work hand in hand with them, their attempts of improving waste management service might not be successful. Hence, the researcher bases this study on the above claims and tries to find out if CBOs specifically Idirs could be capable partners in the management of solid waste disposition in Addis Ababa.

1.2 Problem Statement and Hypothesis


The ever increasing volume and composition of solid waste in Addis Ababa has become a serious problem that should be given due attention by the residents, environmental organizations and government bodies. Several campaigns, programmes and projects have been initiated to alleviate this problem. Nevertheless, their effort failed to yield any sustainable solution to the problem. The factors for the failure might be many. But the major ones are: inability of both government and NGOs government waste managing projects to involve CBOs and the informal sector operators, the absence of well developed private sectors and strong civil society that supplement the effect, and incapability of most City dwellers to pay cost recovery service charge. Hence, this problem seems to be connected with lack of implementing waste management policy, lack of sound institutional organization, inadequate budget allocation and poor utilization of human resource. On the other hand, the City consists of a number of capable Community Based Organizations that can play important role in providing solid waste service. These CBOs are established to solve socio- economic problems of their members with no discrimination in ethnicity, religion, gender and economic background. They have cumulative capital and rich human resources. Therefore, with workable environmental policy and effective institutional capacity building, it might be possible to involve these organisations in solid waste management services.

Based on this assumption, the researcher develops these hypotheses. i. Integrating the governmental and NGOs-governmental organizations might help to alleviate the problems of solid waste management service. ii. CBOs particularly, Idirs could be strong partners in solid waste management service.

1.3 Objectives of the Study


The major purpose of this study is to find out whether CBOs could contribute to the management of solid waste service in Addis Ababa. It also tries to investigate the existing legal framework, relevant policies, capacity and characteristics of the stakeholders. In addition, the study attempts to identify the challenges of and opportunities for providing solid waste management services. The study specifically aims at: Identifying the types, characteristics and capacity of both formal and informal solid waste management service giving sectors in Addis Ababa; Exploring if Idirs2 can be potential partners in solving the problem of solid waste management service in Addis Ababa. In line with these, the study attempts to address the following research questions: How is solid waste management service managed in Addis Ababa? What organizations or groups are currently involved in solid waste management tasks? Is there any legal framework or environmental policy for solid waste management service? Are Idirs taking part in solid waste management services? What potential capacities can Idirs have in solid waste management service?

Idir is one type of local community based organisation that exists all over Ethiopia.

1.4 Scope, Limitation and Relevance of the Study Scope of the Study
There are some other CBOs that can engage themselves in the delivery of solid waste management services in Addis Ababa. For example, youth and women associations and different school clubs can contribute a lot if they are integrated with projects and programmes of solid waste management services. However, this study is restricted only to investigating the possible roles and contributions of Idirs to solid waste management service in Addis Ababa. As Idirs have longer age, broader community base and wider acceptance as compared to other CBOs in Addis Ababa, this research deals with the study of their potential in solid waste management activity.

Limitation of the Study


Addis Ababa City comprises 10 sub- cities that consist of about 240 Kebele. But the researcher has selected Kebele 13/15 from Addis Ketema sub-city. Hence, the samples may not by any means represent the whole population of the City. Due to time constraint other sub-cities and the remaining Kebeles in the sample sub- city are not included in the study. Nevertheless, the chosen Kebele is one of the oldest slums. It is highly overcrowded, poor and neglected localities. It is also neighboring Kebeles which share more or less some common features such as low economic status and informality. All these features contribute a lot to the seriousness of the problem of solid waste management in the areas. These Kebele, on the other hand, have large number of resourceful Idirs that have the potential to work with the local authorities. These particular samples, therefore, are found to be appropriate for this study. The study would have been more comprehensive if it had incorporated more areas and made a kind of comparative study between the newly established residences and the oldest ones. Thus, the limitations of applicability of the study need to be taken into account.

Relevance of the Study


The findings of this research are intended to have the following contributions: 1. Helping the City Government and Local Authorities to review their Environmental polices and integrate their efforts with capable CBOs so at to effectively manage solid waste disposition in Addis Ababa. 2. Motivating Idirs to consider some other social services they can provide rather than only performing funeral ceremonies and providing financial supports to their members during condolence. This is to say that the outcomes of the research may assist Idirs to improve and update their regulations and become involved in the management of solid waste service. 3. Initiating interested NGOs to support Idirs so that they will be able to play important roles in providing services to do away with solid wastes in Addis Ababa. 4. Encouraging other interested individuals to carry out further research in the area. Working Definition Solid Waste is used as an equivalent word to municipal solid waste and it constitutes all solid waste generated in an area except industrial and agricultural wastes. Sometimes includes construction and demolition debris and other special wastes the may enter the municipal waste stream. Generally excludes hazardous wastes except to the extent that they enter the municipal waste stream (ISWA, 2006).

1.5 Organisation of the Study


The study is organised into six parts. Chapter one is the introduction part. This chapter constiute the discussion of the challenges of solid waste in the developing country with particular reference to Addis Ababa city, the presentation of the problem statement and the hypothesis of the study and the scope and limitation and relevance of the study. The second chapter discuss the conseptual framework on which the study is framed. CBOs participation 7

in solid waste management is discussed in chapter three. Chapter four is devoted to the discussion of methodological approach. Chapter five constitutes the discussion and analysis of the study findings grouped in five parts. In chapter five, first the history of solid waste management in Addis Ababa is discussed. Secondly, legal instruments governing the service and the relationship between the actors is briefely reviewed. Thirdly, the composition, volume and source of solid waste management in the city is discussed followed by the discussion of the organisation and planning of the service in the fourth part. Then the actors which are directly and indirectly involved in the solid waste management service of the city are analysed classified in groups of service providers, service users and partner organisations.

CHAPTER TWO
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
This chapter presents the discussion of important concepts such as the concept of governance, the governance of solid waste management, and the actors and partners involved in solid waste management.

2.1. Introduction
Several studies conducted on solid waste management services in the cities of developing countries showed that the problem of ineffective and inefficient solid waste management has mostly been associated with the governance capacity of the local governments. The findings of the studies, for example, mainly indicate that in most African cities: waste management was inadequately funded and costs were not recovered, inefficient waste collection methods were adopted, collection was insufficient, inappropriate disposal systems have been practiced, there were no specific legislations and regulatory initiatives to manage waste and the coverage of the

disposition and to reduce hazardous wastes, privatisation systems are copied from more advanced countries but could not be practical (Palczynski, 2006:iv) According to 1990s decentralisation and restructuring move, those developing countries were able to transfer the responsibility of service delivery to local governments. The decentralisation and restructuring has increased the participation of NGOs. It also raised the awareness and involvement of the public concerning issues related to environment and solid waste management. However, challenges such as lack of cooperation between

different governmental and NGOs-governmental organisations, inadequate investment and budget, ineffective implementation capacity and limited involvement of the civil society have affected the achievements (UNHSP, 2003; Tannerfeldt, 2006).

In fact, in the past few decades, several projects aimed at overcoming solid waste management problems of developing countries, (e.g. in Egypt and Brazil) had been developed and implemented. Those projects were the result of cooperative effort of governmental agencies and NGOs, or in some cases the result of the communities own initiatives. Though the degree of the success of the projects varied, the experiments brought valuable lessons that led to the development of different approaches to solid waste management services. Among the developed approaches, integrated solid waste management approach has become the commonly implemented one. The experiments, regarding solid waste management, on the other hand, revealed that a uniform implementation system could not be developed. This is because the differences in the nature and volume of wastes, the characteristics of the actors and partners, the practice and attitude of the society towards waste management demands tailored solutions (Herrle P. et al, 2001).

2.2. Governance of Solid Waste Management


Management of solid waste involves the interaction between service providers and users including public institutes, formal and informal private sector organisations, CBOs, NGOsgovernmental organisations and international donors (Schbeler and et al, 1996:20-24). Solid waste management is one of the public service areas where effectiveness can be easily gauged, even by naked eyes. As the main responsibility for solid waste service delivery ultimately rests on the public sector, its legitimacy, accountability, managerial and organisational capacity and the overall legal and policy frame work affects the effectiveness of the service. In addition, transparent decision making and participatory process has significant contribution on the efficiency and effectiveness of the public sector. Moreover, the management of this service involves dealing with actors having conflicting interests and most of the time contradictory and politically sensitive economic and social objectives. For example, efficiency in service delivery presupposes cost recovery and 10

efficient use of resources while achieving efficiency might mean in the other side disregarding equity objective. Everyone may agree with the principle of sustainability and protecting the environment for the future generation. However, most may not be willing to bear the financial consequences. These kinds of conflicting interests occur at every phase of the cycle of solid waste management: waste generation, separation, collection, treatment and disposal phases. Coming up with the system that accommodates the interest of all actors in sustainable manner requires understanding of the organisation of the services and identification of the actors together with their roles and interests (motivation). Thus, the examination of the governance of solid waste management should look at least at management of the service, resources mobilisation and allocation, the economic aspect of the service and the actors and partners interacting in the system. Box 1: Governance The term governance describes the multi dimensional and complex relationship that exists between government, range of stakeholders and citizens in a given country. Unlike government, which is all about action, governance is a concept that describes a process and it comprises the mechanisms, processes and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations and mediate their differences (UNDP, 1997: 2-3). Placed at the centre of the governance relationship, the State plays a leading role steering the process, making final decisions on priorities, defining objectives and enforcing plans, polices and rules and regulations (Pierre and et al, 2000: 4). The government it self constitutes national, state and local levels, depending on the extent of decentralisation that a country has adopted, backed by laws, legislations and regulations, the tiers of the government interact and compete for resource accesses. Usually, lots of duties and responsibilities are assigned to the lower tiers of government, but with inadequate resources. Therefore, the immediate solution for their problems is either to reduce the quality and quantity of services or to increase service charges. This measure has an implication on the overall governance process (Onibokum 1999:5).

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2.2.1 Management of Solid Waste Service


Solid waste management in urban area is complex activity that involves the collection, transfer, treatment, recycling, resource recovery, and disposal of solid waste generated in a city. The complexity of the service and the requirement of high level of organisational, technical and managerial capacity make it difficult to be handled by local governments single handed. Therefore effective service delivery requires cooperation between numerous stakeholders in both the private and public sectors. For successful operation, it is advisable to integrate stakeholders from the very beginning of the management phase goal setting (Bernstein, 2004; UNDP, 1999). Likewise, effectiveness of solid waste management service is dependant on sustainability of the management of the services. Sustainability in its turn depends, among other, on the way the management of the service is planned; the institutional and financial capacity of the service providers and supporting organisations; the choice and use of technology; the private sector involvement; and community participation. Provision of effective and sustainable solid waste management service requires going even further to formulation of specific objectives and implementation of appropriate measures regarding political, institutional, social, financial, economic and technical aspects of the service (World Bank, 2006; Schbeler and et al, 1996: 27-49). Duties and responsibilities of solid waste management service are often discharged by municipalities, while tasks such as formulating legal and policy framework, setting standards and establishing the control and monitoring indicators are carried out at the national level. Frequently sighted challenges of decentralisation such as conflicts of

interests and duplication of tasks and waste of resources could be mitigated through clear definition of roles, responsibilities, legal obligations and jurisdictions. This not only serves to improve the effectiveness of the service provider, but also significantly enhances the enforcement capacity of the local governments and maximises the satisfaction of service receivers (World Bank, 2006).

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In reality, solid waste management involves not only local governments but also wide range of actors: different public institutes which are indirectly involved in service delivery, partner NGOs-governmental organisations, civil societies and direct service users such as households and different business organisations. Thus, smooth functioning of the service requires the cooperation and coordination among all actors, partners and service users. The other worth mentioning point is Institutional competence. The organisational structure, internal procedures, rules, regulations and the capability of the human resources of the public sector together with the above mentioned external variables determines the capacity of the public sector to deliver the service with the expected quality, quantity and coverage (UN-DESA, 2003).

2.2.2 Resource Mobilisation and Allocation


Resource mobilisation for solid waste management can be looked at least from two dimensions- financing the service and procuring partnerships among the diverse groups concerned in the management of the service. Likewise, financing of solid waste

management also has two aspects i.e. financing the initial investment and covering the operation and maintenance cost. The investment cost comprises costs associated with establishing the organisation, construction of disposal and treatment sites, transfer facilities and the purchase of vehicles and machineries. The operation and maintenance cost includes costs such as salaries, allowances and other overhead expenses associated with the smooth running of the collection, treatment and disposal facilities and machineries. The main financier of the initial investment and the operation and maintenance costs is the public sector. However, in places where privatisation is well practiced the private sector has also paid for acquisition and maintenance of facilities and machineries. Other sources of investment are loan, donation and user voluntary contributions (UN 2003, Herrle and et al, 2005:84, UN 2005). Resources for covering the initial investment and paying the running cost are, at least theoretically, mobilised from sources such as direct service charges, indirect taxes, polluters fee etc. The use of the options depends on the political, socio-economic and 13

cultural conditions of a given country. However, hundred percent cost covering is rarely possible. In addition, cost recovery is highly dependant first on determination of the real costs of the service, through proper use of financial management instruments, employing appropriate budgeting mechanisms, and controlling of accounts and secondly on the collection ability of the responsible body (Palczynski 2002:10-15 ; Herrle and et al, 2005:41, UN 2005). In developing countries, full cost covering is impossible firstly because of the inability of local governments to determine the actual cost of the service. Secondly, even if they are able to come up with an estimated cost, the majority of the populations are too poor to pay even the cost incurred for collection leave alone the full management costs. The collection weakness of the local government is another impediment. Besides, in some cases, unethical conduct, lack of transparency and failure to deliver standardised service erode the willingness of the users to pay (Berstein, 2004; Onibokum, 1999:5).

2.2.3 The Economics of Solid Waste Management


Solid waste management has a far-reaching impact on the urban development and overall economy. As urban economy grows so do industries of different sizes and other business grow. Increase in volume and types of waste (including toxic and other hazardous waste) demands fast removal, treatment and safe disposition. This costs a lot. However, failure to deliver the service would adversely affect citizens health, which leads to an increase in the health service expense as well as a decrease in the peoples productivity. High solid waste management cost, in the other side, is again a burden on the economy (Cointreau, 2004:3). The local government cannot deny the fact that solid waste services should be provided even if the community is unable to pay for the service received. Environmental concern is also not a matter of luxury though it is a very expensive undertaking. Most of all, many are not happy to pay a service charge covering costs constituting collection as well as environmental protection. Privatisation is one of the favourite options used for the purpose of efficiency as well as effectiveness. It is proved being helpful in many places. Private firms achieve efficiency, 14

among other, using modern equipments and less labour. This affects many municipal employees and poor people whose lively hood is completely dependant on collecting and picking wastes. Thus, care is to be taken when developing economic objectives maintaining balance between economic and income generation and employment creation objectives (Palczynski 2002: op cit; Cointreau, 2004:3). An alternative suggestion could be reduction of waste generation, minimizing operational cost but enhancing efficient utilisation (Bernstein, 2004, and Schbeler and et al, 1996).

2.2.4 Actors and Partners in Solid Waste Management


Municipal solid waste management concerns individuals, community groups, government and NGOs government organisations and institutions as service users, service providers, intermediaries, regulators and partners. Accordingly, the group of service users includes households, small and big business organisations (e.g. hotels, restaurants, and supermarkets), industries and other service providers (e.g. hospitals and schools). Local governments are classified as service providers while the national government is the body that embraces institutions and organisations responsible for formulating institutional and legal framework of municipal solid waste management services. It is also responsible for the provision of assistance in case of cross-jurisdictional problems. Both formal and informal private sector actors are also considered as actual or potential service suppliers. The NGOs governmental organisations are described as bodies that are operating between the private and the governmental realms. External supporting agencies are bilateral and multilateral international agencies involved in solid waste management issues as part of urban management or related programmes (Schbeler and et al, 1996). Most of the time, the interests of the two groups i.e. service users and service providers are conflicting. The service suppliers are interested in covering their cost while the service users want to get the service with low cost. Nonetheless, smooth running of the service and optimisation of the interests of both parties could be achieved only through working together and streamlining roles and responsibilities (World Bank, 2006). The summary of the actors their characteristics, roles, interests and capacities are summarised in Table1 below. 15

2.3 Summary
Solid waste management service in African cities is ineffective and inefficient due to problems associated with the capacity of local governments. Though, decentralisation and privatisation are being viable solutions in many cases, in Africa ill conceive privatisation hinders the results. Governance is a concept which describes the multidimensional relationship existing between government bodies, formal and informal stakeholders, the community as individual and represented by different formal and informal structures such as CBOs, associations, unions etc,. The concept of governance also describes the way citizens as individuals and in groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations and mediate their differences (UNHSP, 2002). Governance of solid waste management describes the interaction between range of actors grouped into service providers, users, and partner organisations. The interests and the objectives of the actors as well as the partner organisations are mostly conflicting. Governance of the service is also about how the service is managed, resources are mobilised and allocated and how the economic interests are handled. Thus, efficient and effective service delivery depends on managerial and organisational efficiency, accountability, legitimacy and responsiveness of the public sector. Furthermore,

transparent and participatory decision making processes are required to achieve sustainable results.

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Table 1: Actors of Solid Waste Management


ACTORS CHARACTERSTICS Service Providers Local Governments Different in human, financial and institutional capacity Discharging responsibility Financial viability Political interest User satisfaction Cost reduction Formulation, issuance and enforcement of by laws Enforcement of standards Development and implementation of user guidelines for safe collection, treatment and disposal of wastes Stakeholders mobilisation Resource mobilisation Direct service delivery Collection of service charges/taxes Legitimacy Enforcement right Financial, human and institutional capacity INTEREST/MOTIVATION Role Capacity

National Government

A highest level of authority in a country

Citizen health Sustainable development Political interest Cost Reduction

Formulation of policy and legal framework Formulation and follow up of the implementation of standards for safe collection, treatment and disposal of wastes Building the capacity of local governments Allocation of budget and other resources Involving in the service delivery

Legitimacy Enforcement right Financial, human and institutional capacity

Formal Private Sector

Constitutes large, small and micro enterprises

High return on investment Cost reduction

Involve in solid waste collection, transporting, treatment and disposal tasks Introduction of innovative and cost reduction approaches Door to door waste collection and waste picking Waste separation Recycling

Technical know how Financial capacity

Informal Sector

Disorganised and have very low financial capacity

Mainly works for earning lively hood

Provide service at low service charge Provide employment

ACTORS Service Users

CHARACTERSTICS

INTEREST/MOTIVATION

Role

Capacity

House holds

Includes low, middle and high income neighbourhoods

Mainly concerned about removal of solid waste from immediate neighbourhood Interested to get service with low service charge

Dispose waste in proper places at appropriate time Keep the neighbourhood clean Pay service charges or taxes

Constitutes small, medium and large sized industries The type and volume of waste produced is largely varied between industries

Industries

Interested to get efficient service at lower cost Interested to reduce treatment cost

Reduction of pollutant wastes Contribute to the improvement of waste management service through financing researches and innovations Pay service charges or taxes

Contribute for cost reduction via reduction of wastes Participate in service delivery via financial and labour contribution Contribute to the improvement of the service through participating in opinion surrey and other participatory initiatives Financial resources Technical know how

Other business and organisations

Includes shops, hotels, restaurants, and other small and big business and offices

Efficient service Low service charge

Reduce waste Contribute to the effectiveness of the service through reduction of wastes and use of appropriate storing materials

Financial capacity Technical know how

CHARACTERSTICS ACTORS Partner Organisations


Other business and organisations

INTEREST/MOTIVATION

Role

Capacity

NGOs

Includes shops, hotels, restaurants, and other small and big business and offices Includes organisations involved in development works, humanitarian activity and environmental protection advocacy tasks

Efficient service Low service charge

Reduce waste Contribute to the effectiveness of the service through reduction of wastes and use of appropriate storing materials

Financial capacity Technical know how

Environmental protection Equitable service delivery Sustainable development Community health related interests

Advocacy of environmental protection related issues Promotion of sustainable development agenda Advocacy of equitable distribution of resources and services

Technical know how Financial capacity Training experience

CBOs

Constitutes reach, medium and low income neighbourhood CBOs Objectives varied according to the priority of their members

Improved neighbourhood services Healthy environment Fair service charge Income generation Employment creation

Controlling neighbourhood cleanness Monitoring collection of solid waste services Collecting service charges Representing the community Maintaining contact between local government offices and the community Managing primary services Educating the community

Organised human resource financial capacity Community trust and acceptance

Reference: own made

CHAPTER THREE
CBOs IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
3.1 Introduction
In developing countries, local governments alone may lack financial, human and technical resources to provide basic services to the entire urban residents. As a result, the poor parts of the cities might be excluded from getting basic services like clean water supply, waste management services and road construction. Nevertheless, it is not only the poor area that has born the burnt of the public sector ineptness and misconduct, the middle and reach areas are also suffer from undependable schedule and poor service. One approach that has been found useful in addressing the challenges is procuring the cooperation of the community via Community Based Organisations CBOs (Herrle and et. el, 2006:4-6 Onibokun, 1999:5). The CBOs are a very important existing capacity that almost all developing countries have in common. More importantly, approaching the challenges through the already existing or newly organised CBOs could have a leverage of strengthening stakeholders and local institutions capacities, developing ownership and increasing commitment (FAO, 2006). Regarding solid waste management, in addition to the above stated advantages, approaching CBOs is preferred because an individual household actor could achieve best by participating in survey, election, or payment of service charges. In contrast, significant contribution in direct management of the services and attracting local governments attention to the problem of the community are possible only when the people organise themselves in self-help groups or in CBOs. Experiences have shown that CBOs working in solid waste management services are established by development organisations or local governments sometimes for income generation and job opportunities, or sometimes purely for improving the effectiveness of the service delivery. In some cases the poor organise themselves to impose collective pressure on local governments to improve their plight. Whereas the CBOs in the middle 20

and high income localities are mostly organised to push or influence the local governments to improve the already existing services or to establish their own primary waste collection system where there isnt any peripheral areas (Anschutz, 2006:24). The characteristics and nature of these CBOs greatly vary from country to country and from rural to urban areas. They could be religious organisations, solely ethnical or clan based, gender related, profession related or multipurpose aiming at achieving certain objectives (FAO, 2006). There might not be single definition that describes community-based organisations (CBOs). Most of the literatures in this area describe these organisations based on their activities and involvements. Some people call them grass root organisations while some others call them indigenous organisations or community self-help associations etc. Whatever name they are given and how invisible they are for governments and development agencies working in developing countries, these organisations are numerous and formally or informally functional all over Africa (Onibokun, 1999). In rural Africa, CBOs are the permanent features and main sources of support in time of needs and mediators in time of conflicts for centuries. In urban areas these organisations are able to adapt to the context and works to alleviate socio-economic problems of the society. Now a day, in Africa, these organizations are playing active roles in the

administration of justice, maintenance of laws and orders, peace-keeping, provision of security and conflict resolution (Olowu and et. al., 2006:6) filling the gap left open by weak, ineffective and inefficient local governments.

3.2 Level, Types and Organisation of CBOs Participation in Solid Waste Management
Levels and Types of CBOs Participation CBOs participation in solid waste management could vary from low to high level depending on their legitimacy, institutional capacity, and the communitys trust in them. At minimum, CBOs roles could be limited to raising the awareness of the community about appropriate waste handling and disposal methods, communicating the concern of the neighbourhood to the local government and mobilising 21

the society to participate in a periodic neighbourhood cleaning campaign. At best CBOs could directly involve in the management of solid waste services. In this case, CBOs leaders could participate in controlling the neighbourhood cleanness, being members of the localities waste management committee or by taking responsibilities to employ and control the private service and collect service charges. Nevertheless, community participation, in most cases, is restricted to the primary phases of the service, i.e. the phases of waste generation and disposal at central collection sites (Anschutz, 2006:17-21). Box 2: Summary of CBOs Participation in Solid Waste Management
Low level Maintaining contact with local government Educating the community on good behaviour Mobilising periodical neighbourhood cleaning campaigns Medium level Maintaining contact with local government Communicate about the coordination of primary and secondary collection systems Exercise political pressure on the municipality Forward complaints on quality of the service Control the behaviour of households (watchdog function). High level Management and administration of the service Be a member of local waste management service committee in local government Collection of service charge Full administration of local service Contracting services and employing operators Control and monitor private services

Managing fee collection

Organisation of CBOs Participation


CBOs engaged in solid waste management tasks could be organised in different models. According to related experiences, as shown in the Table3 below, there are at least three forms of CBOs organisational structures. The models are CBO Government model, CBO Micro Enterprise model and CBO - NGO model (See op. cit.:23-27).

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Box 3: Organisational models of CBOs Participation in Solid Waste Management


CBOs and Local Government: Here the CBO is responsible for the operation of the service while the responsible government body provides assistance for the self-help group established by the community. The assistance takes the form of control the overall management of the CBO to technical and material support (such as vehicle contribution). CBOs and Micro-enterprise: CBO contract out the collection and the neighbourhood cleaning tasks, oversee the performance of the private operator and effect the payment from the service charge collected from the households.

CBO and NGO: In this case the NGO is responsible for establishing the CBOs, and extended financial and technical assistance. Usually the NGO supervises the operation, control the finance disbursement, recruit and train management committee and operators. The CBOs role is limited to participate in the operation and management of the service (Anschtz, Justine 1996).

3.3

Lessons from CBOs Involvement in Solid Waste Management

In general, projects implemented around the world showed that organised participation of the community in solid waste management services have contributed to solve socioeconomic problems of local nature (primary waste collection related schemes). They have also helped to experiment innovative approaches to integrate the informal sectors, create job opportunities, develop environmental protection and health related concerns, and improve service delivery in the poor and neglected localities (Herrle and et al., 2005: 40-41; Anschutz, 1996). The lessons regarding sustainability of the approach showed that, sustainable CBOs involvement in solid waste management is primarily connected to the existence of felt need in the locality that the project was launched. Experiences have showed that in most poor communities the need for solid waste management comes after water, health care, and energy related issues (Herrle and et al., op. cit.). Social acceptance of the approach is the other prerequisite for the success of the solid waste management. However, according to relevant studies, persistence education and awareness raising initiatives coupled with the concrete results have helped to overcome suspicion and related hurdles. 23

The existence of legal framework for the introduction of the approach is probably the main determinant factor. Nevertheless, lack of willingness, even where the legal framework exists, has stifled CBOs effort in some cases. Other lessons drawn from research findings have showed that the representatives of CBOs of the local communities, the accountability of local leaders to their members, transparency of their working have increased the success of the initiatives.

3.4

CBOs in Ethiopia

There are many types of CBOs in Ethiopia. Some are traditionally established and practised by the society, (e.g. yetsiwa mahber,ikub and idir), while others are established based on gender, age and occupations, (e.g. youth associations, womens associations, farmers associations, etc.). However, this study is mainly concerned with Idir because of its multicultural composition and its significant dominance and influence on the day to day life of the society all over the country, but more importantly in Addis Ababa. Idirs were first established and became effective in Addis Ababa mainly through strong commitment of the members of ethnic group-the Gurage3 people- who have traced their root in central Ethiopia. Idirs were basically established to provide financial support and facilitate funeral ceremonies when members die or lose their close relatives. But, in addition to these primary objectives of Idirs, the Gurage people have managed to inject progressive thinking which grows up to integrate development tasks, democratic work procedures, relatively modern financial management practices, and elected leaders into traditional roles of Idirs. These Idirs were established based on two major criteria - working together and living in the same neighbourhood. Membership in these Idirs is free from ethnic, religious, gender, political or other discriminations.

The Gurage people are traditionally farmers as well as wise traders. With the development of urbanisation the one who came to settle in towns and cities are mostly end up being business men (personal experience and Idir leaders opinion).

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As mentioned earlier the main objective of Idirs is to provide financial and labour assistance in time of mourning or other serious personal or family problems that members may encounter. Moreover, they are sometimes involved in settling down disputes and conflicts in their neighbourhood. They also mobilise the community whenever the needs for community services arise. Despite their existence in formal and informal realms, Idirs are used by the government authorities whenever the real cooperation of the community is required. As Idirs have such important contributions to the life of the society, almost all Ethiopian household is a member of at least one of such a community based organisation, i.e. Idir. A sample case of a contribution of one Idir is presented in box 4.

3.5

Summary

Local governments in the developing countries lack financial, human and technical resources to provide basic services to the entire urban residents single handily. One approach that has been found useful in addressing the challenges was procuring the cooperation of the community via Community Based Organisations (CBOs). CBOs participation in solid waste management services delivery varies from high level participation i.e. managing the primary collection service, to low level i.e. educating their members on good behaviour. There are at least three models of organisations in which CBOs are engaged in solid waste service delivery: CBO Government model, CBO Micro enterprise model and CBO NGO model. Nevertheless, the success of CBOs approach depends on: the existence of the felt need and the social acceptance of the approach; the existence of the legal framework and the willingness of the local governments; the accountability of CBOs leaders, and to what extent they are transparent

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Box 4: A Case of Gurage Peoples Self Help and Development (GPSDO)

The organisation was started at request of the rural elders by a group of urban elite of Gurage ethnic group background in 1961 in Addis Ababa. Initially the objective of the organisation is to mobilise the community resources for the purpose of constructing roar network and connect the Gurageland with the national highway. This initiation able to systematise and further developed the already existing urban rural tie of this particular ethnic group. In the following years the organisation developed and become in 1981 Gurage Peoples Self help and Development Organisation (GPSDO). Though the

organisation works and cooperates with some NGOs, almost all the funds for the road construction and other development work comes from individual and group contribution of the members of the ethnic group living in urban and rural area and organised in hundreds of Idirs and investments made by GPSDO. The organisation able to connect every village in the Sebat Bet Gurage area with the all weather road. More detailed achievements of the organisation include the construction and maintenance of more than 500 km of all weather roads, six high schools, adult literacy centres and many primary schools. In cooperation with NGOs the organisation has provided several towns and villages with access to safe drinking water, electricity and telephone services. The other important achievement of the organization is

facilitation of customary practices, laws and way of life. The organization works on awareness of AIDS and elimination of harmful practices. This community based organisation in four decades of intensive and continuous effort was able to mobilise the community resources and single handily without significant help from the government or other development agencies and bring the Gurage people to the 21st Century and raise their self respect and belief on their ability to achieve change. Due to this organised community action once neglected and marginalised community is now a respected and envied ethnic group of the country.
Ref: Leroi Henry, Participatory development and the construction of civic virtue in the Sebat bet Gurage communities, Paper prepared for the conference of Participation: From Tyranny to Transformation?, Manchester, 2003

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CHAPTER FOUR
METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH
This Chapter deals with the research methods that were used to collect the desired data so as to attain the objectives of the study. It discusses the subjects, data collection instruments, data collection procedures and the method of data analysis used in carrying out the research.

4.1 Introduction
Research methodology is consistent set of procedures and rules used by researchers to investigate their environment, a particular phenomenon or situation in order to answer specific questions and solve scientific or practical problems (Mikkelsen, 1995). A researcher may choose qualitative, quantitative or a combination of qualitative methodology depending on the type of environment or situations under the study and the type of the questions attempted to be answered (Bryman, 1988). The types of questions that this research attempts to answer are related to what and how specific service is organised. In addition the study attempts to examine the interplay of all variables in order to understand a particular event as much as possible. The research tries to arrive at comprehensive understanding of the case being investigated through broad description of the case under investigation. For this reason the methodology used for this research was case study approach supported with rich qualitative data.

4.2 Research Area


The research area chosen for this study was Addis Ababa. Addis Ababa was chosen because apart from being the capital city it is the only prime city in the country and it consists hundreds of CBOs varied in human and financial capacity. Kebele 13/15 from Addis Ketema Sub-city was chosen because firstly it is poor and neglected area. The small scale businesses such as street sellers, retailers, etc. contribute to 27

the solid waste management challenge in the Kebele as well as in the Sub-City. According to the survey results and my personal experience, I believe that the solid waste management in this Kebele can represent the situations in most other Kebeles in Addis Ababa. Therefore, purposeful random selection was used to select these sample areas. Regarding the selection of the sub-city and Kebele SBPDA officials, and Idir leaders, availability sampling was used because those subjects were the right resource persons to obtain the required data. On the other hand, the informants from the small and micro enterprises (MSSEs) that are involved in solid waste collection and the Kebele dwellers were chosen randomly.

Unit of Analysis
The first level of unit of analysis in this study is Sub City. The sub-City level of analysis is chosen because under the new decentralized arrangement they are responsible to deliver services. Besides, the probability of finding detail data on service delivery is high at sub city level. Hence, one municipality that has large numbers of strong CBOs and high frequency of solid waste removal service is chosen. The next level of analysis is Kebele level. Here one type of CBO specifically established for socio economic purposes and households were analysed to find out the opinion of the citizens and community leaders about the attitude of the community to solid waste management service; the arrangement and the quality of the service being delivered; the degree of the community participation and the willingness of the community to involve in the management of the service; and the willingness of the community to pay and to cooperate with the local government.

4.3 Data Collection Instruments Qualitative Data Collection


Qualitative methodology employs naturalistic approach to understand phenomena in context-specific settings. In other words, the approach is the process of examination of the "real world setting [where] the researcher does not attempt to manipulate the phenomenon 28

of interest (Patton, 2001:39). Unlike quantitative research that seeks causal determination, prediction, and generalization of findings, qualitative research instead seeks illumination, understanding, and extrapolation to similar situations (Hoepfl, 1997).

Data Types
Both primary and secondary data were collected during the research to attain comprehensive understanding of the management and organisation of solid waste management service in Addis Ababa City. In addition, the potential and capacity of the main actors involved in the governance of the service were described using data gathered from both primary and secondary sources.

Primary Data
Unstructured interview: This approach was preferred because it allows interviewee to express themselves more freely. The cultural background and experiences of decades of suppression and political turbulence made the people of Ethiopia generally suspicious of any formal interviewees. Personal experience gained in working in urban development related organisation taught me that many people tailor their response to what they think the interviewer is looking for. In contrast, the probability of getting more realistic response is higher when the interview is conducted in less structured way. Though this approach coasted me lots of time, the final result was more truthful and helped me to understand how the residents, the municipal staff and other officials see their role, the quality of the service and the problems and challenges they are facing. 30 randomly selected informants were interviewed from the residents group. These informants were contacted in market while they are working at their shops, in the villages while they are entering their houses or getting out of their houses, while they are engaged in household chores, and causally contacted on the roads. The interview with these

informants always started with causal conversation about life in general, the weather and the family health issue. More than one time I bought articles I did not require for purpose of starting up discussion. The epidemic that affected the city few months ago was used most of the times and helped me to introduce my real purpose without big discomfort.

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Guided discussion: Guided discussion was used to draw information from public sector informants. The informants from city public organisations are chosen systematically from each level organisation. The fact that I am an employee of the organisations working on urban development area helped me to establish colleague status with the local government staffs and officials. I used personal contacts and official letters from my organisation to get introduction to investigated organisations. Knowing the culture and the working of the Ethiopian public sector facilitated my discussion more than the official letter. In total 8 officials, 9 experts and 7 municipal staffs were contacted during the research. CBO leaders are contacted through Kebele Administration and personal contacts. Focus group discussion was used to draw information from 5 CBOs leaders contacted through Kebele Administration. While guided discussion was used to draw information from two other CBO leaders contacted through personal contacts.

Table 2: Status and Numbers of Informants form Public Institutes


Institution No. of informant AACG 2 Mayor and one other official I was fortunate to meet the AACG officials during their official visit of GTZ, Eshborn. SBPDA 5 General Manager, Division Heads and experts Because of several meetings the arranging discussion with SBPDA staff took me several days Addis Ketema Sub-city 14 Team leaders, Experts (sanitarians, accountants, public relation workers, code enforcement staffs) Vehicle Operators, and road street cleaning workers and foremen Kebele 13/15 Administrat ion 3 Kebele Chief Executive, Office Head, and Sanitarian Repetitive attempt to contact the solid waste collection and administration team leader has failed because of meetings and other personal problems. Position Remark

Total

24

Source: compiled by the author from the interview held with government officials (January 2007).

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Observation and photography: This method was used to check the reliability of the data collected through interview, guided discussion and focus group discussion. The observation was used to understand and corroborate the information gathered from informants about status of city sanitation, collection frequency and methods, type and size of communal containers and other observable practices and facts. The observation is supported with pictures taken with the full cooperation of MSSEs staffs, Sub-City staffs and citizens. Photography method was not openly accepted by all informants. However, confidence building strategy like asking nicely, explaining the reasons helped to get permission of taking photographs.

Secondary Data
Secondary data were collected from archive, statistical reports and abstracts, published and unpublished materials and internet sources. The main sources of secondary data were City Sanitation, Beautification and Park Development Agency (SBPDA), archive documents of Office for the revision of Addis Ababa Master Plan Office (ORAAMP), Addis Ababa City Government, Addis Ketema Sub-City and Kebele 13/15 Administration of Addis Ketema Sub-City. Analysis of data varied between qualitative and quantitative depending on the way information was obtained. The analysis of data, obtained in figures from documented information and counting during the fieldwork, was quantitatively analysed and tabulated. Focus had been given to the opinion of individuals with respect to their position, knowledge on the area and the information provided against the tangible evidences. This was done by comparing information obtained from officials in higher posts against the opinion of common experts working as sanitarian, code enforcement experts, and training and organising capacities. After drawing a whole picture of the waste management system from the information obtained through discussion with the officials, it was triangulated with what was said by service users and informants from support and partner organisations.

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4.4 Reliability, Validity and Generalization


Reliability in a research work is affected by the possible error emanating from the employed instruments. The similarity of results from employing the same tools in different operations is one of the methods for assuring reliability of research. The significance of the discrepancy between results may reduce or increase the reliability of the employed tool. At the same time, this may affect the findings of the research (Yin, 1984). On the other hand, validity refers to the relationship between what is measured and what the researcher in reality wants to measure. This relationship is very important because in most cases in social science, a measurement is taken indirectly (Yin, 1984:165). The objective of the research was clarified for the informants before starting any kind of discussion to make sure the interest and objectivity of the participant to provide correct and relevant information. Checklists were prepared to guide the discussion and permit the informant say what he or she thinks important. Assistance of friends and relatives who have understanding of the culture of the society were procured for purpose of gathering information mainly from residents and community leaders. The role of the assistant was to open discussion and register directly what is being said by the informants while my role is listening and guiding the interviews. This approach allowed the interviewee to express their real opinion while at the same time reducing information loss during such kind of unstructured interview.

In writing the report an attempt was made to enhance the reliability of the research by directly referring to the sources of information, i.e., name, institutions and date. In this regard, somebody else can easily follow the data sources, verify them and draw own conclusion.

Generalization of Findings
As it has been mentioned before, the research is based on a single case study. Thus, generalization of this study will not depend on statistical results but from significance of the problem to similar situation. Case studies like experiment are generalisable to theoretical 32

propositions. Case study is to expand and generalise theories (analytic generalisation) and not to environment frequencies (statically generalisation) (Yin, 1994:10) Solid waste management system might be different in different cities but researches and real life problems have shown that shortcomings of the system can be generalised and the solutions devised for a specific case could be adopted for the use of overcoming challenges in a wider context.

4.5 Method of Data Analysis


The research method selected to be employed in this study is case study approach. This approach was chosen because the study has examined the interplay of all variables in order to provide a complete understanding of the situation. The basic analysis of the collected data involved the descriptive analysis of the existing policy, rules and regulations, guidelines and reports regarding solid waste management service in terms of their implementation; the findings of the field survey and the information obtained from the interview and the informal discussions held with the informants; finally, from the finding, conclusions and possible recommendations were made

4.6 Limitations
The methodology used for conducting this research was case study approach. As collection of primary data for case study is highly dependant on drawing data from large number of informants having different social and income status allocating sufficient time is required to build trust between the informant and the interviewer. Contrarily, the time I had for conducting this research was insufficient compared the number and the cross section of people I intended to meet. The fact that I was public employee working in the urban sector helped me to open the door of several offices. However, getting sufficient time to ask the entire question I prepared was difficult because of busy schedule of officials and the experts. Several scheduled and

33

unscheduled meetings that the officials were expected to attend wasted valuable research time. My being public employee helped me to facilitate my research most of the times. However, it also misled some municipality staffs and residents to suspect I was there to conduct official business and tends to dwell on other government business. For example, some street sweepers I interviewed asked me to convey their complaint on their working conditions and other administration related problems to relevant city government officials. The other major limitation I encountered during my research was the absence of recent and coherent data. The most recent data I was able to find was of 3 years. The absence of basic data such as number of population and area of Kebele administration was frustrating. Thus, number and socio economic status of the population of the sample Kebele are drawn from opinions and estimation of public officials, community leaders and my personal observation.

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Figure 1: Research Process

Reference: own drawn

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CHAPTER FIVE
DISCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS OF THE STUDY AREA
This chapter deals with the presentation and interpretation of the data obtained through document inspection of the content of the proclamations, policies, Charter and reports of different units of Addis Ababa City Administration, field survey and interview. It presents the findings in 4 major sections.

5.1 Introduction
Solid waste management in urban area is complex activity that involves the collection, transfer, treatment, recycling, resource recovery, and disposal of solid waste generated in a city. The complexity of the service and the requirement of high level of organisational, technical and managerial capacity make it difficult to be handled by local governments single handed. Therefore effective service delivery requires cooperation between numerous stakeholders in both the private and public sectors (Bernstein, 2004). Moreover, effectiveness of solid waste management service is dependant on sustainability of the management of the services. Sustainability in its turn depends, among other, on the way the management of the service is planned; the institutional and financial capacity of the service providers and supporting organisations; choice and use of technology; private sector involvement; and community participation. Provision of effective and sustainable solid waste management service requires going even further to formulation of specific objectives and implementation of appropriate measures regarding political, institutional, social, financial, economic and technical aspects of the service (World Bank, 2006; Schbeler, 1996). Having this note at the background the solid waste management practice in Addis Ababa City is examined under subtitles of trends and solid waste management, legal instruments; composition, volumes and sources of solid waste; organisation of the service and planning and actors of solid waste management. 36

5.2 Background Information about the Study Area 5.2.1 The Countrys Profile
Ethiopia is located in the eastern part of Africa that is particularly known as the Horn of Africa. Ethiopia borders Sudan on the west, Eritrea on the north, Djibouti and Somalia on the east, and Kenya on the south. The total area of the country is about 1,127,127 km which consists of 9 semi autonomus regions and two city administrations. The regions are Tigray, Amhara, Afar, Benishangul, Gambela, Southern, Oromiya, Harari and Somali, while the city administrations are Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa. The topography of the country includes a significant portion of the great African Rift Valley dividing the central high plateaus into northern and southern highlands surounded by lowlands. The highest point in the country is Mount Ras Dashen found in the Amhara Region with 4,620 meters above sea level. The lowest and the hottest place on earth is also found in this country- the Denakil Depression, 115 metres below sea level, is located at northern part of the country in the Tgray Region. The country boasts a chain of inland lakes mostly found in the southern part of the Rift Valley, however the bigest Lake is Lake Tana located in the Amhara Region, northwest part of the country (CSA, 2006). The countrys climate varies between the coldest areas of the centeral highlands and the hottest areas in the lowelands. The temeprature also ranges between 11C around the centeral highlands and 50C in the Eastern lowlands and the Danakil Depression

(ClimateZone, 2006; AACG, 2006). The total projected population at present is about 76,067,000 comprising 86% of rural and 24% of urban dewlers. The country has tottaly 927 urban areas from which Addis Ababa is the only metropltean and prime city (CSA, 2006).

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Figure 2: Map of Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Source: Google Image, http://images.google.com, 20/10/06

5.2.2 Urbanisation in Ethiopia


Urbanisation in Ethiopia is as old as the Axum era, i.e. around 1 A.D. Old towns such as Lalibela (built in the 13th century), Gondar (in the16th Century) and Harar (in the 11th Century), are still serving as administration, economic and cultural centres. Nevertheless, modern urbanisation in Ethiopia has started in the 19th century, specifically with the foundation of Addis Ababa. At present about 16.2% of the countrys population are urban dwellers and this steady growth is expected to continue at least in the foreseeable future (Paulos G., 1991). 38

It might be due to unbalanced urbanisation that the only prime city in the country is Addis Ababa. The countrys biggest educational institutions, social and cultural organisations, commercial and business centres, factories and industries, and better infrastructure are found in Addis Ababa. Even population wise, Addis Ababa accounts for 24.4% of the total urban population, while Dire Dewa, the countrys second biggest city with the population of about 296,000, accounts for only 2.2% of the total urban population. According to the recent projection by the CSA, among the 927 towns in the country, only 10 towns boast to have population reaching hundred thousands (Annex 3). Ethiopia has undergone a profound change following the ousting of the Military Government in 1991. As a result, the traditionally centralised government structure of the country has been replaced by a decentralised Federal Government arrangement comprising nine semi-autonomous regional states. The governance structure has 4 tiers of government, namely, Federal Government, States, Worda4 and Kebele5.

5.2.3 Addis Ababa City Basic Information


Ethiopian history has given much credit to Empress Taitu for influencing her husband, Emperor Menlik II to choose Addis Ababa for his emperial sit. Established in 1887 with few tents and scattered huts, Addis Ababa has shown a great geographical expansion to the area of about 540km. It has an average temperature of 16C6 and lies at 2400 meters above see level. These favourable conditions contributed a lot for its establishment as well as its subsequent development (AACG, 2006). Some people estimate the population of Addis Ababa above 4 million; however, according to the CSAs population projection report, the population of Addis Ababa in the current year is about 2,973,004. The same report indicates that 48% of the Citys populations are males while the remaining 52% are females.
4 5 6 Worda is a name for tier of government an equivalent to District Keble is the name to the lowest level of local government established at neighbourhood level Calculated based up on data gathered from climate zone, www.climate-zone.com, 20/10/06

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Furthermore, the CSAs 2006 population report reveals that the unemployment rate in Addis Ababa is about 35% of the total population, and from this total unemployed population 42% are females. Regarding the poverty condition in the city, the study carried out by Abebe, (2001) disclosed that about 60% of the Addis Ababa city population are to be classified as the poorest that live below the poverty line.

Addis Ababa City Governance


The City Municipality was recognised as a local government for the first time in 1954 when Notice No. 172/1954 gave the Charter status to the city. This notice was the first tentative attempt ever taken by the Ethiopian government towards the recognition of the selfgoverning right of the city dwellers. Then, the administration of the city was entrusted to the city council consisting of 22 elected councillors, 8 government officials representing different ministries and a Kentiba7 who was nominated by the Emperor. The fact that the city was given full freedom to administer its internal affairs, to issue its own structure, and to generate fund from internal sources had given the municipality significant political and financial autonomy (Ayenew, 1999 and Shimelis, 2003). The progress towards self- administration faced set-back following the ousting of Emperor Haileselasie I in 1974. During the Derg regime, i.e., the Military Government8 (1974-1991), the three proclamations made between 1975 and 1978 drastically affected the organisation and management of Addis Ababa Municipality. First, the proclamation No 47/1975 issued to nationalise the land and all extra houses of private owners significantly reduced the municipalitys revenue base property tax. Then, proclamations, No.4/1976 and No. 206/1981 which were prepared to confirm the plan-led and highly centralised economic policy of the government changed the organisational structure of the city. Crippled by the sudden decline of revenue, lack of power and the new organisational structure that changed the city government to urban dwellers associations with a role of ideological promotion, the municipality has neglected its service delivery and infrastructure development tasks for more than a decade (ORAAMP, 2000 and Shimelis, 2003).
7 8 Kentiba is an Amharic equivalent term for Mayor The Military Government has ruled the country from 1974 to 1991

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Even after the radical government decentralisation of the country in 1991 and later on, during the adoption of the FDRE Constitution, municipalities seemed to remain overlooked. The governance problems had not been restricted to Addis Ababa, but also transmitted to all urban sectors of the country. They aggravated the ever increasing of the urban poverty and unemployment rate, the decaying and disintegration of the infrastructure, and the almost malfunctioning of basic services such as solid waste management, primary education, and health services. In general, the deterioration of the city to huge slums became a burning issue that convinced the government to look for possible solutions in the late 1990. As the result, in 1997, Addis Ababa became a chartered city with significant self-government rights (TGE, 1991, FDRE, 1994, 1997, UDCBO-GTZ 1999). Addis Ababa City Government: At present Addis Ababa City Government is structured along three layers: The City Government, Sub-cities and Kebeles. Under the present structure the units of the City Government includes a City Council, a Mayor, City Cabinet, the Office of the Chief Auditor and City Judicial Department. The City Government undertakes its functions through 8 bureaus which are accountable to the Mayor and 11 agencies, institutes and offices organised under City Manager Office (See annex 1) (FDRE, 2003). Sub-Cities: Sub-cities are second layer of the Addis Ababa City Government and each subcity is structured comprising three departments: a Sub-city Council, a Sub-city Administration and an Executive body. Kebeles: These are the lowest level of government in Addis Ababa City Administration, and each Kebele consists of a Council, a Kebele Administration, an Executive body and a Social Court.

Power and Responsibilities of Addis Ababa City Governance: According to Article 11 in Proclamation No. 361/2003, Addis Ababa City Government has legislative, executive and judiciary power to function over issues specified in the city charter and that have not been included in the powers and functions of the executive units of the Federal Government of

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Ethiopia. Proclamations No.261/2003 indicates that the city has a right to generate its own revenue from designated sources, obtain loans from local resources, and establish its own executive bodies, institutions and enterprises. Moreover, the City Government is responsible to define the power and duties of each unit in it. It also issues and enforces regulations and directives on matters connected with its jurisdiction. For further details about the power and functions of the City Government (see Annex 5).

Figure 3 Map of Addis Ababa City

Ref: Chekole, 2006

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The Sub-cities: The functions and power of each Sub-city Council in general are related to governing the Kebele Administrations within its boundary and ensuring how laws and orders are being exercised. The Kebele Administrations: The roles and responsibilities of the Kebeles, according to Proclamation No361/2003 Article No. 38/b are mainly facilitating conditions to make sure the availability of services within the reach of residents as much as possible.

Addis Ketema Sub-City


Historically, Addis Ketema Sub-city is the outcome of the Italian racial planning experiment of segregation. During their short lived occupation, they managed to move 90% of the population and their main market to the western Addis Ababa. The final result of their experiment was Merkato consists of sprawling open market located at the northern part and grid lined dominantly residential area to the south-western part of Addis Ketema (ORAACMP, 2000).

At present Addis Ketema Sub-city covers a total area of 739 ha. Despite the fact that it is the smallest sub- city, Addis Ketema is the most overcrowded area. It includes 9 Kebele Administrations with 348,063 permanent residents, i.e., on average 448persons/ha (See Fig. 3). As Merkato, the biggest open market in the country, as well as in Africa, is located in it, Addis Ketema Sub-City is the economic core of the whole country. It has transportation access to every part of the city. Hundreds of city buses, small taxis and mini bus taxis from every corner of the city make easy for the society to reach Merkato. In addition, the main bus terminal where about 950 buses per day serve passengers to different parts of the country is located in this Sub-City. Thus, excluding the people who visited the area on foot an estimated 200,000 people visits Addis Ketema per day for doing business or searching for job (ORAACMP, 2001).

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Kebele 13/15
Since the Kebele was restructured by merging 9 previous Kebele administrations two years ago, obtaining reliable information about the area and the number of residents is difficult at present. Hence, all the information gathered related to the size of the Kebele, the number of the population and the socio economic conditions of the dwellers are estimates of the Kebele Administration officials and community leaders. According to Kebele 13/14 Officials, the number of population in the Kebele is estimated about 50,000. Most business centres such as hotels and shops are found in the neighbouring Kebele 10/11/12 following the main road separating the two Kebele Administrations. Even the shops existing along the road are of small scale. The rest of the area accommodates very poor people who earn their livelyhood by preparing and selling local alcoholic drinks, renting their own beds for short stay travellers who cannot afford to rent hotel room, selling vegetables and spices on roadsides and engaging in other petty business. The Kebele officials and the community leaders also remarked that 80% of the populations in this Kebele are living under the poverty line.

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Figure 4: Map of Addis Ketema Sub City

N W S E

Source: Addis Ketema Sub- city Administrative Office

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5.3 Solid Waste Management in Addis Ababa


A study by Ayenew, (1999) disclosed that solid waste management service is one of the basic urban services that have been neglected most. Further, the information obtained from the inspected SBPDA reports indicates that even after the city was restructured, solid waste management has continued to encounter problems associated with improper organisation, lack of innovative approaches and insufficient resources. Until recently, the city government has been the sole provider of solid waste management services. Though the private sectors (mostly small micro scale enterprises) are currently involved, the service is still limited to the primary level. Furthermore, the report indicated that encouraging progress has been registered at all levels of the city government regarding the preparation of polices, laws, rules and regulations of solid waste management. However, the data gathered from the documents of the concerned organisations, community leaders, residents and personal observation show that the solid waste management in Addis Ababa is still a serious problem that requires a joint effort of both the community and the city government. Municipal solid waste management involves refuse storage and collection, street and drain cleaning, solid waste transfer and transport, solid waste disposal, and resource recovery. MSWM also involves vehicle maintenance repair; financial management; administrative activities such as routing, scheduling, and record keeping; staff management and development, and strategic MSWM planning (Bernstein, 2004:p4) Nevertheless, in Ethiopia solid waste management includes the collection, recycling and disposal phases only. Therefore, the waste management system in Addis Ababa is described in terms of how the solid wastes are collected, recycled and disposed. In addition, the governing laws, policies and regulations, the way the services are organised, the actors in management of the service and the nature of their relationships are examined and described in the following parts. 46

5.3.1 Trends of Solid Waste Management


The first known legal document regarding solid waste management services was the Public Notice 25/1944. This Public Notice among other public hygienic concerns prohibited the burning and disposal of any type of wastes at public places and in streets. It also obliged the removal of animal carcass from public places within twenty four hours. Later in 1954, with its reestablishment, the City Municipality was given the responsibilities for controlling the hygiene conditions and providing waste management services based on the General Notice No.172/1954. Sanitation service was introduced for the first time in Public Notice No. 148/1958 by The Ministry of Health. This Notice identified sanitation services as the surveillance of food stuffs, beverages, buildings, factories. It also provided guidelines which had to be employed for the construction and use of water wells, drainages, garbeage and sewerage systems. What is worth mentioning is that the landfill site the City has still been using was established in 1965. Though it is small and incompatable as compared with the volume and types of wastes genereted at present, it is still serving the City as the only waste disposal place. All these imply that the solid waste management has remained obscured. Despite the early recognition of the importance of the services, it was not given due consideration until 1994. By this time the solid waste management responsibilities were transferred to the newly established Sanitation Service Team under the City Administration Health Bureau. The other significant change was the elevation of the services from Sanitation Service Team to Sanitation Service Department in 2001 under the same Bureau. The reorganisation of the City in 2003 by the Proclamation Number 2/2003 has brought a major change in status of the solid waste management services. This Proclamation

decentralised the solid waste services to the local authorities at the Sub-City and Kebele levels. In addition, it allowed the establishment of the Sanitation, Beautification and Park

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Development Agency which is responsible to design policies and regulations for solid waste management services.

5.3.2 Legal Instruments


Remarkable progress has been witnessed regarding the formulation and issuance of workable policies for solid waste management services, environmental protection and pollution control. Below is given the summary of the main policies and legal documents.

Federal Level Legal Instruments


At the higher level the Constitution of Fedral Democratic Republic of Ethiopia recognised the right to live in clean and healthy environment and the state obligation of allocating resources to provide health, education and other social services to citzens are recognised under the provision of Article 44.1 and 44.4 of The Constitution of FDRE (FDRE,1994). The next federal level legal instrument governing the waste management is the environmental policy of Ethiopia was approved in 1997. Particularly part 3 and 4 of the environmental policy gave attention to the sanitation service and environmental protection aspects. Among other, the part 3 of the policy that deals with the human settlement, urban environment and environmental health and part 4 that deals with control of hazardous materials and pollution from industrial waste give particular attention to the sanitation services and environmental related issues. summarised in box 4. In addition, EPAE issued Environment Impact Assessment and Environmental Pollution proclamations and Integrated Pollution Prevention and Pollution Control and Strategic Environmental Assessment guidelines in order to facilitate the principles of the environmental policy with regard to sanitation issues (EPA, 2002). Some of the provisions of the policy are

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Box 5: Summary of the Provisions of Environmental Policy of Ethiopia Regarding Sanitation Service
Bringing environmental issues to federal and regional government agenda Promote conducive conditions to provide domestic waste disposal facilities and to enable the community to improve their immediate habitats Promote behavioural change through education and public awareness for community led environmental programmes and sustainable use and maintenance of sanitation facilities Bring about and promote partnership between the government, communities and NGOs for the development of an integrated sanitation delivery system Ensure that housing and sanitation technologies and regulatory standards are set at a level and cost that are within reach of the users and flexible enough to be adaptable to the very varied socioeconomic, epidemiological, climatic and physical site conditions which are found in urban areas Give priority to waste collection services and to its safe disposal and establish safe limits for the location of sanitary landfill to protect water bodies from pollution To adopt the "polluter pays" and ensure that polluter organisations, and responsible local governments provide their own pollution control facilities To promote practice of waste minimization recycling whenever possible

Reference: FDRE. "Environmental Policy, 1997.

City Level The first ever comprehensive regulation formulated and issued for regulating and managing solid waste service in the country is the Addis Ababa City waste management, collection and disposal regulation issued in 2004 (AACG, 2004). regulation are summarised in the box 6. Following the issue of this regulation SBPDA has developed and put in use several implementation guidelines. These guidelines have provided detail implementation directives on issues such as, selecting appropriate places for communal containers reducing solid waste generation, selecting, providing competency certificates and administering MSSEs involved in solid waste management services collection, handling and disposal of hazardous wastes (SBPDA archive documents) 49 The main provisions of the

Box 6: Summary of Addis Ababa City Waste Management, Collection and Disposal Regulation
Addis Ababa City waste management, collection and disposal regulation, made responsible individuals and any other waste generating organisation for proper management of solid wastes made responsible solid waste service organisation for proper collection and safe keeping and transporting of wastes and prohibited disposal of waste in unauthorised place made provision for proper handling and disposal of hazardous wastes made provision for privatisation of the sanitation services described the power and responsibility of SBPDA, Sub-City, Kebele and other relevant organs regarding solid waste management tasks provided legal basis for establishment sanitation fee provided penal code on offences related disregard of sanitary regulations sanitary

Reference: Addis Ababa City waste management, collection and disposal regulation, No.
316/2004

5.3.3 Composition, Volume and Source of Solid Waste Composition


As reported by SBPDA, out of the total waste generated in the city, about 60% is organic in nature, while about 15% of this waste is characterised as recyclable waste. Regarding the composition of the total collected waste, about 65% is of all fine type, 19.3% is combustible leaves and vegetable, 6.8% is of rubber, plastics, glasses, metals, and papers, 5.8% consists of wood, textile and bone, whereas the remaining 2.5% is NGOs-combustible stone (See table 6). According to the same report, from the total solid waste collected in the city, only about 70% could be reused for biogas generation or fertiliser and about 15% could be recycled.

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Table 3: Composition of Solid Wastes in Addis Ababa


Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 Source: CSBPDA, (2003). All fine Combustible leaves Vegetables Rubber or plastics Paper NGOs-combustible stones Textiles Wood Volume 65.0% 15.1% 4.2% 2.9% 2.5% 2.5% 2.4% 2.3%

Volume and Source


The daily per capita waste generation in Addis Ababa is 0.221 kg per person (SBPDA, 2003). According to this estimate the daily waste generation in Addis Ababa at present if calculated on the projected 3.8 million population can be about 2521.9m/ person and 907891,9 m/day. See Annex 5. Regarding the sources of solid wastes, the major contributors are the city households. Their share is about 76% of the total generation of wastes. The different types of business and service giving organisations, street sellers, industries, hotels and restaurants, and hospitals contribute 9%, 6%, 5%, 3% and 1% of the solid wastes generated in the City respectively (SBPDA, 2003).

Street Sweeping
A study conducted by SBPDA (2004) shows that street sweeping in Addis Ababa is done manually by the Sub-City employees or private organisations. There is no uniform working hour for the starting and ending of street sweeping. In addition, the same report discloses that street sweeping in the city is conducted without operational work plan. However, the street sweeper working in Addis Ketema Sub-City said that they normally start work at 4 a.m. and finishes at around 11 a.m. in order to finish up their job before the 51

traffic gets congested. The working condition of the street sweepers is also deplorable. The street sweeper interviewed said that the protective devices provided by the Addis Ketema Sub-City are inappropriate and below standards, the medical and insurance coverage is inadequate. They are not provided with job description and work manual. In spite of their odd working hour, they do not have transport allowances or provided transportation. Moreover, their performance is restricted by problems such as shortage of wheel barrows, broom, and shovels and newly provided inappropriate push carts.

Collection
During the field survey the researcher observed that solid waste collection in Addis Ababa incorporates door to door collection, communal container collection and institutional collection systems. The service involves the SBPDA, the Sub-city administrations, Kebele administrations, formal and informal private sector enterprises (MSSEs) and individual collectors at different phases. The data obtained from the interview conducted with the Sub-City and Kebele officials show that, in line with the Citys Government long-term strategy of privatising the solid waste management, the Municipality stopped its previous door to door solid waste collection. It has rather concentrated on the collection of solid wastes from 991 communal waste containers and temporary collection sites where there are no communal waste bins. Regarding the frequency of collecting the solid waste, the public notice of 25/1994 imposes the obligation of removing animal carcass within twenty four hours. Other than this document the frequency of collection service is mentioned in the guideline issued for delimitation of operation zones and service provision systems of micro enterprises engaged in door to door collection. According to this guideline, the minimum weekly service collection that should be provided to households, restaurants, vegetable and fruit retail sellers, and small businesses is twice a week (SBPDA, 2005). The data gathered for this research by interviewing private operators, city sanitary workers and the professionals indicate that on average door to door collection from households is conducted twice a week. But the frequency of collecting wastes from restaurants, vegetable 52

and fruit retail sellers and other similar small business ranges from four days to seven days a week depending on the volume of the solid waste these business centres produce. The same interviewees have also made clear that this frequency of collection is highly dependent on the capacity of the municipality to transport the solid waste from communal collection sites to the land fill. Concerning the frequency of collection by the municipality, the SBPDA (2003) report shows that collection of solid wastes from communal containers of 8m sizes ranges from three times a week to once a week, from communal containers of 1.1m sizes ranges from every day to once every two days, and dust bins placed on the main roads are picked every day. Here, also the interview result reveals that this schedule is usually interrupted due to break down of collection vehicles and the dozers and compactors working at land fill (SBPDA, 2003). The interviewee has also indicated that the frequency of collection is highly dependant on the capacity of the municipality to transport the solid wastes from communal containers and collection points to the land fill site and on the weather condition of the city. The weather condition becomes a problem since few years ago because of the usage of the land fill site even after it is full to the brim (see the excerpt below for an example of cited by SBPDA official). It seems that the city officials are dreading the next rainy season due to its effect on the collection schedule. In addition, the location of the land fill site, which is far from most of the city parts, coupled with the traffic conjunction of the city further reduced the collection capacity of the city. Thus, collection and disposal of solid wastes in Addis Ababa has become increasingly infrequent. Last winter, the dozers working at the land fill site were unable to spread newly collected solid wastes because of the rain that soaked the wastes already disposed. Due to this reason collection of wastes from the city was stopped for one day. This incidence created accumulation of large quantity of solid waste especially in Merkato. Since Addis Ketema Sub-City do not have sufficient containers or transfer points in Merkato the wastes that were accumulated on the road and near public squares completely disrupted human and vehicle movement for more than one day and led to big public outcry Example cited by SBPDA official

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Therefore, SBPDA estimated that only 67% of the daily generated wastes were collected in 2004. In addition, the same official commented that transferring the ownership of

transporting vehicles to Sub-Cities without giving SBPDA power to mobilise the resources according to demand reduced the collection capacity to some extent and resulted inefficient use of scarce resources. As an example the official explained that collection in Sub-City such as Addis Ketema is disrupted many times due to vehicle break down while other SubCities such as Bole, which have less solid waste generation capacity, has extra capacity that could have been easily deployed if there is formal mechanisms that allows sharing of resources.

Transporting
Transporting of solid waste in Addis Ababa includes transporting of wastes from where the waste is generated to communal collecting sites and from communal collection sites to the disposal landfill. The municipality and the private sector of small scale enterprises are involved in transporting solid waste from where the waste is generated to the communal collection sites. The municipality uses lift trucks, side loaders, and compactors for

collection as well as transportation purposes, while most of the private enterprises use push carts and wheel barrows.

Waste Separation and Recycling


A report compiled by SBPDA (2004) indicates that out of the total waste, about 15% is recyclable whereby only 5% are recycled mostly by the individuals. According to the information obtained through the informal discussion the researcher had with some community members plus personal experience, the community widely separates papers, containers of different types, iron scraps, woods, old cloths and shoes etc., for reusing, selling to informal collectors or exchanging for new household utensils. In fact the

community at large does not consider papers, card boards, and containers of different types, iron scraps, tins, woods, old cloths and shoes etc., as wastes. Regarding composting, the same report shows that out of the total generated waste in the city, about 70% is considered as the type that can be composted or used for biogas 54

generation. The same report indicates that the city is only about 5% of the total solid waste can be compost able. The report has also made clear that in the year 2004, three small enterprises were engaged in recycling and composting activities. However, the majority of the recycling activity was conducted by well organised and extensively networked informal recycling business and individuals. The recycling business includes individual door to door collectors, receiver and reseller shops, small scale producers of different household utensils, used cars spare parts, shoes and other useful parts and individual waste pickers at the land fill site (SBPDA, 2003, and Bjerkli, 2005).

Disposal
The citys very old and only landfill site is owned by the city government. The land fill administrator, Sanitary, Beautification and Park Development Agency revelled that the site is more than 40 years old and it does not have separated facility and systems for disposing normal and hazardous wastes. Though some industries which are engaged in leather processing use the land fill for disposing their waste, the land fill does not have either incinerator or square land fill. It is not protected from leaching gas emissions and

migration of hazardous gas (SBPDA, 2004; Kumma, 2004). Actually, as the researcher found out from discussion with the City Mayor, the gas emission from the dumping site has already created a problem in the immediate vicinity. Good example of the problem is that the City closed one primary school located near to the dumping site due to repeated student fainting incident suspected to be caused by the hazardous gas emission from the dumping site.

5.3.4 Organisation of the Service and Planning Organisation


The solid waste management service of the city was decentralised starting January 2003 following proclamation No.2/2003 that allows the establishment of the city executive and municipal service bodies. At present the service is managed by two level municipal service 55

bodies. The first level is the Sanitation, Beautification and Park Development Agency organised under the Office of the City Manager Office. The second level of service delivery body is the Sub-City level organised under the Sub-City chief executive as Sanitation, Beautification and Park Development Team (see figure 4).

Planning
Planning is the biggest weakness of the countrys public sector let alone the neglected and forgotten service like solid waste management service. No comprehensive and city wide solid waste management plan is found during this research. The examination of relevant documents revealed that though preparation of city wide plan is not included in SBPDA functions in spite of its responsibility of coordinating the sanitary service giving organisations and monitoring and reviewing the preparation and implementation of Sub-City plans. Developing solid waste management plans and programmes requires collection and compilation of accurate up to date information related to the types, volume and sources of waste generated in the city. However, in Addis Ababa, neither the SBPDA nor the SubCity level organisations claims of collecting and compiling up to date information for purpose of planning or any other uses. The latest study regarding solid waste profile and status of the city was conducted 10 years ago. During the research I have found out that few months have passed since the division responsible for planning and research division of SBPDA is closed due to the resignation of the responsible staff and inability of the organisation to replace him.

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Figure 5: Addis Ababa Solid Waste Organisation Chart


AACG

SBPDA Manager Administration & Finance Dept. D/Manager Contract Admin.

Planning, Research & Coordination Dept. 2- Teams 2- Teams

Operation Department
Solid Waste Collection & Admin. Team

Park Development & Administration Team 4 - Teams 4 - Teams

Transport Admin. & Maintenance Team Land Fill Admin. Team

10-Sub-Cities 10-Sub-Cities Solid Waste Collection & Solid Waste Collection & Administration Team Administration Team

10- Sub-Cities 10- Sub-Cities Park Development Team Park Development Team

5.3.5 Actors of Solid Waste Management


As mentioned earlier, the task of solid waste management concerns individuals, community groups, different governmental and NGOs and institutions. The service involves actors, and partners classified into groups of service users, service providers, intermediaries and regulators (Schbeler, 1996). The cycle of formal solid waste management in Addis Ababa constitutes only three phases: collecting, transporting and disposing. However, several studies in the area and the interview results of this research revealed that the separation and recycling of wastes is practiced widely among informal individuals. Thus, in practice, the solid waste management includes five phases.

Therefore, waste management in the city includes formal institutes engaged in actual service delivery i.e., collection, transporting and disposal tasks; institution and organisations responsible for setting up of the institution, policy and regulatory framework; 57

partner organisation concerned on issues such as employment creation, poverty alleviation and environmental protection and informal sector involved in collection, separation and recycling of solid wastes. For the sake of convenience and following the classification used in part 2.3.actors in solid waste management are presented classified in service providers, service users and partner organisations.

Service Providers Addis Ketema Sub-City


Organisation, Roles and Responsibilities: At the sub city level the solid waste
management task is organised at a team level. The team contains a team leader, a sanitarian, logistic officer, auto mechanic, drivers and driver assistants, street sweepers and street sweeping supervisors. The powers and functions of the sub cities regarding solid waste management tasks are mainly related to undertaking the day to day operational activity of solid waste management in the city. Among others, the power and function of the Sub-Cities regarding solid waste management includes: Developing and implementing Sub-City level solid waste management plan, program and budget; Providing daily and emergency refuse collection and cleaning street, public places, market areas and illegally dumped wastes etc., services; Regulating, inspecting and monitoring and supporting micro and small enterprises engaged in sanitary service tasks; Adopting and implementing revenue generating measures and mobilising technical and material support from government and NGOs government organisations; Organising, encouraging and coordinating community sanitation campaigns; Maintaining performance statistics (Proclamation No. 2/2003; Regulation No.13/2004) 58

Human Resource: The Sub-City have a total of 198 staff out of which about 58% are involved in street sweeping and related tasks, 27% are container attendants, 12% are working in transporting the wastes from communal containers and collection points to disposal site and 0.5% are working as maintenance staff or auto mechanics. The remaining 1% of the work force includes staff working on supervisory positions (SBPDA, 2005). In addition, the share of Addis Ketema from the total work force is 10%. However, from the interview conducted with the municipal workers, it was found out that they did not have any kind of manual or received job description when they started work. Table 4: Addis Ketema Sub-City Human Resource
Professional (Team Leaders + Sanitarian) Logistic Officer Assistant Crew Street Sweeper Street Sweeper Forement Auto Mechnic

Container Attendant

Driver

Addis Ketema Ten Sub Cities Share of Addis Ketema From the Total Work Force

2 20

9 72

16 140

1 10

111 1107

4 30

54 505

1 10

198 1894

10 13 11 10 10 13 11 10 Reference: Compiled from data gathered from Addis Ketema Sub-City and SBPDA.

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Technical Resource: The technical resources of Addis Ababa City consist of communal
containers, roadside dust bins and transporting vehicles. Regarding the communal containers, according to the SBPDA (2003) report, the City has a total number of 991 communal containers. From this the share of Addis Ketema Sub-Municipality is 64 or 6%. The communal containers have the capacity of 8m and 1.1. From the total number of 64 containers, about 80% have the capacity of 8m and the remaining 20%, 1.1m respectively. The total number of dust bins in use in the city is 446. In addition, on average the Sub-City has allocated one container for 5438 persons.

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Total

Table 5: Addis Ketema Sub-City Container Availability Container Size 8m 1.1m 51 13 512 479

Total 64 991 6

Addis Ketema Ten Sub Cities Share of Addis Ketema From the Total

10 3 Reference: Compiled from data gathered from SBPDA, 2003

At present the Addis Ababa city use three types of collection and transporting trucks, namely, lift trucks, side loaders and compactor trucks. The total number of the trucks under the ownership of the Addis Ketema Sub-City is 10 out of which 1 are commonly used with Kolfe Sub-City. Though there are 10 trucks available for the service, the Sub-City official and the SBPDA report admit that due to break down mainly caused by old age and lack of spare parts, usually only 50% of the vehicles are on duty. Table 6: Addis Ketema Sub-City Transportation Truck
Container Lift Truck Addis Ketema Ten Sub Cities 5 Nissan Side Loader 3 Compactor 2 10 20 Total 10 72 14

38 24 Share of Addis Ketema From the Total 13 13 Reference: Compiled from data gathered from SBPDA Report 2003

Financial Resource: The description of the powers of the Sub-City includes adopting
and implementing revenue generating measures and mobilising technical and material support from government and NGOs government organisations. Nonetheless, the investigation conducted in the study area indicates that the only revenue source that Addis Ketema Sub-City has at present is the budget allocated from the city government. In the current year the total budget allocated for solid waste service team is USD 698273.69. Regarding the budgetary distribution, the lion share goes to salary and allowance expenses and this is 60.3% from the total share. The second big share or 25% of the budget goes to the overhead expenditure. The capital expenditure, including expenditure for pilot compost

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project, construction of platform for communal containers and purchase of push carts share is only 15%. The review of the previous year budget allocation revealed that the share of the solid waste management service from the total Sub-City budget was about 1%. According to SBPDA (2002) report, the share of the solid management service on average for a long time was less than 1%.

Table 7: Budget Allocation in 2004/05 Budget Year - Addis Ketema Sub-City


Type of Expenditure/Budget Recurrent Budget 22509183 270055 1,20 Expenditure 19094643 224047 1,17 Budget 37368557 37806 0,10 Capital Expenditure 6084768 37806 0,62 85057150 569714 0,67 Total Budget

Total Sub-City Solid Waste Management Service Solid Waste management Share

Reference: Addis Ketema Sub-City,

The Private Enterprises


Organisations, Roles and Responsibilities: At present in Addis Ababa three types of
private enterprises are involved in collecting, separating and recycling and to a very limited extent transporting of solid wastes (SBPDA, 2005). The private enterprises engaged in door to door collection of solid waste and recycling activity are of two types- formal and informal. The private sector mostly includes micro enterprises and hundreds of individuals. In addition, the formal micro enterprises engaged in the area are of the ones privately owned and the ones which are established by Kebele Micro and Small Scale Enterprises Development Office in line with the poverty reduction and job creation program of Addis Ababa City Government. Nobody seems to know exactly how many private enterprises and MSSEs are operating in the city at present. The only information I got on the private sector is related to MSSEs

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operating in Addis Ketema at the beginning of 2005.

The expert working in Trade,

Industry and Development Office told me that they have organised 18 MSSEs in 2005. Regarding the private sector operating in the city, according to SBPDA report, in 2004, 149 registered micro enterprises and 8 small scale enterprises were operating in the city. However, the officials of relevant offices explained that at present only 4 small enterprises are operating in solid waste collection and transporting service. According to the relevant guidelines, the solid waste service that private enterprises are allowed to involve in are door to door collection and transportation to municipality owned communal collection points, transporting solid wastes to or from communal collection point to disposal site and recycling of solid wastes (AACG, 2004). Accordingly, all private enterprises that are engaged in solid waste service have the responsibilities of preparing solid waste collection schedule; keeping solid waste until properly disposed or put in to use; maintaining the safety of the environment while rendering services; and using barrows with lid or sacks tied at mouth for collection and transporting solid wastes.

Private sector enterprise employee collecting wastes from households

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Human Resources: Nobody seems to now exactly how many private enterprises and MSSE are operating in the city at present. The only information the researcher got regarding the number of the private sector was related to MSSEs operating in Addis Ketema at the beginning of 2005. The expert working in Trade, Industry and Development Office explained that they have organised 18 MSSEs in 2005. Regarding the private sector operating in the city, according to SBPDA report, in 2004, 149 registered micro enterprises and 8 small scale enterprises were operating in the city. However, the officials of relevant offices explained that at present only 4 small enterprises are operating in solid waste collection and transporting service. A study conducted on a sample of 48 micro and small enterprises indicated that the total number of work force engaged in delivering solid waste service in the year 2004 were 853. And according to the same study the number of employees working in a single enterprise ranges from 6 persons to 93 persons. Technical Resource: The working equipment of the micro enterprises engaged in the city includes simple push carts, wheel barrows, shovels, forks, hoes, brooms, and other simple tools. But the equipment that single small enterprises are expected to posses for getting

permit of operation are at least two appropriate trucks each having a minimum carrying capacity of 8m wastes and communal waste collection containers with the capacity between 7 to 8m in case of delivering communal service. In case of delivering service to households, the small enterprise is expected to supply plastic or other type of containers of appropriate sizes (SBPDA, 2004). According to the above mentioned report, the total

number of equipment employed by private enterprises in the year 2004 was 10 vehicles, 315 wheel carts, 127 shovels, 102 forks and other simple hand tools. The same report indicates that between November and April 2004, the small scale enterprises engaged in solid waste collecting and transporting services disposed about 4,275m solid wastes at the landfill site. Financial Resources: The annual operating capital of the micro enterprises is below Birr 10,000 or USD 1000. The private organisation operating with the yearly operation capital falling between USD 1100 and 5,556 are classified under the group of small enterprises. 63

The small scale enterprises charge USD 2.22/ m solid wastes. The Micro enterprises charges between USD 0.33 to 0.56 for twice weekly collection from house holds and on average of USD 4.44 for day to day collection service delivered to small business, restaurants and other similar establishments. Regarding the basis of charge determination the interviewee operating in micro enterprises and city officials indicated that the service charge of this group is determined by taking the number of family members, volume of waste, and house hold income into consideration while the service charge of the small scale enterprises is fixed by the municipality.

Informal Sector
The informal sector involved in solid waste management service in Addis Ababa comprises unregistered, unregulated family or individual owned micro scale enterprises, individual door to door collectors and scavengers from communal containers, streets and land fill site. The sector involves at the first level individual door to door collectors who buys or barters recyclable wastes such as old cloths and shoes, papers, old exercise books, news papers, broken kitchen and other house hold utensils, plastic and glass made containers, tins and other scrap materials etc. and scavengers who picks wastes from street, communal containers and land fill site. The second level constitutes middle men who receive recyclable wastes from the door to door collectors and scavengers. The businesses operating at this level are mostly small shops engaged simply in buying and distributing activity and workshops which are engaged in modifying house hold items and vehicle spare parts. Most of these businesses and workshops are located in Merkato - Addis Ketema Sub-City. The researcher found out that the businesses operating at this level are operating in between formal and informal sector. Many of the business have licence for engaging in retail or whole selling business activities. Though, the recycling businesses is conducted mostly informally it is highly organised and networked activity that reaches the whole country with its long tentacle.

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Waste separation and recycling business in Merkato (Addis Ketema)

The number individuals and informal micro enterprises engaged in solid waste management related activities are not known. But it is known that hundreds of individual collectors scour the city to buy or barter scrap materials form households. Regarding scavengers, SBPDA (2004) reported that in 2004 about 300 individuals were earning their lively hood from picking wastes from the land fill site. In addition, the workers of MSSEs are engaged in separating and selling of recyclables out of the solid wastes they collect from the households.

Addis Ababa City Sanitation, Beautification and Park Development Agency


Organisation, Roles and Responsibilities: As it is shown by figure 5, solid waste tasks
are organised under operation department in three teams, namely, solid waste collection and administration team, transport administration and maintenance team and land fill administration team. As the role of the agency is related to regulatory, and policy formulation, its responsibilities include preparing city level solid waste management framework; reviewing, monitoring and coordinating sub-cities waste management plans and programmes; granting permit, following up, and evaluating service rendering enterprises; coordinating government and NGOs government organisations working in solid waste management related tasks; building the citys capacity with regard to solid 65

waste management; and establishing, developing and administering landfills, transfer stations and material recovery facilities (SBPDA, 2004) (see annex 2). Human Resource: The agency has 73 employees out of which 5 experts and technicians and 14 landfill workers are involved in the solid waste related tasks under operation department excluding the officials and supervisors and park development and administration department and supporting staff (SBPDA, 2004).

Table 8: Human Resource - SBPDA


S/N 1 2 3 4 Title/Position Operation Department Head Division Heads Experts and professionals Land fill workers Total employed 1 3 5 14

Reference: SBPDA Report 2003.

Technical Resources: Under the present arrangement, the agency is responsible for the administration of the only landfill site the city has and the 2 bull dozers and 2 compactors working on the landfill site. Besides, the landfill has been used for disposing the citys solid waste for 40 years now. Despite the fact that the site has no separate system for storing and disposing dangerous wastes, leather processing industries are allowed to dispose hazardous wastes at the landfill (SBPDA, 2004). Due to old age, lack of preventive maintenance and spare parts, the few vehicles working at the landfill break down several times. Financial Resource: Review of the powers and function of the agency provided by relevant legal documents and guidelines indicated that the agency has no power in raising its own revenue. The city government has started charging indirect tax for sanitation services calculated at 5% of the household water bill starting last year. In addition, the city collects indirect tax from Chat9 sellers and collects about USD 0.44/m wastes disposed at

Chat is a mild intoxicating green leaf brought to the city every day in large quantity. Since only the young leaf are consumed large amount of stem that is thrown away everyday are creating large quantity of wastes ever day.

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the land fill site by small enterprises and other organisations (AACG, 2004; SBPDA, 2003). Presently, the agencys only revenue source is the budget allocated from the city government (SBPDA, 2003). However, the interviewed officials indicated that the revenue generated from indirect taxes and disposal charges goes directly to the city coffer. Besides, the review of the financial performance report of the city reveals that the city does not even have separate revenue title neither for sanitary taxes nor for waste disposal charges (FEDB, 2005). Furthermore, the collection of the indirect taxes and charges is not well organised and not directly related to service provision (SBPDA, 2003). The SBPDA (2004) report indicates that the share of the solid waste management service from the total city expenditure is on average 1%. The reviewed financial report of Addis Ababa City shows that during the 2003/04 and 2004/05 budget years, the total budget allocated to SBPDA was USD 7,057,778 and 371,111 respectively. The share of CSBPDA from the total budget in the same budget years amounts 5.39% and 0.18% respectively. Examination of the capital expenditures of the same years shows that SBPDAs capital expenditures were 9.59% and 0.02% of the total city capital expenditure (See annex 7). Graph 1: AACG Vs SPPDA Expenditure: 2003/04 to 2004/05 Budget Year
Expenditure in USD 250000000 200000000 150000000 AACG Expenditure 100000000 50000000 0 2003/2004 Budget Years 2004/2005 SBPDA Expenditure

Source: AACG Finance and Economic Development Bureau 2003/2004 to 2004/2005

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Service Users Households, Business, Shops and Other Organisations


Addis Ketema Sub-City accommodates the biggest market of the country. About 14,800 legal businesses, 24 Kindergartens, 36 schools, 9 churches and mosques and 39 health care centres are operating in the area. In addition, the Sub-City is the home of 320,389 residents (AKSC, 2006, and ORAMP, 2002). Though there are hundreds of small work shops mostly engaged in producing household items there are no big industries in the area.

Waste Management: The findings of this research show that waste separation is widely
practiced in the area. The biggest waste recycling business in the country is operating in Addis Ketema Sub-City. The interviewed residents in the area under study reported that they sell or barter old clothes, shoes and broken household plastic utensils, cooking pans to door to door collectors. The business owners also made clear that they separate and sell most of the card boards, paper containers, news papers and synthetic and plastic containers. All interviewed community leaders and Kebele officials pointed out that waste separation is a usual practice in Addis Ketema Sub-City. Regarding storing and disposition of wastes, the interviewed residents said that they store their wastes in old buckets or synthetic sacks when they are sure of getting services, otherwise they will through away their wastes into rivers or to a place where it is already dirty with solid wastes. Asked about the reason why they are doing so, they reported that the communal containers are kept at places far away from their living areas. Some of the respondents also explained that some Kebele residents are irresponsible when it comes to solid waste disposal. The business owners in their part responded that they do not store their solid wastes for more than one day due to lack of storing space. Thus, they said that they employ formal or informal door to door collectors to remove their wastes from their area of business on daily basis. Asked about what they do when there is no waste collection service, both the sample residents and business men responded that they have never thrown away wastes on to forbidden areas. However, the leaders of Idirs and Kebele officials reported that throwing 68

away of wastes is practiced both by residents and business owners. The difference between the residents and the business owners, according to the interviewed community leaders, the residents mostly use the member of their households while the business owners employ children and irresponsible individuals to dispose wastes. The Kebele officials are also of the same opinion. Regarding the reason for solid waste mismanagement, the officials and community leaders to a large extent associate the practice with bad behaviour, and being irresponsible and to some extent lack of awareness. Satisfaction on Service Provided: Both residents and business men responded that solid waste management service has been improving for the last few months. However, they commented that they are not sure whether or not this improvement is long lasting. Their ground for being pessimists was that the improvement was due to the cleaning campaign to get rid of the recently developed epidemic which caused death in some areas. The sample residents and business men thought that the cleaning may not continue after the disease is eradicated. Surprisingly, both officials of Kebele 13/15 reinforced the views of the

residents and business men. Willingness to pay: Most of the interviewed sample residents said that they are willing to pay as long as they get timely service. Moreover, they commented that compared to the service they receive, the amount of money they are charged is very low. Interviewed business owners also confirmed that they are willing to pay provided they get timely services. The Kebele officials and the Idir leaders agree the amount of money the private sector is charging at present for the collection of wastes is low. Thus, it seems that they have their own reservations about the sustainability of the service with such a low fee. They are also doubtful about the willingness of the community to pay a higher fee. Asked to explain their doubt of the paying capacity of the community in case the fee increases, both the Idir leaders and the Kebele Officials pointed out that an estimated 80% of the populations of the Kebele are earning their lively hood from engaging themselves in small micro scale informal businesses. Thus, the affordability of increasing fee is questionable.

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Willingness to Participate: Most of the interviewed Kebele dwellers and business owners said that they are willing to participate in solid waste management as long as the local governments are willing to organise the tasks. Asked about to what extent they are willing to participate in the solid waste management, the interviewees responded that since they believe that management of solid waste is the responsibility of local governments they are willing to participate only in keeping their immediate vicinity clean and in occasional neighbourhood campaigns. Some of them also commented that the municipality is usually unable to remove the already collected solid wastes during cleaning campaigns. They further commented that from what they see in their areas the timely removal of wastes from communal containers is becoming more and more frustrating. The community leaders and the Kebele officials also share the idea of keeping the neighbourhood clean and participation in cleaning campaign as the highest form of participation that they expect from the community members.

Partners City Sanitation and Care Council


Organisation, Roles and Responsibilities: Regulation No. 13/2004 Article 28 indicates
that a city sanitation and care council is established at each level comprising of representatives of different government and NGOs government organisations, community associations, higher education, research institutions, and prominent personalities. However, the data gathered for this study reveal that at present these committees are organised only at Kebele level. The duty of the sanitation council according to Regulation No. 13/2004 Article 28 is to deliberate the city sanitation and beautification matters. Apart from this, no legal document, guideline or any kind of written documents are found that explain the roles and responsibilities of the council. The informal discussion conducted with some members of the Kebele sanitation committee reveals that detail roles and responsibilities of the sanitary committee are yet to evolve. Nonetheless, the roles and responsibilities of the sanitation committees seems to include educating the community on sanitary related matters, playing 70

intermediary role between the community and Kebele Administration, monitoring illegal disposal of wastes and facilitating its removal and working together with Kebele Administration to find solutions to sanitary problems.

Capacity: According to the documents the researcher inspected, the number of sanitation
council in a given Kebele depends on the number of menders10 it has. Therefore, Kebele13/15, (from Addis Ketema Sub-City,) has 24 sanitation councils. The members of the councils are elected from the community on public gathering called for the same purpose. Despite the provision of the regulation regarding the composition of the council members, the councils in the study area include only individuals elected from residents of Kebele 13/15. Two Kebele Sanitarians interviewed explained that due to the fact that

council members are working during their free time without any financial or other incentives, it is difficult for them to know how many individuals are working as members of sanitation councils at present. However, the estimated number of individual council member ranges from a minimum 5 to a maximum 7.

Community Based Organisations Idirs


Roles and Responsibilities: The organisational structure of Idirs includes Management
Committee, Executive Committee, and General Assembly. Though there is a slight difference in the number of the committee members, the position held by the committee members is similar in every Idir. Accordingly, the Management committees of the Idir consist of Yeidir Dagna11, Deputy Yeidir Dagana, Secretary, Assistant Secretary, Accountant and Auditor. The leaders of the Idirs are elected every two years by the general assembly. At City level the city government has organised Idir council including representatives of all formally registered Idirs in the city. However, both the city officials and Idir leaders explained that apart from being called for exchanging information and being asked to mobilise people for development and health related campaigns, they did not see any visible contributions or important role being played by the council.

10 Mender is an equivalent of neighbourhood 11 Yiedir Dagna is an equivalent of Chairperson.

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The interview result obtained from the sample

Idir leaders indicates that the main

objectives of the organisation is providing financial and labour assistance when there is a death incident in the member household and providing financial assistance in case of accidents considered beyond the capacity of the members. The leaders have also reported that due to the increasing death from HIV/AIDS they have started to consider the question of looking ways and means of financially assisting infected members, HIV orphans and old people left without family support. The Idir leaders and Kebele officials emphasised that besides financial contribution, Idirs are playing a vital role mobilising the community to participate in neighbourhood cleaning campaigns and other infrastructure development works. The Kebele officials indicated that they get significant cooperation from the community when they manage to convince Idir leaders so as to carry out their project or campaigns. Regarding solid waste management tasks both Idir leaders and Kebele officials agree that, at present, they are playing an important role in educating the community about the importance of proper solid waste management and the dangerous associated with irresponsible disposing of wastes. Number of Idirs and Their Ages: According to the information gathered from the Kebele officials chosen for this study there are about 39 strong Idirs in Kebeles 13/15. These Idirs are considered to be strong due to the role they are playing in educating their members about issues related to HIV/AIDS, their involvement in development programmes and their ability of designing their own action plan. Out of five Idirs selected for this study the oldest Idir was founded in 1969. Capital: The capital of Idirs includes money collected from members, materials such as tents, chairs, cooking and eating utensils. Number of Members: Membership in Idir is possible through the head of the house hold. Therefore, a member could be a female or male depending on whom the head of the family is. Among the sample Idirs, the largest with respect to number of members is Addis Hiwot

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Idir with 270 member house holds while the smallest is St Hanna Idir with 90 members. Revenue and Expenditure: The revenue source of all Idirs is the members monthly contribution. However, if the capital of the Idir goes down due to unusual high expense, members contribute a fixed amount of money for a limited time. According to the

information the researcher got from the sample Idir leaders, the monthly contribution is between USD 2.00 to 1.00 (See Table 10)..

The expenditure of Idir contains payment made to members in case of death, money paid for buying tents, chairs, cooking and eating utensils.

Idir Leaders

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Representativeness: The members of the Idirs are of different economic status, both male
and female or adults who are willing to join and who are living in the same neighbourhood. There is no discrimination based on ethnicity, religion, sex or physical disability. Idirs are usually organised by people living in the same neighbourhood. However, membership does not expire because of moving out to another neighbourhood. It can be transferred from parents to children with payment of limited amount for re-registration. Therefore, all the five selected Idirs embrace members living in the same neighbourhood, or even members who moved out to other areas of the city for various reasons but would like to stay in the Idir.

Accountability: The interviewed Idir leaders and some community members whom the
researcher informally talked to made clear that almost all Idirs in the Kebele have their own rules and regulations which the leaders should abide by. Some of the duties that Idir leaders carry out are: facilitating election of leaders every two years reporting the financial position of the Idir initiating members to contribute in improving and revisiting the regulations open a and running saving account the in the name of the Idir adopt, change or formulate new regulations. This is possible only after the leaders get the confirmation of the general assembly Table 9: Selected Idirs: Basic Information Year of Name Ragueal Idir St. Gabreal Idir St. Hana Idir Addis Hiwot Tatek Idir Number of Members Female Male Total 125 59 42 50 265 179 92 270 130 Monthly Contribution 2.00 1.44 1.22 1.11 2.00

Establish 1973 140 1969 1992 1984 1980 120 50 80

Reference: Own compiled from data gathered during the research.

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Development Work Experience: All Idir leaders reported that they are always ready to
engage themselves in development activities. Asked about their previous experience in development activities, they responded that their Idir contributed money for the expansion of schools. The leaders also mobilised their members to contribute their labour and money for the construction of roads and bridges and also for cleaning campaigns. Willingness to Engage in Solid Waste Management Tasks: The opinion of the Idir leaders and some community members regarding the participation of Idirs in solid waste management is surprisingly similar, i.e., both agree that it is the responsibility of the local government. Asked about the role of the community, all Idir leaders and the interviewed individuals said that the Idirs can play significant role in educating the community. Their main reasons not to engage in the management of the service are that they are suspicious of the sustainability of the project initiated by local governments, being afraid of left saddled with the responsibility beyond their administration and financial capacity and not being sure of that solid waste management is at present the priority agenda of their members. All interviewed Idir leaders made clear that there is lack of willingness and commitment on the part of the local government to enforce regulations for exacerbation of solid waste problem in the area. Surprisingly, the officials of local government agree with this comment which says that the code enforcement section of the local governments gives little attention to the solid waste regulations. Some interviewed Individual members of the selected Idirs also confirmed these opinions saying that the main problem lies with the inability of the local government to implement its own regulations. In addition, the interviewed dwellers of Kebele 13/15 said that their priority is water supply and the availability of decent toilets. Asked about their comment on the involvement of Idirs in solid waste management tasks, the opinion of the Kebele dwellers is that they do not mind the involvement of Idirs as long as the government is refrained from interfering in the day to day operation of Idirs.

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Addis Ababa Code Enforcement Service


Article 27 (a) and (b) of Proclamation No. 13/2004 gave the responsibility of assigning code enforcement personnel, who ensure the respect of sanitary service of the city and control illegal disposition of wastes. Moreover, the code enforcement personnel are

empowered to impose penalties on the spot.

Trade and Industry Development Office (TIDO)


The office is responsible to organise, encourage and train micro and small scale enterprises engaged in solid waste management services. The Office is also expected to facilitate credit and other organisational and institutional support (SBPDA, 2005) The Trade and Industry Office discharges these responsibilities through offices organised at each tiers of government, Sub-City Trade and Industry Offices and Kebele Micro and Small Enterprises Development Offices. In summary, the office is responsible for granting licence to private enterprises interested to engage in solid waste service management activities; organising and facilitating financial, technical and training support for micro and small enterprises; and maintaining and sharing information related to micro and small enterprises (SBPDA, 2005).

Addis Ababa Environmental Protection Authority (AEPA)


The authority involvement in solid waste management service is related to giving support to the SBPDA in matters concerning disposal of industrial and hospital waste, preparation of landfill, prevention and control of environmental pollution. However, both SBPDA officials complained that lack of cooperation and coordination between the two organisations. One example is that the SBPDA officials complain that the AEPA unnecessary criteria regarding environmental protraction created obstacles on the SBPDA plan in selecting a new site for development of new dump site. The AEPA in its part complained that SBPDA is disregarding environmental protection concerns.

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Federal Environmental Protection Authority


Environmental Protection Authority of Ethiopia is responsible for developing policies, legal framework and standards for the management and protection of the environment. Specifically, Environmental proclamation article 5.2 and 5. 4 FDRE gave EPEA the power of monitoring and evaluating the adequacy of municipal waste management systems, monitoring the situation of and the availability of disposal facilities and ensure availability of satisfactory disposal facilities all over the country in collaboration with other relevant Organisations.

Ministry of Federal Affairs


The Ministry of Federal Affairs is given the power to follow up the activities of the city and support the city's efforts in capacity building. Moreover, the city government has an obligation to submitting annual and periodic performance reports on its plan, budget and the overall state affairs of the state (FGE, 2003).

Non-Governmental Organisations
At present, in Addis Ababa City there is no NGOs directly engaged in solid waste management or related tasks. Though, solid waste management is not yet a priority agenda of most of NGOs operating in the city, some of them working in health, poverty reduction and employment creation, and environmental protection areas are considered as potential partners. The objectives and the roles of the potential partners and NGOs are summarised in Table 10.

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Table 10: NGOs indirectly involved in SWM in Addis Ababa


Organisation
ENDA Ethiopia: It is the branch of Environmental Development Action in the Third World NGOs governmental organisation based in Dakar, Senegal

Objectives
Support local initiatives to fight poverty, preserve or improve environment and promote active citizenship.

Present Work
Presently it involves in supporting the efforts of grass roots groups in Addis Ababa to improve living within their environment. Specifically, the organisation is involved in training local government staffs and other community members on preparation of compost.

Plan Ethiopia:

World wide NGOs governmental organisation working to achieve lasting improvements for children living in poverty in developing countries

Involved in sanitary education and maintenance of water and sanitation schemes, support construction of latrines Work to facilitate access to safe water to protect against childhood disease and to mange water resources efficiently

CCF (Christian Childrens Fund)

Works to identifying and addressing the root causes of poverty, alleviating child poverty, vulnerability and deprivation

Gashe Abera Mola Project

The NGOs governmental organisation that has served as the driving force in mobilising the youth to clean and green the Addis Ababa

Involved in cleaning and greening the city and creating a job for un employed youth. The project was a winner of a 2000 award for contributing significantly to sanitary condition in Addis Ababa

Gashe Abera Mola Project

The NGOs governmental organisation that has served as the driving force in mobilising the youth to clean and green the Addis Ababa

Involved in cleaning and greening the city and creating a job for un employed youth. The project was a winner of a 2000 award for contributing significantly to sanitary condition in Addis Ababa

Clean and Green Addis Society

Working to improve environmental sanitation in Addis Ababa

Involved in greening the squares, street and side ways in model areas, organising cleaning campaigns, and other related activities

Reference: Own compiled from data compiled during the research

5.4 Summary
The importance of solid waste management service was recognised as early as 19 century though it takes the Addis Ababa city decades to establish independent body solely 78

responsible for handling the whole range of activities at each level of the Government strata. Remarkable progresses were achieved since 1997. The establishment of Addis Ababa City Sanitation and Beautification and Park Development Agency in 2003, the foundation of environmental policy in 1997 and environmental pollution control laws in 2002, the introduction of regulation for collecting and disposing solid wastes in 2004 were all the main achievements for the past few years. Though Addis Ababa is fairly urbanised city the per capita solid waste generation capacity of the population is estimated to reach only 0.252dg/person/day. The major solid waste generators are households and the type of the waste is mainly organic in nature. At present the daily per capita waste generation in the city is 251.9 m/day. Regarding the composition of the waste, 60% of the waste is considered to be organic in nature. Due to household waste separation practices, only 15% of the daily collected waste is recyclable. However, the same estimate puts about 70% of the waste as the part that can be used for production of organic fertlisers and biogas. Regarding the sources of waste, 65% householdes are the main source of the solid waste in Addis Ababa. The formal management of solid wastes of the city has to do with only collecting, transferring and disposing activities. However, waste separation and recycling is widely practiced by householdes and individual and business men who run their own businesses informally.. The government and NGOs-government bodies that are directly involved in solid waste management comprises Addis Ababa City Sanitation Beautification and Park Development Agency, Sub-City Sanitation, Beautification and Park Development Team, Kebele Sanitation and Beutification Coordinator and the private sector that consists formal micro and small scale enterprises and informal door to door collectors. The actors that are not directly involved but important for the well functioning of the solid waste management are Idirs, the Federal and City level Environmental Protection Agency and Minstry of Federal Affairs, the Code Enforcement service and Trade and Industry Devlopment Office at City level and NGOs-Governmental Organisation operating in environmental protection, poverity reduction and related areas. 79

Table 11: Summary of Actors Solid - Waste Management


Roles
Collection from communal containers, transporting and street sweeping Regulating, monitoring and supporting MSCEs Adopting and implementing Revenue generating schemes

Actors
Local government Sub-city Kebele administration

Capacity
Low human, financial, vehicles and infrastructure capacity

Formal Private sector Micro enterprises Small enterprises

Door to door waste collection Transporting of wastes Street sweeping

Very low human, financial, vehicles and infrastructure capacity Use rudimentary tools

Informal Private Sector


Individual door to door collectors Small recycling business Waste pickers

Door to door waste collection and separation Recycling wastes Picking recyclable wastes from land fill sites and communal containers

Use rudimentary tools Disorganised Lacks financial capacity

SBPDA EPA MFA Code Enforcement Office

Provision of policy and legal frame work and standards Regulating, monitoring, supporting and build the capacity of local governments Supporting and coordinating service giving organisations Develop and administer land fill sites Grant permit and competency certificate to private sector

Lacks enforcement capacity Limited financial, human and institutional capacity

City Sanitation and care Council

Deliberate on sanitation issues

Very low human, financial, vehicles and infrastructure capacity

Community Based Organisations

Educate and raise the awareness of the community Mobilise the community labour and financial contribution

Have almost all the house holds as members Have the trust of the community Organisational and institutions capacity

NGOs Governmental Organisations

Compost preparation and use training Hygiene education and training

Very low human, financial, vehicles and infrastructure capacity

CHAPTER SIX
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This chapter presents the conclusions drawn from the findings of the study and the recommendations forwarded by the researcher based on the findings.

6.1 Introduction
The aim of this study was to investigate how solid waste management is practiced in Addis Ababa, Addis Ketema Sub-City, Kebele 13/15 and the other actors involved in the management of the service together with their present and potential capacity. It also aims finding out the possible partner organisations that can cooperate with the local government to deliver effective solid waste service to the Kebele dwellers. The hypothesis crudely formulated at the beginning of the study was that community based organisations could be possible partners in this regard. The case study approach was selected for addressing the problem under investigation. Addis Ababa city was selected for the reason that it is the capital city of the country of significant population size, the only prime city which has relatively developed service regarding solid waste management. The possibility that any solutions appropriate for Addis Ababa, at least theoretically, can be replicated in other towns in Ethiopia, makes Addis Ababa convenient for the research. The study was specifically conducted at three levels of analysis: Addis Ababa City, Addis Ketema Sub-City and Kebele 13/15. In general, I can point out that recent achievements related to policy formulation, promulgation of waste management regulation and privatisation improved solid waste management in Addis Ababa. This is justified by the following findings; the door to door collection service has improved due to the involvement of MSSEs, the city seems more clean than it was for years, the population started to appreciate the importance of proper storing and disposal of wastes and evidences showed that the service is getting increased attentions of the FDRE and AACG and local governments since the past few years. 81

Despite the above achievements, the findings of the study showed that solid waste management service in Addis Ababa still lacks due attention and there are some issues which put a question mark on the sustainability of the achievements and success of the government effort towards improving the effectiveness of the service delivery. The main challenges that stand on the way to be successful are mainly associated with the governance of the service, i.e., such as lack of institutional and organisational capacity, inadequate policy and legal instruments, lack of integration among public organisations and between public and private sector organisations and meaningful participation of the community are still limiting the effectiveness of solid waste management service. The main findings of the study regarding the institutional arrangement, policy and legal instruments, resource mobilisation, planning practice and participation of the community are summarised as follows.

6.2 Summary of the Findings 6.2.1 Institutional Arrangement


The formal phases of the solid waste management in the city constitute collection, transporting and disposing phases and it is done in old conventional end of pipe approach. There is no strong and well tailored policy or practical intervention that encourages waste separation and recycling at household levels as well as by small scale enterprises. However, in reality waste separation and recycling is widely practiced in the city. The responsibility of the service was completely decentralized to local governments. However the decentralization process stopped short of decentralizing significant

responsibility to the lowest level of local government in the city -Kebele Administrations. Moreover, decentralization in the city was not accompanied with sufficient allocation of fiscal resources. Integration and coordination among different levels of local governments, between public organizations and other service delivery organizations and partner organizations are still lacking. Furthermore, mechanisms that allow feed back on planning, evaluation, upgrading, flow of relevant experience, innovation and knowledge from both

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local and external professional organizations and research institutes to local governments is still lacking. Privatization is allowed starting 2004. However, it seems that privatization is adopted too hastily before the city managed sufficient regulatory and monitoring capacity. Nonetheless, up to the present days the service fails to attract bigger private enterprises mainly due to law profitability. Thus, currently only MSSEs are engaged in the primary part of the solid waste management service.

6.2.2 Legal Instruments


Absence of country wide as well as city level clear policy and law regarding solid waste management in the city created confusion, weak integration and poor coordination among different level of public bodies. The relevant regulations have neglected the existing community based organisations - Idirs. The legal instruments are not also clear about the roles of the sanitary committees supposed to represent community participation and NGOs. In addition, lack of implementation guidelines which are instrumental for putting into practice the provision of the legal instruments have limited the successful implementation of polices and regulations issued in relation to waste management.

6.2.3 Resource Mobilisation


Solid waste service is a neglected service in Addis Ababa City. AACG is the main financier of solid waste operation and infrastructure costs in the city. Lack of adequate investment on transport vehicles for more than 10 years and on land fill site for more than 40 years shows the extent of neglect of the solid waste service in the city. Up to the present day, the share of solid waste service is only about 1% of the total city budget. It is the same in Addis Ketema Sub-City. The cities capacity regarding transporting vehicles and machineries are also very weak. In total that city owns 72 waste transporting vehicles from which only 50% are available for duty on a given day due to old age and frequent breakdown. From the total 72 the share of 83

the Addis Ketema Sub-City is only 14%. Regarding communal containers the city places only one container for the use of 3835 persons. However, in the case of Addis Ketema the container per person ratio is 1 container to 5438 persons. Regarding the human resource, the same report indicated that the total work force directly involved in solid waste delivery services are 1894 and from this only 39 are professionals. The share of Addis Ketema from the total work force is 10%. In absence of significant involvement of the private sector and the community based organisations the number of the human resources the city deployed for serving the city is very much insufficient. The only significant financier of the service operation and investment cost is the public sector. MSSEs involved in the service are using the city communal containers and disposal site. Thus, at present contribution of the private sector to resource mobilisation is

negligible. Though the city does not have well organised financial management system that allows correct determination of the service costs, responsible officials confirmed that the direct service charge, indirect taxes and other users charges imposed on service users do not cover the service costs. The sanitation charges are collected by the city and directly transferred to the city government coffer. Therefore, neither SBPDA which are responsible for administration of the cities single landfill site nor the sub-cities which are directly responsible for the day to day delivery of sanitary services are directly in control of the revenue sources.

6.2.4 Planning
Planning is probably the biggest weakness of the local governments operating the solid waste service. The study findings showed that the city has no city wide solid waste plan. Neither the SBPDA and nor Sub-Cities has systematic data base on profiles and basic information of solid waste management service. Besides, few months have passed since the responsible body for reviewing and monitoring of Sub-City plans and maintaining data

84

base at SBPDA is closed due to the resignation of the department head. The agency did not manage to replace him up to now.

6.2.5 Participation
Regarding community participation the city tries to engage the community through creating City Sanitation and Care council. However, after five years of effort the city has managed to create the council only at Kebele Administration level. Besides, the objectives, duties and functions of these counsels are still not clearly formulated. And neither the local governments nor the council members have clear idea of what role these organisations are expected to play in the management of the service. In contrast the city has showed little interest of integrating strong community based organisations such as Idirs despite their significant community mobilisation capacity. The fact that Idirs has proved several times that they have the community trust and organisational capacity to manage infrastructure and other community activities seems to have little influence on government decisions towards involving them in waste management tasks. It seems that the city is wasting its time creating new organisation from scratch instead of tapping the already existing, organised and trusted CBO Idir. In spite of the limited interest from the government part, the assessment of Idirs in the case area revealed that Idirs are very much aware of the importance of participation for the improvement of the solid waste service. However, Idirs willingness to participate in solid waste management tasks are limited to educating and raising the awareness activities, mobilising community labour and finance for the betterment of the service and consulting the local governments about the preferences of the community. The findings also showed that the Idirs are unwillingness to involve more deeply in to the management of service is the result of previous bad experiences regarding government actions. The community feels that government actions are unsustainable. Moreover, the majority of the population feels that service delivery is fully the responsibility of government and blames government inadequacy rather than lack of participation for poor service delivery.

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Regarding NGO, the findings of the research showed that the majority of the NGOs in Addis Ababa are not interested in solid waste management activities. Few NGOs which are working in job creation, poverty alleviation, community health and environmental protection area have contributed to the improvement of the service indirectly.

Box 7: Summary of Opportunities and Challenges of SWM Addis Ababa City Opportunities
The provision of the FDRE Constitution for citizens right to clean and healthy environment The existence of Environmental Policy The existence of AACG waste management, collection and regulation policy Existence of law and regulation that provides for decentralisation and privatisation of the service The existence of laws and regulation and policy for involving the community into the service Decentralisation of the service Privatisation of the process The introduction of service user charge The willingness of the community to pay for solid waste management service The community based organisations are willing to participate in solid waste management service through educating and raising the awareness of the community and mobilising the labour and financial contribution of the community,

Challenges
Lack of the waste management policy Lack of federal level waste management regulation Inefficient use of scarce resources, i.e., transporting vehicles Lack of proper financial management mechanism that assists correct determination of the cost of the service; Inadequate financing of the service and lack Limited community involvement Lack of NGOs interest to involve in solid waste services Inadequate integration between service provision and support organisations Lack mechanism to allow feed back on planning, evaluation and upgrading mechanisms Lack of mechanisms that allows professionals and institutions to share experience, transfer innovation for upgrading the service and planning of the service provision; Separation of function responsibility and enforcement power Weak implementation capacity Absence of Impact assessment Lack of organised data base about profile of waste and performance of the sector Lack of comprehensive solid waste management plan

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6.3 Theory vs. Findings


The findings of the study clearly supports the conclusion of Berstein (2004) and Cointreatru (2001) which shows that effectiveness in service delivery is dependent on the cooperation and involvement of both the private and public sector actors and the integration of their effort throughout the cycle of waste management. In addition, Schbeler(1996) shows that sustainability of effective waste management service is dependant on the planning, institutional and financial capacity of the local governments, the involvement of the private sector and community participation. The present improvement in cleanness of the city, the enthusiasm of the community and Idirs and the increased attention of the local governments are the result of the recent government decisions related to decentralisation, privatisation and limited community participation. The present concern about the sustainability the improvement in solid waste management service is the result of lack of integration among different local and federal level government institutes, lack of coordination between the public and the private sector and the disinterest of the government to meaningfully participate the community based organisations which truly represents the community. There is also confusion on who is responsible to follow up the integration of the informal sector into the formal system. So up to the present day the informal sector is not integrated in the system and the city has no clear plan regarding the integration of this sector in the near future. Challenges associated with institutional capacity such as conflicting interests, duplication of roles, functions and responsibilities are often cited as the limiting factors to the success of decentralisation and the enforcement capacity of local governments (Palczynski, 2002). In addition, inappropriate organisation, inadequacy and in some cases absence of internal procedures, rules and regulations are observed decreasing the quality, quantity and coverage of public services (UN-DESA, 2003). The Addis Ababa City officials point their finger at each other regarding the implementation and enforcement of the provisions of polices and regulations due to gap 87

created by hastily designed and implemented decentralisation and privatisation measures and lack of detailed implementation guidelines, procedures and standards. These weaknesses limited the success of the present encouraging changes and put the question mark on sustainability of the achievements the city has managed to register up to date.

6.4

Conclusion

The involvement of the private sector, both formal and informal, has improved solid waste management service in the city to large extent. The success is mainly the result the involvement of the MSSEs which are providing door to door collection service with service charge that is affordable by the majority of the house holds. The low service charge is made possible through indirect subsidy provided to MSSEs. For example, the city has allowed the MSSEs to use municipality owned infrastructure free of charges. The effort of creating new community organisations disregarding existing CBOs has robbed AACG strong partners which might have achieved significant sustainable result in improving the service especially in the poor parts of the city. Also lack of recognition and disregard of the informal sector by the existing legal instruments is costing the city a possibility of having successful supporting service provider. There is legal instrument gap that led to confusion of roles and lack of coordination among public sector organisations and between the public and the private sector and the role of the community in the service.

6.5 Recommendations
Sustainable solid waste management is achieved through integrating waste management objectives with social objectives, ensuring cost recovery of the service, raising the awareness of the community, and guaranteeing reliable and effective service. Thus, following recommendations are forwarded for the betterment of the effectiveness of the solid waste management service in Addis Ababa City.

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Measures Required from Federal Level


The Federal Government of Ethiopia should develop and issue country wide waste management policy and regulations. Further regulatory and policy making responsibility should be given to new organisation established solely for this purpose or assigned to relevant existing institution. Since the investment required to upgrade the city solid waste management capacity is very large the Federal Government should assist the city government in financing the city solid waste infrastructure.

Measures Required from AACG


The City should direct its effort towards improving administration, and the institutional arrangement of the service to allow integration, information flow and exchange of experience and innovation; The City should build its regulatory and monitoring capacity to monitor and regulate the private sector operation; The city should lead its solid waste operation base on city wide plan. Thus, it needs to improve its planning capacity through building the capacity of the planning department and establishing systematic data base; Service charges should be determined based on correct determination of costs. Thus, the city needs to establish proper financial management mechanisms that allows correct determination of costs of the service; The improvement of the solid waste management service depends on involvement of the community as well as improvements in other area. Therefore, the city should encourage the involvement of established community based organisations such as Idirs through capacity building and other incentive mechanisms and determine their proper role and responsibility in the management of the service; The city should optimise the use of existing organisations in hat ever form they are operating. Therefore, the city should integrate and build the capacity of the informal sector to upgrade their services delivery capacity; Lastly, the city should invest on the disposal site, transporting vehicles and other proper technologies;

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6.6 Further Study


Finally, it has been mentioned that at the beginning of the study a simple hypothesis was formulated regarding the possible partnership between local governments and community based organisations for effective provision of solid waste management services. Though the topic is very relevant to the current situation of the City, time limitation and shortage of resources were major constraints so as to investigate the problem thoroughly. Thus, the researcher recommends that further study should be carried out. In addition, it seems that there is a need for further study on organisation and institutional arrangement of the solid waste management service to improve the performance of the decentralisation arrangement. Further study on the profile of the service, i.e., the volume, the quantity, the composition, and generation of solid wastes in Addis Ababa appears to be essential to improve the solid waste management system.

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REFERENCE
__________ 'Urban Solid Waste Management', (updated December 22, 2006) <http://web.worldbank.org/sebsote/EXTERMAL/TOPICS/exturbandevelopment/E XTUSWM>. _________ 'Guidelines on Pollution Release and Transfer Registry (PRTR) ', (Environmental Protection Authority). _________ 'Private Sector Participation in municipal solid waste management, world bank tool kit, ' World Bank Tool Kit <http://rru.worldbank.org/Documents/Toolkits/waste_mod1.pdf>, accessed 16/10/07. _________ (2003), 'Guidelines on Strategic Environmental Assessment '. _________ 'Social Assessment And Public Participation In Municipal Solid Waste Management', (updated 07/10/2006) <http://www.worldbank.org/urban/uswm/socialassesstoolkit.pdf>. _________ 'Integrated Solid Waste Management', (updated 08/08/2006) < http://ohioline.ag.ohio.state.edu>. _________ (2006), 'Controlling The Informal Sector: Solid Waste Collection And The Addis Ababa City Administration, 2003-2005', (Norwegian University Of Science And Technology). AACG (2004), 'Solid Waste Management Collection And Disposal Rgulation of the Addis Ababa City Government', (13/2004: Berhanena Selam Printing Enterprises). AACG, Addis Ababa City Government - (2006), 'Strategic Plan', (Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa City Government). Anschtz, Justine (2006), 'Community-Based Solid Waste Management And Water Supply Projects: Problems And Solutions Compared, A survey of the literature', accessed October10. Ayenew, Meheret (1999), 'The City of Addis Ababa: Policy Options for the Governance and Management of a City with Multiple Identity', (FORUM FOR SOCIAL STUDIES). Bernstein, Janis 'Tool Kit Social Assessment and Public Participation in Municipal Solid Waste Management', <http://www.worldbank.org/urban/uswm/socialassesstoolkit.pdf>. Bjerkli, Camilla Louise (2005), 'The cycle of plastic waste: An analysis on the informal plastic recovery system in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia', Master thesis ( Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Department of Geography). Bryman, Alan (1988), Quantity and Quality in Social Research (First edition edn.; London: Unwin Hyman Ltd). Chekole, Zelalem Fenta (2006), 'Controlling The Informal Sector: Solid Waste Collection And The Addis Ababa City Administration, 2003-2005', Masters (Norwegian University Of Science And Technology). ClimateZone <www.climate-zone.com>. Cointreau, Sandra 'Declaration of Principles For Sustainable and Integrated Solid Waste Management', http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTUSWM/Resources/siswm.pdf>. CSA, Central Statstical Authority- 'Population Projection', (updated 2006) 91

<http://www.csa>. Donald, C. Taylor (August 1999 ) (August 1999), 'Mobilizing resources to collect municipal solid waste: illustrative East Asian case studies Waste Management and Research', Waste Management and Research, 17 (4), 263-74. Erero, Professor Dele Olowu and Dr. John 'Governance of Nigeria's Villages and Cities through Indigenous Institutions', (updated 17/08/2006). FDRE, Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia - (1997), 'Addis Ababa City Government Charter', (87/1997: Berhanena Selam Printing Enterprise). FDRE, Federal Democratic Republic Of Ethiopia (1997), 'Environmental Policy'. FDRE, Federal Democratic Republic Of Ethiopia - (2002), 'Environmental Pollution Control Proclamation', (300/2002). FDRE, Federal Democratic Republic Of Ethiopia - (2002), 'Environmental Impact Assessment Proclamation', (299/2002). FDRE, The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (2003), 'Addis Ababa City Government Revised Charter', (361/2003). FEDB, Finance and Economic Development Bureau - (2005), 'Financial Performance Report', (Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa City Government Finance and Economic Development Bureau). Goran Tannerfeldt, Perr Ljung (2006), More Urban Less Poor (Earthscan Publiciatzions Ltd). Grindle, Merilee S. 'Good Enough Governance Revisited', (updated 28/07/2006) <http://www.odi.org.uk/speeches/states>. Hoepfl, M. C (1997), Choosing qualitative research: A primer for technology education researchers. Journal of Technology Education 47-63. ISWA, The International Solid Waste Management Association - 'Solid Waste Management Glossary', (updated September 16, 2006) <http://www.gdrc.org/uem/waste/swm-glossary.html>. Joe E. Heimlich, Kerry L. Hughes, and Ann D. Christy (2006), 'Integrated Solid Waste Management', Ohio State University Fact Sheet <http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/reduce.htm.>, accessed 08/08/2006. John Pierre, Guy B. Peters (2000.), Governance, Politics and the State (St. Martins Press, New York). Kuma, Tadesse (2004), 'Dry Waste Management in Addis Ababa City, Ethiopia.' paper given at Teaching Workshop on Accounting for Urban Environment Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, January 5th 16th, 2004. Mikkelsen, B (1995), Methods for Development Work and Research: A Guide for Practitioners (New Delhi: Sage Publication). Onibokun, Adepoju G. 'MANAGING THE MONSTER: Urban Waste and Governance in Africa', (updated 23/11/2006) <http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev>. ORRAMP, Office for the Revision of the Addis Ababa Master Plan (2000), 'City Development Plan 2001 -2010', (Office for the Revision of the Addis Ababa Master Plan). Patton, M. Q (2001), Qualitative evaluation and research methods (3rd edn.: Sage Publications Inc). Palczynski, Richard J. (2006), 'Study On Solid Waste Management Options For Africa', <http//www.afdb.org,>, accessed September 10. Peter Herrle, Alexender Jachnow and Frank Samol (2005), Improvement of Sanitation and 92

Solid Waste Management in Urban Poor Settlements (Eschborn: Deutche Gesellschaft fr, Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH). Peter Herrle, Alexender Jachnow and Astrid Ley (2006), 'The Meteropolises of the South: Labratory for Innovations? Towards Better Urban Management With New Alliances', Policy Paper, 25. Peter Schbeler in collaboration with Karl Wehrle and Jrg Christen 'Conceptual Framework for Municipal Solid Waste Management in Low-Income Countries', (updated 05/11/2006). Development Cooperation in Technology and Management)). Sandra Cointreau-Levine, Adrian Coad 'Guidance Pack Private Sector Participation in Solid Waste Management', <http://rru.worldbank.org/Toolkits/SolidWasteManagement/>, accessed 10/10/06. SBPDA - Sanitation, Beautification and Park Development Agency (2003), 'Solid Waste Management Status Report of Addis Ababa', (Sanitation, Beautification and Park Development Agency). SBPDA - City Sanitation, Beautification and Park Development Agency (2005), 'guideline issued to delimit zone of operation and service delivery procedures of micro and small enterprises engaged in solid waste service'. SBPDA - Sanitation, Beautification and Park Development Agency (2004), 'Addis Ababa City Solid Waste Management Status Report', (Addis Ababa: Sanitation, Beautification and Park Development Agency). SBPDA -Sanitation, Beautification and Park Development Agency (2004), 'Assessment of Micro and Small Enterprises Engaged in Solid Waste Management in Addis Ababa', (City Sanitation, Beautification and Park Development Agency). Shimelis Alebachew, Ethiopia (2003), 'decentralization For Effective Municipal Governance And Poverty Reduction: The Case Of Ethiopia', Paper Given At Africa Local Government Action Forum Phase III. Stanikis, J. 'Integrated Waste Management: Concept and Implementation', (updated 08/08/2006) < http://ohioline.osu.edu>. Sub-City, Addis Ketema (2005), 'Addis Ketema Sub-City Profile', in Public Relation (ed.). Tesfaye, Shewaye (1999), 'Urban Development and Management in Ethiopia: The Present Context', (Urban Development Support Office). UNDP (1997), 'Governance for Sustainable Human Development', (New York: UNDP). United Nation Environmental Program Division of Industry, Technology and Economics UNIDO (2006), <http://www.unep.org> United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs Division For Social Policy And Development 'Improving Public Sector Effectiveness', [Report of the Expert Group Meeting*]. Weakpdea (updated 20/10/2006).

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94

ANNEXES
Annex 1 Addis Ababa City Administration Organizational Structure Federal Government
Addis Ababa City Residents
Addis Ababa City Council

City Mayor
City Manager

City Court

General Auditor
City Cabinet

Land Management

Fire &Emergency service

Finance& Economic Bureau

Trade & Indus. Bur Trade & Industry Cooperative org.& Promotion

Information& Culture Bureau Information& Culture

Social & Civil Affairs Bureau

Capacity Building Bureau Civil service commission

Justice & legal Bureau

Education

Health Bureau

Infra.& Constriction works Auth

Code Enforcement Service

Finance
Dept.

Social Affairs
Non-Gov Organizatio Labor Affairs

Prosecution Office Police Commission Penitentiary Administration

Transport Authority
Cleaning & Beautification Agency

Housing Agency
Water and Sewerage

Revenue Agency Policy Studies & Plan Commission

Mass Media Theater


Cinema House Adm.

Tourist Commissi MSE Age Investmen Authority

Urban Management

Women Affairs

Productivity Improvement Center

Acts & Civil Record Service

A.A Road

Environmen Protection Authority

Envtal Developmen Urban Agriculture

Cinema Ethiopia Cinema Empire

Youth & Sport Commission

Kotebe Teachers Training College

10 sub-city council

Land Development Agency

Sub-City

Annex 2: Sanitation, Beautification and Park Development Office Function with Regard Solid Waste Management Prepare solid waste management policy and laws; and upon approval, follow up their implementation; Prepare directives and systems for effective implementation of SWM; Prepare standards criteria, guidelines and manuals on SWM; Prepare city-level solid waste management framework; Review and monitor the implementation of sub-city waste management plans; Coordinate the efforts and operation of sub-cities in implementation of solid waste management plan and programme Deal with cross cutting issues of sub-cities; Coordinate the activities of various sectoral agencies and NGOs operating on SWM; To maximum extent feasible, utilizing existing resources, provide technical and capacity building assistance, support and advice to sub-cities; Develop and prescribe procedures of appropriate permits and licenses for the private sector; Review the incentive scheme for effective solid waste management; Formulate and implement the necessary educational efforts and activities, promote awareness creation and information campaign strategies, and develop IEC materials on SWM; Organize and carry out city level, national and international events (workshop, seminar, symposium, conference, etc) on SWM; In collaboration with concerned bodies, propose fair, equitable and reasonable tariffs for SWM service delivery, Collect and compile data for research; Promote and conduct policy-oriented, operational and city-level research programmed on SWM by mobilizing internal and external resources; Make joint efforts with concerned offices or institutes for initiation of research activities; Encourage and assist the participation of private sector and micro enterprises in solid waste collection, transportation and disposal,

Recommend measures to generate resources, funding and implementation of projects and activities; Propose and adopt regulations requiring the source separation and post separation collection, segregated collection, processing, marketing and sale of organic and designated recyclable material generated in each sub-city; Establish guidelines for sitting, design, operation and maintenance of SWM facilities (materials recovery, composting, recycling, transfer, and disposal facilities); Ensure that SWM programmes conducted by various bodies comply with SWM rules and regulations; Establish multi-sectoral technical committees and special task forces as required to assist in the effective implementation of integrated SWM prorammes; Facilitate conditions that will promote the creation of domestic capacity for the development of appropriate technologies for SWM; Establish effective working relationships with international agencies and donors; Develop and administer landfills, transfer stations and materials recovery facilities, Facilitate training and education on integrated solid waste management; Establish and manage solid waste management information base and institute a sound information exchange system; Promote the development of recycling; Promote the implementation of waste minimization and reduction in sub-cities; Prepare annual city solid waste management status report; Recommend policies to eliminate barriers to waste reduction, recycling and recovery;
Reference: SSBPDA Solid Waste Management Status Report of Addis Ababa: The Way Forward

Annex 3: Powers and Function of Addis Ababa City Government Levy and collect taxes and duties on revenue sources reserved to it, ( it is odd not to find it among the listed powers of the city government on its website)*** Formulate and execute economic and social development programmes; Approves and administer its own budget; and borrow money from internal sources; Administer land and other natural resources within the territory of Addis Ababa; Establish a police force to maintain public order and peace within Addis Ababa; Establish and define the powers and duties of offices, institutions and enterprises of the City government; Determine the administration of its civil servants and their condition of work; Issue and enforce regulation and directives on matters failing within its jurisdiction; Enter into technical, economic, and cultural protocol agreements with its jurisdiction; Establish relations and enter into agreements with the organs and institutions of the Federal Government as well as with regional governments

Annex 4 List of Ethiopia Major Towns and Population size


S/N 1 2 3 4 5 5 6 8 9 10 11 Town Addis Ababa Dire Dewa Nazererth Gonder Mekele Dessie Bahir Dar Jimma D/Zeiet Awassa Harar Population 2973000 269000 228623 194773 169207 169104 167261 159009 131459 125315 122000 Share of Urban Population 24,42 2,21 1,88 1,60 1,39 1,39 1,37 1,31 1,08 1,03 1,00 South Nation, Nationalities and People Regional State Capital City State and Town Amhara National Regional State Capital Tigray National Regional State Capital Oromia National Regional State Capital National Capital Remark

Jijiga 98076 0,81 Somali National Regional State Capital 12 Ref: Prepared based on the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia 2005 Report, Addis Ababa

Annex 5 : Waste Generation Addis Ketema/Addis Ababa City-Sub City Waste Generation 10 Year Projection

Year Addis Ketemal Sub City Estimated Number of Population Daily Waste Generation Waste generation per year Total Addis Ababa City Total Population Waste Generation/day Waste Generation/year

2004/05

2005/06

2006/07

2007/08

2008/09

2009/10

2010/11

2011/12

2012/13

332564 204 74371 3035138 2014 735110

345201 211 77197 3150473 2091 763215

358319 220 80130 3270191 2170 392050

371935 228 83175 3394455 2253 822345

386068 237 86336 3523418 2338 853370

400739 246 89617 3657339 9427 885855

415967 255 93022 3796318 2519 919435

431774 275 96557 3940578 2615 954475

448181

275

100226

409320

2715

990975

Reference: Own compiled from data gathered from SBPDA

Annex 6 Environmental Policy

Summary of Environmental Policy Provisions With Regard to Waste Management To adhere to the precautionary principle of minimizing and where possible preventing discharges of substances, biological materials or their fragments from industrial plants and personal or communal appliances or any other external sources that could be harmful, and to disallow the discharge when they are likely to be hazardous; To adopt the "polluter pays" principle while endorsing the precautionary principle since pollution is likely to occur, and ensure that polluting enterprises and municipalities and wereda councils provide their own appropriate pollution control facilities; To establish clear linkages between the control of pollution and other policy areas including water resources, agriculture, human settlements, health and disaster prevention and preparedness; To provide adequate regulation of agricultural (crop and livestock) chemicals and micro-organisms; To ensure that pollution control is commensurate with the potency, longevity and potential to increase or reproduce of the pollutant; To establish safe limits for the location of sanitary landfill sites in the vicinity of wells, bore holes and dams, and issue regulations to enforce them; To review and develop guidelines for waste disposal, public and industrial hygiene and techniques to enable the cost-effective implementation of defined standards of control, and to issue regulations to enforce them; To formulate and implement a country-wide strategy and guidelines on the management of wastes from the medical, agriculture and other sectors that may use potentially hazardous biological organisms, their fragments or chemicals, and to issue the necessary regulations to enforce them; To establish a system for monitoring compliance with land, air and water pollution control standards and regulations, the handling and storage of hazardous and dangerous materials, mining operations, public and industrial hygiene, waste disposal, and water quality; To maintain an up-to-date register of toxic, hazardous and radioactive substances, and to make the information available on request;

To maintain regular environmental audits to ensure the adoption of environmentally sound practices in all public and private development activities including industrial and mining operations; To enforce the exhaustive labelling and detailing of the contents usage and expiry date of foods, drugs, cosmetics, other chemicals, and when any of the contents are poisonous or dangerous in any other way, the fixing of strikingly visible labels to that effect; To maintain an up-to-date register of toxic, hazardous and radioactive substances, and to make the information available on request; To maintain regular environmental audits to ensure the adoption of environmentally sound practices in all public and private development activities including industrial and mining operations; To enforce the exhaustive labelling and detailing of the contents usage and expiry date of foods, drugs, cosmetics, other chemicals, and when any of the contents are poisonous or dangerous in any other way, the fixing of strikingly visible labels to that effect; To promote waste minimization processes, including the efficient recycling of materials wherever possible; To create by law an effective system of control, distribution, utilization and disposal after use or expiry of chemicals, biological organisms or fragments of organisms that could be hazardous but are required for use; To prohibit from importation to and from transit through Ethiopia hazardous materials, organisms or fragments of organisms as agreed by African states in Bamako; To hold as legally liable an employer who deploys employees in using or handling hazardous materials without adequately training them on how to deal with the hazard and without adequate equipment to protect each one of them for physical harm or disease that is caused by working conditions whether the harm or disease starts in the place of work or away from it; To foster better understanding of the dangerous effects of chemicals and organisms and their fragments through the provision of information in a form understandable to users, and provide or enforce the provision of information on the appropriate methods and technologies for the treatment and disposal of wastes. To adhere to the precautionary principle of minimizing and where possible preventing discharges of substances, biological materials or their fragments from industrial plants and personal or communal appliances or any other external sources that could be harmful, and to disallow the discharge when they are likely to be hazardous; 8

To adopt the "polluter pays" principle while endorsing the precautionary principle since pollution is likely to occur, and ensure that polluting enterprises and municipalities and wereda councils provide their own appropriate pollution control facilities; To establish clear linkages between the control of pollution and other policy areas including water resources, agriculture, human settlements, health and disaster prevention and preparedness; To provide adequate regulation of agricultural (crop and livestock) chemicals and micro-organisms; To ensure that pollution control is commensurate with the potency, longevity and potential to increase or reproduce of the pollutant; To establish safe limits for the location of sanitary landfill sites in the vicinity of wells, bore holes and dams, and issue regulations to enforce them; To review and develop guidelines for waste disposal, public and industrial hygiene and techniques to enable the cost-effective implementation of defined standards of control, and to issue regulations to enforce them; To formulate and implement a country-wide strategy and guidelines on the management of wastes from the medical, agriculture and other sectors that may use potentially hazardous biological organisms, their fragments or chemicals, and to issue the necessary regulations to enforce them; To establish a system for monitoring compliance with land, air and water pollution control standards and regulations, the handling and storage of hazardous and dangerous materials, mining operations, public and industrial hygiene, waste disposal, and water quality; To maintain an up-to-date register of toxic, hazardous and radioactive substances, and to make the information available on request; To maintain regular environmental audits to ensure the adoption of environmentally sound practices in all public and private development activities including industrial and mining operations; To enforce the exhaustive labelling and detailing of the contents usage and expiry date of foods, drugs, cosmetics, other chemicals, and when any of the contents are poisonous or dangerous in any other way, the fixing of strikingly visible labels to that effect; To maintain an up-to-date register of toxic, hazardous and radioactive substances, and to make the information available on request;

To maintain regular environmental audits to ensure the adoption of environmentally sound practices in all public and private development activities including industrial and mining operations; To enforce the exhaustive labelling and detailing of the contents usage and expiry date of foods, drugs, cosmetics, other chemicals, and when any of the contents are poisonous or dangerous in any other way, the fixing of strikingly visible labels to that effect; To promote waste minimization processes, including the efficient recycling of materials wherever possible; To create by law an effective system of control, distribution, utilization and disposal after use or expiry of chemicals, biological organisms or fragments of organisms that could be hazardous but are required for use; To prohibit from importation to and from transit through Ethiopia hazardous materials, organisms or fragments of organisms as agreed by African states in Bamako; To hold as legally liable an employer who deploys employees in using or handling hazardous materials without adequately training them on how to deal with the hazard and without adequate equipment to protect each one of them for physical harm or disease that is caused by working conditions whether the harm or disease starts in the place of work or away from it; To foster better understanding of the dangerous effects of chemicals and organisms and their fragments through the provision of information in a form understandable to users, and provide or enforce the provision of information on the appropriate methods and technologies for the treatment and disposal of wastes.

10

Annex 7

Addis Ababa City Government Recurrent and Capital Expenditure In 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 Budget year Recurrent Expenditure 2003/2004 Addis Ababa City Government - Total Expenditure SBPDA share from the total Expenditure Percentage Share of SBPDA from the total Expenditure 2004/2005 Capital Expenditure 2003/2004 2004/2005 Total Expenditure 2003/2004 2004/2005

59883333

75304444

71056667

128584444

130940000

203888889

241111

346667

6816667

24444

7057778

371111

0,40

0,46

9,59

0,02

5,39

0,18

Reference: Own compiled from data gathered from AACG Finance Burearu

11

Annex 8: Question for Municipal Officials and Professionals Guiding Questions for Discussion with the Municipality Officials and professionals (1) Apart from the municipality what organisations are involved in solid waste service formally and informally? And in which part of the service (collection, transport, treatment, ) Do you think the existing legal and policy framework sufficient for properly undertaking your task? Do you have performance standards to measure yours as well as other partners performance? Do you have working manual guiding your day to day activity? What challenges are limiting the organisation performance? How do the community or other users pay for the service? In case of service charge how was the charge determined? How does your organisation cooperate with other public and non-public organisations working in waste management related area? (policy, enforcement, and environment protection) In what kind of activity is the community at present participating? Do you think the involvement of the CBOs help alleviating the solid waste management problem in your area? According to your opinion in what area of the service should the CBOs get involved? What kind of relation do you have with the informal collectors?

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Annex 9: Guiding questions for solid waste workers - Municipality Basic information of respondent: Sex: F M

How long have you been working in this job? Do you have a job description? Do you have a work manual or guideline telling you how to do your job, what protection you should use etc? ? If your answer for the above question is no, how do you learn to do your job? Would you please describe your daily job step by step? How often do you serve a particular location you are assigned? Do you cooperate with private collectors (both formal and informal)? Are you satisfied with the level of service being provided to the community? What kinds of problems are limiting your performance? In order to improve your performance level what kind of support do you need from the community, organisations, or other service users?

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Annex 10: Questions for Private Waste Collectors

Basic information of respondent: Sex: F iii. How long have you worked in this job?

iv. How frequent do you serve particular location? v. What kind of problems limited your performance? vi. In order to improve your performance level what kind of support do you need from the community, organizations, or other service users? vii. How much do you charge for your service? viii. How was the service charge determined?

ix. What kind of relationship do you have with the local government? (financial, material, training) x. Have you ever got any kind of support from NGOs? xi. What kind of problem do you face while doing your job?

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Annex 11: Question for Community Leaders

Discussion Participants list

What are the objectives of Idirs?

How are Idirs organised? What is the quality of solid waste management service in the area?
Who provides solid waste service in the area?

Is the service charge comparable with the service being provided? What kind of experience do Idirs have in development work and solid waste management? How do the community and community leaders see the possibility of Idirs involvement in solid waste management service? In which area of solid waste management the Idirs should involve? Why?

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Annex 12: Question for Residents 5. Basic information of respondent: 6. Means of livelihood 1. Salary Business
7. Do you pay for the service?

Sex: F

B. Formal Business

C. Informal

8. How much do you pay for solid waste removal service? 9. How do you rate the solid waste management service? 10. How do you rate the service charge as compared to the service you are getting? 11. Have your ever participated/consulted or worked together with the municipality in relation to waste management? If your answer is yes, please explain how and when 12. If you are a member of Idir, do you think Idir should participate in waste management service? Please explain as well. 13. If your answer is in favour of involvement in which area of the service the Idirs best useful? Please state your reason as well. 14. If the Idirs are made responsible for the solid waste management tasks, according to the kind of capacity do you think they lack? Please give your explanation as well.

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Annex 13 PHOTO ALBUM

Cooking Stoves modified from scrap tins

Community leaders during group discussions

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Recycling shops in Merkato

Private Sector Employee cleaning street in Merkato 18

Municipality Collection Truck

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