This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Renewable Energy 33 (2008) 186–192 www.elsevier.com/locate/renene
Research progress of vanadium redox ﬂow battery for energy storage in China$
Ke-Long Huanga,Ã, Xiao-gang Lia,c, Su-qin Liua, Ning Tana, Li-quan Chena,b
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China b Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China c College of Bio-safety Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, 410128, China Available online 29 September 2007
Abstract Principle and characteristics of vanadium redox ﬂow battery (VRB), a novel energy storage system, was introduced. A research and development united laboratory of VRB was founded in Central South University in 2002 with the ﬁnancial support of Panzhihua Steel Corporation. The laboratory focused their research mainly on the selection and preparation of electrode materials, membrane material and modiﬁcation, stable concentrated electrolyte producing approach, test cell conﬁguration design and optimization. Some relevant foundation problems, such as state of vanadium in sulfurous acid with various additives, the difference of electrochemical reaction rate in anode and in cathode, the crossover of vanadium ions and so on, have been emphasized. The details of these studies have been given and discussed. A 5 kW VRB stack was fabricated in the laboratory and its performances, especially electrochemical performance such as voltage efﬁciencies, energy efﬁciencies, and durability, were fully tested. The results will be shown in the talk. The key technologies of developing VRB, such as to improve the activity of its electrode materials, the stability of electrolyte and selectivity of separator, were also discussed. In addition, the research progresses in other laboratories in China were brieﬂy introduced. r 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Vanadium redox ﬂow battery; Energy storage system; Vanadium
1. Introduction In recent years, the volume of oil import and coal production increase rapidly by year with the economic growth, but a great deal of fossil energy consumption caused serious environmental pollution. As in the case of a series of problems such as environmental endurance and energy stabilization, people in China thus turn to develop and utilize the renewable energy from wind and solar than excessively depend upon fossil energy source. At such a time, countermeasures are needed to assure system stability by preventing power output ﬂuctuations, e.g., when there is no wind or sunshine at night. It is therefore important to use batteries in combination with solar and wind power generation.
$ Foundation item: Project (02-09-01) supported by Pangang Group Pangzhihua Iron and Steel Research Institute. ÃCorresponding author. Tel./fax: +86 731 8879850. E-mail address: email@example.com (K.-L. Huang).
At the same time, China is abundant in vanadium resource, which accounts for about 11.6% of the world reserves . There is huge amount of waste slag which contains a lot of vanadium at Panzhihua Steel Corporation in south west of China. Only about 10,000 tons of vanadium is reused in petrochemical catalysis or/and steels additive every year . Since 1995, a lot of universities and institutes in China have engaged in the development of vanadium redox ﬂow battery (VRB), which is a new type of secondary battery for electric power storage ﬁrst successfully demonstrated and commercially developed by Skyllas-Kazacos and coworkers in the University of New South Wales, Australia in 1984 [2–4]. Compared with other redox batteries such as zinc bromine battery, sodium sulfur battery and lead acid battery (the data were listed in Table 1), the VRB performs higher energy efﬁciency, longer operation life as well as lower cost, which made it the most practical candidates for energy storage purposes. Meanwhile, the VRB system
0960-1481/$ - see front matter r 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2007.05.025
Operating principles and features of VRB The conﬁguration of a redox ﬂow battery was shown in Fig. 1. therefore.vrbpower. especially in Australia. two electric pumps.02 187 VRB ZBB NAS Lead acid Yes Yes No No http://www. voltage and frequency control. about seven groups subordinated various universities or institutes. Institute of Metal Research Chinese Academy of Science and Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics. The performance pump Fig. Beijing University. it can be charged at one voltage and discharged at another while also supporting an external load if needed. ICP studies revealed that the PVDF-g-PSSA membrane showed dramatically lower vanadium ion permeability compared to Naﬁon 117.15–1 0. and its energy efﬁciency reached 75. uninterruptible power supply. load leveling. It has been widely tested in many ﬁeld including wind generation and photovoltaic system.001 0.com/publication/20060430.ARTICLE IN PRESS K. 1. An ionic membrane in the stack separated the cell as well as electrolytes into cathodic and anodic. respectively. Qiu et al.  in Tsinghua University prepared a poly (vinylidene ﬂuoride)-graft-poly (styrene sulfuric acid) (PVDF-g-PSSA) membrane using solution-grafting method.000 2500 3000 1000 Operation temp (1C) 30 50 350 Ambient Effective energy density (W h LÀ1) 24 33 40 12 Green O&M costs ($/KW h) 0. The VRB system consisted of two electrolyte tanks ﬁlled with the electrolytes of V(II)/V(III) and V(IV)/V(V) in sulfuric acid solution. In China. 3. Schematic of vanadium ﬂow battery.22 Â 10À2 S cmÀ1 at 30 1C. showed prospect in peak shaving. China Academy of Engineering Physics. 2. By the use of tapping cells in the battery. stabilization of wind turbine output. It was one of the determinants to the input/output efﬁciency of the battery and attracted numerous research attention.6] in China Academy of Engineering Physics concentrated their attentions on the behavior of carbonaceous materials in a mixture of pentavalent and tetravalent vanadium sulfuric acid solution.02 0. engaged in the research of VRB system and relative materials. golf cart power. Meng et al. such as Central South University. hybrid with photovoltaic cells and some other energy backup systems. and a battery stack.001–40 Cycle life charge/ discharge 13. [5. The electrolytes were pumped into the stack where electrochemical reaction occurred. Japan. etc. / Renewable Energy 33 (2008) 186–192 Table 1 Comparison of competing storage technologies Technology Efﬁciency full cycle (%) 78 68 65–70 45 Size range (MW h) 0. These membranes exhibited high conductivity with a value of 3. alkali metal oxalate. urea and glycerin in the vanadium sulfuric acid solution on its electrochemical performance and conductivity. Trivalent vanadium ions had the highest permeability through all these membranes in contrast to pentavalent vanadium ions with the lowest. which eliminated electrolyte cross-contamination as experienced by the Fe/Cr redox battery. Research and development progress in China VRB systems have been investigated by a number of world government and independent research organizations since 1984.05–1 0.-L. The membrane in vanadium redox ﬂow battery served not only as a separator of catholyte and anolyte but also as a proton conductor. Sui and his co-workers [7. Huang et al. Tsinghua University. negative electrode electrolyte tank positive electrode electrolyte tank membrane current collector in the battery can be read instantly. The electron exchange took place at the electrodes in the aqueous phase according to the following reactions (discharge in the right direction): Positive electrode: VO2þ þ H2 O " VO2 þ þ 2Hþ þ e: discharge charge Negative electrode: V3þ þ e " V2þ : discharge charge The VRB system is the only redox ﬂow battery using ions of the same metal in both the half-cells. peak shaving. Northeastern University.5–100 0. Canada. as well as UPS.8% at 30 mA cmÀ2. the capacity remaining .015 0.8] from Northeastern University investigated effects of additives such as alkali metal sulfate. The state of charge (SOC) can be measured continuously. The VRB with the low-cost PVDF-g-PSSA membrane exhibited a higher performance than that with Naﬁon 117 under the same operating conditions.
It was revealed that acetylacetone was the most effective stabilizer and phosphoric acid was the secondary.10] in the Institute of Metal Research Chinese Academy of Science impregnated a microporous separator (Daramic) in a 5 wt% Naﬁon solution to obtain a proton-conducting composite membrane with modiﬁed properties for VRB. A reduction in water uptake of the membranes is observed after impregnation. V10 O27 ðOHÞ5À þ Hþ " V10 O26 ðOHÞ2 4À . Composition of the crystalloid was conﬁrmed to be V2(SO4)3 Á H2O by XRD.5 wt%. Furthermore. 3. JCM cationic exchange membrane. solvent. on the stability. V10 O25 ðOHÞ3 3À þ Hþ " V10 O24 ðOHÞ4 2À " VO2 þ : À OH Hþ ion was unstable. FT-IR and thermal analysis. ammonium phosphate. XPS. collector  and membrane modiﬁcation . etc. especially at a lower temperature. sodium sulfate. acid. temperature. except for JAM anionic exchange membranes.1. the solution-grafting method of preparing a PVDF-g-PSSA membrane is very simple.-L. The vanadium redox cell with the JAM composite membrane has a better performance than that with Naﬁon 117. Zhang and his co-workers. although the measured area resistances are higher for the composite membranes with different thickness than that for the untreated membranes. conductivity. The new Daramic/Naﬁon composite membranes give acceptable low electrical resistance of 2. It would react with The further acid to give dioxovanadium (V) ion (VO2+). They reported recently that a 10 kW VRB system was successfully set up in Dalian . sodium phosphate. temperature. Conductivities of the electrolytes with additives less than 2 wt% were almost constant. The vanadium mineral form in Panzhihua is vanadium titanium iron intergrowth magnetite. The results from cycling experiments revealed that the PVDF-g-PSSA membrane has good chemical stability in vanadium solutions. V10 O26 ðOHÞ2 4À þ Hþ " V10 O25 ðOHÞ3 3À . Preparation of electrolyte A novel procedure for preparing VOSO4 from vanadium-bearing slag produced by Panzhihua Steel Corporation was proposed . who had been devoted in the research of sodium multisulﬁde/Br2 redox ﬂow battery. / Renewable Energy 33 (2008) 186–192 of VRB with the PVDF-g-PSSA membrane can be maintained after more than 200 cycles at a current density of 60 mA cmÀ2. the main species was orange deca-vanadate ion.4 O cmÀ2. as well as the effect of additive agent. as well as the system optimization. cathode and anode materials [14–16]. In addition. Concentrated electrolyte which showed excellent chemical and electrochemical stability in the range of 5–50 1C as well active reactivity was yielded from a mixture of VOSO4. Huang et al. Vanadium ion would be diversiﬁed when the environment such as pH value. The inﬂuence of a number of additives such as phosphoric acid. V2O5 and other additives. and electrochemical properties of a negative electrolyte was investigated. transferred their attentions to the fabrication of VRB system last year. Since 2002. Naﬁon uptake by Daramic with thickness 0. After researching the kinetics progress among various vanadium ions. When the pH value was in the range of 2–6. other membranes. V10 O28 6À þ Hþ " V10 O27 ðOHÞ5À . [8. which could lead to a signiﬁcant cost reduction in the production of a commercial redox ﬂow battery. It was found experimentally that crystalloid would appear in concentrated negative electrolyte (more than 2 M vanadium ion) stored under normal temperature. coexisted ion in the solution varied. while in alkaline solution. For example. surface active agent. EDTA.. vanadium ions in positive tanks aggregated into binuclear and subsequently more complex species depending on the vanadium ions concentration and pH value of electrolyte solution. including DF120 cationic and anionic exchange membranes. a research group in China Academy of Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics. VRB progress in CSU China is abundant in vanadium resource. They also evaluated several commercial ion exchange membranes for application in VRB .ARTICLE IN PRESS 188 K.6% of the world reserves and Panzhihua collected more than 87% of vanadium resource in China. The stabilization mechanism of the additives is being studied in the laboratory. with the ﬁnancial support from Panzhihua Steel Corporation. which accounts for about 11.1. breakup of the V10O28 unit was much more difﬁcult. were unsuitable due to their high permeation of vanadium ions and poor chemical stability in the V (V) solutions. A novel cationic exchange membrane was prepared by incorporation of poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) into the JAM anionic exchange membrane by in situ polymerization. electrolyte.1. The composite membrane prepared by this method also showed lower permeability to vanadium ions and higher average current and energy efﬁciencies for the VRB in comparison with the untreated membrane. 3. which can exist in several protonated forms. Open circuit voltage measurement with time of the proton-conducting composite membrane showed promising results compared with that of the untreated Daramic membrane when used in the VRB.25 mm is 6. V2O3. The results showed that. Yan et al. Huang and his group in Central South University devoted their interests in the research of VRB related key materials covered electrolytes . concentration on vanadium ion complexing V10O24(OH)2À 4 . Some signiﬁcant cationic exchange capability was imparted to the composite membrane.
PP.0 mol LÀ1 H2SO4.Before 2--.01 1--.0 0. / Renewable Energy 33 (2008) 186–192 189 structure.ARTICLE IN PRESS K. 2 0. a range of chemically resistant rubbers was blended into the composites. resulting in the surface area increase. Fig.15. 3 exposed the charge–discharge curves of GF oxidized at 50 mA cmÀ2 for various times. Combined with the FT-IR spectra. graphite powder and graphite ﬁber in a closed plastic reﬁning machine at 160–190 1C.6 1.001 V sÀ1 under 25 1C. When the product increased from 0 to 3000 C gÀ1. and their electrochemical activity and durability in electrolyte were explored during the charge–discharge course.21].8 1. carbon clava. Taking their conductivity.0087mol LÀ1. 2. From these two ﬁgures. V(V) ¼ 0. due to its high speciﬁc surface area and good stability.0087 mol LÀ1 at a constant scanning rate of 0.1.g-1 Discharge under 3000 C. 3. The j (A cm)-2 .8 0 20 40 t (min) 60 80 Charge under 3000 C. XPS spectra (Fig. the O/C ratio augmented from 0.-L. Conductive plastic. 3. Pb.g-1 Discharge under 1200 C. It was obvious that the GF surface is eroded by electrochemical oxidation. Huang et al. especially the graphite felt (GF). Charge–discharge curves of GF oxidized at 50 mA cmÀ2 for various times. 2 presented the cyclic voltammograms of GF electrode before and after electro-oxidation in a mixture of 3. To overcome the deterioration in the mechanical properties of polymer composites with high carbon loading. V(IV) ¼ 0.0 mol LÀ1 H2SO4. Ti. titanium foil and graphite plate were employed as bipolar electrode materials. permeation and mechanical properties all round. ABS. Cyclic voltammograms of GF electrode before and after electrooxidation in 3. LDPE and HDPE with conductive ﬁllers such as carbon black.2 1.3 0.After 1 0. An approach combined electrochemical oxidation along with chemical modiﬁcation was employed to improve the electrochemical activity of the GF electrode [19–21].SCE) 1. 1.5 Fig. The improvement in the electrochemical activity is ascribed to the increase in the number of COOH groups and speciﬁc surface.085 to 0. 5) indicated that the O/C ratio on the surface of GF increases with the product of electrochemical oxidation time and current density. studied the behaviors of glassy 2 carbon. Electrode and membrane An ideal electrode should possess high electric conductivity and long cyclic life in sulfuric acid containing concentrated and oxidizing pentavalent vanadium ion (VO+).2. conductive plastic was recognized to be the most appropriate bipolar electrode materials.00 -0. Conductive plastic were fabricated by mixing SEBS. However.15. and 0. SEM photographs of graphite (1) before and (2) after electrochemical oxidation (the product of time and current density was 3000 C gÀ1). Fig. Au as well as carbon black-graphite powder composite materials served as anode or cathode [14.g-1 Fig. 4 displayed the SEM photographs of GF before and after electrochemical oxidization. 4. Fig. The average current efﬁciency reaches 94% and average voltage efﬁciency reaches 85% under a current density of 50 mA cmÀ2. was a competitive anode compared with metal.17]. Huang et al. and the activity increases with the increase in oxidation degree. carbon cloth. carbon felt.6 0.4 U (V) 1. and mechanism for electrochemical oxidation of GF was brought forward [19.g-1 Chargeunder 1200 C.01 0.0087 mol LÀ1 V(IV). Carbon. it could be seen that the performance of electro-oxidized GF improved evidently. A scientiﬁc evaluation system for vanadium electrolyte was established.0087 mol LÀ1 V(V).9 E (V vs.2 1. Fig. the poor electrochemical activity of commercial GF was still one of the major drawbacks that limited the power density and voltage efﬁciency of VRB system. the increase in the O/C ratio was supposed to be the increment in COOH functional groups during electrochemical oxidation treatment. 0.
0 O1s 0. Fig. 7. which supposed the electron transfer step was the rate-determining step.e).2 Fig.02 i l (A cm-2) 0.02 5 10 -0. the diffusion coefﬁcient and dynamic parameter of V(IV)/V(V) redox couple on graphite electrode were obtained . 6. 6 shows the structure of a bipolar electrode. polarization curve measurement. 16 j / mA cm-2 12 8 4 0 0. and electrochemical characters and was choosed as the candidate of electrode matrix material for the vanadium redox battery. / Renewable Energy 33 (2008) 186–192 C1s Relative intensity (cps) 90. Although the battery performance was affected by a number of factors.00 0.5 -0. which is composed of a layer of conductive plastic and two layers of GF.12 V/decade). 8 displays that peak current densities was not a linear function to the square root of scanning rates for V(IV) oxidation. 7 shows that the positions of current peaks varied with scanning rate.0k 0.06 (V s-1)1/2 0. These results suggested that the V(IV)/V(V) redox reaction on GF electrode was a quasireversible process.SCE 1. Fig.d.0k 30.0k 60. Based on the studies of electrochemical behavior of V(IV)/V(V) redox couple on glassy carbon and gold electrode along with graphite electrode using cyclic voltammetry. Schematic of electrode for vanadium redox ﬂow battery.0087 mol LÀ1 V(V)+1 mol LÀ1 H2SO4 solution at various scanning rates.04 0. It was realized that the redox process of V(IV)/V(V) couple on glassy carbon electrode was not only a simple charge transfer reaction. 0.124 V/decade) Fig. permeation. The Tafel slope value (0.0 0 300 600 900 1200 0 300 600 900 1200 Binding energy (eV) Binding energy (eV) Fig.03 v1/2 / 0. Fig.00 0.0k C1s 60. . Peak current density as a function of the square root of a scanning rate for V(IV) oxidation. SEBS/PP composite exhibited eximious electrical.4 0.-L. mechanical.ARTICLE IN PRESS 190 K. 5. it involved the post-chemical transforming process with the transfer of oxygen atom.04 0. Cyclic voltammograms for V(IV)/V(V) on GF electrode in 0. obtained from the polarization curve (Fig. Huang et al. impedance spectroscopy and rotating disk electrode (r. the fundamental knowledge of negative and positive electrode reactions was still important to optimize the battery operation and to realize high energy efﬁciency.8 E / V vs.0k S2p Si O1s Relative intensity (cps) 90.09 Fig.2 0. 9) agreed well with the theoretical value (0. 8. General XPS spectra of major elements for graphite felt (a) before and (b) after oxidation (the product of time and current density was 3000 C gÀ1).0k 30.0087 mol LÀ1 V(IV) +0.
Impedance spectra of graphite felt electrode at a potential of 0.0% under 40–60 mA cmÀ2. overcharge–overdischarge ability the uniformity of each battery. The performances of several kinds of membrane (Naﬁon membrane. Valuable progress was also obtained in frame and sealed materials . J-80 and PE-01 ion exchange membrane) in vanadium solution.ARTICLE IN PRESS K. 3. the output potential was 30–22 V. subsequently modiﬁed by Zr3(PO4)4. One kW VRB stack system.3. cost below f1950 kW h.SCE 0. when the stack discharged at 80% SOC. This membrane has been used in 3 M sulfuric acid containing 2 M vanadium ion for two years. Prospect As China is abundant in vanadium resources. / Renewable Energy 33 (2008) 186–192 191 1. 11.4 -8 -6 Log(i l A cm-2) Fig. Fig. 9. 100. the output current was 22–36 A. respectively. 4. Double-cycle closed circuit conﬁguration was adapted. diffusion and electrodialysis of vanadium ion. to develop VRB system in China can not only improve the utilization Power/W . and the maximal output power climbed to 1 kW. the comprehensive performance of PE-01 improved. One kW vanadium battery stack (Fig.03 mol LÀ1 V(V)+3 mol LÀ1 H2SO4 (the scan rate is 1 mV sÀ1).1. 12. which revealed the impedance value of the electron transfer step modiﬁed was much higher than the others. J-160. 12. chemical stability. 150 mV. Design and optimization of conﬁguration Intrinsic relation between output performance and liquid transmission. temperature and liquid ﬂow were discussed in-depth. including the heat emanation. As can be seen from Fig. The system achieved voltage efﬁciencies above 82. Huang et al. Polarization curve at graphite felt electrode in 0. FYM.-L. 10. Impedance spectra (Fig.0 E / V vs. suggesting that the electron transfer step was the rate-determining step. 1000 15 +150mV +100mV 0mV 33 30 U/V 27 24 Power Voltage 800 600 400 200 0 10 -Z'' / ohm 5 21 0 5 10 15 20 I/A 25 30 35 0 0 5 10 Z' / ohm 15 20 Fig. 13). the permeability of vanadium ion in this membrane is only 1 of that in Naﬁon. 11) was designed and tested for operation. 4 and its conductivity is close to that of Naﬁon.8 0. À1 -4 Fig. After crosslinking with DVB. were investigated.6 0. 10) at various potentials were studied and simulated by equivalent circuits. The working state of the system performed reposefully with the close potential of different single cell under 40 mA cmÀ2 at 45% SOC or 80% SOC (Fig.03 mol L V(IV)+ 0. Relationships of output voltages and powers to currents in 5 kW VRB system at 30 1C. Results showed that the PE-01 membrane has low permeability but high area resistance and poor chemical stability. including their impedance.
1. Part II: development of battery materials.16(4):1436–41.2 0. Patent Application. Development of vanadium redox ﬂow battery for electricity storage.2:91–3 [in Chinese]. Investigation of the V(V)/ V(IV) system for use in the positive half-cell of a redox battery.ARTICLE IN PRESS 192 K. Application status and market prospects of rare metal vanadium. J Chin Power Source 2004. et al.  Hawkins JM. Sui Z. et al. Liu S. J Chin Power Sources 1999. J Power Sources 1985. et al. Progress of research on vanadium-redox-ﬂow battery. Dalian Daily. Study on the electrochemical performance of V(IV)/V(V) on the electrode made of graphite felt. Zhang B. Yan H. ZL03276099. Equability of each cell during charge and discharge.  Huang K. but also ameliorate environment and utilization of resource.-L. Liu S. INTELE’2001. Research on the vanadium ion redox ﬂow battery. J Inorg Mater 2006.2:93–4 [in Chinese]. et al. Effects of additives on the performance of electrolyte for vanadium redox ﬂow battery. Power Eng J 1999. Proton conducting composite membrane from Daramic/Naﬁon for vanadium redox ﬂow battery. Liu S. J Electrochem Soc 1986.15:179–90. Chin J Chem 2006. the ﬂow battery energy storage technology has been emphasized in the National 11th Five-year Plan of China. / Renewable Energy 33 (2008) 186–192  Sum E. Yan C.  Li X. Therefore.  Tan N. Sato K.6 0 5 10 15 Battery number 20 25 Fig. Rychcik M.  Wu Q.  Luo D.  Tian B. J Appl Electrochem 2004. Yan C. VRB has now reached commercial state. Skyllas-Kazacos M. Robbins T. J Chin Power Sources 1998. One such cooperating with us is currently being negotiated with a Chinese bus company to install vanadium redox fuel cells into electric buses along with the installation of recharging/refuelling stations for the Beijing Olympic Games in 2008. 2006.1. Huang K. Liu S. Wu Q. Preparation method of electrode for all vanadium ﬂow battery.  Zhou D. Liu S. A novel framework for vanadium redox ﬂow battery. Wang FH.  Skyllas-Kazacos M.  Cui Y. J Chin Battery Bimonthly 2005.  Zhou S. efﬁciency and the safety of energy.  Li L.  Gu J. J Chin Power Source 2004. Zhang B. et al. Primary study of all vanadium ion ﬂow energy storage battery. Lu Z.000 battery electric and hybrid electric buses and 50. Huang K. J Chin Power Sources 2000. Performance of various membrane in vanadium sulfuric acid solution. Tan N. The Government recently appropriated funds to purchase 12.133:1057–8.  Tian B.  Luo X.  Shibata A.64(6):584–8. Study on the electrochemical activation mechanism of graphite felt as electrode for vanadium redox ﬂow battery (I): surface analysis. Electrode materials.2.  Huang K.12:775–8 [in Chinese]. et al. And especially in 2001. Zhang B. Kashima-Kita built a 200 kW Â 4 h-rate battery interconnected to the company’s power plant grid system for load leveling . Skyllas-Kazacos M.16:85–95. J Phys Chem B 2005. Rychcik M. 2003 [in Chinese]. 05. New all-vanadium redox cell. Investigation on the electrochemical activation mechanism of graphite felt as electrode for vanadium redox ﬂow battery by AC impedance. which is signiﬁcant in that it is the ﬁrst large-scale commercial trial of user-based applications for the VRB .7:456–8 [in Chinese]. Huang et al. Potential market for battery electric buses and Taxis in China is vast. paper 32. Chin J Rare Met 2003. Huang K. Huang K. References  Ren X.24(3):181–3. Xi J. However.22(1):24–6 [in Chinese]. Chinese Patent.X. Tan N. Chin J Nonferr Met 2006. Huang K.  Liu S. It is expected that various joint venture arrangements will be established between VRB and interested companies. A study of the V(II)/V(III) redox couple for redox ﬂow cell applications.000 battery electric taxis prior to the opening of the 2008 Olympics.234:51–4. et al. ZL03145573.109:20310–4. J Membr Sci 2004. Performance of graphite power-carbon black composite electrodes for the vanadium redox ﬂow battery. Sui Z. Wang FH. Huang K. membrane and bipolar plate are crucial to VRB. Li M. et al. there are still many problems that need to be solved. CN03159533. 2003 [in Chinese].5. J Chin Power Source 2005. Xu Q. J Power Sources 1985. Cui Y.5 U/v 1.  Li X. Properties of the current collector of all vanadium redox ﬂow battery.  Tan N. 13. Meng F.8 1. Modiﬁcation and evaluation of membranes for vanadium redox battery applications. A ﬁeld trial of a vanadium energy storage system. Liu S.34:1205–10. a vanadium energy storage system (VESS) incorporating a 250 kW/ 520 kW h VRB was established in South Africa. et al. et al. 2003 [in Chinese]. Chinese Patent. In September 1997.9 Ucarge at 45% SOC(40mA/cm2) Udischarge at 80% SOC(40mA/cm2) 0.  Meng F.2:94–6 [in Chinese].21(5): 1114–20. . Robins R.24(6):356–8 [in Chinese].27(6):809–13 [in Chinese]. Huang K.13(3):130–5. Li G.  Sum E. Study of PAN-graphite felt electrode in the vanadium redox ﬂow battery. J Chin Power Source 2004. 04. Huang K. Inﬂuences of permeation of vanadium ions through PVDF-g-PSSA membranes on performances of vanadium redox ﬂow batteries. A novel procedure to fabricate electrode for all vanadium ﬂow battery.