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A Grammar of the English Tongue
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A Grammar of the English Tongue...................................................................................................................1 Samuel Johnson.......................................................................................................................................1
A Grammar of the English Tongue
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A DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE: IN WHICH THE WORDS ARE DEDUCED FROM THEIR ORIGINALS, EXPLAINED IN THEIR DIFFERENT MEANINGS, AND AUTHORIZED BY THE NAMES OF THE WRITERS IN WHOSE WORKS THEY ARE FOUND. ABSTRACTED FROM THE FOLIO EDITION, BY THE AUTHOR, SAMUEL JOHNSON, LL.D. ***** TO WHICH IS PREFIXED, DR. JOHNSON'S PREFACE TO THE ORIGINAL FOLIO EDITION, AND HIS GRAMMAR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 1812. ***** A GRAMMAR OF THE ENGLISH TONGUE. A Grammar of the English Tongue 1
A Grammar of the English Tongue GRAMMAR, which is the art of using words properly, comprises four parts: Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody. In this division and order of the parts of grammar I follow the common grammarians, without inquiring whether a fitter distribution might not be found. Experience has long shown this method to be so distinct as to obviate confusion, and so comprehensive as to prevent any inconvenient omissions. I likewise use the terms already received, and already understood, though perhaps others more proper might sometimes be invented. Sylburgius, and other innovators, whose new terms have sunk their learning into neglect, have left sufficient warning against the trifling ambition of teaching arts in a new language. ORTHOGRAPHY is the art of combining letters into syllables, and syllables into words. It therefore teaches previously the form and sound of letters. The letters of the English language are,
Roman. A a B b C c D d E e F f G g H h I i J j K k L l M m N n O o P P Q q R r S s T t U u V v W w X x Y y Z z Italick. A a B b C c D d E e F f G g H h I i J j K k L l M m N n O o P p Q q R r S s T t U u V v W w X x Y y Z z Name. a be see dee e eff jee aitch i (or ja) j conson. ka el em en o pee cue ar ess tee u (or va) v conson. double u ex wy zed
To these may be added certain combinations of letters universally used in printing; as, fl, ff, fi, ffi, ffl, and ,or and per se, and. Our letters are commonly reckoned twenty−four, because anciently i and j as well as u and v were expressed by the same character; but as those letters, which had always different powers, have now different forms, our alphabet may be properly said to consist of twenty−six letters Vowels are five, a, e, i, o, u.
A Grammar of the English Tongue
that words are unable to describe them. as sympathy. A Grammar of the English Tongue 3 . view. A has three sounds. and in words ending in ation. wall. system. A slender is found in most words. vow.A Grammar of the English Tongue Such is the number generally received. and broad. inquire into the original of their form. and in their e masculine. or the elegance or harshness of particular combinations. for it is yet retained in the northern dialects. The short a approaches to the a open. as from die. anatomist. glass. A open is the a of the Italian. and those who know it not. as maun for man. dying. generation. The a slender is the proper English a. perhaps with more reverence than judgment. as creation. and even in this narrow disquisition I follow the example of former grammarians. as graze. and consequently able to pronounce the letters of which I teach the pronunciation. holy. A broad resembles the a of the German. call. a Anglicum cum e mistum. from beautify. fame. of the primitive and simple letters. if prolonged by e at the end of the word. mane. nor into their formation and prolation by the organs of speech. and in the rustick pronunciation. haund for hand. and we still say. as thy. open. and because of sounds in general it may be observed. in his Arabick Grammar. rather. as grass. because by writing in English I suppose my reader already acquainted with the English language. This was probably the Saxon sound. therefore. but for i it is the practice to write y in the end of words. and written originally with [Greek: y]. the slender. congratulate. raw. fault. or physiologist. eyes. salvation. grew. An account. called very justly by Erpenius. The sounds of all the letters are various. vault. is useless. The long a. as a writer of universal and transcendental grammar. like some other grammarians. as a mechanick. to make a diphthong. OF VOWELS A. flowing. as having a middle sound between the open a and the e. before i. as all. or nearly resembles it. In treating on the letters. as an antiquarian. The French have a similar sound in the word pais. I shall not. [Greek: sympatheia]. I consider the English alphabet only as it is English. beautifying. [Greek: systema]. as sault. as. is always slender. For u we often write w after a vowel. Many words pronounced with a broad were anciently written with au. and in words derived from the Greek. almost alike to those who know their sound. lowness. days. as face. fancy. as father. nor into the properties and gradation of sounds. in the words says. mault.
and is more properly expressed by single e. as Penelope. It does not always lengthen the foregoing vowel. and u or w. Ae is sometimes found in Latin words not completely naturalized or assimilated. f[)e]ll. naughty. or like ee. stew. a. u. f[)i]r. s[)e]rpent. A Grammar of the English Tongue 4 . perceiving. Au or aw has the sound of the German a. as near. Ei is sounded like e long. This e was perhaps for a time vocal or silent in poetry as convenience required. but is no English diphthong. p[)i]n. with i. shapen. knowled−ge. fel−le. It has sometimes in the end of words a sound obscure. s[)e]parate. as in cattle. t[=u]be. and differs not in the pronunciation from plane. l[)i]ve. as agree. clea−re. Derbe. m[)e]n. p[=o]pe. Eneas. c[)a]n. as in v[)e]x. for in old editions words are sometimes divided thus. th[)e]n. or proper names. are combined in beauty and its derivatives. as the. or two consonants. Almost all words which now terminate in consonants ended anciently in e. Phebe. t[=u]ne. and scarcely perceptible. hedge. g[)i]ve. E. E. d[)e]bt. oblige. as year. yeare. wane. gay. as mean. wildness. It is always short before a double consonant. sleeping. f[=i]re. clear. r[=u]be. c[=u]re. as b[)a]n. participle. Eu sounds as u long and soft. as seize. as in sc[=e]ne. lucre. or to lengthen the preceding vowel. E is long. p[)o]p. or follows a mute and liquid. as in rotten. and constituted a syllable with its associate consonant. c[)e]llar. r[)e]ptile. as in plain. Ai or ay. E forms a diphthong with a. as deign. as new. but have only the sound of u. which e probably had the force of the French e feminine. and with u or w. p[)e]rplexity. t[)u]b. E may be said to form a diphthong by reduplication.A Grammar of the English Tongue A forms a diphthong only with i or y. c[=a]ne. p[=i]ne. t[)u]n. m[)e]dlar. but it has been long wholly mute. receive. as open. f[)e]lling. except in monosyllables that have no other vowel. rel[)e]nt. bl[)e]ssing. or short. c[)e]ssation. once. b[=a]ne. E is the letter which occurs most frequently in the English language. r[)u]b. has only the sound of the long and slender a. as gl[)o]ve. as raw. wildnesse. being used to modify the foregoing consonants. as in c[)e]llar. thistle. as Cesar. This faintness of sound is found when e separates a mute from a liquid. c[)u]r. Camden in his Remains calls it the silent e. clay. shotten. Ea sounds like e long. as since. metre. E is always mute at the end of a word. wain. c[)e]lebrate. near. as dear.
as cough. that the short sound is not the long sound contracted. kn[)o]ck. first. bowl. tough. sow. as flirt. I has a sound long. as in soul. where it is pronounced like ee. th[=i]ne. with only e. as rough. but a sound wholly different. and therefore approaches more nearly than any combination in our tongue to the notion of a diphthong. as oeconomy. sow. the she of a boar. [)o]blique. [=o]bedient. Women is pronounced wimen. noisome. sometimes like o short. sow. corr[=o]ding. cooler. as moan. except friend. as a short u. sometimes like u close. where it is sounded as o short. as court. This coalition of letters seems to unite the sounds of the two letters. soil. With u or w. It forms a diphthong only with e. The long sound in monosyllables is always marked by the e final. bow. which use only can teach. O coalesces into a diphthong with a. That is eminently observable in i. which is sounded as the double ee. shield. they are better written as they are sounded. bowl. bowl. as our. an orbicular body. but as being not an English diphthong. and ew in view. These different sounds are used to distinguish different significations: as bow an instrument for shooting. power. to scatter seed. a wooden vessel. and short as f[)i]n. as far as two sounds can be united without being destroyed. hoot. I is often sounded before r. as boot. approach: oa has the sound of o long. O. a depression of the head. moil. come. as son. l[)o]ll. I. which triphthongs are sounded as the open u. which may be likewise remarkable in other letters. as field. but in some words has only the sound of o long. as bl[)o]ck. as b[=o]ne. as could. A Grammar of the English Tongue 5 . or u open. The short o has sometimes the sound of close u. economy. shirt. as th[)i]n. I is joined with eu in lieu. With o. as f[=i]ne. and in people. O is united to e in some words derived from Greek. With i. oo has the sound of the Italian u. groan. as oil. or short. flower. grow.A Grammar of the English Tongue Eo is found in yeoman. which is sounded as fr[)e]nd. O is long. Ou is sometimes pronounced like o soft.
days. which. B. A vowel in the beginning or middle syllable. brown. languish. betrayed. Some late innovators have ejected the u. conc[)u]ssion. but has rather in these combinations the force of the w consonant. such as it obtains in other languages. before an i. as quaff. synagogue. from honor. e. dumb. as. i. is commonly short. we might want without inconvenience. as in juice. occurs very frequently in all old books. and is commonly retained in derivative words where it was part of a diphthong. faveur. vague. i. Many is pronounced as if it were written manny. It coalesces with a. without considering that the last syllable gives the sound neither of or nor ur. betrayer. in imitation of the French. labour. U is long in [=u]se. pray. guise. as prorogue. It is sometimes mute before a. if not compounded of both. frog. harangue. as thy. In monosyllables a single vowel before a single consonant is short. but the e has no sound. sometimes in ui the i loses its sound. womb. o. quite. as [)u]s. debtor. day. sayer. U is followed by e in virtue. in the primitive. before two consonants. Y being the Saxon vowel y. but a sound between them. Y. favour. prayer. as Quintilian observes of one of the Roman letters. subtle. as [)o]pp[)o]rtunity. as black. plague. guest. as honour. destroyer. betray. It is mute in debt. e.A Grammar of the English Tongue Ou is frequently used in the last syllable of words which in Latin end in or and are made English. U. say. which was commonly used where i is now put. doubt. as stag. quit. destroy. as guard. thumb. or short. comb. buy. lamb. climb. limb. favor. as dying. It is used before l and r. B has one unvaried sound. Ue is sometimes mute at the end of a word. A Grammar of the English Tongue 6 . Y is a vowel. GENERAL RULES. y. quest. conf[=u]sion. It supplies the place of i at the end of words. as honeur. but that we have it. besides that they are probably derived to us from the French nouns in eur. ***** OF CONSONANTS. labor.
as in gay.A Grammar of the English Tongue C. chaise. foreign. cistern. and with the English sound of ch before a consonant. It is the same sound which the Italians give to the c simple before i and e. is numbered by the grammarians among the semivowels. as gnash. captive from captivus. it sounds like k. as ring. o. and the other by k. fry. as citta. yet has this quality of a mute. as sincerely. as archangel. song. incorporate. get. Ch has a sound which is analyzed into tsh. as church. chin. block. centrick. concupiscence. crutch. s. cross. F. city. and w as dwell. as chymist. C might be omitted in the language without loss. giant. concavity. circular. as archbishop. Ch is sounded like k in words derived from the Greek. At the end of a word it is always hard. F. as in gem. In such words c is now mute. D. scheme. It is used before l and r. G is mute before n. It is used before r. dross. It has an unvariable sound. sounds like sh. as calm. the other soft. Arch is commonly sounded ark before a vowel. that it is commodiously sounded before a liquid. though having a name beginning with a vowel. C has before e and i the sound of s. cerro. siccity: before a. which were originally. according to English orthography. snug. as face from facies. C. geld. sticke. freckle. frog. as gem. as finger. therefore we write stick. G has two sounds. generation. and u. blocke. since one of its sounds might be supplied by. Before e and i the sound is uncertain. but that it preserves to the eye the etymology of words. A Grammar of the English Tongue 7 . copper. as clock. never ends a word. century. G before e is soft. except that of is sometimes spoken nearly as ov. gewgaw. and generally before er at the ends of words. one hard. as death. diligent. in some French words not yet assimilated. go. as singing. as flask. curiosity. sign. choler. stronger. Ch. Is uniform in its sound. gun. and derivatives from words ending in g. as machine. except in gear. as draw. G. geese.
rite. according to the analogy of our language. slough. right. or derived from the Latin. H. the ll was retained. as kept. pickle. jocund. gibe. K. The custom is to double the l at the end of monosyllables. l. not sceptick. except in etymology. as ejaculation. It seldom begins any but the first syllable. ginger. as cockle. as in scene. and is used before e and i. giblets. humble. trough. fulle. L. as laugh. as give. gin. and when the e first grew silent. sough. for so it should be written. as knell. which is still continued among the Scotch. whence laughter retains the same sound in the middle. except in heir. as blockhead. as ghostly. L has in English the same liquid sound as in other languages. and sometimes at the end. enough. It is not to be doubted. H is a note of aspiration. G is used before h. as hat. and r.A Grammar of the English Tongue G before i is hard. and is therefore a letter useless. in which it is always sounded with a full breath. gigantick. skeptick. Gh in the beginning of a word has the sound of the hard g. These words were originally written kille. sought. It has often at the end the sound of f. to the foregoing vowel. J consonant sounds uniformly like the soft g. full. honest. spoken tho'. gill. as kill. A Grammar of the English Tongue 8 . but totally loses its sound in modern pronunciation. gingle. hostler. juice. cough. except in giant. in the middle. humour and their derivatives. where. will. herb. K is never doubled. soute. K has the sound of hard c. skirt. according to English analogy. jester. tough. horse. c would be soft. but c is used before it to shorten the vowel by a double consonant. knot. but that in the original pronunciation gh has the force of a consonant deeply guttural. honour. it is quite silent. as though. and was afterward omitted. It sometimes begins middle or final syllables in words compounded. to give force. to which may be added Egypt and gypsy. It is used before n. wille. Giles. gibbet. because sc is sounded like s. as comprehend. and shows that the following vowel must be pronounced with a strong emission of breath. J. king. gilliflower.
halves. liquor. M. Rh is used in words derived from the Greek. as in calf. and has a sound which our Saxon ancestors well expressed by cw. N is sometimes mute after m. risque. as quadrant. talk. S. as murmur. condemn. rheum. as hlaf. hlaford. Q. The Saxons used often to put h before it. hymn. quilt. as before l at the beginning of words. sometimes aspirated the l at the beginning of words. monumental. as philosopher. manners. the same sound. R. as table. as theatre. or bread. as in psalm. philanthropy. a loaf. calves. rhyme. could. falcon.A Grammar of the English Tongue L. A Grammar of the English Tongue 9 . The Saxons. Qu is never followed by u. and between m and t. sepulchre. is pronounced like a weak er. as tempt. as conquer. half. as damn. M has always the same sound. Qu is sometimes sounded. is always followed by u. N. as noble. as sibilation. Philip. R has the same rough snarling sound as in the other tongues. rheumatick. as in other languages. would. inquiry. salmon. P. shuttle. N has always. who delighted in guttural sounds. at the end of some words derived from the Latin or French. psalm. P is sometimes mute. chequer. is sometimes mute. as myrrh. but this pronunciation is now disused. sister. should. queen. a lord. P has always the same sound which the Welsh and Germans confound with b. in words derived from the French. quotidian. in which the e is almost mute. catarrhous. Le at the end of words is pronounced like a weak el. myrrhine. equestrian. Re. S has a hissing sound. Ph is used for f in words derived from the Greek. Q. quire. like k.
thus. the pronouns this. desire. island. The sound is soft in these words. horse. as conversion. this. as take. then. V. surplus. eyes. breathe. whether. as thick. A Grammar of the English Tongue 10 . wisdom. has a grosser sound. except in the third person of verbs. distresses. if a vowel goes before it. or in ss. the one soft. It sounds like z before ion. prison. This s is therefore termed by grammarians suae potestatis litera. present. rebus. thy. sgranare. clothe. dresse. father. thine. v is only distinguished by a diacritical point. present. Th has two sounds. thee. and the plurals of nouns. as refuse. shrew. thunder. mightier. casement. except this. that it may be sounded before all consonants. and there. think. they. the close being always either in se. It sounds like z before e mute. and in all words between two vowels. sventura. these. as burthen. squeeze. S is mute in isle. Thus we find in several languages. and between r and a vowel. as mighty. the other hard. as trees. as question. us. Where it is softened at the end of a word. bosom. faith. surplus. that in some words it might be doubled at pleasure. as vain. whether. x being only ks. with their derivatives and compounds. viscount. splendour. strength. In other words it is hard. an e silent must be added. the reason of which the learned Dr. dress. bliss. us. step. their. in which s is comprised. Ti before a vowel has the sound of si as salvation. those. bushes. ours. sdegno. V has a sound of near affinity to that of f. as thing. as thus. slumber. as rosy. faithful. as house. swell. as grass. T. stramen. W. as trees. sdrucciolo. sgombrare. cloth. S. and in those words. less. except x and z. as loves. as. prisoner. damsel. scatter. space. snipe. and z a hard or gross s. thus. except an s goes before. like that of z. his. It is the peculiar quality of s. demesne. as intrusion. T has its customary sound. them. shake. anciently grasse. if it follows a consonant. spring. thou. and like s. excepting likewise derivatives from words ending in ty. From f in the Islandick alphabet. thence.A Grammar of the English Tongue A single s seldom ends any word. as rebus. [Greek: sphinx]. and words derived from Latin. temptation. stripe. single at the end of words. [Greek: Sbennymi]. yours. the adverb thus. and in that. and before y final. sfavellare. vanity. smell. Clarke erroneously supposed to be. though. grows. as breath.
and concluding that the whole nation combines to vitiate language in one manner. Z. It is thought by some to be in all cases a vowel. that it follows a vowel without any hiatus. or just utterance of words. X begins no English word: it has the sound of ks. For pronunciation the best general rule is. and seem not sufficiently to have considered. orthography being only the art of expressing certain sounds by proper characters. A Grammar of the English Tongue 11 . whence. But it may be observed of y as of w. The cursory pronunciation is always vague and uncertain. as. one cursory and colloquial. when it follows a consonant. In orthography I have supposed orthoepy. like that of all other consonants. what. ut. as ye. in whore only. though by no means immutable and permanent. as water may be resolved into ouater. as axle. is a vowel. and not rather as it is called a double u. young. or ou. as freeze. Y. as frosty winter. as rosy youth. dew. wh is sounded like a simple h. when it precedes either a vowel or a diphthong. some grammarians have doubted whether it ever be a consonant. is yet always less remote from the orthography. to consider those as the most elegant speakers who deviate least from the written words. The chief argument by which w and y appear to be always vowels is. the other regular and solemn. which in diphthongs is often an undoubted vowel. as of all living tongues. extraneous. which the Saxons better expressed by hw. The solemn pronunciation. unskilfulness. of an s uttered with a closer compression of the palate by the tongue. as its name izzard or s hard expresses. but in wed. have often established the jargon of the lowest of the people as the model of speech. that w follows a vowel without any hiatus or difficulty of utterance.A Grammar of the English Tongue Of w. X. cannot be uttered after a vowel. that the sounds which they are supposed to have as consonants. odd. They have however generally formed their tables according to the cursory speech of those with whom they happened to converse. to be included. do. I have therefore observed in what words any of the letters are mute. the two sounds of w have no resemblance to each other. there is a double pronunciation. that of English. is a consonant. but letters of the same sound are always reckoned consonants in other alphabets: and it may be observed. Most of the writers of English grammar have given long tables of words pronounced otherwise than they are written. and less liable to capricious innovation. or affectation. whiting. Wh has a sound accounted peculiar to the English. Y. and sometimes in wholesome. being made different in different mouths by negligence. Z begins no word originally English. it has the sound. froze. thus we say tu.
to be formed by a synod of grammarians upon principles of science. that as they have done no good they have done little harm. but with equal unlikelihood of success. and is uttered with a pronunciation which now seems harsh and rough. repete tor repeat. but was probably used by our ancestors. The language of the northern counties retains many words now out of use. but which are commonly of the genuine Teutonick race. and the various modifications by which the sense of the same word is diversified. and every character a single sound. Such would be the orthography of a new language. less absurdly indeed. an or a. Others. The English language has properly no dialects. and is yet sufficiently irregular. but obsolete. by writing honor and labor for honour and labour. I love. than by any real difference which letters would express. But who can hope to prevail on nations to change their practice. but has less variation in England than in most other nations of equal extent. Of the ARTICLE. indeed. have endeavoured to deserve well of their country. Etymology teaches the deduction of one word from another. A. Of these reformers some have endeavoured to accommodate orthography better to the pronunciation. horses. and because few have followed them. without considering that this is to measure by a shadow. AN. that every sound may have its own character. explane for explain. Of these it may be said. or of their flexions and terminations. The speech in the western provinces seems to differ from the general diction rather by a depraved pronunciation. like that of other nations. the style of writers has no professed diversity in the use of words. ***** ETYMOLOGY. sais for says. The oral diction is uniform in no spacious country. have endeavoured to proportion the number of letters to that of sounds. or according to the fancy of the earliest writers in rude ages. to take that for a model or standard which is changing while they apply it. The northern speech is therefore not barbarous. or declame for declaim. was at first very various and uncertain. The English have two articles. which. A Grammar of the English Tongue 12 . and the. both because they have innovated little. and make all their old books useless? or what advantage would a new orthography procure equivalent to the confusion and perplexity of such an alteration? Some ingenious men. red for read in the preter−tense. as horse.A Grammar of the English Tongue There have been many schemes offered for the emendation and settlement of our orthography. nor differs but by different degrees of skill or care. being formed by chance. I loved.
Abstract names. as these are good books. witch−craft. That is. whose mortal taste Brought death into the world. kindness. Aristarchus. that is. virtue. as an herb. the n being cut off before a consonant in the speed of utterance. When wild in woods the noble savage ran. He giveth fodder for the cattle. because it is only the Saxon an. as. 2. GOD is used as a proper name. Many words are used without articles. The fruit Of that forbidden tree. London. ***** Of NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE. An is still used before the silent h. THE. as John. This is a better book for a man than a boy. some sword. as A horse. Milton. whence it appears that the English anciently asperated less. that particular fruit. and green herbs for the use of man. that an should be used before h. ugliness. for those beings that are cattle. as blackness. with some reference to more. this is not brass. one among the books that are good. anger. An army might enter without resistance. and the French un. and means one. for one of those that are men than one of those that are boys. I am as free as Nature first made man. Shakespeare. Rome. good−nature. we speak in the plural without an article. I want some pens. vice. that is. The is used in both numbers. one. Athens. that is. 3. as. and his use that is man. In the senses in which we use a or an in the singular. an honest man. Alexander.A Grammar of the English Tongue A has an indefinite signification. Jerusalem. as 1. or aen. Dryden. Words in which nothing but the mere being of any thing is implied: This is not beer. but steel. hatred. A Grammar of the English Tongue 13 . as This is a good book. my kingdom for a horse. I want pens. Ere the base laws of servitude began. The has a particular and definite signification. applied to a new use. He was killed by a sword. An or a can only be joined with a singular: the correspondent plural is the noun without an article. but water. beauty. Longinus. but otherwise a. Grammarians of the last age direct. as the German ein. So. and this world in which we live. I want a pen. love. that is. Proper names. I have made an the original article. any army. that is. a horse. or with the pronominal adjective some.
the Master. and collective nouns. These genitives are always written with a mark of elision. from the Masters. Gen. Master. the winter's severity: but in these cases his may be understood. Masters. the Masters. Magistris. Scholars. Gen. Plur. Voc. Acc. Haughty Juno's unrelenting hate. Masters. as Women's passions. unless we may be said to have a genitive case. Magistris. Dat. Magistro. of the Master. the diamond's lustre. because 's is put to female nouns. Voc. from a Master. the Masters. Nom. Gen. the rabble's insolence. a Master. as in most of the other European languages. Woman's beauty. Plural. to the Masters. Magistri. the Master's. Acc. Master's. for the soldier his valour: but this cannot be the true original. that the 's is a contraction of his. Magistri. Nom. a Master. Abl. Gen. Scholar.A Grammar of the English Tongue The relations of English nouns to words going before or following are not expressed by cases. but. Scholar's. he and his having formerly been applied to neuters in the place now supplied by it and its. of Masters. of the Masters. according to an opinion long received. Magistros. Plur. Our nouns are therefore only declined thus: Master. the Master. scholar's. Magister. O Master. or changes of termination. of a Master. the Virgin's delicacy. Masters. or Master's. to the Master. Singular. Magister. Magistrum. to a Master. We say likewise the foundation's strength. Magistri. master's. Masters. Magistro. O Masters. Abl. A Grammar of the English Tongue 14 . the multitude's folly: in all these cases it is apparent that his cannot be understood. by prepositions. as the soldier's valour. to Masters. from Masters. from the Master. Dat. Magistrorum.
and so in two other of their seven declensions. the mute e is vocal before s. smiths. roof. So hoof. mischief. as lance. Besides that the mark of elision is improper. This formation is that which generally prevails in the Teutonick dialects. the genitive may be the same with the nominative. like those of many other languages. Plurals ending in s have no genitives. outrages. children from child. Dr. and surely an English ear rebels against them. calves. and Weigh the mens wits against the ladies hairs. but we say. Womens excellencies.A Grammar of the English Tongue The learned and sagacious Wallis. Words that end in f commonly form their plural by ves. Willis thinks the Lords' house may he said for the house of Lords. They would commonly produce a troublesome ambiguity. The formation of the plural and genitive singular is the same. Lowth. dice from die. flies. cuff. Trojae oris. This termination of the noun seems to constitute a real genitive indicating possession. wood. a smith. mice from mouse. in Chaucer. feet from foot. in Spenser. relief. x. calls this modification of the noun an adjective possessive. princess. oxen. as table. It is derived to us from the Saxon's who declined smith. as the Lord's house may be the house of Lords. muffs. fly. as prince. handkerchief. Dr. for in the Lords' house nothing is cut off. as after ch. as men. lances. brethren from brother. chief. change their termination as they express different sexes. Irregular plurals are teeth from tooth. smither or smithar. or the house of a Lord. as Venus temple. supposes the possessive pronouns mine and thine to be genitive cases. Plur. Some English substantives. on the other part. but such phrases are not now in use. grief. proof. as loaf. sister. to whom every English grammarian owes a tribute of reverence. and g like j. shoon. tables. woods. outrage. pence from penny. Gen. A Grammar of the English Tongue 15 . smither. swine. I think with no more propriety than he might have applied the same to the genitive in equitum decus. and more anciently eyen. dwarf. puff. sh. lice from louse. loaves. leavis for leaves. after c sounded like s. of a smith. women. that in the old poets both the genitive and plural were longer by a syllable than the original word: knitis for knight's. s. A few words still make the plural in n. Except a few. sisters. When a word ends in s. or es where s could not otherwise be sounded. or any other Latin genitive. geese from goose. chiefs. muff. It is a further confirmation of this opinion. The plural is formed by adding s. calf. z.
In words which the necessities of life are often requiring. most benevolent. Some words are irregularly compared. more (for moer) most (for moest). Monosyllables are commonly compared. nearer. as a he−goat. lovely. as. former. a horse. a. as. and perhaps othets. much. as. a dancer. outermost. authoress. as. Many adjectives do not admit of comparison by terminations. up. In adjectives that admit a regular comparison. best. late. outer. fairest. better. uppermost. we perceive an impropriety in the termination which we cannot avoid. a cow. chauntress. a good man. hero. more benevolent. sweetest. Adjectives in the English language are wholly indeclinable. southmost. lovelier. sweeter. actress. duchess. less. of a good woman. equa. loveliest. under. and are only compared by more and most. the sex is distinguished not by different terminations but by different names. as a bull. fairer.A Grammar of the English Tongue actor. benevolent. ***** Of ADJECTIVES. and being much regulated by commodiousness of utterance. traytress. A Grammar of the English Tongue 16 . a good woman. peeress. lowest. Of these variable terminations we have only a sufficient number to make us feel our want. and being added to substantives in all relations without any change. a hen. sweet. good men. fairer. the superlative by adding est. The comparative degree of adjectives is formed by adding er. of good men. an astronomer. lion. nethermost. lioness. To these mentioned by Dr. for when we say of a woman that she is a philosopher. she−goat. good. The Comparison of Adjectives. equus. because these terminations have not annexed to them the notion of sex. as. fairest. and sometimes by pronouns prefixed. Most is sometimes added to a substantive. bad. a student. later. fore. but we can say that she is an architect. latest or last. most. nor number. upper. a mare. low. heroine. lower. higher. worst. the comparative more is oftener used than the superlative most. topmost. worse. foremost. a cock. or agreeableness of sound. All adjectives may be compared by more and most. high. near. to the positive. a weaver. even when they have comparatives and superlatives regularly formed. Some comparatives form a superlative by adding. poetess. than most fair for fairest. or more fair. Lowth may be added arbitress. having neither case. as more fair is oftener written for fairer. The comparison of adjectives is very uncertain. next. gender. a builder. least. most. governess. good women. is not easily reduced to rules. fair. highest. fair. many (for moe). tutress. little. as. or most fair. as nether. tigress. more. undermost. a botanist.
A Grammar of the English Tongue Polysyllables. A Grammar of the English Tongue 17 . Tun'd her nocturnal note. such anomalies must frequently occur. as recent. by Ascham. in ing. by Jonson. Lost. Wotton's Architecture. dreadful. I will now deliver a few of the properest and naturalest considerations that belong to this piece. in ed. careful. as porous. Bacon. careless. or flesh of man. So trifling by Ray. Inventive. as fulsome. fat. except happy. What she wills to say or do. as. Par. or words of more than two syllables. Par. by Milton. Some comparatives and superlatives are yet found in good writers formed without regard to the foregoing rules. by Wotton. in fy. I shall be nam'd among the famousest Of women. by Bacon. Lost. and roundest tongues in all matters. as wretched. in ain. in ful. as certain. in dy. charming. The mortalest poisons practised by the West Indians. Wretched. but in a language subjected so little and so lately to grammar. in al. as rocky. as woody. sung at solemn festivals. Dissyllables are seldom compared if they terminate in some. in my. are seldom compared otherwise than by more and most. more deplorable. as puffy. except lucky. as ropy. best. And virtuous. virtuousest. discreetest. toilsome. in ry. Seems wisest. fervent. as trifling. Ray on the Creation. Mortal. in ny. as mortal. It is not so decorous. She in shadiest covert hid. as. who is indeed of no great authority. Famous. as roomy. in ive. in less. in ous. in id. as missive. in py. most deplorable. that he should immediately do all the meanest and triflingest things himself. Natural. as candid. deplorable. in ky. as. spleenful. as skinny. So shady is compared by Milton. Milton's Agonistes. in ent. Ascham's Schoolmaster. Those have the inventivest heads for all purposes. in respect of God. without making use of any inferior or subordinate minister. as hoary. have some mixture of the blood. harmless.
Thee. A Grammar of the English Tongue 18 . Ye. such as presuming on their own naturals. Powerful. Her. He. saltish. it. Nom. Plural. blackish. her. Singular. ye. Nom. mine. You is commonly used in modern writers for ye. and Me. I. where the second person plural is used for the second person singular. ***** Of PRONOUNS. whosoever. whether. thine. as black. are. another. Accus. Par. or tending to blackness. thou. Oblique.A Grammar of the English Tongue The wretcheder are the contemners of all helps. Nom. Applied to feminines. Us. Singular. whatsoever. which. thy. his. You. they therefore admit no comparison. I. The termination in ish may be accounted in some sort a degree of comparison. salt. other oblique cases. Oblique. Them. hers. by which the signification is diminished below the positive. Nom. my. that. The pronouns personal are irregularly inflected. She. theirs. our. deride diligence. They. particularly in the language of ceremony. or having a little taste of salt. Plural. your. with their plurals. we. and mock at terms when they understand not things. other. some. Thou. nor often to words of above one syllable. by Milton. yours. What heav'n's great king hath pow'rfullest to send Against us from about his throne. Pronouns. they. the same. Lost. Him. You are my friend. They. Applied to masculines. Them. We have sustain'd one day in doubtful fight. in the English language. who. what. We. Ben Jonson. Oblique. ours. and is scarcely used in the solemn or sublime style. This termination is seldom added but to words expressing sensible qualities. he. this.
whatsoever. thy. Its. but my garden is more spacious than thine. as These are our books. but ours surpass yours in learning. theirs.A Grammar of the English Tongue Nom. mine. and for its. They. Milton. Their and theirs are the possessives likewise of they. The possessive of the first person is my. yours. Of which. These books are ours. Mine and thine were formerly used before a vowel. Ours. his. for both sexes. Gen. which. yours. Who is now used in relation to persons. Which. A Grammar of the English Tongue 19 . though I remember no example of the thing who. notwithstanding their seeming plural termination. These books are ours. Whom. your. and hers. Who. Whose. her. The fruit Of that forbidden tree. might be still properly continued in poetry: they are used as ours and yours. The possessive pronouns. are used when the substantive preceding is separated by a verb. and are therefore applied to things. thine. whosoever. Whose is rather the poetical than regular genitive of which. when they are referred to a substantive preceding. like other adjectives. Them. from he. when they is the plural of it. are applied equally to singular and plural substantives. Other oblique cases. theirs. Other oblique cases. Which. their. theirs. Applied to neuters or things. For it the practice of ancient writers was to use he. as. yours. and in the plural. who. as mine amiable lady: which though now disused in prose. Gen. It. ours. and which in relation to things. his. hers. of the third. This book is ours. the man which. Oblique. what. hers. whose mortal taste Brought death into the world. Nom. are without cases or change of termination. At least it was common to say. Pronouns relative are. Nom. as thy house is larger than mine. Ours. from she. of the second. whether. or whose. our. Your children excel ours in stature. but they were anciently confounded.
being only an other. and sometimes to personal pronouns. This seems justly observed. their selves. in which. whether relative or interrogative. Whether. therewith. This These In all cases. herewith. or it forms a reciprocal pronoun. both singular and plural. Here. of which. themselves. as I did this myself. and analogous. Other. &c. &c. as I have sent other horses. in this. The rest seem to be passing by degrees into neglect. but others. as. Others. has no plural. Self is added to possessives. and implies a silent contrariety. for we say.A Grammar of the English Tongue Whether is only used in the nominative and accusative cases. have a relative and pronominal use. our own house. joined with certain particles. as We hurt ourselves by vain rage. whereof. in that. What. The plural others is not used but when it is referred to a substantive preceding. and has no plural. where himself cannot be an accusative. itself. which signify. is without variation. itself. They are referred both to singular and plural antecedents. not another. yourselves. Himself shall do this. Whether shall I choose? It is now almost obsolete. hereafter. Hereof. there. Own is added to possessives. that is. so that self is always a substantive. for which. useful. Singular. herein. This I did with my own hand. whereupon. thereupon. as himself. for his self. that is. without help or not by proxy. whereby. that is. as my own hand. and soever. whatsoever. as Whether of these is left I know not. are now reckoned conjunctions. wherein. It is emphatical. and continued in use. A Grammar of the English Tongue 20 . wherewith. Himself. Therefore and wherefore. therein. That Those. it self. Plural. are supposed by Wallis to be put by corruption. hereby. of this. &c. not in a hired house. for that. being applied only to one of a number. He came himself. themselves. There are two more words used only in conjunction with pronouns. I live in my own house. ***** Of the VERB. or opposition. like own. It then. expresses emphasis and opposition. being compounded of who or what. though proper. thereby. and where. which are properly there for and where for. Another. thereof. own and self. Whosoever. as myself. I have not sent the same horses. commonly to one of two. of that. follow the rule of their primitives.
We had had. they had had. Has is a termination connoted from hath. he will have. Preterpluperfect. as I languish. Sing. ye had had. A Grammar of the English Tongue 21 . they had. The neuters are formed like the actives. I am in love. let. We shall have. he had had. as I love. or neuter. To have. We will have. Plur. thou hast had. I have. Present Tense. and the infinitive of the active or neuter verb. We have had. Verbs have only two tenses inflected in their terminations. Sing. will. thou hadst had. Sing.A Grammar of the English Tongue English verbs are active. they shall have. Sing. Imperative Mood. thou hadst. By reading these future tenses may be observed the variations of shall and will. as I am loved. Simple Preterit. I shall have. he has or hath had. they have. thou wilt have. ye have. Indicative Mood. I will have. Sing. Future. as I love. and become neuters. and simple preterit. have. I had had. he had Plur. ye had. We have. thou shalt have. Plur. the present. he hath or has. they will have. I had. Plur. Most verbs signifying action may likewise signify condition or habit. may. Plur. ye shall have. The passive voice is formed by joining the participle preterit to the substantive verb. they have had. Second Future. can. ye have had. shall. I have had. Compound Preterit. ye wilt have. Sing. I strike. We had. the other tenses are compounded of the auxiliary verbs. he shall have. but now more frequently used both in verse and prose. thou hast. Plur. I am now striking.
as in the Indicative. Sing. ye have had. I have. have or have ye. thou mayst have. thou couldst have. and might. let them have.A Grammar of the English Tongue Sing. I could have. he might have. The potential form of speaking is expressed by may. I can have. or have thou. he could have. We might have. Potential. in the preterit. Future. Conjunctive Mood. I might have. ye have. they have had. Sing. could. Sing. Plur. Plur. Preterit. Preterit compound. thou canst have. Plur. Plur. they could have. they have. ye may have. they might have. Present. We may have. thou have had. ye could have. he shall have had. Sing. I shall have had. I may have. thou shalt have had. they may have. Sing. Present. Sing. Sing. ye might have. We could have. in the present. Plur. Plur. We can have. they shall have had. Plur. We have had. Let us have. Plur. thou mightst have. he may have. he have. I shall have. ye can have. A Grammar of the English Tongue 22 . ye shall have had. Second Future. thou have. Present. they can have. I have had. Sing. joined with the infinitive mood of the verb. he can have. let him have. We shall have had. We have. Have. can. Preterit. he have had. Preterit simple as in the Indicative. or should.
Preterpluperfect. I shall love. Had. &c. Present. Verb Active. could. Double Preterit. they loved. &c. I love. Present. he loveth or loves. &c. Preterperfect compound. he love. I had loved. Sing. We love. I might have had. I might. I may or can love. Having. Participle present. &c. ye love. I have loved. Infinitive Mood. Indicative. Potential. To have. Sing. Preterit compound. he should have had. We loved. let them love. I loved. Future. thou shouldst have had. thou lovest. love or love ye. To love. Plur. I shall have loved. I have loved. Plur. they love. &c. or should love. they should have had. Plur. he loved. as in the indicative. Plur. ye should have had. Sing. I should have had. Conjunctive. I might. ye love. Love or love thou. Participle preterit. We love. Preterit simple. I will love. could. We should have had. Imperative. Preterit. &c. &c. Sing.A Grammar of the English Tongue In like manner should is united to the verb. thou lovedst. Present. A Grammar of the English Tongue 23 . &c. ye loved. they love. &c. Future. Sing. &c. I love. Present. Second Future. Preterit. let him love. I could have had. thou love. &c. To have had. Let us love. There is likewise a double Preterit. I shall love. In like manner we use. Plur. Preterit simple. or should have loved.
he is. &c. Potential. Sing. they were. Sing. I be. Participle present. Present. &c. they be. could. would. he were. &c. or should have been. To have loved. I have been. Preterit. Preterpluperfect. Loving. Wert is properly of the conjunctive mood. Infinitive. would. be ye. &c. Plur. I shall or will be. ye be. could. Be thou. Present. he was. Preterit. I was. Plur. ye are or be. I have been. let him be. We were. The plural be is now little in use. &c. We were. Indicative. thou wert. Plur. which must therefore be here exhibited. The passive is formed by the addition of the participle preterit to the different tenses of the verb to be. A Grammar of the English Tongue 24 . thou beest. &c. Future. I am.A Grammar of the English Tongue Infinitive. Plur. Plur. Participle past. I were. or should be. Conjunctive. they are or be. ye were. We be. Loved. thou art. To love. Sing. ye were. Sing. I shall have been. Imperative. I may or can. Sing. they were. Preterit. thou wast or wert. We are or be. he be. let them be. Future. Present. and ought not to be used in the indicative. Preterit compound. Let us be. I had been. Preterit compound.
Sing. Preterit. If I shall have been loved. &c. I had done. let him do. &c. There is another form of English verbs. Future. Let us do. ye did. ye do. &c. To be. &c. Being. I have been loved. If I were loved. let them do. Present. &c. Present.A Grammar of the English Tongue Present. Plur. I may or can be loved. Plur. Indicative Mood. &c. Sing. If I be loved. he doth. thou didst. Sing. which are therefore to be learned in this place. I did. Do thou. Infinitive. To be loved. &c. I was loved. &c. &c. they did. Potential Mood. Participle. Loved. I do. A Grammar of the English Tongue 25 . or should have been loved. Passive Voice. Preterit. in which the infinitive mood is joined to the verb do in its various inflections. To have been loved. &c. Conjunctive. Preterit. &c. or should be loved. he did. Conjunctive Mood. I have done. Participle present. To do. I am loved. thou dost. could. We do. Having been. do ye. Participle preterit. Indicative. I might. &c. they do. To have been. I shall or will do. I might. Present. could. Imperative. Plur. &c. Preterit.. We did.
Doing. Do I live? Dost thou strike me? Do they rebel? Did I complain? Didst thou love her? Did she die? So likewise in negative interrogations. exieram: Je m'etois promene. There is another manner of using the active participle. simply for I love. grammatica jam nunc chartis imprimitur. To do. or rather the conjunctive is wholly neglected. but this is considered as a vitious mode of speech. at least in prose. So the other tenses. I wished him success. Do I not yet grieve? Did she not die? Do and did are thus used only for the present and simple preterit. as. which. except. when some convenience of versification docs not invite its revival. The imperative prohibitory is seldom applied in the second person. appears more easy than the other form of expressing the same sense by a negative adverb after the verb. [Greek: etynchanomen peripatountes]. but now somewhat obsolete: The book is a printing. thou do. and printing and forging verbal nouns signifying action. as they are inflected according to the passive form by the help of the verb substantive to be. as. in my opinion. Je me suis leve. whether. I have been walking. I shall or will be walking. but did not help him. though. unless. whatsoever. in which it is used through all the persons. Do is sometimes used superfluously. as. as. furit procella. Stop him. a vitious expression. he do. eo. We do. I am risen. The indicative and conjunctive moods are by modern writers frequently confounded. probably corrupted from a phrase more pure. before. as. Plur. according to the analogy of this language. but I do not love her. may not improperly denominate them neuter passives. It is sometimes used emphatically. Latin. Praise beauty. I did love. We were walking. A Grammar of the English Tongue 26 . The tempest is raging. I like her. The brass is a forging. Infinite. I do. but do not dote on it. This is. as. but do not hurt him. She is dying. I was walked out. to have done. Shakespeare. There is another manner of conjugating neuter verbs.A Grammar of the English Tongue Sing. The brass is forging. whomsoever. and Israel acknowledge us not. It is used among the purer writers of former times after if. doleo. and when I love thee not. Done. as. and words of wishing. or I loved. The grammar is now printing. but love her not. which gives it a passive signification: as. They answer nearly to the reciprocal verbs in French. though Abraham be ignorant of us. they do. This. I am grieving. as. as I do love. Participle present. I do love thee. Participle preterit. Its chief use is in interrogative forms of speech. hostem insequor. illa moritur. The rest are as in the Indicative. It is frequently joined with a negative. surrexi. a being properly at. I am pursuing an enemy. I like her. I had been walking. ara excuduntur. In like manner we commonly express the present tense. ye do. French. I am going. Doubtless thou art our father. ere. when it is used. till or until. without the word do. by custom at least. Chaos is come again.
bred. without any reason arising from the nature of the language. shred. to chide. which has properly but one conjugation. as plac't. slept. in our monosyllable Saxon verbs. to take. as write. to meet. coalesce into one letter with the radical d or t: if t were the radical. slain. wak'd. waked. from the verbs to lend. mow'd. or p. Sometimes after x. show'd. as well as sow'd. which are indeed. fed. r. eat. from the verbs to sow. but very seldom in writing rather than d. to know. loaden. but if d were the radical. dwel'd. smel't for plac'd. to speed. from the verbs to cast. th. when more strongly pronounced. they coalesce into t. eat. to load. or placed. laden. girt. x. Indeed. to shed. strid. broke. and sometimes after m. bitten. sh. Concerning these double participles it is difficult to give any rule. hit. but almost all the verbs which have been adopted from other languages. make their preterit in t. there is scarcely any other place for irregularity. sweat. to bite. dwelled. known. to hit. hewn. to break. to quit. to slay. Where d or t go before. smit. n. thus kept. to feed. been. to hurt. to shread. to weep. beaten. from the verbs to read. wept. The first irregularity is a slight deviation from the regular form. even in solemn language. snatch't. to eat. met. sent. such as has been exemplified: from which all deviations are to be considered as anomalies. to sit. then into d or t. to slide. quit. to lead. shot. fish't. as lov'd for loved. as. bid. to breed. broken. writ. sped. wak't. to cost. to give. is better than The book is wrote. fish'd. hew'd. rid. shed. to hide. if preceded by a short vowel. shotten. Wallis to be irregular only in the formation of the preterit. that when a verb has a participle distinct from its preterit. spread. lent. follow the regular form. to show. In the same manner. to ride. eaten. to burst. to sweep. very frequent. to choose. to beat. to hide. bit. to sleep. but likewise writ. after c. burst. as not only written. crept. smelled. slid. by rapid utterance or poetical contraction: the last syllable ed is often joined with the former by suppression of e. to chide. given. dwel't. from the verbs to keep. The participle preterit or passive is often formed in en instead of ed. swept. shewn. felt. and many such like. to eat. smel'd. chid. taken. are promiscuously used in the participle. rent. And thus cast. and after the consonants s. And in like manner. chidden. sown. as The book is written. as the one or the other letter may be more easily pronounced. and its participle. t is used in pronunciation. to lade. from the verbs to write. bit. to mow. snatch'd. beat. as crept. led. dwelt. as read. that distinct participle is more proper and elegant. shot. to gird. to stride. hid. to spread. and the verbs derived from them. to send. laded. from the verbs to be. A long vowel is often changed into a short one. The English verbs were divided by Ben Jonson into four conjugations. chid. Wrote however may be used A Grammar of the English Tongue 27 . written. k. fished. Many words have two or more participles. to shoot. to shoot. loaded. in this contracted form. cost. to rend. snatched. ed is changed into t. in the scantiness of our conjugations. hidden. f. to creep. to bleed. to sweat. to smite. as vext: this is not constant. to bite. beat. to write. mown. hid. but he shall seldom err who remembers. Our verbs are observed by Dr. Those words which terminate in l or ll. wrote. to bid.A Grammar of the English Tongue ***** Of IRREGULAR VERBS. the additional letter d or t. chose. hurt. bled. to hew. ch. sit. chosen. to beat.
3. (from the old wend) the participle is gone. as to love. gotten. saw. shake. both in the preterit imperfect and participle passive. tread. make in both preterit and participle took. tore. thought. or the preterit of the verb. stood. found. 5. bade. wring. swim. wove. forgotten. thrown. wrote. There are other anomalies in the preterit. get. sitten. share. as taken. sang. And many do likewise retain the analogy in both. bear. arise. gat. born. as stricken. ground. tear. bore. come. a stroke. and rectify his errours. shorn. bide. stung. forsook. lien. 1. forsake. and how the primitives are borrowed from other languages. swore. as done or produced. who. as to strike. in the exultation of genius. shore. choose. stunk. as brake. ly. drove. clave. writ. smote. swear. arose. shone. sting. In the preterit some are likewise formed by a. Nouns are derived from verbs. woven. write. Win. at least. stick. rise. see. abide. in the participle passive given. bounden. drive. chosen. drunk. came. grind. besought. awoke. spoke. flew. flung. swung. forgot. sunk. weaved. grown. break. wind. catched. bare. give won. begin. Draw. knew. 2. bode. wrought. struck. from go. And most of them are also formed in the preterit by a. wore. In this inquiry I shall sometimes copy Dr. it is necessary to inquire how its derivative words are deduced from their primitives. strucken. lay. crow like a cock. woke. chose. spoken. abode. strove. is commonly either the present of the verb. beseech. find. caught. torn. as began. run. crew. tare. speak. reached. but more rarely. sodden. love. spun. spake. drank. sung. to fright. shook. went. bound. and sometimes endeavour to supply his detects. forsaken. shrink. stand. lain. brought. drawn. ran. think themselves perhaps entitled to trample on grammarians. bidden. rang. buy. raught. But a great many of these retain likewise the regular form. seethe. run. come. to fight. blown. know. broke. sware. sprung. Give. cloven. sing. grow. sink. I strick or strook. cleave. Some in the participle passive likewise take en. wake. flown. slay. sprang. got. swing. bring. stuck. make their preterit drew. bid. sit. ride. but most of these are now obsolete. rid. seek. Take. shine. sworn. ridden. throw. worked. rose. a fight. fly. Yet from flee is made fled. strike. seethed. strive. The thing implied in the verb.A Grammar of the English Tongue in poetry. smit. 4. spin. blew. make in the preterit gave. smitten. known. catch. abid. begat. chuse. slain. sheared. trodden. slew. beget. blow. rise. and some others. bought. Wallis. smite. taught. awaked. begun. threw. Fight. reach. rode. and perhaps some others. risen. But we say likewise. ring. worn. forget. In the participle passive many of them are formed by en. wound. thriven. That the English language may be more easily understood. wrung. shear. shaken. trode. work. thrive. swum. awake. as waked. as teached. sought. their participles passive by n. ware. spring. weave. thrive. grew. clove. fling. ***** Of DERIVATION. if we allow any authority to poets. make fought. but in both bid. begotten. cleaved. A Grammar of the English Tongue 28 . abided. bind. shrunk. drink. broken. forgat. seen. sate. think. rung. driven. beseeched. sod. throve. begot. stink. drunken. teach. a fright. wear.
Un is prefixed to most substantives which have an English termination. to shorten. healthy. untaught. Thus comfort. as unfeeling. sap. burden. makes adjectives signifying want. as inefficacious. or person acting. delight. or in some degree. joy. as. youth. Thus unworthy. handsome. length. earthy. as. fighting. unprofitable. as loving. soft. as infertility. From substantives are formed adjectives of plenty. is denoted by the syllable er added to the verb. unfruitful. oil. strength. alone. plenty. to oil. care. by adding the termination ful. mighty. The original English privative is un. might. careless. white. Privation or contrariety is very often denoted by the participle un prefixed to many adjectives. worth. words already signifying privation. lousy. but a privation of habit. lust. grass. troublesome. but with some kind of diminution thereof. sapless. glass. wood. handy. lightsome. patient. impious. The agent. the termination some is added. useful. as unfertileness. especially to adjectives. denoting something. unassisting. as lover. to house. and many more. frighting. striking. brass. untruth. as delight. take in or im. haste. hand. the termination less added to substantives. if they have borrowed terminations. Un is prefixed to all words originally English. health. short. light. from which it is not easy to disentangle them. frighter. black. wealth. unhealthy. or in before words derived from the Latin. hard. to braze. to lengthen. to graze. as. fruitful. as unpitying. indiscreet. witless. as unsighing. toilsome. unendeared. unpleasant. or the consonant softened. delightsome. heartless. Sometimes in almost the same sense. to fish. Un ought never to be prefixed to a participle present to mark a forbearance of action. unhandsome. further. profitable. toil. fruit. to hasten. helpful. A Grammar of the English Tongue 29 . delightful. unaided. impatient. as untrue. to strengthen. wealthy. lonesome. youthful. comfortless. helpless. the inseparable particles un and in have fallen into confusion. Un is prefixed to all participles made privative adjectives. a heart. Sometimes the termination en is added. Substantives. a fish. imperfection. irksome. water. use. forward. adjectives. by adding the termination y: as a louse. lusty. witty.A Grammar of the English Tongue The action is the same with the participle present. striker. to prize. a hand. to further. worthy. breath. to glaze. to breathe. irk. are changed into verbs: in which case the vowel is often lengthened. worthless. denoting abundance. joyful. to forward. trouble. gamesome. fast. as. On the contrary. (a wood) woody. airy. as pleasant. which. to whiten. or its descendants. to hinder. watery. game. hinder. From substantives are formed adjectives of plenty. hearty. undelighted. wit. unuseful. joyless. price. unperfectness. wise. plentiful. to harden. to soften. help. careful. but as we often borrow trom the Latin. burdensome. uncivil. air. unwise. earth. to blacken. a house. to fasten. and sometimes other parts of speech.
A Grammar of the English Tongue incivility. Of concrete adjectives are made abstract substantives. as indecent. this is a German termination: a lamb. mischance. honour. sippet. The termination ly added to substantives. but if we borrow the adjective. and sometimes to adjectives. a man. a cockrel. a wolf. sop. that is. added to adjectives. and others. defamo. unactive. To like. as of their pronunciation. In borrowing adjectives. forms adverbs of like signification. great. maidenhead. to honour. tong. a pipkin. The same termination ly. hardness. as. detraho. earth. inactivity. sip. depending wholly on oral utterance. Yet still there is another form of diminution among the English. baby. sup. widowhood. mishap. noting character or qualities: as white. A Grammar of the English Tongue 30 . goodly. heavenly. signify almost the same as un. a lambkin. to mistake. spit. jangle. a manikin. manhood. being formed by contraction of lick or like. and add the privative particle. [Greek: Boupais]. and many other made words. in a beautiful manner. a pipe. a gosling. distinguo. and that sometimes not so much by change of the letters. and a few in hood or head. The prepositive particles dis and mis. hard. tingle. Words derived from Latin written with de or dis retain the same signification. misdeed. whitish. defame. by adding the termination ness. to dislike. softish. to grace. though not frequent. it is usual to retain the particle prefixed. we commonly prefix un. beautiful. Much however of this is arbitrary and fanciful. unskilfulness. a pike. chance. to employ. knighthood. greatness. sweet. white. especially if with a stronger sound. beautifully. derived from the des and mes of the French. godly. to apply. and added to substantives. giantly. priesthood. as a hill. and therefore scarcely worthy the notice of Wallis. a child. childish. imports diminution. wolfish. sweetly. as. to use. forms adjectives that import some kind of similitude or agreement. deed. to disgrace. whence the patronymick. since it answers to the Latin preposition de. to misapply. and for the most part may be rendered by the Latin words male or perperam. if we receive them already compounded. skilfulness. earthly. inelegant. to disdeign. spout. as there is a form of augmenting them by enlarging or even lengthening it. this is a French termination: a goose. and thus Halkin. greenish. whiteness. detineo. soop. a chicken. yet dis rather imports contrariety than privation. hap. Mis insinuates some errour. a chick. there is added the French termination et. to misemploy. as unpolite. God. besides the extenuation of the vowel. imports similitude or tendency to a character. detain. good. heaven. babe. ting. The termination ish added to adjectives. great pronounced long. tang. by lessening the sound itself. improper. grea−t. Hawkins. as green. a thief. dishonour. likelihood. especially of vowels. skilful. imports a succession of smaller and then greater sounds. a pickrel. a cock. detract. falsehood. pronounced long lee−tle. world. with some degree of sweetness. ungallant. where. godhead. A giant. Thomkin. top. Wilkin. and so in jingle. little. to dishonour. tip. a hillock. booby. to deign. worldly. We have forms of diminutives in substantives. to take. as distinguish. tangle. soft. giantlike. to misuse. thievish.
dear. snaffle. twilight.snear. whose primitives are either entirely obsolete. snort. A Grammar of the English Tongue 31 . a promontory. batter. tickle. There are in English often long trains of words allied by their meaning and derivation. bear. freedom. wick. as snout. deep. Some ending in ship. whence worshipful. These should rather be written flighth. twirl. sneeze. tack. and so moon. rue. stealth. snuff. twist. death. spry. warm. and perhaps derived from the Latin batuo. fry. which are formed by the addition of the termination th. Like these are some words derived from verbs. dukedom. twelve. and what relates to it. mow. that is. as. snivel. princedom. extracted from Wallis. growth. snudge. wreathe. a kind of glutinous composition for food. or condition. and nesse. truth. say. true. wisdom. ruth. steal. kingdom. flight. heal. Perhaps they are derived from fey or foy. or seldom occur. batoon. till. at least state or condition.A Grammar of the English Tongue There are other abstracts. worth. and to worship. a small change being sometimes made. draught. as projecting like a nose. fray. strong. mow. length. a battledore. sooth. draw. tactum. scarcely ever occurring. worthship. grow. guardianship. twice. health. twinge. wrath. a battle. and transposed that they may the better correspond. touch. twins. Sn usually imply the nose. weight. depth. partly derived from adjectives. birth. as long. spight. all imply a local conjunction from the Latin tango. fright. twibil. wealth. strength. stewardship. lordship. From the Latin nasus are derived the French nez and the English nose. Thus worship. die. The same form retain faith. betwixt. warmth. young. and probably earth. as. froth. later mowth. breath. only that custom will not suffer h to be twice repeated. twine. bailiwick. and the like. Some few ending in dom. twig. breadth. twenty. headship. wreak. merry. bray. as. light. usage. fly. snite. Ment and age are plainly French terminations and are of the same import with us as among them. broad. snot. a beetle. weal. sn denote nasus. do especially denote dominion. wight. made by beating different bodies into one mass. earldom. wardship. month. From two are formed twain. kingship. after math. whoredom. from to ear or plow. and partly from verbs. brew. slowth. commonly spoken and written later math. imply an office. drought. to beat. except in words derived from the French. Christendom. snore. to batter. twitch. The following remarks. All these are of similar signification. slow. rick. tackle. width. well. weigh. between. employment. and such as perhaps might in every language be enlarged without end. tetigi. and thence are derived many words that relate to the nose. snarl. a bat. tilth. work. But as if from the consonants ns taken from nasus. Thus take. bishoprick. dry. wry. wide. as commandment. frighth. snuffle. mirth. snicker. after mowth. partnership. are ingenious but of more subtlety than solidity. youth. popedom. broth. dearth.
stride. or to prop. stink. stead. or stoward. swim. to stay. and any thing deposited at play. as strong. blaze. that is. strait. wring. sweep. blay. to stub up. that is. strand. to bestow. bleat. stradale. swag. In all these. distrain. strife. more obscure. stray. snib. wrinkle. step. that is. stout. to look bleak. a stall. stop. blew. blurt. to blight. blossom. as blow. as sway. to make an impression and a stamp. or weather−beaten. a bleak place. or a softer kind of lateral motion. stub. stone. stake. swerve. staff. blast. stallion. closer. throb. stutter. wrinch. and therefore the sounds of the letters smaller. a sharp. stall. through. wreak. or strenuous. stick. blubber−cheek't. pale. stoat. stead. wrestle. stern. louder. a stay. stool. stick. bleach. stammer. a stated measure. as if it were derived from the Latin sto. stem. swing. so likewise snap and snatch. threat. stedfast. stickle. strout. throng. Thus words that begin with str intimate the force and effect of the thing signified. wrong. blabber lip't. and perhaps blood and blush. streak. wretch. sturdy. strike. thrust. snail. stroke. as snake. to stare. stut. steep. whence stumble. distress. to stow. stand. to blast one's reputation. bloted. as throw. strict. do very often intimate the like effects in the things signified. so much only as is sufficient to preserve what has been already communicated. a stable. standard. snare. and still. to stall. bloom. to stamp with the feet. to stuff. wrack. bluster. stubble. Sw imply a silent agitation. adverb: stale. stiff. to remain. swill. blister. strut. stall. wrap. Thr imply a more violent degree of motion. that is. stock. wrest. and more stridulous. strew. for example. steward. stretch. stallage. black. wrench. sharper. struggle. streight. stay. blote−herrings. Bl imply a blast. bladder. clearer. and perhaps some others. threaten. an obstacle. wrangle. In the native words of our tongue is to be found a great agreement between the letters and the thing signified. to sting. strive. rather than acquire any new degree. blast. stripe. but in a less degree. stay. strap. stress. sweat.A Grammar of the English Tongue There is another sn which may perhaps be derived from the Latin sinuo. stream. to oppose. stage. that is. to sway. stud. stalk. to wreathe. st denote something firm and fixed. to starve with hunger or cold. string. to stop. that is. steady. stark−dead. stow. sting. as wry. metaphorically. stanch. streamer. to stanch blood. stately. bleak. snub. adjective. as if probably derived from [Greek: stronnymi]. steeple. to stalk. wrath. strip. throws. sneak. stuncheon. stagger. whence to stamp. stair. strength. still. stronger. Wr imply some sort of obliquity or distortion. stifle. A Grammar of the English Tongue 32 . stable. that is. to blast. narrow. thrall. still. strange. St in like manner imply strength. wrist. swagger. softer. struggle. stump. to blow. stitch. blab. and. steel.
blush. hush. denotes a confused kind of rolling or tumbling. to clasp. small. wamble. but less subtile by reason of the clearer vowel a. spread. is indicated in jangle. smack. but not suddenly interrupted. mangle. as in jingle. a clod. and the sharpness of the vowel i. But ush. rush. switch. there is also indicated a sudden ending. smite. to clip. tingle. k a sudden interruption. scramble. in crush. slack. wring. to clinch. Thick and thin differ in A Grammar of the English Tongue 33 . slide. smart. But at the same time the close u implies something obscure or obtunded. cloak. clink. indicate something acting more nimbly and sharply. as a clot of blood. mingle. Yet in both there is indicated a swift and sudden motion not instantaneous. that end in a mute consonant. sprinkle. but in these there is something acute. clay. l a frequent iteration. swinge. sling. brangle. slip. slit. but gradual. ar an acute crackling. sprout. cling. as in ramble. clog. which signifies the same as to strike. imply something as acting more obtusely and dully. amble. proceeds to a quick violence. brush. unless in may imply the subtilty of the dissipated guttules. think. as if it were from spargo or separo: for example. splinter. plash. to close. clasp. swing. gush. And the same frequency of acts. sleight. But in tink. especially a quick one. at length indeed vanishing. clammy. And so likewise ash. or a less observable motion. close. sting. sputter. jumble. slow. dangle. sp denotes dissipation. spit. smother. a clot. smug. sprinkle. in crash. tinkle. chink. or iteration of small acts. grumble. and a congeries of consonants mbl. as also in mumble. the acuteness of the vowel denotes celerity. clamber. spill. tangle. clash. sprig. push. imply the continuation of a very slender motion or tremor. sling. a cluster. spring. wrangle. wink.A Grammar of the English Tongue swift. a clutter. slipper. slap. and in like manner in sprinkle. ding. sink. spatter. cling. smell. flash. smirk. Nor is there much difference of sm in smooth. Cl denote a kind of adhesion or tenacity. twinkle. denoted by ar suddenly ended. climb. slight. Sp imply a kind of dissipation or expansion. as is shown by t. the tingling of the termination ng. Sl denote a kind of silent fall. In sparkle. flush. implied in sm. sh. lash. sing. sly. clouted cream. sweet. Thus in fling. slash. as in cleave. as in slime. spangle. rash. scamble. by the continued sound. smile. there is implied a frequency. particularly if there be an r. a smart blow properly signifies such a kind of stroke as with an originally silent motion. trash. In nimble. gash. If there be an l. split. but is a softer word.
conceive. volvo. draw. retained some derived from the Greek. buckler. though. dispose. we may observe the agreement of such sort of sounds with the things signified. curl. to plead. supprimo. even of these part is of Latin original. moon. squeal. bustle. mingle. shrill. twist. whirl. [Greek: zeugos]. and other Teutonick languages. spindle. vespa. which borrowed a great number of words not only from the Greek. sum. ventus. but the greatest part of them were communicated by the intervention of the French. virtus. to A Grammar of the English Tongue 34 . hush. from the French jardin. despise. not derived from the Latin. in squeek. garter. over. and this so frequently happens. [Greek: eimi]. wind. garden. expose. I make no doubt but the Teutonick is more ancient than the Latin: and it is no less certain. and some from the supines. am. crack. vermis. crash. conduce. as. graff. dwindle. as. domo. German. or the Latins from the Teutons. to advance. vellus. conduco. that the Latin. gnash. are formed from the present tense. jar. worth. yaul. upper. break. especially the AEolick. expatiate. demonstrate. buz. daughter. will. grave. ax. achs. elegance.A Grammar of the English Tongue that the former ends with an obtuse consonant. In like manner. vallum. spaul. that the English. yoke. and the latter with an acute. demonstro. Some words purely French. pfurd. From the present are formed spend. jartier. approve. which the Latin has not. which have long become obsolete. [Greek: damao]. expend. wasp. to cry. flo. It is certain. wallow. despicio. Many of these which seem selected as immediate descendants from the Latin. sharp. wraul. We have many words borrowed from the Latin. approbo. avancer. approve. dies. expendo. whist. fly. Some verbs which seem borrowed from the Latin. soft. squeak. traho. but from other neighbouring languages. sear. wrinkle. as. Nothing is more apparent than that Wallis goes too far in quest of originals. expatior. wall. tame. grace. squall. concipio. super. way. mickle. oar. conceive. suppress. fisse. veni. crush. elegant. and in many more. wool. indeed. exempt. we have transferred into our language. went. jugum. mit. resemble. as. of which kind are almost all ours. blow. day. brawl. or both had them from some common original. frango. eximo. bouclier. crier. or decompounds. screek. exempt. supplico. face. twine. it is doubtful whether the old Teutons borrowed them from the Latins. as the Oscan and others. supplicate. received not a few from the Teutonick. vinum. So that one monosyllable word. worm. plaider. or sometimes a tedious circumlocution. ford. From the supines. shrivel. tochter. are apparently French. As to many words which we have in common with the Germans. hisse. hurl. that scarce any language which I know can be compared with ours. dispono. shriek. as wine. via. volo. volo. clash. emphatically expresses what in other languages can scarce be explained but by compounds. [Greek: hyper]. plash.
Many of these etymologies are doubtful. scalenus. [Greek: megalos]. fish. bishop. and changing p into f. stone. [Greek: meta]. fear. bee. Spain. cantharus. pullus. and others beginning with ex: as also. but for the old bar or bare. stretch'd. scrabble. wary. sample. plico. to mend. and g changed into w. nomine. sorrowful. from homine. attonitus. that they might the more readily be pronounced without the intermediate vowels. which was taken from the beginning. see. stum. time. retaining the stronger. epistle. spittle. exterritus. lege. and rejected not only vowels in the middle. and hence scrap. gagates. cutting off the beginning. a jetty. [Greek: porthmos]. whence inclino. [Greek: xeros]. leaning. to scrape. offendo. into monosyllables. complico. stomachus. A Grammar of the English Tongue 35 . cup. in Danish bisp. long. the AEolick digamma. precor. a fell. specio. Alexander. and the modern sound of the letter f was that of the Greek [Greek: ph] or ph. gin. aper. polio. pike. or changing them for others of the same organ. in order that the sound might become the softer. to jett forth. full. a piece. for the Latin v consonant formerly sounded like our w. ply. cavere. pleo. a foal. which seem the bones of words. pawn. projectum. There are syncopes somewhat harder. reply. stonn'd. mustum. and by cutting off a from the beginning. but especially transposing their order. to screw. sedes episcopalis. preda. apex. cucullus. exculpo. [Greek: thygater]. strange. exscalpo. pray. p. without the intervention of the Latin language. which is restored in the middle. zophorus. for bain. and the modern sound of the v consonant was formerly that of the letter f. engine. Since they received these immediately from the Greeks. dare. brawn. ingenium. impleo. ulcere. excorio. freese. we now say boar. excipio. from nomine. The following are somewhat harder. fox. to scratch. extraneus. extractum. though they be likewise found among the Latins? Our ancestors were studious to form borrowed words. defensio. dispensator. dame. warn. emendo. and some evidently mistaken. tentorium. scoop. maw. bane. fence. page. ware. prey. infundibulum. exscorio. [Greek: grapho]. whole. from [Greek: axine]. as for lang. obstipo. for stane. story. spy. Thus pagina. and transposing o into the middle. escouter. historia. Fr. imply. especially in words beginning with a vowel. can. spencer. but likewise consonants of a weaker sound. spend. [Greek: kypella]. speculor. replico. to scourge. aprugna. as in pignus. peak. Elisabetha. start. restoring l instead of r. hospitale. asculto. bar. funnel. fill. [Greek: mene]. For example in expendo. being changed into b and a transposed. exemplum. ulcer. implico. domina. comply. jett. beware. episcopus. audere. epistola. ulcus. excortico. sorrow. scape. from tempore. [Greek: alopex]. but cropped the first syllable. and not only cut off the formative terminations. whence. and hence sorry. that is. Betty. apis. as in aper. father. Sander. stop. a cowl. which had the sound of [Greek: ph]. unless you would rather derive it from [Greek: klino]. Hispania. extonitus. name. sore. [Greek: mignyo]. as the French homme. scrape. however long. to scour. piscis. pater. tent. foemina. p passing into b.A Grammar of the English Tongue grave. femme. fined. file. nom. pavor. [Greek: poterion]. excrucio. pot. as in bishop. as in pellis. scrawl. a−ware. warning. law. why may not other words be derived immediately from the same fountain. scout. [Greek: holos].
granum. rable. crump. comprimo. foras. Elizabetha. Wilhelmus. brable. anguilla. calamus. f changed into b. by rejecting from the beginning and end e and o. Guillaume. stand. noun. dignor. by inserting r to denote the murmuring. excerpo. islet. and more contractedly ey. sanctuary. as [Greek: kyriakos]. clerk. is contracted into scan: as from dominus. chase. tile. as magnus. pit. crumple. reach. Sander. Malkin. A Grammar of the English Tongue 36 . sanctuarium. Wicks. fragilis. gay. penance. clot. quit. fish. namely. that the number of the syllables may be lessened. sc into sh. Mattha. and indeed apum examen. to spare. ban. aunt. spiritus. stabulum. Sandy. Mathaeus. as above in bishop. Wicken. Alexander. brawl. Pat. shrill. subitaneus. for it at least appears. examinare. quite. and vanesco. decanus. where many of them meet. gaudium. Martha. veal. chain. breach. place. lock. Betty. tinctum. comes. puteus. Elisabeth. whence Owsney. scrawl. William. joy. augeo. Sanny. perquisitio. doubt. ile. insula. procurator. periculum. spright. Some may seem harsher. to soar. wet. mirabile. kyrk. subtilis. ilet. Mawkin. sweat. Mal. sedile. fagus. soon. Girolamo. freeze. catena. debt. to acquit. for which we say swarme. island. count. church. so in scapha. nomen. frail. and there are others whose etymology is acknowledged by every body. read. insuletta. Maria. rule. scrabble. age. Gulielmus. sure. scutifer. French. separo. abomino. writ csamen. sexton. coil: recolligo. Weeks. pingo. Scander. count. dean. that some of them are derived from proper names. scrape. eel. which are letters near akin. extinguo. ever. wane. vitulina. to push. and refrigesco. Margareta. yet may not be rejected. paint. Elizabeth. skiff. quest. collectum. refresh. subtle. securus. and g into ch. fresh. superare. store. Matthew. Mary. swear. caliga. juice. As also a consonant. Will. sentry. jocus. a quill. peril. syllabare. poenitentia. [Greek: phega]. who did not use x. fleam. forth. thesaurus. palace. spice. chausse. don. stint. to impeach. succus. recito. wax. corn. proxy. Peg. dubito. sudo. to spell. Marget. rotundus. regula. as amita. eyght. stray. presbyter. hose. Meg. comitis. frigesco. quench. priest. The contractions may seem harder. extravagus. impetere. crinkle. bovina. purchase. species. round. stable. colligo. Bill. [Greek: hyetos]. which the Saxons. calga. recoil. Margaret. taint. deign. stridulus. [Greek: aion]. according to the usual manner. rawl. or scamen. rabula. computo. ay. the remainder xamin. pulso. Ruley. marvel. auxi. wrawl. Bess. beech. pallacium. stabilis. Pal. nomine. stain. quietus. stool. rail. or even a whole syllable. main. floccus. tingo. clericus. to scan. sudden. sacristanus. Mat. straggle. Wilkin. beef. quaesitio. as. frango. phlebotamus. they turned into sciame. acquieto. skip. break. adjuvo. aid. fresh. debitum. aevum. squench. isle. severo. but viresco. noun. clutch. Elick. Ely. stable. cramp. vanui. fregi. Mawkes. tegula. iland.A Grammar of the English Tongue A vowel is also cut off in the middle. chause. squire. or at least one of a softer sound. quaesito. praedari. frigesco.
and. French. The same sp. is made the frequentative sparkle. from Frisia. good−spell. and with less noise and force. but perch. its A Grammar of the English Tongue 37 . quiddeny. comes spout. implies a more lively impetus of diffusing or expanding itself. signifying a single emission of fire with a noise. taking away. giriflee. in which it chiefly differs from sputter. eruke. often has a different origin. at least serving instead of compounds. which they corrupt to earwig. But while we derive these from the Latin. and spell. and k. From the same sp and the termination ark. petroselinum. and likewise to perch. it ought to appear no wonder to any one if the ancients have thus disfigured many. Thus freese. but adding l.A Grammar of the English Tongue Thus cariophyllus. from st of the verb stay or stand and out. especially as they so much affected monosyllables. but spell. ar. Danish. intimates its being suddenly terminated. from the same sp with the termination in. however forced. with it. from frigesco. from epistola. transposing. changing. and many others. bairn. as if derived from the month July. a messenger. gerofilo. eruca. or gimbal−ring. The same word. from zophorus. spin out: and from the same sp. and thus the word gimbal or jumbal is transferred to other things thus interwoven. compounded of two or more words. or god−spell. is evident. comes spark. took this liberty of maiming. is spin. Thus perch. born. to bear a burden. from stout and hardy. from fero. persicum. from sp of spit or spew. and some taken more lately from the French or Italians. portulaca. prance. to make the sound the softer. which the vulgar call julyflower. but freeze. Italian. to which adding the termination ing. and softening them. it becomes spring: its vigour spr imports. is made stout. flos. purslain. cydonium. and Teutonick languages. namely sp. but freeze. from perca. but to bear. quince. as. and comprising the signification of more words that one. a gimmal. as if it took its name from the ear. and adding out. it intimates a frequent iteration and noise. I do not mean to say. an inchantment. whereas spatter. whence gospel. sturdy. at least if it be of Latin original. whence birth. peach. from expello. or freeze. annulus geminus. a fish. the more acute noise. from proud and dance. but sputter is. and out. is spit. the emission. or Spaniards. a measure. Dutch. as being more fit than any other for keeping out the cold. for cloth. Since the origin of these. and other dialects. To spell is from syllaba. gilofer. or perhaps from frigesco. by adding r. from pertica. which only differs from spout in that it is smaller. that is spr. from fera. parsley. gilliflower. that many of them did not immediately come to us from the Saxon. the mute consonant. There are many words among us. an architectonick word. by which it is believed that the boundaries are so fixed in lands that none can pass them against the master's will. and a bear. cydoniatum. kickshaws. as. something between spit and spout: and by reason of adding r. according to its different significations. but obscurely confused. from scrip and roll comes scroll. comes from pario. on account of the sharper and clearer vowel a. intimates a more distinct poise. quelques choses. because of the obscure u. even monosyllables.
and trudge from tread or trot. and thence the origin of any thing: and to spring. that its construction neither requires nor admits many rules. denotes the sudden ending of any motion. In these observations it is easy to discover great sagacity and great extravagance. or its laws of derivation. or variety of terminations. therefore. of a slenderer sound. 1. sprig.A Grammar of the English Tongue sharpness the termination ing. The established practice of grammarians requires that I should here treat of the Syntax. of a single. ***** SYNTAX. Our adjectives and pronouns are invariable. The verb. Hence we call spring whatever has an elastick force. and almost in the same sense is trundle. and therefore. That he derives from the Latin. from throw or thrust. and lastly in acute and tremulous. That Wallis's derivations are often so made. whose desire of following the writers upon the learned languages made him think a syntax indispensably necessary. as. and those which being copied from other languages. from str of the verb strive. can therefore afford no example of the genius of the English language. Thou fliest from good. 2. not a complicated exilition. He runs to death. and this gl imports. of which the following. as also a fountain of water. From the same str. comes strout. In like manner. is the difference: sprout. Wallis. Thus graff or grough is compounded of grave and rough. A Grammar of the English Tongue 38 . for the most part. That some of his derivations are apparently erroneous. an ability to do much defeated by the desire of doing more than enough. and spring. has published such petty observations as were better omitted. but without any great noise. as in other languages. denotes a smaller shoot. and strut. and the termination uggle. sprig. imports a fatter or grosser bud. as. is made struggle. 4. one of the four seasons. That he makes no distinction between words immediately derived by us from the Latin. His father's glory. to germinate. and out. that by the same license any language may be deduced from any other. and drudge. by reason of the obscure sound of the vowel u. has totally neglected it. is formed sprout. In like manner. The sun's heat. words apparently Teutonick. from throw and roll is made troll. It may be remarked. according to his own declaration. agrees with the nominative in number and person. but our language has so little inflection. and wit the termination ig. ending in the mute consonant g. of a grosser sound. that it is meant in its primary signification. and Jonson. Of two substantives the noun possessive is in the genitive. probably older than the tongue to which he refers them. often with great harshness and violence. From the same spr and out. 3. and rundle.
as battle. toilsome. and every syllable has its proper accent. as. in age. The sounds of the letters have been already explained. in le. Such. or. 2. perfume. foremost. as willow. in en. as courage. as labour. as cambrick. It is common for those that deliver the grammar of modern languages. as banish. He says this of me. I shall here propose. have commonly their accent on the latter syllable. in et. 7. 3. as cranny. as canker. in ow. or ending in two consonants. in ter. zealous. Dissyllable nouns in er. 6. escape. godly. meekly. Pronunciation is just. as comprise. have commonly the accent on the latter. He loves me. Cooper. A Grammar of the English Tongue 39 . as childish. He gave this to me. 4. kingdom. its proper quantity. certain. cassock. fulness. wallow. bible. or having a diphthong in the last syllable. to beseem. as fasten. a contract. have the accent on the latter syllable. being subject to innumerable exceptions. as quiet. You fear him. acted. reveal. aad that of the English by Wallis. All prepositions require an oblique case: as. which are at once nouns and verbs. in ish. to omit the Prosody. All dissyllables ending in y. or the laws of versification. as appease. Dissyllable nouns having a diphthong in the latter syllable. that of the French by Desmarais. and orthometry. yet nouns often have it on the latter syllable. as delight. however. lover.A Grammar of the English Tongue Verbs transitive require an oblique case. and the noun on the former syllable. Of dissyllables. accent the former syllable. Dissyllable verbs terminating in a consonant and e final. and rules for the accent or quantity are not easily to be given. This rule has many exceptions. artist. Of dissyllables. as. scoffer. a descant. a cement. have the accent on the former syllable. favour. I have thought proper to insert them. the verb has commonly the accent on the latter. But as the laws of metre are included in the idea of grammar. except words in ain. butter. which in English versification is the same. Dissyllables formed by prefixing a syllable to the radical word. Though verbs seldom have their accent on the former. as to batter. as attend. to bestow. 1. He took this from me. fairer. as I have read or formed. in our. the former syllable is commonly accented. in ck. as to beget. PROSODY comprises orthoepy. though a poet. to contract. and even by Jonson. except allow. formed by affixing a termination. to cement. or the rules of pronunciation. as applause. He came with me. actest. ***** PROSODY. when every letter has its proper sound. 5. to descant. mountain. So that of the Italians is neglected by Buomattei.
as holy. The feet of our verses are either iambick. 13. as in other tongues. Almost every rule of every language has its exceptions. create. continency. accent the middle syllable. Trissyllables ending in ce. and advertisement. theatre. Our iambick measure comprises verses Of four syllables. communicableness. except disciple. armament. as uxorious. imminent. arduous. commendable. 9. Words ending in le commonly have the accent on the first syllable. as example. perturbation. victory. rather than advertisement. and ate. Polysyllables. indisputable. physical. lofty. Trissyllables in re or le accent the first syllable. as acquiesce. as promulgate. Words in ion have the accent upon the antepenult. or having in the middle syllable a diphthong. commenting. tenderness. Trissyllables ending in ous. as pusillanimity. and in English. subsidy. continence. words in atour or ator on the penult. as gracious. unless the second syllable have a vowel before two consonants. as combustible. and some words which have a position. or words formed by prefixing one or two syllables to an acute syllable. as aloft. 19. repartee. 15. specify.A Grammar of the English Tongue 8. wagonner. as countenance. as endeavour. or a vowel before two consonants. retain the accent of the radical word. as arrogating. Perhaps more and better rules may be given that have escaped my observation. rather than disputable. as domestick. in ion. Trissyllables ending in ator or atour. but proposed as useful. or the middle syllable hath a vowel before two consonants. magazine. as entity. as creatour. acquaintance. Words ending in ous have the accents on the antepenult. liberty. 14. 11. VERSIFICATION is the arrangement of a certain number of syllables according to certain laws. as connivance. as. 10. or words of more than three syllables. as salvation. ent. 18. We should therefore say disputable. concoction. or trochaick. as mention. propagate. Trissyllables formed by adding a termination. follow the accent of the words from which they are derived. 20. A Grammar of the English Tongue 40 . assurance. except they be derived from words having the accent on the last. activity. commending. as immature. loveliness. Trissyllables in ude commonly accent the first syllable. or prefixing a syllable. 16. Trissyllables that have their accent on the last syllable are commonly French. overcharge. much must be learned by example and authority. These rules are not advanced as complete or infallible. as plenitude. elegant. as amicable. Trissyllables ending in y. indisputable. 17. epistle. as capital. bespatter. commonly accent the first syllable. as legible. contemner. voluptuous. in al. accent the first syllable. as dedicator. Words ending in ty have their accent on the antepenult. accent the first. 12. incontinently.
or obscure. Drayton. Or famous. Buxton's delicious baths. Of eight. And what of all most dear. Amongst the mountains bleak. For all the cost Words can bestow. Or where the most impure. What though bright Phoebus' beams Refresh the southern ground. which is the usual measure for short poems. Of six. In us that strongly glow'd. most fair. With ravish'd ears The monarch hears. In places far or near. No sport our hours shall break. Or things as rare.A Grammar of the English Tongue Most good. To call you's lost. A while we do remain. This while we are abroad. Shall we not touch our lyre? Shall we not sing an ode? Or shall that holy fire. So poorly show Upon your praise. Where wholsom is the air. That all the ways Sense hath. Drayton. And though the princely Thames With beauteous nymphs abound. Strong ale and noble chear. come short. and every where. Dryden. In this cold air expire? Though in the utmost peak. To exercise our vein. The muse is still in ure. T' asswage breem winters scathes. And by old Camber's streams Be many wonders found: Yet many rivers clear Here glide in silver swathes. Expos'd to sleet and rain. A Grammar of the English Tongue 41 . All times.
and mossy cell. and nightly spell Of ev'ry star the sky doth shew. nor voice express. Dryden. A thousand crannies in the walls are made. not the rules of grammar. Tis built of brass. Intent to hear. Milton. or ent'ring in: A thorough−fare of news. and multiply the news. In all these measures the accents are to be placed on even syllables. as this rule is more strictly observed. like the hollow roar Of tides. are view'd around. The variations necessary to pleasure belong to the art of poetry. Plac'd on the summit of a lofty tow'r. Of five. Here we may Think and pray. Betwixt heav'n. and eager to repeat. Our trochaick measures are Of three syllables. and every line considered by itself is more harmonious. And ev'ry herb that sips the dew. A Grammar of the English Tongue 42 . where some devise Things never heard. there stands a place Confining on all three. And thither bring their undulating sound. Full in the midst of this created space. When Jove to distance drives the rolling war. her seat of pow'r. and skies. The hairy gown. Of crouds. Of ten. Walton's Angler. Confus'd and chiding. which is the common measure of heroick and tragick poetry.A Grammar of the English Tongue And may at last my weary age Find out the peaceful hermitage. though remote. Before death Stops our breath: Other joys Are but toys. Where I may sit. with triple bound. and open night and day. The courts are fill'd with a tumultuous din. some mingle truth with lies: The troubled air with empty sounds they beat. the better to diffuse The spreading sounds. Nor gate nor bars exclude the busy trade. earth. A thousand winding entries long and wide Receive of fresh reports a flowing tide. Whence all things. The palace of loud Fame. Or like the broken thunder heard from far. receding from th' insulted shore. Nor silence is within. or issuing forth. Where echoes in repeated echoes play: A mart for ever full. But a deaf noise of sounds that never cease.
And of fourteen. These are the measures which are now in use. And as each one is prais'd for her peculiar things. through the Saxons' pride. Of all the Cambrian shires their heads that bear so high. And as the mind of such a man. In these measures the accent is to be placed on the odd syllables. Especial audience craves. As others by their towns. Fairest piece of well form'd earth. Our ancient poets wrote verses sometimes of twelve syllables. Mervinia for her hills. eight. or else would let alone. is now only used to diversify heroick lines. and sometimes in alternate couplets. The measures of twelve and fourteen syllables were often mingled by our old poets. and above the rest those of seven. Alledging for herself. Pope. The godlike race of Brute to Severn's setting side Were cruelly inforc'd. called an Alexandrine. offended with the throng. So only she is rich. as Drayton's Polyolbion. Waller.A Grammar of the English Tongue In the days of old. That she of all the rest neglected was so long. sometimes in alternate lines. is distract. and ten syllables. and energy divine. Stories plainly told. when. the full resounding line. And holds herself as great in her superfluous waste. that hath a long way gone. and fruitful tillage grac'd. Lovers felt annoy. Old Ballad. His purpos'd journey. meres and springs. her mountains did relieve Those whom devouring war else every where did grieve. as Chapman's Homer. but Dryden taught to join The varying verse. Waller was smooth. And when all Wales beside (by fortune or by might) Unto her ancient foe resign'd her ancient right. A Grammar of the English Tongue 43 . And farth'st survey their soils with an ambitious eye. Of seven. And either knoweth not his way. The long majestick march. The verse of twelve syllables. The pause in the Alexandrine must be at the sixth syllable. Urge not thus your haughty birth. The last her genuine laws which stoutly did retain. A constant maiden still she only did remain. in mountains. as for their matchless crouds. The nearest that are said to kiss the wand'ring clouds.
'Tis heaven itself that points out an hereafter. Hereafter shall more glorious rise. She to receive thy radiant name. And souls to bodies join. A Grammar of the English Tongue 44 . which may be called the anapestick. So in that of eight syllables. Addison. either with or without rhyme. In that of seven. For resistance I could fear none. But not more innocent. What crowds shall wish their lives below Had been as short as thine! Wesley. Glover. Pope. as in the heroick measure. That day. Beneath this tomb an infant lies To earth whose body lent. for come it will. nor Iris of me. When the Archangel's trump shall blow. Fenton. that day Shall I lament to see. But with twenty ships had done. We have another measure very quick and lively. When all shall praise. Pope. we love. and sometimes by double endings. And grow wiser and better as life wears away. I think not of Iris.A Grammar of the English Tongue The verse of fourteen syllables is now broken into a soft lyrick measure of verses. May I govern my passions with absolute sway. In this measure a syllable is often retrenched from the first foot. consisting alternately of eight syllables and six. Dr. These measures are varied by many combinations. Lewis to Pope. What thou. Dr. And intimates eternity to man. Selects a whiter space. When present. 'Tis the divinity that stirs within us. and therefore much used in songs. in which the accent rests upon every third syllable. and ev'ry lay Devote a wreath to thee. as Diogenes surly and proud. Dryden. and when absent agree. They neither added nor confounded. brave and happy Vernon. Prior. They neither wanted nor abounded. Hast atchiev'd with six alone.
if the reader be already acquainted with grammatical terms. may be reduced every species of English verse. as t' accept. by which the English language may be learned. or taught by a master to those that are more ignorant. temp'rance. and perhaps at last ineffectual. or a word is contracted by the expulsion of a short vowel before a liquid. would have been tedious. When terrible tempests assail us. except a synaloepha. Thus have I collected rules and examples. or elision of e in the before a vowel. With hollow blasts of wind. To have written a grammar for such as are not yet initiated in the schools. A Grammar of the English Tongue 45 . by which two short vowels coalesce into one syllable.A Grammar of the English Tongue In that of six. Ballad. and a synaresis. as th' eternal. Gay. special. 'Twas when the seas were roaring. Our versification admits of few licences. as av'rice. But skilful industry steers right. All on a rock reclin'd. And mountainous billows affright. To these measures and their laws. as question. In the anapestick. Nor power nor wealth can avail us. and more rarely of o in to. A damsel lay deploring.
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