# MEASURING TOOL Definition Voltmeter

voltmeter is an instrument used to measure the electrical potential difference. Voltmeter is usually arranged in parallel (parallel) with the source voltage or electrical peralataan. How to install the voltmeter is to connect the tip of a voltage source which has a higher potential (positive pole) must be connected to the positive terminal of the voltmeter, and the tip voltage source which has a lower potential (negative pole) must be connected to the negative terminal of voltmeter. voltmeter is usually used to measure the voltage source such as batteries, Volta element, or a

battery. The parts consist only of the scale voltmeter pointer magnitude of the voltage, the regulator setup functions, and positive and negative poles. In addition to a simple voltmeter, also artifacts of the voltmeter electronic voltmeter electronic analog and digital voltmeter. Definisi Amperemeter Ammeter is a powerful tool to measure the electrical current in a closed circuit. Ammeters are usually mounted in series (rows) with an electric element. In a practical source of direct current electricity, ammeters typically used to measure the magnitude of current flowing in the wire conductor.

Additionally the tool is also called regular or AVO (amperes. measure voltage (V) with units of volts. setup pengatur. Gambar ampermeter Definisi Multimeter Multimeter measurement often dignakan in quantities of electricity. and for ) with units of ohms. dan kutub positif-negatif. . which means a measuring instrument that can be used to measure strong electric current (I) with units of amperes.Ωmeasure the magnitude of electrical resistivity ( The usefulness of this other than a multimeter to measure electrical quantities are also very useful to search for and find the interference that occurs in all types of aircraft or electronic devices. and ohms) meters.Gambar Diagram rangkaian sederhana ampermeter Bagian-bagian amperemeter juga seperti voltmeter yaitu terdiri dari skala . volts.

The tool uses a galvanometer to see the magnitude of the electric current which is then calibrated to units of ohms. Ohmmeter / Ohm Meter Ohm meter is a device used to measure the electrical resistance is a force that is able to withstand the flow of electricity on the conductor. .Picture a simple chart of the multimeter C.

. The display of a spectrum analyzer has frequency on the horizontal axis and the amplitude displayed on the vertical axis. in fact. however. and other spectral components of a signal can be observed that are not easily detectable in time domain waveforms. power. By analyzing the spectra of electrical signals. distortion. The input signal a spectrum analyzer measures is electrical. such as acoustic pressure waves and optical light waves. bandwidth. To the casual observer. dominant frequency.SPECTRUM ANALYZER A spectrum analyzer measures the magnitude of an input signal versus frequency within the full frequency range of the instrument. some lab instruments can function either as an oscilloscope or a spectrum analyzer. spectral compositions of other signals. These parameters are useful in the characterization of electronic devices. harmonics. The primary use is to measure the power of the spectrum of known and unknown signals. a spectrum analyzer looks like an oscilloscope and. can be considered through the use of an appropriate transducer. such as wireless transmitters.

Focusing coil. Electron gun. Electron beam.Spectrum analyzer display Oscilloscope Illustration showing the interior of a cathode-ray tube for use in an oscilloscope. Numbers in the picture indicate: 1. . CRO. 4. an O-scope) is a type of electronic test instrument that allows observation of constantly varying signal voltages. a very typical instrument of the late 1970s An oscilloscope (also known as a scope. 2. usually as a twodimensional graph of one or more electrical potential differences using the vertical or 'Y' axis. 3. Phosphor-coated inner side of the screen A Tektronix model 475A portable analog oscilloscope. 5. Deflection voltage electrode. DSO or.

Every power supply must obtain the energy it supplies to its load. as well as any energy it consumes while performing that task.1500 volts DC. A power supply is a device that supplies electrical energy to one or more electric loads. The term is most commonly applied to devices that convert one form of electrical energy to another. Although an oscilloscope displays voltage on its vertical axis. medicine. capable of +/. Oscilloscope peripheral modules for general purpose laptop or desktop personal computers use the computer's display. a power supply may obtain energy from: • Electrical energy transmission systems. solar) to electrical energy. period. (commonly referred to as CROs) however. In addition to the amplitude of the signal. . an oscilloscope can show distortion. Depending on its design. oscilloscopes show events that repeat with either no change. Common examples of this include power supplies that convert AC line voltage to DC voltage. A regulated power supply is one that controls the output voltage or current to a specific value. Oscilloscopes are commonly used to observe the exact wave shape of an electrical signal. the time between two events (such as pulse width. the controlled value is held nearly constant despite variations in either load current or the voltage supplied by the power supply's energy source. modern oscilloscopes have LCD or LED screens. Power supply A vacuum-tube rackmount adjustable power supply. or change slowly.. (horizontal or 'x' axis). some oscilloscopes used storage CRTs to display single events for a limited time. Although not as commonplace. allowing them to be used as test instruments. In most instances. or to display the waveform of the heartbeat as an electrocardiogram. fast analog-to-digital converters and digital signal processors. though it may also refer to devices that convert another form of energy (e. Special-purpose oscilloscopes may be used for such purposes as analyzing an automotive ignition system. engineering.[1] Oscilloscopes are used in the sciences. with amperage limiting capability. and telecommunications industry. or rise time) and relative timing of two related signals.g. mechanical. any other quantity that can be converted to a voltage can be displayed as well.plotted as a function of time. 0 to 100mA output. from an energy source. chemical. General-purpose instruments are used for maintenance of electronic equipment and laboratory work. Originally all oscilloscopes used cathode ray tubes as their display element and linear amplifiers for signal processing.

low voltage DC power supplies are commonly integrated with their loads in devices such as computers and household electronics. Electromechanical systems such as generators and alternators. FUCTION GENERATOR Function generator is a piece of equipment or software.• • • Energy storage devices such as batteries and fuel cells. Commonly specified power supply attributes include: • • • The amount of voltage and current it can supply to its load. electronic test was used to create an electric wave. for example. . A power supply may be implemented as a discrete. These waves can be repetitive or one time that in this case triggers a kind of necessary resources. Solar power. How stable its output voltage or current is under varying line and load conditions. In the latter case. How long it can supply energy without refueling or recharging (applies to power supplies that employ portable energy sources). stand-alone device or as an integral device that is hardwired to its load. internally or externally.

loading and discharge process is reversed using a comparator. the output form of proportionality with the square root of the input.Another type of generator function is a sub-system that provides output proportional to input some mathematical functions. producing a linear triangle wave. Example of a simple function generator Analog function generator generally produces a triangle wave as the basis of all the outputs. different frequencies can be generated. When the output voltage reaches upper and lower limits. This triangle is generated by the capacitors are loaded and removed repeatedly from the constant current source. • . Such tools are used in the feed control system and an analog computer. This produces a voltage ramp uphill and decreased linearly. For example. By varying the flow and the size of the capacitor.

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