The Tamil Calendar

The Tamil calendar is a derivative of the old Hindu solar calendar and is based on the sidereal year (i.e. the time taken for one revolution of the Earth around the sun, or the mean time taken by the sun to return to the same position relative to the background of the fixed stars in the sky). In contrast, most other languages of India (Telugu, Hindi) use lunar calendars.
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The Twelve Months The Sixty-Year Cycle The Seven-Day Week More Information

The Twelve Months
The Tamil new year usually falls in mid-April and the calendar consists of twelve months. Unlike the Gregorian calendar, the number of days in a given month can vary between years. Moreover, Tamil months may even have 32 days. For example, the month of Vaikasi had 32 days in 1996 and 31 days in 1998. Similarly, Aani had 31 days in 1996 and 32 days in 1998. The following table shows when the first day of each month occurs: No. Tamil month in English Start date 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 10. Thai January 15* 14* 14* 15* 14* 14* 14* 11. Maasi February 13 12 13 13 13 12 12 12. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Panguni Vaikasi Aani Aadi Aavani Purattasi Aippasi March May June July August September October 14 13+ 14 15 16 17 17 17 16 16 14 14+ 15 15 17 17 17 17 16 16 15 14+ 15 15 17 17 17 18 17 16 15 14+ 15 15 17 18 18 18 17 16 14 13+ 14 15 16 16 16 17 16 15 14 13+ 14 14 16 17 17 17 16 15 14 13+ 14 15 16 17 17 17 16 16 Chiththirai April

Karthikai November Markazhi December

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Thai 1 : Pongal Festival Chiththirai 1 : Tamil New Year's Day More Festivals
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The Sixty-Year Cycle
Each year in the Tamil calendar has a name. These names follow a 60-year cycle. (The number 60 represents five Jovian periods i.e. it takes Jupiter about 12 years to orbit the sun). The following table lists the cycle of sixty year names: No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Name in English Prabhava Vibhava Sukla Prajorpati Angirasa Srimukha Bhava Yuva Dhatu Isvara Vehudhanya Pramathi Vikrama Vishu Chitrabanu Subanu Tarana Parthiba Viya Sarvajit Sarvadhari Year 1987--1988 1988--1989 1989--1990 1991--1992 1992--1993 1993--1994 1994--1995 1995--1996 1996--1997 1997--1998 1998--1999 1999--2000 2000--2001 2001--2002 2002--2003 2003--2004 2004--2005 2005--2006 2006--2007 2007--2008 2008--2009

Pramodhudha 1990--1991

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

Virodhi Viruti Kara Nandana Vijaya Jaya Manmatha Dhunmuki Hevilambi Vilambi Vikari Sarvari Plava Subakrit Sobakrit Krodhi Visuvasuva Parabhava Plavanga Kilaka Saumya Sadharana Virodhikritu Paridhabi Pramadhisa Ananda Rakshasa Nala Pingala Kalayukti Siddharthi Raudri

2009--2010 2010--2011 2011--2012 2012--2013 2013--2014 2014--2015 2015--2016 2016--2017 2017--2018 2018--2019 2019--2020 2020--2021 2021--2022 2022--2023 2023--2024 2024--2025 2025--2026 2026--2027 2027--2028 2028--2029 2029--2030 2030--2031 2031--2032 2032--2033 2033--2034 2034--2035 2035--2036 2036--2037 2037--2038 2038--2039 2039--2040 2040--2041

55 56 57 58 59 60

Dunmati Dundubhi

2041--2042 2042--2043

Rudhrodhgari 2043--2044 Raktakshi Krodhana Akshaya 2044--2045 2045--2046 2046--2047

The Seven-Day Week
The Tamil calendar also follows a seven-day week. The names of the seven days are analogous to those used in most other calendars i.e. they correspond to the same celestial bodies Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, and Saturn, in that order. The following table lists the days of the week in Tamil: No. Tamil day in English English day 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Nyaayitru-kizhamai Sunday Thingat-kizhamai Sevvaai-kizhamai Budhan-kizhamai Vyaazha-kizhamai Velli-kizhamai Sani-kizhamai Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday

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