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TENSOR CALCULUS
With Applications to Mechanics,
Elasticity and Aeronautics
ARISTOTLE D. MICHAL
DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC.
Mineola, New York
Bibliographical Note
This Dover edition, first published in 2008, is an unabridged republication of
the work originally published in 1947 by John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York,
as part of the GALCIT (Graduate Aeronautical Laboratories, California
Institute of Technology) Aeronautical Series.
Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data
Michal, Aristotle D., 1899
Matrix and tensor calculus: with applications to mechanics, elasticity, and
aeronautics I Aristotle D. Michal.  Dover ed.
p. em.
Originally published: New York: J. Wiley, [1941]
Includes index.
ISBN13: 9780486462462
ISBNIO: 0486462463
I. Calculus of tensors. 2. Matrices. I. Title.
QA433.M45 2008
515'.63dc22
Manufactured in the United States of America
2008000472
Dover Publications, Inc., 31 East 2nd Street, Mineola, N.Y. 11501
",
To my wiJe
Luddye Kennerly Michal
EDITOR'S PREFACE
The editors believe that the reader who has finished the study of this
book will see the full justification for including it in a series of volumes
dealing with aeronautical" subjects. "
However, the editor's preface usUally is addressed to the reader who
starts with the reading of the volume, and therefore a few words on our
reasons for including Professor Michal's book on matrices and tensors
in the GALCIT series seem to be appropriate.
Since the beginnings of the modem age of the aeronautical sciences
a close cooperation has existed between applied mathematics and
aeronautics. Engineers at large have always appreciated the help of
applied mathematics in furnishing them practical methods for numerical
and graphical solutions of algebraic and differential equations. How
ever, aeronautical and also electrical engineers are faced with problems
reaching much further into several domains of modem mathematics.
As a matter of fact, these branches of engineering science have often
exerted an inspiring influence on the development of novel methods in
applied mathematics.
One branch of applied mathematics which fits especially the needs
of the scientific aeronautical engineer is the matrix and tensor calculus.
The matrix operations represent a powerful method for the solution of
problems dealing with mechanical systems" with a certain number of
degrees of freedom. The tensor calculus gives admirable insight into
complex problems of the mechanics of continuous media, the mechanics
of fluids, and elastic and plastic media.
Professor Michal's course on the subject given in the frame of the
wartraining program on engineering science and management has
found a surprisingly favorable response among engineers of the aero
nautical industry in the Southern Californian region. The editors be
lieve that the engineers throughout the country will welcome a book
which skillfully unites exact and clear presentation of mathematical
statements with fitness for immediate practical applications.
v
THEODORE VON KAmIdN
CLARK B. MILLIKAN
PREFACE
This volume is based on a series of lectures on matrix calculus and
tensor calculus, and their applications, given under the sponsorship
of the Engineering, Science, and Management War Training (ESMWT)
program, from August 1942 to March 1943. The group taking the
course included a considerable number of outstanding research en
gineers and directors of engineering research and development. I am
very grateful to these men who welcomed me and by their interest
in my lectures encouraged me.
The purpose of this book is to give the reader a working knowledge
of the fundamentals of matrix calculus and tensor calculus, which he
may apply to his own field. Mathematicians, physicists, meteorologists,
and electrical e n ~ e e r s , as well as mechaiucal and aeronautical e ~
gineers, will discover principles applicable to their respective fields.
The last group, for instance, will find material on vibrations, aircraft
flutter, elasticity, hydrodynamics, and fluid mechanics. .
The book is divided into two independent parts,_ the first dealing
with the matrix calculus and its applications, the second with the
tensor calculus and its applications. The minimum of mathematical
concepts is presented in the introduction to each part, the more ad
vanced mathematical ideas being developed as they are needed in
connection with the applications in the later chapters.
The twopart division of the book is primarily due to the fact that
matrix and tensor calculus are essentially two distinct mathematical
studies. The matrix calculus is a purely analytic and algebraic sub
ject, whereas the tensor calculus is geometric, being connected with
transformations of coordinates and other geometric concepts. A care
ful reading of the first chapter in each part of the book will, clarify
the meaning of the word "tensor," which is occasionally misused in
modem scientific and engineering literature.
I wish to acknowledge with gratitude the kind cooperation of the
Douglas Aircraft Company in making available some of its work in
connection with the last part of Chapter 7 on aircraft flutter. It is a
pleasure to thank several of my students, especially Dr. J. E. Lipp
and Messrs. C. H. Putt and Paul Lieber of the Douglas Aircraft
Company, for making available the material worked out by Mr. Lieber
and his research group. I am also very glad to thank the members of
my seminar on applied mathematics at the California Institute for
their helpful suggestions. I wish to make special mention of Dr. C. C.
vii
viii PREFACE
Lin, who not only took an active part in the seminar but who also
kindly consented. to have his unpublished researches on some dramatic
applications of the tensor calculus to boundarylayer theory in aer.o
nautics incorporated. in Chapter 18. This furnishes an application of
the Riemannian tensor calculus described in Chapter 17. I should
like also to thank Dr. W. Z. Chien for his timely help.
I gratefully acknowledge the suggestions of my colleague Prc;Ifessor
Clark B. Millikan concerning ways of making the book more useful
to aeronautical engineers. .
Above all, I am indebted to my distinguished colleague and friend,
Professor Theodore von K8.rm8.n, director of the Guggenheim Graduate
School of Aeronautics at the California Institute, for honoring me by
an invitation to put my lecture notes in book form for publicat,ion in
the GALCIT series. I ~ v e also the delightful privilege of expressing
my indebtedness to Dr. Karman for his inspiring conversations and
wise counsel on applied mathematics in general and this volume in
particular, and for encouraging me to make contacts with the aircraft
industry on an advanced mathematical level.
I regret that, in order not to delay unduly the publication of this
boQk, I am unable to include some of my more recent unpublished
researches on the applications of the tensor calculus of curved infinite
dimensional spaces to the vibrations of elastic beams and other elastic
media.
CALIFORNIA INsTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
OcroBI!lB, 1946
AmsTOTLE D. MiCHAL
CONTENTS
PART'I
MATRIX CALCULUS AND ITS APPLICATIONS
CHA.PTJlB
1. ALGlilBBAIC PBELlMINARIES
Introduction • . . . . • .
Definitions and notations .
Elementary operations on matrices
2. ALGl!IBBAIC PRELIMINARIES (Continued)
PAGE
1
1
Inverse of a matrix and the solution of linear equations • • • • • •• 8
Multiplication of matrices by numbers, and matric polynomials. • •• 11
Characteristic equation of a matrix and the CayleyHamilton theorem. 12
3. DIFFERENTIAL AND INTl!lGRAL CALCULUS OF MATBICES
Power series in matrices . . • • .. . • . . . . . . . . • • • 15
Differentiation and integration depending on a numerical variable • 16
4. DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEIlBAL CALCULUS OF MATBICES (Continued)
Systems of linear differential equations with constant coefficients 20
Systems of linear differential equations with variable coefficients. 21
5. MATRIX METHODS IN PROBLl!IMS OF SMALL OSCILLATIONS
Differential equations pf motion
Illustrative example . . • • • . . . . . . . . • • • .
6. MATBIX METHODS IN PROBLEMS OF SMALL OsCILLATIONS (Continued)
24
26
Calculation of frequencies and amplitudes . . . . . . . . . . •. 28
7. MATRIX METHODS IN THE MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF AIBCllAI'T FLUTTER 32
8. MATRIX METHODS IN ELASTIC DEFORMATION THEORY
I
PART 11
TENSOR CALCULUS AND ITS APPLICATIONS
9. SPACIil LINE ELEMENT IN CURVILINEAB COORDINATES
38
Introductory remarks . • . • • . . 42
Notation and summation coDvention • . • • • • . 42
Euclidean metrio tensor • • . . • • • . . • . • . 44
10. Vl!ICI'OB FIELDS, TENSOR FIELDS, AND EUCLIDEAN GHlWITOFFilL SnmoLS
The strain tensor . • • • • • • . . . . • . . . . 48
Scalars, contravariant vectors, and covariant vectors 49
Tensor fields of rank two 50
Euclidean Christoffel symbols 53
ix
x
CONTENTS
CBAPTIlB
PAGlIl
11. TENsoR ANALYSIS
Covariant difierentiation of vector fields
56
Tensor fields of rank r = p + q, contravariant of rank p and covariant
of rank'p. . . • • • • 57
Properties of tensor fields • • . . . . • • . . . . • • • • • • " 59
12. LAPLACE EQUATION, WAVE EQUATION, AND POISSON EQUATION IN QuaY!;'
LINlIlAR COORDINATES
Some further concepts and remarks on the tensor caloulus 60
Laplace's equation •. . . . . .' 62
Laplace's equation for veotor fields 65
Wave equation ..
.'
Poisson's equation •..••.•
13. SOME ELEMENTARY ApPLICATIONS OF THE TENSOR CALCULUS TO HYDRO
DYNAMICS
65
66
NavierStokes differential equations for the motion of a viscous'fluid • 69
Multiplepoint tensor fields. . • . . • . . . • 71
A twopoint correlation tensor field in turbulence • . . . • . • 73
14. APPLICATIONS OF THE TENSOR CALCULUS TO ELASTICITY THJiIORY
Finite deformation theory of elastic media • 75
Strain tensors in rectangular coordinates • • 77
Change in volume under elastic deformation 79
15. HOMOGENEOUS AND ISOTROPIC 8TaAJNs, STRAIN INV AJUANTS, AND V ARJ
ATION OF STRAIN TENSOR
Strain invariants . . . . . . . . . . . • . • 82
Homogeneous and isotropic strains . . • • . . 83
A fundamental theorem on homogeneous strains 84
Variation of the strain tensor. . . . . . . . • 86
16. STRESS TENSOR, ELASTIC POTENTIAL, AND STRESS8TaAJN RELATIONS
Stress tensor . • • . • . • • • . . • • . • 89
Elastic potential. . . . • . . . . ',' . . . • . • • • • . . •. 91
StresHtrain relations for an isotropic medium . . • • • • • . .. 93
17. TENifoR CALCULUS IN RlmMANNJAN SPACliIS AND TBJD FuNDAMENTALS
OF CLASSICAL MECHANICS
Multidimensional Euclidean spaces . • • • • • • 95
Riemannian geometry. . . . • • . . . . . . • 96
Curved surfaces as examples of RiElmannian spaces 98
The RiemannChrlstoffel ourvature ~ r • • • • 99
Geodesics. • • . . • • • . • . . . . • . . . . 100
Equations of motion of a dynamical system with n degrees of freedom. 101
CONTENTS xi
CBAPTmB PAGE
18. ,ApPLICA!l'IONB OF THE TENSOB CALCULUS TO BOUNDARyLAYER TBlDOBY
"Incompressible and compressible fluids. • • . • . . . . . . • • .. 103
Boundarylayer equations for the steady motion of a homogeneous in
compressible fluid • 104
NOTES ON PART I • • • • III
NOTJIlS ON PART IT. . • • 114
RuEBENCES FOB PART I • 124
RmFERENCES FOR PART IT 125
INDEX. • • • .. • • • • • 129
PART I. MATRIX CALCULUS
AND ITS APPLICATIONS
Introduction.
CHAPTER 1
ALGEBRAIC PRELIMINARIES
Although matrices have been investigated by mathematicians for al
most a century, their thoroughgoing application to physics, It engineer
ing, and other  such as cryptography, psychology, and
educational and other statistical measurements  has taken place
since 1925. In particular, the use of matrices in aeronautical engi
neering in connection with small oscillations, aircraft flutter, and elastic
deformations did not receive much attention before 1935. It is inter
esting to note that the only book on matrices with systematic chaptem
on the differential and integral calculus of matrices was written by
three engineers.t .
Definitions and Notations.
A table of mn numbers, called elements, arranged in a rectangular
array of m rows and n columns is called a matrix 3 with m rOW8 am n
columna. If a} is the element in the ith row and 3th column, then the
matrix can be written down in the following pictorial form with the
conventional double bar on each side.
aI, ... ,
... ,
ai, a;', ... , a:'
In the expression oj the index i is called a 8Uper8Cl'ipt and the index 3 a
8Ubscript. It is to be emphasized that the superscript i in oJ is not the
ith power of a variable 0,.
If the number m of rows is equal to the number n of columns, then
t Superior numbers refer to the notes at the end of the book.
t Frazer, Duncan, and Collar, ElementaT'/l Matrice& and 80fM ApplicCJtioM to
Dynamic8 and Diilertmti4l EguatioM, Cambridge University Press, 1938.
. 1
2 ALGEBRAIC PRELIMINARIES
the matrix is called a square matrix. t The number of rows, or equiva
lently the number of columns, will be called the order of the square
matrix. Besides square matrices, two other general'types of matrices
occur frequently. One is the row matrix
II al, as, "', ax II ;
the other is the column matrix
am
It is to be observed that the superscript 1 in the elements of the row
matrix was omitted. Similarly the subscript 1 in the elements of the
column matrix was also omitted. All this is done in the interest of
brevity; the index notation is unnecessary when the index, whether a
subscript or superscript, cannot have' at least two values.
It is often very convenient to have a more compact notation for
matrices than the one just given. This compact notation is as follows:
if oj is the element of a matrix in the ith row and jth column we can
write simply
II oj "
instead of stringing out all the mn elements of the matrix. In par
ticular, a row matrix with element al: in the kth column will be written
II al: II,
and a column matrix with element al: in the kth row will be written
II al: II.
Elementary Operations on Matrices.
Before we can use matrices effectively we must define the addition of
matrices and the muUiplication of matrices. The definitions are those
that have been found most useful in the general theory and in the
applications.
Let A and B be matrice8 oj the same type, i.e., matrices with 'the same
number m of rows and the same number n of columns. Let
A = II a; II, B = II bj II .
Then by the sum A + B of the matrices A and B we shall mean the
t It will occasionally be convenient to write tliJ for the element in the ith row
and jth column of a square matrix. See Chapter 5 and the following chapters.
ELEMENTARY OPERATIONS ON MATRICES 3
uniquely obta.inable matrix
c= 11411,
where
c} = oj + b} (i = 1, 2, ... , mj j = I, 2, ... , n).
In other words, to add two matrices of the same type, calbulate the
matrix whose elements are precisely the numerical sum of the cor
responding elements of the two given matrices. The addition of two
matrices of different type has no meaning for us.
To complete the preliminary definitions we must make clear what we
mean when we say that two matrices are equal. Two matrices A == II oj II
and B == II bj II of the same type are equal, written as A = B, if and
only if the numerical equalities oj = b} hold for each i and j.
Exercise
I, 1, 5
A= 0, 0, 3, 2
1.1, 2, 4, 1
0, 0,
1
0, 0, I, 3
I, 0, 2, 4
Then
I, 1, 0, 6
A + B = 0, 0, 2, 1
2.1, 2, 2,3
The following results embodied in a theorem show that matric
addition has some of the properties of numerical
THEOREM. If A and B are any two matrices of the same type, then
A +B = B+A.
If C is any third matrix of the same type as A and B, then
(A + B) + C = A + (B + 0).
Before we proceed with the definition of muUiplication of matrices,
a word or two must be said about two very important special square
matrices. One is the zero matrix, i.e., a square matrix all of whose
elements are zero,
0,0,' ",0
0,0"",0
O. O ... ·.0
4 ALGEBRAIC PRELIMINARIES'
We can denote the zero matrix by the capital letter O. Occasionally
we shalI use the terminology zero matrix for a nonsqua.re matrix with
zero elements.
The other is the unit matri3:, i.e., a matrix
where
. I = II 8; II,
~ = 1 if i =j.
= 0 if i ~ j .
In the more explicit notation
1,0,0,,·,,0
0,1,0,···,0
0,0,1,0,·,·,0
1=
0,0,0"",0,1
One of the most useful and simplifying conventions in all mathe
matics is the 8Ummation convention: the repetition 01 an iru1ex once as a
sub8cript and once as a superscript wUZ indicate a summation over the
total rafl4e 01 that iru1ex. For example, if the range of the indices is
1 to 5, then '
Ii
ap' means .Eap' or D.J.b
1
+ afb2 + aafJ8 + aJJ4 + aH.
1=1
Again we warn the reader that t h ~ superscript i in b' is not the ith power
of a variable b.
The definition of the multiplication of two matrices can now be given
in a neat form with the aid of the summation convention. Let
~ , ~ , ... , a!.
~ , ~ , ... , a:.
A=
~ , a;, ... , a:.
b ~ , ~ , ... , b;
~ , ~ , ... ,b!.
B..,.
ELEMENTARY OPERATIONS ON MATRICES 5
Then, by the product AB 0/ the two matrice8, we 8haJl mean the mcrtri:e
C=lIc;lI,
where
c; = a'J>j (i = 1,2, ... , nj j = 1, 2, .•• , p).
If c; is written out in extenso without the aid of the summation qon
vention, we have
i 'b
I
'b
i
+ 'bm
Cj=/lij+(J3i+··· Q,f,,;j.
It should be emphasized here that, in order that the product AB of
two matrices be well defined, the number of rows in the matrix B must
be precisely equal to the number of columns in the matrix A. It follows
in particular that, i/ A and B are square matrice8 0/ the sam.e type, then
AB as well as BA is always weU defined. However, it must be empha
sized that in general AB is not equal to BA, written 88 AB ¢ BA,
even if both AB and BA are well defined. In other words, matrix
multiplication of matrices, unlike numerical multiplication, is not
always commutative.
Exercise
The following example illustrates the noncommutativity of matrix
multiplication. Take
A
11
0
1
0
1
II
 so that at = 0, ~ = 1, ~ = 1, ~ = 0,
and
B
== II 0
1
0
1
II
so that M = 1, ~ "" 0, b ~ = 0, ~ = 1.
Now
Hence
Similarly
c ~ = a!b! = (0)(1) + (1)(0) = 0,
~ = a!b; = (0)(0) + (1)(1) = 1,
~ = ~ 1 = (1)(1) + (0)(0) = 1,
~ = a2..b; = (1)(0) + (0)(1) = o.
AB = I I _ ~ ~ II·
BA II ~  ~ II·
But obviously AB ¢ BA.
. The unit. matrix 1 of order n baa the interesting property that it
commutes with all square matrices of the. same order. In fact, if A is
6 ALGEBRAIC PRELIMINARIES
an arbitrary square matrix of order n, then
AI = IA = A.
The multiplication of row and column matrices with the same
number of elements is instructive. Let
A ~ II ~ II
be the row matrix and
B = II b
i
II
the column matrix. Then AB = a.:tJ', a number, or a matrix with one
element (the doublebar notation has been omitted).
Exercise
o
H A = II 1, 1, 0 II and B  0 ,then
1
AB = (1) (0) + (1) (0) + .(0) (1) = O.
This example also illustrates the fact that the product oj two matrice8
can be a zero matrix although neither of the multipZied matrices i8 a zero
matrix.
The multiplication oj a square matrix with a column matrix occurs
frequenJly in the applications. A system of n linear al{Jebraic equations
in n unknowns Xl, Xl, ... , x"
ajxi ..; b
i
can be written as a ltingZe matrix equation
AX=B
in the unknown column matrix X = II Xi II and the given square
matrix A = I ~ a} II and column matrix B = II b
i
II.
A system of firstorder difierential equations
dx' •.
 = lLjX'
dt
can be written as one matric difierential.equation
dX = AX.
dt
Finally a system of secondorder difierential equations occurring
in the theory of small oscillations
(/Jxi ,.
 =ajtl
clt2
ELEMENTARY OPERATIONS ON MATRICES 7
can be written as one matric secondorder differential equation
The above illustrations suffice to show the compactness and sim
plicity of matric equations when use is made of matrix multiplication.
Exercises
1. Compute the matrix AB when
A.IWI
Is BA defined? Explain.
I. Compute the matrix AX when
A = IIl: II and X = II j II·
Is XA defined? Explain.
CHAPTER 2
ALGEBRAIC PRELIMINARIES (Continued)
Inverse of a Matrix and the Solution of Linear Equations,l
The inverse a
1
, or reciprocal, of a real number a is well defined if
a ~ O. There is an analogous operation for square matrices. If A is a
square matri2:
A=IIt411
oj arder n and if the determinant I t4 I ~ 0, or in more extended no..
tation
~ ' ~ ' " ' ' a!
~ , a : , ... , ~
ai, a;, ... , a:
~ O ,
then there exists a 'Unique matrix, written A 1 in analogy to the inverse of
a number, 'ID'ith the important propertie8
{
AA1 = I
(2·1) A1A = I (I is the unit matrix.)
The matrix: A1, if it exists, is called the inverse matrix oj A.
In fact, the following more extensive result holds good. A nec688ary
and sufficient condittion that a matri2: A = II t4 II have an inverse is that
the associated determinant I a} I ~ O.
From now on we shall refer to the determinant a = I aj I as the
determinant a of the matrix A. Occasionally we sha]J, write I A Ijor
the determinant 01 A.
The general form of the inverse of a matrix can be given with the
aid of a few results from the theory of determinants. Let a = I aj I
be a determinant, not necessarily different from zero. Let a: be the
cofactor t of a ~ in the determinant a; note that the indices i and j are
interchanged in a: as compared with a{. Then the following results
t The (n  I)rowed determinant obtained from the determinant G by striking
out the.ith row and ith column in G, and then multiplying the result by (_I)H1.
8
INVERSE OF A MATRIX
come from the properties of determinants:
a;al '" a a1 (expansion by elements of ith row);
ajai", a a1 (expansion by elements of kth column).
H then the determinant a '" 0, we obtain the following relations,
(2·2)
on defining
.. = ~ ,
{
t4M ai
~ j a £ = ~
a:
M= .
, a·
9
Let A", II aj II, B = II ~ IIi then' relations 2·2 state, In. terms of
matrix multiplication, that
AB=I, BA =1.
In other words, the matrix B is precisely the inverse'matrix A1 of A.
To summarize, we have the following. computational result: iJ the
determinant a oj a square matrix A '" II aj II i8 dijJerent Jrom zero, then
the inverse matrix A 1 oj A exists and i8 gifJen by
i
A1 = II ~ II,
where M '" a; and ex} i8 the coJactor oj at in the determinant a oj the
a
matrix A.
These results on the inverse of a matrix have a simple application to
the solution of n nonhomogeneous linear (algebraic) equations in n
unknowns xl, z2, "', x". Let the n equations be .
ajxi=b'
(the n'J numbers aj are given and the n numbers b
i
are given). On de
fining the matrices
A = II aj II, X =" x' 1/, B = II b' II,
we can, as in the first chapter, write the n linear equations as one matric
equation
AX=B
in the unknown column matrix X. If we now assume tha.t the de
terminant a of the matrix A is not zero, the inverse matrix A 1 will
exist and we shall have by matrix multiplication
A1(AX) = AlB.
Since A1A = 1 and IX = X, we obtain the solution
X", AIB
oj the equation AX = B. In other words, if aj is the cofactor of a! in
the determinant a of A, then Xi  a;:tJija i8 the solution oj the 8flstem
10 ALGEBRAIC PRELIMINARIES
oj n equations *1 = b' under the condition a ;o! O. This is equivalent
to Cramer's rule! for the solution of nonhomogeneous linear equations
as ratios of determinants. It is more explicit than Cramer's rule in
that the determinants· in the numerator of the solution expressions are
expanded in terms of the given righthand sides b
1
, bt, "', b of the
linear equations. It is sometimes possible to solve the equations *' ..
b' readily and obtain x' = ).jbf. The inverse matrix A 1 to A = II oj II
can then be read off by inspection  in fact, A1 = II >.} II.
Practical methods, including approximate methods, for the calcula
tion of the inverse (sometimes called reciprocoI) of a matrix are given in
Chapter IV of the book on matriees by Frazer, Duncan, and Collar.
A method based on the CayleyHamilton theorem will be presented at
the end of the chapter.
A simple example on the inverse of a matrix would be instructive at
this· point.
ExerciSe
. Consider the tworowed matrix
A = I I _ ~ ~ /I.
According to our notations
al = 0, ~ = 1, ~ = 1, ~ = O.
Hence the cofactors aj of A will be
al = (cofactor of aD = 0, ~ = (coflloCtor of ~ = 1,
a ~ .. (cofactor of ~ ) = 1, ex: = (cofactor of ~ )  O.
Now A 1 = II ~ j II , where ~ = aj/a. But the determinant of A is
a = 1. This gives us immediately ~ t = 0, ~ = 1, {If = 1, ~ = O.
In other words,
A 1 = II ~ ~ II·
Approximate numerical examples abound in the study of airplane
wing oscillations. For example, if .
0.0176, 0.000128, 0.90289
A = 0.000128, 0.00000824, 0.0000413 ,
0.00289, 0.0000413, 0.000725
then approximately
170.9, 1,063., 741. 7
AI... 1063., 176,500., 14,290.
741.7, 14,290., 5,150.
See exercise 2 at the end of Chapter 7.
MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES 11
. From :the rule for the product of two determinants,
8
the following
result is immediate on observing closely the definition of the product
of two matrices:
If A and B are two square matrices with determinants a and b reapec
tWely, then the determinant c of the matric product C = AB i8 given by the
numerical muUiplication of the two number8 a and b, i.e., c = abo
This result enables us to calculate immediately the determinant of
the inverse of a matrix. Since AA1 = I, and since the determinant of
the unit matrix I is 1, the above result shows that the determinant of
A 1 is 1/ a, where a i8 the determinant of A.
From the associativity of the o p e ~ t i o n of multiplication of square
matrices and the properties of inverses of matrices, the usual index
laws for powers of numbers hold good for powers of matrices even
though matric multiplication is not commutative. By the associativity
of the operation of matric multiplication we mean that, if A, B, Care
any three square matrices of the same order, then t
A (BC) = (A[J)C.
If then A is a square matrix, there is a unique matrix AA ••• A with
8 factors for any given positive integer 8. We shall write this matrix
as A' and call it the 8th power of the matrix A. Now if we define
AD = I, the unit matrix, then the following index law8 hold for all
poBiJive integral and zero indice8 r and s:
A'A' = A'A' = A+
(A')' = (A')' = A".
Furthermore, these index laws hold for all integral r and 8, positive or
negative, whenever A 1 exists. This is with the understanding that
negative power8 of matrices are defined as positive power8 of their inver8es,
i.e., A r is defined for any positive integer r by
Ar = (AI) •.
Multiplication of Matrices by Numbers, and Matrie Polynomials.
Besides the operations on matrices that have been discussed up to
this section, there is still another one that is of great importance. If
A = 1\ a} \I is a matrix, not .necessarily a square matrix, and a is a
number, real or complex, then by aA we 8hall mean the matrix II aa} II.
Thia operation of multiplication by numbers enables us to consider
matrix polynomials of type
(2·3) aoA" + alA ,,1 + agA,,4l + ... + a..
1
A + aJ.
t Similarly, if the two square matrices A and B and the column matrix X have
the same number of rows, then (..tB)X = A(BX).
12 ALGEBRAIC PRELIMINARIES
In expression 2 "3, au, at, ..• , a.. are numbers, A is a square matrix,
and I is the unit matrix of the same order as A. In a given matric
polynomial, $e ais are given numbers, and A is a variable square
matrix.
Characteristic Equation of a Matrix and the CayleyHamilton Theorem.
We are now in a position to discuss some results whose importance
cannot be overestimated in the study of vibrations of all sorts (see
Chapter 6).
If A  II aj II is a given square matrix of order n, one can form the
matrix >J  A, called the characteri8tic maJ,rix of A. The determinant
of this J[l8.trix, considered as a function of )., is a (numerical) poly
nomial of degree n in ).; called the characteri8tic Junction oj A. More
explicitly, let J().) = I >J  A I; then J().) has the form J().)  ). .. +
at). .. l + ... + a..l). + a... Since a.. = J(O) , we see that a.. ... I A I;
ie., a.. is (1)" times the determinant oj the matrix A. The algebraic
equation of degree n for )..
J().) = 0
is called the charactmatic equation oj the matrix A, and the roots of the
equation are called the charactmatic roots oj A.
We shall close this chapter with what is, perhaps, the most famous
theorem in the algebra of matrices.
THE CAYLEYlIA.MruroN THEOREM:. Let
J().) = ). .. + atA .. 
1
+ ... + a..l). + a..
be the characteristic Junction oj a m.at1'W A, and let I and 0 be the unit
matrix and sero matrix respectively with an order equal to that oj A.
Then the matric polynomial equation
X" + a1X .. l + ... + a..1X + aJ = 0
is 8atisjied by X = A.
Example
Take A = II II; then J().) = \' ! I = ).2  1. Here
n=2,and'atO,at=1. HenceA2I=O.
The CayleyHamilton theorem is often laconically stated in the
form "A matrix satisfies its own characteristic equation." In symbols,
if J(>..) is the characteristic function for a matrix A, then J(A) = O.
Such statements are, of course, nonsensical if taken literally at their
OHARACTERISTIC EQUATION OF A MATRIX 13
face value. However, such mnemonics are useful to those who thor
oughly understand the statement of the CayleyHamilton theorem.
A knowledge oj the characteri8tic Junction oj a matrix enabks one
to compute the inver8e oj a matrix, iJ it exists, with the aid oj the Cayley
Ham1,1J,on theorem. In fact, let A be an nrowed square matrix with an
inverse A1. This implies that the determinant a of A is not zero.
Since 0 ;14 = ( 1)"a, we find with the aid of the CayleyHamilton
theorem that A satisfies the matric equation
1
1=  [A" + a
1
A1 + ... + + a,.tAJ.
Multiplying both sides by A 1, we See that the inver8e matrix A 1 can
be compute(llYg the Jollowi1l4 JorTIItula:
(2·4)
1
A 1 = =[A .. 1 + alA ,,II + ... + + an1I].
a,.
To compute A 1 by formula 2·4 one has to know the coefficients a1.
at, "', a,.l, a" in the characteristic function of the given matrix A.
Let A = II aj II i then the trace of the matrix A, written tr (A), is
defined by tr (A) = the sum of the n diagonal elements "',
0.;. Define the numbers' 81, Bt, "', 8" by
(2·5) 81 = tr (A), Bt = tr (A2), "', = tr "', 8" = tr (A")
so that 8r is the trace of the rth power of the given matrix A. It can be
shown' by a long algebraic argument that the numbers a1, "', a,.
can be computed successively by the following recurrence formulas:
(2·6)
a1 = 81
G2 = t(a181 + 82)
as = t(G2
8
1 + a1Bt + 83)
1
a,. = (a181 + a2B2 + ... + a18,,1 + 8 .. ).
n
We can summarize our results in the following rule for the calculation
of the inverse matrix A1 to a given matrix A.
A RULE FOR CALCULATION OF THE INVERSE MATRIX A1. First
compute the first n  1 powers A, A2, "', A1 of the given n
rowed' matrix A. Then compute the diagonal elements only of A".
Next compute the n numbers 81, 81, "',8 .. as defined in 2·5. Insert
these values for the 8. in formula 2·6, and calculate a1, G2, "',
successively by means of 2·6. Finally by formula 2·4 one can calcu
14 ALGEBRAIC PRELIMINARIES
late At from the kIiowledge of aI, "', a.., and the matrices A, AI,
.. " AI. Notice that the whole A" is not needed in the calculation
but merely s .... tr (A"), the trace of A".
P'Unchedcard met1wd8 can be uSed to calculate the powers of the
matrix A. The .rest of the calculations are easily made by standard
calculating machines. Hence one method of getting numerical solutiona
ola system of n linear equations in the n 'Unknowns z'
*1 = b
i
(I aj 1 ¢ 0)
is to compute AI of A = II aj II by the above rule with the aid of
punchedcard methods and then to compute AIB, where B = /I b' /I,
by punchedcard methods. The Solution column matrix X = II z' "
is given by X = AlB.
Exercises
1. Calou1ate the inverse matrix to A '" II ~ ~ II by the last method of tlUachapter.
Solution.
1
Now AI '"   [A + IItl] '" A. Hence
lit
I. See the exercise given in M. D. Bingham's paper. See the bibliography.
8. Calculate AI by the above rule when
15 11 6 9 15
1 3 9 3 8
A.. 7 6 6 3 11
7 7 5 3 11
17 12 5 10 16
Mter calculating A2, A', A4, and the diagonal elements of AS, caloulate '1'" 5.
It .. 41, '8 .. 217, B4 .. 17, Is '" 3185. Inserting these values in 2·6, find
III '" 5, lit '" 33, 113 .. 51, 114 '" 135, IJa .. 225 •.
Incidentally the characteristio equation of A is
I().) '" AI  5A4 + 33).8  51A9 + 135). + 225
_ (A + 1)().9  SA + 15)1 '" O.
Finally, using formula 2·4, find
207 64 124 III 171
1
315 30 195 ISO 270
,41 ... 
315 30 30 45 270
225
225 75 75 0 225
414 53 52 3 342
CHAPTER 3
DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS or
MATRICES
Power Series in Matrices.
Before we discuss the subject of power series, it is convenient to
make a few introductory remarks on general series in matrices. Let
A
o
, A
l
, ·A
s
, Aa ... be an infinite sequence of matrices of the same type
(Le., same number of rows and col1¥Ulls) and let 8p = Ao + Al + As
+ ... + Ap be the matric sum of the matrices A
o
, A
l
, As, .'., and Ap.
If every element in the matrix 8
p
converges (in the ordinary numerical
sense) as p tends to infinity, then by 8 = lim 8
p
we shall mean the
p>o>
matrix 8 of the limiting elements. If then the matrix 8 = lim 8
p
exi8ts
p+CZI
in the above sense, we shall say, by definition, that the matric infinite series
..,
D,. converges to the matrix 8.
,. ... 0
Example
1 1 1
Take Ao = 1 Al = 1 As = 1 Aa = 1 ... A, = 1 ... Then
, , 2! ' 3! ' , if' .
8 = Ao + Al + As + ... + Ap = (1 + 1 + ! + ! + ... + !)1
p 2! 3! p! .
Hence, on recalling the expansion for the exponential e, we find that
..,
lim 8
p
= el. In other words, :EAr = el.
p+Q) r==O
If A is a square matrix and the al, as, ... are numbers, one can
consider matric power series in A
..,
:Ea,.Ar ..
r=O
In other words, matric power series are particular matric series in which
each matrix Ar is of special type t A,. = a,.Ar, where Ar is the rth power
of a square matrix A. (AO = 1 is the identity matrix.) Clearly matric
polynomials (see Chapter 2) are special matric power series in which aU
the numbers a, after a certain value of i are zero.
An important example of a matric power series is the matric exp0
nential Junction e" defined by the following matric power series:
e"  1 +A +.!:..A2+.!:..Aa+ .•• + ...
2! 31 .
t The index r is not summed.
15
16 DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS
The following properties of the matrix exponential have been used
frequently in investigations on the matrix calculus:
1. The matric power series expansion for is convergent
l
for all
square matrices A. ,
2. = ileA. = whenever A and B are commutative matrices,
i.e., whenever AB = BA.
3. = = I. (These relations express the fact that eA.
is the inverse matrix of
Every numerical power series has its matric analogue. However,
the corresponding matric power series'have more complicated proper
tiesfor Other are, say, the matric sine, sin
A, and the matric cosine, cos A, defined by
sin A = A  !..A8 + 1_
A
&  •••
31 sr
1 1
COB A = I  2!A2 + 41A4  ••••
The usual trigonometric identities are not always satisfied by sin A
and cos A for arbitrary matrices.
Difterentiation and Integration of :Matrices DependiD,g on a Numeri
cal Variable.
Let A(t) be a matrix depending on a numerical variable t so that
the elements of A(t) are numerical functionS of t.
aW), .", a!(t)
'.', a!(t)
A(t) =
ar(t), a:(t), ... , a:(t)
Then we'define the derivative of A (t), and write it by
da!(t)
dt'dt' ... ,&
dA(t)
;u: =
da!(t)
d.t' d.t' ... , ;u:
DIFFERENTIATION AND INTEGRATION 11
Similarly we define the integral of A (t) by
fA(t)dt=
dt, dt, "', fa!(t) dt
dt, dt, "', fo!(t) dt
far(t) dt, fa:(t) dt, "', frt:(t) dt
It is no mathematical feat to show that differentiation of matrices
has the following properties:
(3·1)
d[A (t) + B(t)] dA (t) dB(t)
dt = ;u + ;it
(3·2)
d[A (t)B(t)] = dA (t) B(t) A (t) dB(t)
dt dt +, dt
(3·3)
(t)B(t)C(t)] = B(t)C(t) + A (t) C(t)
+
etc.
There are important immediate consequences of properties 3·2 and
3 ·3. For example, from 3·2 and A l(t)A (t) = I, we see that
(3.4) dAl(t) = _Al(t)dA(t)Al(t)
dt dt'
Also, from 3·3, we obtain
(3.5) dA3(t) = dA(t) A2(t) + A (t)dA(t) A(t) + A2(t)dA(t).
dt dt dt dt
There are similar formulas for the derivative of any positive integral
power of A (t).
IT t is a real variable and A a constant square matrix, then one obtains
d(trA) = rtrlA
dt •
Then, with the usual termbyterm differentiation of the numerical
exponential, the following difJerentiation can be justified:
{
d (e
A
) P t3
= A ... + ...
(3·6)
= Ae
tA
= JA.A.
18 DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS
There is an important theorem in the matrix calculus that turns up
in the mathematicaJ theory of aircroJt flutter (see Chapter 7). The
proof, into which we' can not enter here, makes use of the modem
theory of Ju,nctionals.
THEoREM. If F(A) is a pqwer 8eries that confJerge8 Jor all A, then the
matric pqwer series F(A) can be computed by the ezpansion
2
(3·7)
where A ia an nrowed square matrix with n distinct characteri8tic roots
Al, AI, "', and (h, <h, "', G .. are n matrice8 defined by8
(3·8) G. = 1 ll(AI A).
ll(Ai  A.) ,'',
i"""
There are a few matters that must be kept in mind in order to have
a clear underst&ndin& of the meaning of this result. In the first place
the matric power series F(A) = aJ + alA + atA
2
+ ... + ... when
ever F(A) = era + alA + atX
2
+ .. , + .... In other words AD = 1 is
"replaced" by AD = I, the unit matrix, in the transition from F(A) to
F(A). Secondly to avoid ambiguities we muSt write explicitly the
compact products occurring in equation 3·8.
TI(Ai  A,) = (AI  Ai)(A2  Ai) .•• (A.I  A.)(Ai+t  A,) •••  Ai),
ipt.,
II(AI A) = (All  A)(Asl  A) .•. (A'll  A)(Ai+1I  A) •••
ipt.i
(AJ  A).
There are special cases of particular interest in vibration theory (see
Chapters 6 and 7). They correspond to the power of a matrix Ar and
the matrix The expansion 3·7 rields immediately
(3·9)
and
(3·10)
where the matrices G, have the same meaning as in 3·8.
Exercise
Calculate the matrix eA when A is the matrix A = II II· Check the result
by calculating eA directly.
DIFFERENTIATION AND INTEGRATION 19
Solution. The eha.racteristio roots are ~ 1 .. 1, ~ ... 1. Hence the matrices
0
1
and Os are 88 follows:
G
1
.. ~ s 1  A ... ! (I + A) ... ! III 1 II.
~ s  ~ 1 2 2 1 1
Os .. ~ 1 1  A co ! (1 _ A) co ! II 1 1 II.
~ 1  ~ 2 2 2 1 1
Now
eA _ t e\{J, .. '! III 1 II + 'III 1 1 II
,"1 .2 1 1 2 1 1
Hence
eA ... 11 cosh 1 sinh 1 II.
sinh 1 cosh 1 .
CHAPTER 4
DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF
MATRICES (Continued)
Systems of Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefllcients.
The matric exponential has important applications to the solution of
systems of n linear difierential equations in n unknown functions x
1
(t),
X2(t) , "', x .. (t) and with n
2
constant coefficients aj. The variable t
is usually the time in physical and engineering problems. Without
defining the derivative d!, we merely mentioned in the first chapter
that we can write such a system of equations as one matric equation
(4.1) dX(t) = AX(t)
dt .
Having defined the matric derivative, we are enabled to view this
equation with complete understanding.
From formula 3·6 of the previous chapter we find that
(4·2)
where to is an arbitrarily given value of t. But this result is equiValent
to saying that X(t) = [e<tlol.4.JX
o
is a solution of the matric difierential
equation 4·1 for an arbitrary column matrix Xo. A glance at the
expansion for the matric exponential e(tlolA shows that the solution
X(t) has the property
X(to) = Xo.
In summary, we have the result 1 that
(4·3) X(t) = [eCttolA]Xo
is a 80lution
2
0/4·1 with the property that X(to) = Xo/or any prea88igned
constant column matrix Xo.
so that
Example
dx
1
(t) ... x
2
dx2(t) = Xl
dt 'dt
dX =AX
dt '
20
SYSTEMS OF LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 21
where
A = \I /I and X = II II·
Now A1 = I, >.t = I, and we saw in the last exercise of the previous
chapter that
0
1
= II, O
2
= II   II·
Hence
e('Io)A = ±e(tIo)).i(]i = II (t  to) sinh (t  to) II.
i=1 (t  to) cosh (t  to)
Therefore the unique solution of the differential system
is
dX 'II II
di = AX, X(to) = Xo = x:
X(t) = II c?sh (t  to) sinh (t  to) II.
sinh (t  to) cosh (t  to)
This means that the unique solution of the differential system
ch
1
ch
2
;it = Z2, dt = Z1, Z1(to) z2(to) = x:
is
{
Z1(t) = [cosh (t  + [sinh (t  to)Jx:
X2(t) = [sinh (t  + [cosh (t  to)Jx:.
S;stem.s of Linear Differential Equations with Variable Coefficients.
Although the matric exponential is not applicable to the solution of
a system of linear difierential equations with variable coefficients
aj(t), there are some analogous matric expansions that enter into the
solution of such a system. The system of differential equations
(4.4) dz:t) = aj(t)xi(t)
is written as one matric differential equation
(4·5)
dX(t) = A(t)X(t)
dt
where A(t) ... II a;(t) II and X(t) is the column matrix of the n un
known functions x'(t) •
. On integrating both sides of 4·5 between to and t we obtain tlie
equivalent matric equation
(4·6) X(t) = X(to)':+ [A(S)X(S) ds.
22 DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS
By the method of sucOOlSive substitutions, we are led to C01J,8ider the
following expansion as a. solution of 4·6:
(4·7) X(t) = [I + "[A (8) dB + [A(S) dB f
B
A (81) da
1
+ ... + ... ]
• to to Jto
X(to).
Now the method of successive substitutions for equation 4·6 'can be
described as follows. In the integral term in 4· 6 substitute for X(s) its
equivalent as given by formula 4· 6 itself. This yields
X(t) = X(to) + [(A(S) da]X(to) + [A(S) dsJ,.8A(Sl)X(Sl) dB
1
.
Again substituting for X(Sl) its equal as given by we are led to a.
new expansion for X(t). Continuing indefinitely this way we are led
to the matric infinite series 4·7.
If we define the matrix
(4·8) = 1 + [A(S) da + J,.'A(8) ds J,.8A(81) ds
1
+ [A(S) dB .£ A(Bt) dBtJ,.81
A
(&.a) d&.a + ... + "',
then it",C&n be proved that, for t4(t) continuous in to t t
1
,
(4·9) X(t) =
is the unique 8Olution 01 the matric differential equation 4· 5 that takes
on the aibitrarily given con8t.ant matric value Xo for t = to. It is often
simpler to carry out the matrix multiplications first in 4·8 and 4·9
before carrying out the successive integrations. If the matrix is inde
pendent of t, then, by an evident calculation, solution 4·9 reduces
precisely to the matrix exponential type 4·3. "
For approximate numerical calculations, a few terms in the expansion
for may suffice in 4·9 to give a good approxi;mation to the
solution of the matric differential equation 4·5.
Exercises
L Integrate by matrix methods the secondorder difierential equation
/h(t) _ :t(t) = 0
dJ!o
subjeCt to the initial conditions :t(to) ":1:0, (:) tate. ... 1/00
(Hint. Write the difierential equation as a system of two firstorder equations
thl dzS
 .. :r;2 =:1:
1
tit ' tit
SYSTEMS OF LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 23
with initial conditions Zl(tO)  ZOo :&'(to) = Yo, and use the results of the example il
lustrating formula 4·3.)
2. Integrate by matrix methods the secondorder differential system for har
monio oscillations with frequency ~
~ t ) + ~ B z ( t ) = 0, *0) = Zo, (= ),te = y,..
(Hint. Write the equation as a system of two firstorder linear equations.)
•• Discuss the solutions of the differential equation
fh dz
m+8+k:i:=0
dtI dt
for free damped osoillations by matrix metliods with the restriotion that {3 ;14 2 ~
m = mass, {3 = damping factor, and k = elastic constant, so that. all threem, fJ, k
are positive oonstants. Clearly the restriction rules out the critical damping case.
(Hint. Write the dift'erential equation as a firstorder matrio differential equation
dX
di=AX,
where
o 1
A= k_p"
m m
and notice that the characteristic equation of this matriz is the "characteristio
equation" of the given secondorder differential equation in the usual elementary
seDSe.)
,. Integrate by matrix methods the seeondorder differential equation
fh(t) _ tz(t) = 0
dtI
subject to the initial conditions 2:(0) = Zo, (: ),=te = y,..
CHAPTER 5
MATRIX :METHODS IN PROBLEMS OF SMALL
OSCILLATIONS
Differential Equations of Motion.
1
The problem of small oscillations! (of conservative dynanlical sys
tenia) about an equilibrium position concerns itself with the solution
of the Lagrangian differential equations of motion in whichthe kinetic
a.nd potential energies are homogeneous quadratic forms, in the veloci
ties and coordinates respectively, with constant coefficients. The
theory is approximate in that the constancy of the coefficients in the
kinetic energy and the quadratic type of the potential energy are due
to approximations in the actual form of the kinetic and potential
energies respectively. If, without loss of generality, we take all the
coordinates of the equilibrium position to be zero, these approximations
are due to the assumed smallness of the coordinates and velocities
the equilibrium position.
Let
and
be the kinetic and potential energies respectively of our oscillating
system with n degrees of freedom. In view of what we have already
said, the aq and b(l are constants. We shall consider the case in which
the equilibrium point is stable, i.e., the potential energy V has a mini
mum at qi = O. Now it can be proved that the positive definiteness of V
is a necessary and sufficient condition that (0, 0, "', 0) be a 8table
equilibrium point. V is, by definition, positive definite if V 0 for
all q( and V = 0 if and only if qi = O. Clearly the kinetic energy T
. dq'
. ·ti definite' th l' .
18 pOSl ve m e ve OCltles dt'
Lagrange's equations of motion for our oscillating system are
d (C>f.) C>V.
 =
dt e>q' ()q' '"
. th t ti .. dq'
on usmg e no a on q' = .
dt
If we Uf!e the explicit form for the
24
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF MOTION 25
kinetic and potential energies, Lagrange's equations reduce to the
system of n secondorder differential equations
(5·1) a.ii
i
=
J.  J. _ ••  ed the tat'  . d2qi If defin
wrwre we f/AMJf:} us no wn q' = . we e two square
dt
2
matrices t·
A=lIl1ijll,
and the unknown column matrix
B = II bij II ,
Q(t) = II qi(t) II,
then we can write our difierential equations 5·1 of motion as the one
matric differential equation
(5·2)
A = BQ(t).
Since the kinetic energy is positive definite, it can be proved that
the determinant I A I p6 O. Hence it follows from our discussion in
Chapter 2 that the inverse matrix AI exists. On multiplying both
sides of equation 5·2 on the left by AI and remembering that A IA = I,
the unit matrix, we obtain the following equivalent matric differential
equation
(5·3)
= CQ(t),
where C is the (constant) square matrix C = AIE,
To summarize, we have the following result. If A and B are the
constant square mill:rice8 of the coefficients of the kinetic and potential
energies respectively, then the motion of our 08C1,"llatory system i8 gorerned
by the matric differential equation 5·3.
illustrative Example
Two equal masses, each of mass m, are connected by a spring with
elastic constant k while each mass is connected to a fixed wall by a
spring with elastic constant k. The kinetic and potential energies of
this twodegreeoffreedom problem are
T = i[ + (:t)2]
k
V = (ql)2 + (rf)2 + (ql  q2)2],
t Recall the notations for matrices given in Chapter 1.
26 DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS
where ql and r/ are the respective displacements of the centers of the
two masses "pa.raJlel" to the springs and are measured. from the
equilibrium position in which all three sprihgs are unstressed. Hence
by a direct calculation from the kinetic potential energies we find
that the matric equations of motion are
(5.4) dJQ(t) = OQ(t),
dJ,2
where
2k k
m.
k
m
2k
m m
If we define the column matrix R(t) ... II " by .. R(t), we
can write the secondorder matric differential equation 5·4 as a first
order matric differential equation
(5.5) = US(t),
where
ql(t)
S(t) = r/(t)
r1(t)
and
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
2k k
0 0
(5·6) U=
m m
k 2k
0 0 
m m
The characteristic equation of the matrix U turns out to be
4k 3k
2
'
A' +  A2 +  ... o.
m m
2
Now! > 0, so that there are four distinct pure imaginary cha.ntcter
m
istic roots·of U given by
. 10 lG
(5·7) A1 = Y ;;, >.t.= y ;;;, >.a ... Y ;;, >.. ... y ;;. .
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF MOTION
Exercise
A abaft of length !ll, fixed at one end, ca.rries one disk at the free end and another
in the middle. If I/o is moment of inertia of each disk, and t/, tf are the respec
tive angular deflections of the two disks, then the kinetio and potential energies are
. T
V ... 2i [(t/}I + (rt  t/)']
under the assumption that the shaft has a uniform torsional stiffness T. Find the
matrio difierential equation of motion. Write this equation as a system of two
firstorder matrio equations. Discuss the solutions of this system and then the mo
tion of the disks.
CH.A1n'ER 6
l'4ATRIX: METHODS IN PROBLEMS OF SMALL
OSCILLATIONS (Continued)
Calculation of Frequencies and AmpUtudes.
Let us inquire into the pure harmonic solutions of our differential
equation of motion
(6·1)
d2Q(t) =' CQ(t),
,dJ.2
where C = AlB. We thus seek solutions of of type
(6·2) Q(t) = sin (wt +
,
where w is an angular frequency, an arbitrary phase angle, and r
a column matrix of amplitudes. On substituting 6·2 in 6·1 we obtain
w
2
sin (wt + = sin (wt +
Hence a necessary and sufficient condition that 6·2 be a solution of
6·1 is that the frequency w and the corresponding column matrix r of
amplitudes satisfy the matrix equation
(6·3) (w21  C)r = O.
In order that there exist a solution matrix r ¢ 0 of 6·3, it is clear
from the theory of systems of linear homogeneous algebraic equations
that w
2
mU8t be a characterimc root oj the matrix C. Since C = A IB,
we verify immediately the statement that
(6·4) w
2
1  C = AI(w
2
A  B).
On recalling that the determinant of the product of two matrices is
equal to the product of their determinants, we see that the determinant
I AI(w2A  B) 1 = 1 AIII w
2
A  B I
and hence, by 6·4,
I w21  C 1 =0'1 AIII w
2
A  B I·
But I AII p6 0, so that the characteristic roots of the matrix C are
identical with the roots of the "frequency" equation
(6·5) 1 M  B 1 = O.
Si1U!e the kinetic and potential energies are positwe definiie qu,od,ratic
jorms, it can be proved (see any book on dynamics such as Whittaker's)
thai aU the roots oj the jrequency equation are positive. Hence all the
characteristic roots oj the matrix C = AI B are positive.
28
CALCULATION OF FREQUENCIES AND AMPUTUDE9 29
Since the potential energy is a positive definite quadratic form, it
follows that I B I > 0 and hence that B1 exists. Therefore C1
exists and is given by C1 = ,B1A. On multiplying both sides of equa
tion 6·1 by C1, we obtain the matric differential equation
(6.6) Q(t) = D fPQ(t),
dfl
where D .. C1 = ,B1A. This equation is obviously equivalent toequa
tion 6·1. If we now proceed with 6·6 as we did with 6· I, we are led
to the equation
(6·7)
This equation can also be derived by operating directly with equation
6·3. It is clear from equations 6·3 and 6·7 that the characteristic
roots oj the matrix D = C1 are the corresponding reciprocols oj the
characteristic roots oj the matrix C. We shall call D the dynamicoJ
matrix.
Let us write 6·7 in the equivalent form
(6·8) r = w
2
Dr.
The classical method of finding the frequencies and amplitudes of
our oscillating system consists in first finding the frequencies by solving
the frequency equation 6·5; or equivalently in finding the characteristic
roots of the matrix C = A lB, and then in determining the ampli
tudes by solving the system of linear homogeneous equations that
corresponds to the matrix equation 6·3. Such a direct way of
calculating the frequencies and amplitudes often involves laborious
calculations. For approximate numerical calculations, the method
oj successive approximations when applied to equation 6·8 greatly re
duces the laborious calculations. This is especially true when only the
fundamental frequency (lowest frequency) and the corresponding
amplitudes are desired. 1 We shall assume now that all the JreqtlRJnCies oj
our osciUating system are distinct. The method of successive approxi
mations for equation 6·8 is as follows. Let ro be an arbitrarily given
column matrix. Define
and in general
r1 = w2Dro
r. = w2Dr
1
80
MATRIX METHODS IN PROBLEMS
By successive use of this recurrence relation we can express r r in terms
of roo In fact, we have
(6·9) r, = (wI)rDrro,
where [)P is the rth power of the dynamical matrix D. Now it can be
shown that for large r the ratio of the elements of tM column matri:f:
,Dr1ro to tM corresponding element8 of tM column matrix [)pro is approxi
mately a constant equal to wt the square of the fundamental fref/U6'IWY wt
of our fundamental mode of oBCiUation with disti1ld frequeru:ieB. The
matrix rD is only r68t1'icted by tM nonvanishing of R (see equality 6·11
bekno). .
The proof of this result is a little involved and makes use of the
CayleyHamilton theorem, a theorem t of Sylvester, and a few other
theorems on matrices.
2
These theorems are instrumental in showing
that, for r large enough, the following approximate equality holds:
(6·10)
where (0) ).1 > ).. > ... > >.,. are the characteristic roots of D, and
1 .
hence).1 = 2 in terms of the fundamental frequency CIIl; (b) the num
(all
hers ai, a?, ••• , a" are proportional to the amplitudes of the funda
mental mode of oscillation; and (c)
(6·11) R =
In 6 ·11, the are the elements of the arbif:rart"Zy chosen column matrix
ro and the AI, "', A" are n constants that are themselves obtainable
by a successive approximation method.
Clearly, [)pro is a column matrix. Hence the approximate formula
6·10 shows that for r large enough, aM for arbitrarily chosen r
D
, such
that R" 0, tM column matrix D'ro has elementB proportiOnal to the
amplitudes of tM fundonnental mode of oscillation. AU this is subject to
tM reatridion that aU tM frequeru:ieB are distinct.
On using equation 6·3 instead of 6·7, one can similarly obtain the
" II(Xal A)
t F(A) .. E where G,. .. 'rr( ) a.nd ).1, ••• , )." are oharacteristic
r .. 1 Xa  M
.pI,.
roots of A, Bee the disoussion in Chapter 3.
CALCULATION OF FREQUENCIES AND AMPLITUDES 31
greatest frequency and corresponding amplitudes of our oscillating
system. The intermediate overtones and corresponding amplitudes
can be obtained by the above successive approximation methods
on reducing the number of degrees of freedom successively by one.
Anyone interested in these topics will find the following paper by
W. J. Duncan and A. R. Collar very useful: "A Method for the
Solution of Oscillation Problems by Matrices," Philo8(Jphicol Magazine
aruJ Journal of Science, vol. 17 (1934), pp. 865909. Byapproximati1l4
oscillating continU0'U8 Bystem8, such as beams, by oscillating systems
with a large but finite number of degrees of freedom, the DuncanC9llar
paper shows how the methods of this chapter are applicable in solving
oscillation problems for continuous systems.
CHAPI'ER 7
MATRIX METHODS IN THE MATHEMATICAL THEORY
OF AIRCRAFT FLUTTER
In recent years a group of phenomena known under the caption
"flutter" has engaged the attention of aeronautical engineers. The
vibrations taking place in flutter phenomena can often lead to bas of
control or even to' structural failure in such aircraft parts as wing,
aileron, and tail. Such dangerous situations may arise when the
airplane is flown at a high speed. It is of the greatest practic8.I im
portance therefore so to design the plane as to have the maximum
operating speed less than the critical speed at which flutter occurs.
Unfortunately experiments in wind tunnels are idealized and difficult,
and actual flight testing is obviously highly dangerous. It is here
that mathematics enters the stage at a most opportune moment.
Although the results of mathematical theories of flutter are now being
applied in the design of aircraft, the need for an adequate mathe
matical theory is becoming critical. There is no time in this brief set
of mathematical lectures to deal adequately with the present simplified
mathematical theories of the mechanism of flutter. We shall only
give the matric form for the equations of motion and say a few words
Itbout the approximate solutions with the aid of matrix iteration
methods.
The vibrations of an airplane wing and aileron can be considered as
those of a mechanical system with three degrees of freedom: the bend
ing and twisting of the wing accounts for two degrees of freedom, and
the relative deflection of the aileron gives rise to the third degree of
freedom. Not only is the system nonconservative, but there is the
additional COlDplication of damping forces leading to terms depending
on the velocities in the equations of motion. The difi'erential equations
of motion are of type
d,2qi(t) dqi(t) .
(7 ·1) (JqdP" + CiJ;U: + bif/'(t) = 0,
a system of three linear difi'erential equations in the three unknowns
ql(t), q2(t), rf(t). Since there ru.:e three degrees of freedom, all indices
have the range 1 to 3. The constant coefficients ~ j , b ~ i I C;j are com
puted from a large number of aerodynamic constants of our aircraft
32
MATRIX METHODS IN THEORY OF AIRCRAFT FLU'ITER 83
structure; see T. Theodorsen's "peneral Theory of Aerodynamic
Instability and the Mecbs.nism of Flutter," N. A. C. A. Report 496,
for 1934, pp. 413433, especially pp. 419420. Now the general
structure of equations 7 ·1 differs from the equations of motion of the
preceding two chapters in that biJ ¢ bji (giving rise to a nonconserva
tive system) and in the presence of the linear damping terms Cij
If we define A = II av II, B = 1\ b
ii
' II, C = II eiJ II, Q(t) = II qi(t) II,
then the equations of motion 7·1 can be written as the one matric
differential equation
(7.2) A'd2
Q
(t) + CdQ(') + BQ(t) = 0
dt2 dt
in terms of the three known constant matrices A, B, 0, and the un
known column matrix Q(t). As we are interested in small oscillations
around an unstable point of equilibrium, it is to be expected that
complex imaginary frequencies will playa role in the work.
Since A arises from the kinetic energy, Al exists and hence 7.2 is
equivalent to
(7·3)
=  AlBQ(t).
We can replace the one secondorder differential equation 7·3 by an
equivalent pair of two firstorder differential equations with the column
matrices Q(t) and R(t) as unknowns
dt
{
dQ(t) = R(t)
d:t) = A lBQ(t) _ A lCR(t).
Define the column matrix of six elements
Set) = \I
and the constant square matrix of six rows
0, I
(7·5)
u=
AlB, A1C
where 0 and I are the threerowed zero and unit matrices respectively.
Then equations 7 ·4 can be written as the one first.order matric differen
tial equation
(7·6)
dS(t) = US(t).
4t
34 MATRIX METHODS IN THEORY OF AIRCRAFT FLUTTER
We are led therefore to consider solutions
Set) = e)J1l (Il, a constant c o l ~ matrix of six elements)
of 7 ·6. This obviously leads us to the equation
(7'7) (}J  U)A = 0,
where I is the sixrow unit matrix. To solve the problem we must
get good approximations to the values of ). and the matrix Il that will
satisfy 7·7. The matrix iteration method for small oscillations of
conservative systems can now be applied with some modifications made
necessary by the fact that the possible values of ). in 7·7 are in general
complex: imaginary. If ).1, ).t, "', ). .. are the characteristic roots of
the matrix U lexicographically arranged so that their moduli t are in
descending order, i.e., I ).1 I > I ).t I > ... > I ). .. I , then the
characteristic root ).1 with the largest modulus can be obtained by the
methods of the previous chapter. Some further aids in computation
of the real and imaginary parts of complex characteristic roots are
given on pp. 148150 and 327331 of the FrazerDuncanCollar book
on matrices. A more readable and selfcontained account is given in
the paper by W. J. Duncan a;n.d A. R. Collar entitled "Matrices
Applied to the Motions of Damped Systems," Ph',;'l. Mag., vol. 19
(1935), pp. 197219. An illuminating discussion of a specialized
flutter problem with two degrees of freedom is given in a 1940 book by
K8.rman and Biot, Mathematical Methods in Engineering, pp. 220228.
It would be interesting and instructive to solve such specialized flutter
problems with the aid of the matrix calculus.
Another useful method of solving flutter problems is the combi
nation of matrix methods and Laplace transform methods. The
Laplace transform of a function x(t) is a function xCp) defined by
xCp) ... L:Plz(t) dt.
If one is willing to omit the proofs of one or two theorems, the whole
Laplace transform theory needed does not require one to be conversant
with the residue theory of complex: variable' theory. For such an
elementary treatment of Laplace transforms see Operational Calculus in
Applied M athematic8 by Carslaw and Jaeger, Chapters IIll. The
methods given there can be immediately extended in the obvious way
to apply directly to the matric differential equations 7·3 for flutter
problems. A good table of Laplace transforms together with mechan
ical or electric methods can cut down the labor of flutter calculations
t The modulus of a complex: number , = II + vCi y is denoted by I_I and is
defined by I, I = v'sa + yJ.
MATRIX METHODS IN THEORY OF AIRCRAFT FLUTTER 35
materially. Unfortunately there is no time to take up these matters
in detail in our brief introductory treatment ..
Exercises
1. Show that the matric differential equation 7·6 for flutter can be written as
Set) = UI d8(t),
dt
where Ul, the inverse matrix of U, is given by the sixrow square matrix
UI = /I B;'C II·
S. A model airplane wing is placed at a small angle of incidence in a uniform air
stream. The three degrees of freedom are the wing bending, wing twist, and aileron
angle measured relative to the wing chord at the wing tip. When the wind speed
is 12 feet per second, the matrices for the differential equations of flutter are as
follows. The data are obtained from R. A. Frazer and W. J. Duncan, "The Flutter
of Aeroplane Wings," Reports Gnd MemortJnda of the AeronamicGl Research Com
mittee, No. 1155, August, 1928.
1117.6 0.128 2.89
II
A  0.128 0.00824125 0.0413
2.89 0.0413 0.725
11121.042 1.89
15.9497
II
B.. 0 0.027 0.0145
11.9097 0.364 15.4722
117.65833 0.245
2.10
II
C .. 0.023 0.0104 0.0223
0.60 0.0756 0.658333
.. matrix of damping coefficients.
Show that
II
0.170883 1.06301 0.741731 II
AI.. 1.06301 176.433 14.2880
0.741731 14.2880 5.14994
and that the matric differential equation for flutter is
.. USC!),
where the "flutter matrix" U is given by
0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 1
U=
0 0 0 0 0
11.8502 0.08168 8.73526 0.888089 0.003153
41.4969 1.57195 201.554 3.62604 1.01517
28.4464 0.086931 2.91908 0.059016
0
0
1
0.105747
3.23949
1.51412
For the lengthy details of the calculations of flutter frequencies and aDlplitudes
see Phil. MtJ{J. 1935 paper by Duncan and Collar.
36 MATRIX METHODS IN THEORY OF AIRCRAFT FLUTTER
More recent developments in aircraft design require an extension of
the flutter theory to handle fourdegree (or more) offreedom problems
in which the motion of the tab defines the fourth degree t of freedom
with generalized coordinate t. The aerodynamic forces and moments
are obtained theoretically in accordance with T. Theodorsen's and
I. E. 'Garrick's investigations and not from windtunnel data. It is
for this reason that the coefficients in the difiere.ntial equations of
motion will be in general complex. See Fig. 7 ·1. The four difierential
equations of mQtion are of the form t
cflqi dqj
(7 ·8) av df,2 + Cij dt + bill = 0,
Willi elastic axis
FIG. 7·1.
where all the indices, in contradistinction to 7 ·1, have the range 1 to
4 and the coefficients llij, bq, and Cij are in general complex.
The flutter velocity tI appears in general in the coefficients Coi and biJ
and is replaced by the quantity ~ , where b, w, and k are the airfoil
semichord, flutter frequency, a.nd the flutter parameter k = : ~ respec
tively. This yields a system of four linear difierential equations 7·8
t In accordance with the flutter notation used in this country, ql co h, If co a,
tf .. {j, q' co "y. See Fig. 7·1.
t The differential equations of motion and the contributions of the aerodynamic
forces and moments to the coefficients of the differential equations for the four
degreeoffreedom problem are given in the Douglas reports.
MATRIX METHODS IN THEORY OF AIRCRAFT FLUTTER 37
in which C;,j and bii are expressed as functions of the flutter frequency Col
and not of the flutter velocity fl. If one then considers solutions of the
form
·iut _r:.
qi = qf,e (i = vI)
of the differential equations, one is led to a system of four linear alge
braic equations with complex coefficients, some of which are functions
of Col and the structural damping coefficients gii' The damping coeffi
cients gii are defined by
F. = v=i giiKi/li (gii = 0 if i:p4 3),
where F. is the damping force in the·q'th direction and the Kii are the
spring constants. Upon obtaining the characteristic roots of the
matrix of the linear algebraic equations by matric iteration methods,
one ultimately finds the flutter velocity fI as a function of the flutter
frequency Col and the structural damping coefficients gii' Flutter is
likely to occur if the structural damping coefficients gii from the
pure imaginary part of the characteristic root exceeds 0.03, provided
that no extraneous damping devices are used. The algebraic eql:la
tions are so arranged  and this constitutes an important aspect of
the development in that it lends itself to matric iteration procedures 
that the characteristic roots are of the form
c .
z =  + ~
or
(i = v=i),
where c is some constant, Col is the flutter frequency, and g is a structural
damping coefficient. .
The flutter analyst is attempting to approximate the actual flutter
characteristics of the airplane by representing them by as small a
number of degrees of .freedom as possible. The design of faster and
larger aircraft requires the consideration of a larger number of degrees
of freedom so as to make the Butter analysis an aiiequoJ,e apprlXCimation.
When many degrees of freedom are required to represent the Butter
characteristics of an airplane, the need for matrix methods becomes
acute. Matrix methods t also serve to improve the theory of the
mechanism of flutter.
t Matrix methods are also used in treating other phenomena related to Hutter.
See Douglas reports.
CHAPTER 8
MATRIX METHODS IN ELASTIC DEFORMATION
THEORY
Although the tensor calculU8 is the most natural and powerful mathe
matical method in the treatment of the fundamentals of elastic def
ormation of bodies, the matrix calculus can aJao be used to advantage
in furnishing a short and neat "treatment. This chapter is purely
introductory and suggestive.
Let a medium be acted on by deforming forces. The position of the
medium before and after deformation will be called the initial and
final state of the medium respectively. Let a
1
, a
2
, a8 be the rectangular
cartesian coordinateS of a representative particle of the medium in the
initial state, and Xl, xl, :r;8 the rectangular cartesian coordinates of the
corresponding particle in the final state. Then the elastic deforma
tion is represente<l by particletoparticle transformations
(8·1) x' = j'(a
1
, a
2
, a8).
Hence by the ordinary differential calculus
(8·2) dx
i
= Ii da
i
,
where
Jj = a8).
The classical theory of elastic bodies assumes that the deformations 8·1
are "in£nitesimaI." Such crude approximations have been found
inadequate in some investigations on thin plates and shells. t AB a
result the finite deformation theory is beginning to be used in engineer
ing problems. In what we shall have to say we shall make the restric
tive assumptions of the classical infinitesimal theory only toward the
end of the chapter.
Let A and X be defined as the column matrices of three elements:
A = II at II and X = II Xi " •
Similarly the differential matrices are dA = " da
i
II, dX ... II dx' II.
Define the square matrix F by
F=1I1i II,
t See the KGrmtln Anniversary Volume, California. Institute of Teclmology, 1941,
for various papers and other references.
38
MATRIX METHODS IN ELASTIC DEFORMATION THEORY 39
i.e., the matrix of the partial derivatives of the deformation 8·1. Then
the differential relations 8·2 can be written in matric form as
(8,3)
dX = FdA.
!>EFmmON. The adjoint M* of a matrix M is the matrix obtained
from M by interchanging the rows and columns of M.
Thus A * and X* are row matrices while
()xl
()x2
()x3
, ,
()a
l ()al ()al
F*=
()xl
()x
2 ()x3
, ,
cxi
2
()a2 ()a2
()xl
()x2
()z3
, ,
()as ()a3 ()a3
It can be proved by a routine procedure that (M
i
M
2
)* = ~ ~ .
In other words, the adjoint of the product of two matrices is the
product of their adjointB in the reverse order. For example,
dX* = dA*F*.
Hence the square of the differential line element in the final state of
the medium will be
(8·4) dsi = dA*F*F dA
since
ds!r = (dx
l
)2 + (dx
2
)2 + (dx')2 = dX* dX.
By a direct computationJt can be shown that the matrix
(8·5) F*F = II 1/I'J II ,
where
8 ()zk ()zk
(8·6) 1/IiJ= (;()a' ()a/
Note that 1/Iii = 1/Iji. This is expressed by saying that F*F is a symmetric
matrix.
The square of the differential line element in the initial state is
(8·7) dsl = dA* dA (= dA*I dA, where lis the unit matrix)
and hence with the aid of 8·4 we find the formula
(8·8) dsi  dsl = dA*(F*F  1) dA.
On defining the matrix, called the deformation or strain matrix,
(8·9) H = i(F*F 1),
we find
(8·10) dsi  dsl = 2 dA*H dA.
40 MATRIX METHODS IN ELASTIC DEFORMATION THEORY
Now, if d8i .. d8i for all particles of the initial state and for ail
dA, we have, by definition, a rigid displacement of the medium from
the initi8.1 state to the final state. A glance at g·10 shows that a
neces8ary a:IIIl w:fPcien1 condition that the change of the medium from the
initial to the final 8tate be a rigid displacement is that the 8train ~
H be a zero matrix. In other words, when H = 0, the medium is not
deformed or strained but is merely transported to a different p0
sition by a rigid displacement. This property then justifies the
terminology "strain matrix H" since H measures, in a sense, the
amount of strain or deformation undergone by the medium. It is clear
from definition 8·9 that the 8train matrix H is a trymmetric matrix.
Let "v be the elements (more commonly called components in elasticity
theory) of the strain matrix H, i.e., H = II "ii ". On using result
8·5 and definition 8·9, we see that
f1V = !(t ()xk 2>x1'  6 .. ),
2 A:=l ()at ()ai 01
where
Let u' .. Xi  a', then
Define the matrix
and obtain the relation
a'i = 1 if i = j,
... 0 if i ¢j.
U=XA
FIG. 8·1.
F = V +1.
Hence, from definition g·9, for the strain matrix H we obtain
H = i[(Y* + I)(Y + 1)  lJ.
MATRIX METHODS IN ELASTIC DEFORMATION THEORY 41
Expanding the righthand side gives
H = ![V*V + V*+ YJ.
In the classical infinitesimal theory of elasticity only firstdegree terms
in :: are kept. Hence, to the degree of approX'imoJ,ion contemplated by
injinifaimal theory of elastic deformations, the strain moJ,ri,x is given by
H = l(V*+ V)
in rectangular cartesian coordinates. In other words, the components
'IiJ of H are given by the familiar
'I" = !(oo
f
+ 00
/
).
\1 2 00
1
00'
From the symmetry of 'Iii there are thus in general five distinct com
ponents of the strain matrix in three dimensions while there are three
components for plane elastic problems.
"PART II. TENSOR CALCULUS AND
ITS APPLICATIONS
CHAPTER 9
SPACE LINE ELEMENT IN CURVILINEAR
COORDINATES
Introductory Remarks.
The vague beginnings of the tensor calculus, or absolute differenti8J
calculus as it is sometimes called, can be traced back more than a
century to Gauss's researches on curved surfaces. The systematic
investigation of tensor calculi by a considerable number of mathema
ticians has taken place since 1920. With few exceptions, the applica
tions of tensor calculus were confined to the general theory oj relativity.
The result was an undue emphasis on the tensor calculus of curood
spaces as distinguished from the tensor calculus of Euclidean spaces.
The subjects of elasticity 1 and hydrodynamics,2t. 88 studied and used
by aeronautical engineers, are developed and have tlieir being in plane
and solid Euclidean space. It is for this reason that we shall be pri
marily concerned with Euclidean tensor calculus in this book. We
shall, however, devote two chapters to curved tensor calculus in con
nection with the' fundamentals of classical mechanics
8
and fluid
mechanics.
It is worthy of notice that the tensor calculus is a generalization of
the widely studied differential calculus of freshman and sophomore
fame. In fact, as we shall see, a detailed study of the classical dif
ferential calculus along a certain direction demands the introduction
of the tensor calculus.
Notation and Summation Convention.
Before we begin the study of tensor calculus, we must embark on
some formal preliminaries including some matters of notation.
Consider a linear function in the n real variables x, 1/, Z, "', w
•
(9·1) ax + ~ 1 / + 'YZ + .:. + ).w.
Define
(9·2)
al = a, as = ~ , as = 'Y, "', a.. = ).,
Xl = X, :tJ = 1/, x8 = Z, "', x" = w.
42
NOTATION AND SUMMATION CONVENTION 43
We emphasize once for all that xl, Xl, "', x· are n independent vari
ables and not the first n powers of one variable x. In terms of the
notations of 9·2 we can rewrite 9·1 in the form 
(9·3)
oras
(9·4)
The set of n integer values 1 to n is called the range of the index i in
9·4. A lower index i as in ai will be called a subscript, and an upper
index i as in Xi will be called a sUperscript. Throughout our work we
shall adopt the following useful summation convention: ..
The repetition oj an index in a term once as a subscript and once as a
superscript wiU denote a summation with respect to that index over its
range. An index that is not summed out will be called a Jree index.
In accordance .with this convention then we shall write the sum
9·4 simply as
(9·5) aiX'.
A summation index as i in 9·5 is called a dummy or an umbraZ, since it
is immaterial what symbol is used for the index. For example, ap;;
is the same sum as 9·5. All this is analogous to the (umbral) variable
of integration x in an integral
I
b
J(X) dz.
Any other letter, say y, could' be used in the place of x. . Thus
LbJ(y) dy = I
b
J(X) dz.
Aside from compactness, the subscript and superscript notation
together with the summation convention has advantages that will
become evident later. .
. As a further illustration of the summation convention, consider the
square of the line element
(9 ',6) dIP = dz2 + dy'J. + dz2
in a threedimensional Euclidean space with rectangular cartesian
coordinates x, y, and z. Define
(9·7)
and
(9,8)
yl = x, y2 ... y, 'II = ,
•
44 SPACE LINE ELEMENT IN CURVILINEAR COORDINATES
Then 9·6 can be rewritten
(9·9)
or again
(9 ·10) M = 8'1 dy' dyi
with the understanding that the range of the indices i and j is 1 to 3.
Note that there are two summations in 9·10 one over the index i and
one over the index j.
Let f(x
1
, :ct, "', X") be a function of n numerical variables Xl, x
2
,
.. " x"; then its differential can be written
d.f = 'bf dx'
'I ()X,
with the understanding that the summation conuention has been extended
80 as to apply to repeaied flUperscripts in differentiation formulas. We
shall adhere to this extension of the summation convention.
It is worth while at this early stage to give an example of a tensor
and show the fundamental nature of such a concept even for ele
mentary portions of the usual differential and integral calculus. This
will d i s p ~ , I hope, any illusions' common among educated laymen
that the tensor calculus is a very "highbrow" and esoteric subject
and that its main applications are to the physical speculations of
relativistic cosmology.
Euclidean Metric Tensor.
4
In the following example, free as well as umbral indices will have
the range 1 to 3 as we shall deal with a threedimensional Euclidean
space. Let
(9·11) x' = f(yt, y2, y8)
be a transformation of coordinates from the rectangular cartesian
coordinates y1, y2, y8 to some general coordinates Xl, :ct, x8 not neces
sarily rectangular cartesian coordinates j for example, they may be
spherical coordinates. The inverse transformation of coordinates to
9·11 is the transformation of coordinates that takes one from the
coordinates Xl, X2, x8 to the rectangular cartesian coordinates yl, y2, y8.
Let
(9 ·12) y' = gi(xl, :ct, xli)
be the inverse transformation of coordinates to 9·11.
NOTATION AND SUMMATION CONVENTION
Example
Let yt, y2, 11 be rectangular cartesian coordinates and xl, x2, :r;8
polar spherical coordinates. The transformation of coordinates from
rectangular cartesian to polar spheri
cal coordinates is clearly 1/8
Xl = v' (y1)2 + 0l)2 + (11)2
X2 = COS
l
( Y (yl)2 + ~ 2 ) 2 + (11)2)
FIG. 9·1.
The inverse transformation of coordinates is given by
yl = Xl sin x2 cos xl
y2 = Xl sin x
2
sin:r;8
11 = Xl cos x
2
•
The differentials of the transformation functions in 9 ·12 may be
written
(9·13)
~ . i
d
· "'II .3_a
y' = ()xa u;c •
On using 9·13 we obtain, after an evident rearrangement, the formula
8 ?>gi?>gi a
(9 ·14) dIP = &; 2>x"' 2>xI' dx d3!.
If we define the functions ga6(xt, X2, :r;8) of the three independent vari
ables Xl, x2, zS by
(9·15)
8 ?>gi ?>gi
g
...A(XI X2 zS) = ~  ,
.... " ~ ()xa 2>xI'
we see that the square of the line element in the general xl, X2, zS coordi
nates takes the form
(9·16) ds2 = gtr# dx"' d3!
This is a homogeneous quadratic polynomial, called quadratic differen
tial form in the three independent variables dxt, dx
2
, dxB.
Caution: Once an index has been used in one summation of a series
of repeated summations, it cannot be used again in another summation
of the same series. For example, g .... dx
a
dx
a
has a meaning and is equal
to gll(dx
l
)2 + g22(dx
2
)2 + gaa(dzS)2, but that is not what one gets by
46 SPACE.LINE ELEMENT IN CURVILINEAR COORDINATES
carrying out the dou.ble repeated summation in 9 ·16. Expanded in
extenso, 9 ·16 stands for
(9.17) {dB' co gU(dXl)1 + 2glJ dzl dz2 + 2g18 dzl dz8
+ gll(dx
2
)2 + 2g. dz2 dz8 + g a a ( ~ ) 2 .
The factor 2 in three of the terms in 9 ·17 comes from combining terms
due to the fact that golJ is symmetric in a and /3; a glance at the defi
nition 9 ·15 shows that
golJ EO g{1« for each a and /3
and hence
glJ = gSI, g18 = gn, gl8 = ga.
Now let r, f2, XI be any chosen general coordinates, not necessarily
distinct from the general coordinates Xl, xl, xl. Let
(9 ·18) x' = Fi(r, f2, fJ)
be the' transformation of coordinates from the general coordinates Xl,
Zi, f8 to the general coordinates Xl, xl, xl. Clearly the differentials dzG
have the form
at
G
(9·19) dzG = ()Z" d£'.
Define the functions g.,,(x
l
, Zi, xa) of the three variables :J!l, :J!S, za by
at
G
?n!'
(9·20) g.,,(f
l
, Zi, fJ) = golJ(x
l
, x
2
, xI)()Z., Z)f,.
Then, if we use 9 ·19 in 9 '16, we obtain, with the aid of the definition
9·20, the formula
(9·21) ds2 = g.,,(r, f2, fB) dX., dx
'
,
which gives the square of the line element in the Xl, f2, 5;J coordinates.
We have thus arrived at the following result:
If Xl, xl, xl and r, f2, :!' are two arbitrarily chosen sets of general
coordinates, and if the transformation of coordinates 9·18 from the x's
to the x's has suitable differentiabiZity properties, then the coeJfici,ent8
golJ(x
l
, xl, xl) of the square of the line element 9·16 in the Xl, x
2
, xl c0
ordinates are related to the coejficients golJ(x
1
, Zi, XI) oj the 8fJUf13'e of the
line eZemem 9·S1 in the coordinates Xl, f2, xa by means of the law of trans
formation 9·S0.
In each coordinate system with coordinates Xl, xl, xl, we have a
set of functions golJ(x
l
, xl, xl), called the components of the Euclidean
metric tensor (field), and the components of the Euclidean metric
tensor in any two coordinate systems with coordinates Xl, zS, xl and
Xl, Zi, za respectively are related by.means of the characteri8tic rule
9·20.
NOTATION AND SUMMATION CONVENTION 47
An analOgoUS discussion can obviously be given for the line element
and Euclidean metric tensor of the plane (a twodimensional Eu
clidean space). We now have two coordinates instead of three so
that the ra1l.{/e oJ the i1lllice8 is 1 to 2. For example, the line elements
dB in rectangular coordinates ul, y2)
d82 = (dy1)2 + (dy2)2
will become
dst = gajJ(x
1
, x2) dxt% tbJ
in general coordina.tes (Xl, x2), and the components of the plane Eu
clidean metric tensor gajJ(x
1
, x2) will.undergo the transformation
g.,.(X1, ZS) = gajJ(x
1
, x2) :: ::.
Exercises
1. Find the components of the plane Euclidean metric tensor in polar coordi
nates (Zl, zI) and the corresponding expression for the line element.
{
. {Zl .. V (1/
1
)1 + (11')1,
y1  zl cos zI, d (11') 2
11' .. Zl sin zI, an zI .. sinI , • Y /# (x
.
Hence ::/'
2 ?iyt%?)yt% ()yl ()yl ()yI ()yI / X2
gi/.,.z1, zI) .. .. + liz' "''
111
Therefore
FIa. 9·2.
gn(ZI, zI) co cos
l
zI + sin
2
zI .. 1,
guCzl, zI) = (cos zlX _Zl sin zI) + (sin zI)(Zl cos zI) = 0 = gn(zl, zI),
(In(z1, zI) '" (_Zl sin zI)' + (Zl cos zI)I = (Zl)l.
The line element dB' .. gajJ dz"' d:rP in polar coordinates (z1, Z2) is then
dB' .. (d:l;I)1 + (zl)l(dzI)l,
which in the usual notation is written
dB' .. drS + rI dD'.
I. Find the components of the (space) Euclidean metric tensor and the expres
sion for the line element in polar spherical coordinates.
AnatDer.
gu(zl, zI, z8) .. 1, ga(z1, zI, z8)  (ZI)I, gaa(Zl, zI, z8) .. (zl)l(sin zI)t
and aJl other g,,i .• ZI, zI, z8) D 0, so that
dB' .. (d:l;I)1 + (z1)1(dzI)I + (Zl)l(sin zI)I(dzI)l.
CHAPTER 10
VECTOR FIELDS, TENSOR FIELDS, AND EUCLIDEAN
CHlUSTOFFEL SYMBOLS
The Straia Tensor.
Aliother interesting example of a tensor is to be found in elasticity.
Let a
1
, a
2
, oJ be the curvilinear coordinates of a representative particle
in an elastic medium, and let Xl, :;2, r be the coordinates of the repre
sentative particle after an elastic deformation of the medium.
Let
(10·1)
E .. ?
Mali".
FIG. 10·1.
be the square of the line element in the medium, and let
(10·2) ds2 = g ~ dxCl dz'l
be the corresponding square of the line element in the deformed medium
induced by the elastic deformation whose equations are
(10,3) x· = f(at, a", as).
In terms of the coordinates Xl, :;2, r the line element 10·1 can be
written
(10·4)
where
OO'Y ()a'
(10·5) hatJ = C'Y'?)zCl ~ .
On subtracting corresponding sides of 10·2 and 10·4 we find
(10·6) ds2  ~ = 2 E ~ dx'" d3!,
48
if we define EaB by
(10·7)
SCALARS AND VECTORS 49
Now EaB are functions of the coordinates Xl, :rr, x8. If then we calcu
late d82  in any other curvilinear coordinates Xl, fI, za, we would
obtain by the method of the preceding chapter
d82  = Z"EaB dZ" di!,
where
.
Because of the characteristic law 10·8, EaB are the components of a
tensor (field), and because EafJ in 10·6 is a measure of the strain of the
elastic medium, EafJ are the components of a strain tensor. We shall
have a good deal to say about the strain tensor in some of the later
chapters.
Scalars, Contravariant Vectors, and Covariant Vectors.
We shall now begin the subject of the tensor calculus by defining
the simplest types of tensors. An object is called a scaktr (field) if in
each coordinate system there corresponds a function, called a com
ponent, such that the relationship between the components in (xl, x
2
, x8)
coordinates and (ii, fI, coordinates respectively is
(10 ·9) 8(XI, X2, x8) = s(xt, i2, f3).
An object is called a contravariant vector field (an equivalent termi
nology is contravariant tensor field oj rank one) if in each coordinate
system there corresponds a set of three functions, called components,
such that the relationship between the components in any two coordi
nate systems is given by the characteristic law
_
(10·10) E'(i
l
, XI, XS) = X2, x
3
) ()x .. '
An object is called a covariant vector field (an equivalent terminology
is covariant tensor field oj ranJc one) if in each coordinate system there
corresponds a set of three functions, called components, such that the
relationship between the components in any two coordinate systems
is given by the characteristic law
()x'"
(10 ·11) ;joW, Xl, XI) = '1 .. (x
l
, xl, x
8
) C>ii'
It is to be noticed at this point that the laws of transformation
10·10 and 10·11 are in general distinct so that there is a difference I
between the notions of contravariant vector field and covariant vectOr
50 VECTOR FIELDS AND TENSOR FIELDS
field. However, if orUy redangtdar cartesian coordinates are con
sidered, this distinction disappears. It is for this reason that the
notions of contravariant as distinguished from covariant vector fields
are not introduced in elementary vector analysis. That the char
acteristic laws 10·10 and 10·11 are identical in rectangular cartesian
coordinates follows from some calculations leading to the' result
(10·12)
between rectangular (Xl, Xl, z8) and any other roctangular
coordinates (i
1
, £2, £8).
Tensor Fields of Rank Two.
In all three objects  scalar fields, contravariant vector fields, and
covariant vector fields  there are components in any two coordinate
systems, and the components in any two coordinate systems are re
lated by characteristic transformation laws. We have to consider
other objects, called tensor fields (of various sorts), whose components
in any two coordinate systems are related by a characteristic trans
formation law. To shorten the statements of the following definitions
we shall merely give the characteristic transformation law of com
ponents.
Covariant Tensor Field of Rank Two.
 ()z>?nJ'
(10·13) ta,8(X1, tJ, = t}.p(x
l
, Xl, z8)
Contravariant Tensor Field of Rank Two.
_ ()zen!
(10·14) ia.8(il, £2, £8) = F(x
1
, Xl, z8) ()z> ()z".
Mixed Tensor Field of Rank Two.
_ ()z?nJ'
(10·15) t; (i
1
, tJ, £8) = :ct, z8) ()x> en! .
.Again because of relation 10·12, the difference between the above
three types of tensor fields is nonexistent as long as one considers
orU1} rectangular cartesian coordinates.
It is worthy of notice at this point that the indices in the various
characteristic transformation laws tell a story which depends on
whether the index is a superscript, called contrrwariant index, or a
subscript, called covariant index.
Before proceeding any further with the development of our subject,
it would be illuminating to have some examples of vector fields and
MIXED TENSOR FIELD OF RANK TWO 61
other tensor fields. Perhaps the most important example of a contra
variant vector field is a velocity field. Suppose that the motion of a
particle is governed by the differential equations
di = :ct, xl),
where t is the time variable. If Xi = /,(Zl, Z2, xl) is a 'transformation
of coordinates to new coordinates x', then
(/,Xi chi ()x'
di = ()zi di = X2, xl).
Thus the components 5;2, XI) of the velocity field in the Xi co
ordinates are related to the components Xi, xl) in the x' coordi
nates by the rule
_ ()Xi
z2, f8) = x2, xl),
uX
'
which is precisely the contravariant vector field rule.
If 8(Xt, :ct, is a scalar field, then the "gradient" :. are the com
of a covariant vector field. An important example of a scalar
field is the potential energy of a moving particle. .
We gave two examples of a covariant tensor field of rank two: the
Euclidean metric tensor and the strain tensor. A little later in the
chapter we shall give an example of a contravariant tensor field of rank
two, the g«P associated with the Euclidean metric tensor gafJ'
As an example of a mixed tensor field of rank two, we have the
mixed tensor field with constant components
8'3=0 if
=1 if
in the coordinates. But
Hence
 ( 1 ) x ()z" ()if"
8'3 x, ;v, f8 = &"?n! ()zX
?n!' ()XG
= ?n! ()z)"
8;(xt, XS, Xi) = 0 if a ¢
=1 if
In other words, not only are the components constant throughout space,
but they are also the same constants in all coordinates.
One of the first fundamental problems in the tensor calculus is to
extend the notion of partial derivative to the notion of covariant deriva
tive in such a manner that the covariant derivative of a tensor field is
52 VECTOR FIELDS AND TENSOR FIELDS
also some tensor field. It is true that, if one restricts his work only
to cartesian coordinates (oblique axes), then the partial derivatives
of any tensor field behave like the components of a tensor field under
a tranSformation of cartesian coordinates to cartesian coordinates.
,For example, suppose that (Xl, xi, xl) are cartesian coordinates and
(Xl, 5:', f8) are any other cartesian coordinates; then it can be shown
that for suitable constants aj and ao
(10·16J
is the transformation of coordinates taking the.cartesian coordinates
x'to the cartesian coordinates Xi, Hence
(10·17)
a set of con.stai:tts, and so
(10·18)
2)2fi
oo:i ()x" = o.
Now, if E ' ( ~ , xi, xl) are the components of a contravariant tensor
field, then
(10·19)
On difierentiating corresponding sides of 10·19, we obtain
( ) ~ , ()E'" ()x! ()x
i
. ()2xi C>:r!
(10·20) ()fi = C>:r! ()fi 00:'" + E'" ()x'" ()x! ()fi' .
But both Xi and Zi are cartesian coordinates. Hence on using 10·18
in 10·20 we obtain
( ) ~ i C>E'" ()xfJ ()fi
(10· 21) ()zi = C>:xfJ ()fi 00:'" '
which states that the partial derivatives :: behave as though they were the
components of a mixed tensor field of ranJc two and this under a trans
formation from cartesian coordinates to cartesian coordinates.
The presence of the second detivative terms in 10·20 in curvilinear
coordinates Xi shows that the :: are not really the components of a
tensor field. So the fundamental question arises whether it is possible
to add corrective terms C; (all zero in cartesian coordinates) to the
partial derivatives ~ so as to make
. ()E'"
(10·22) C>:r! + C;
EUCLIDEAN CHRISTOFFEL SYMBOLS
53
the components of a mixed tensor field of rank two for all contravariant
fields r'. The answer to "this question is in the affirmative, and the
possibility of the corrective terms depends on the existence of the
Euclidean Christoffel symbols.
2
EucUdean Christoffel Symbols.
We saw in the previous chapter that the element of arc length
squared in general coordinates takes the form
(10·23) d82  gafJ(x
1
, X2, xl) d,xt% ih!,
where, in the present terminology, ga(J are the components of a covari
ant tensor field of rank two, called the Euclidean metric tensor. Now
it can be proved that the determinant
3
gn, ga, gl3
(10·24) g= g21, g'J.2, gm
gal, g32, gaa
Define
(10·25) ffP=
Cofactor of g{J« in g
.
g
As the notation indicates, it can be proved that the functions ffP are the
components oj a oontrOJJariant tensor jieUJ. of rank two with the JoUowing
properties:
(10·26) ffP = t/"
t/"gv(J = (equals 0 if a and 1 if a =
Define the Euclidean Christoffel symbols X2, xl) as follows:
(
10.27) r' ( 1 xt xl) _ 1 w(?)gv(J ?)g _ ?)gap).
afJ X " .,g C>xt% + ()x" C>x"
Since the law of transformation of the components gap and gaIJ are
known, one can calculate the law of transformation of the xl)
under a general transformation of coordinates X· = f(x
1
, xt, xli).
Let gap and be the components of the Euclidean metric tensor
and its associated contravariant tensor respectively in the Xi coordi
nates. Then if we define
(10.28) ii' (w i
2
f8) = igw(?JU"fj + ?JU __ C>gafJ),
afJ , , i:)Xt% b5! ()i'"
we can prove by a long but straightforward calculation that the
r'ap (Xl, X2, xl') are related to the X2, XI) by the foUowing famous
transformation law:
4
_. " ()x" ()xP ()Xi ()2X" ()xi
(10·29) r!..s(i
1
, X2, f8) = r".(x
l
, w, xI)()xt% ()xfJ ()x" + ()xt% ()xfJ
VECTOR' FIELDS AND TENSOR FIELDS
In the previous chapter we saw that
8 ()y. ()y.
(10·30) ga{J(x
1
, xl; xl) = l: ..... '::II
,.1 IT,/; o:rr
where the VS are rectangular cartesian coordinates. Consequently,
if the x's are coordi,ruites, it follows that all the components
ga{J(x
1
, xl, xB) are con8tants. In other words, = 0 in cartesian
coordinates x'. We have then immediately the iinportant result that
the Euclidean Christoffel symbols xl, xB) are identically zero in
cartesian coordinates.
If the yi are cartesian and the Xi are general coordinates,
one can calculate the Euclidean Christoffel symbols X2, xB)
directly in terms of the derivatives of the transformation functions in
the transformation of coordinates
Xi = Ji(yl, y2, 11')
and in the inverse transformation of coordinates
y' = q,1(xt, xl, xB).
Since all the Euclidean Christoffel symbols are zero when they are
evaluated in cartesian coordinates yi, it follows immediately from the
transformation law 10·29 that the Euclidean Christoffel symbols in
generaJ. coordinates x' are given by the simple formula
. W
(10·31) r'a{J(Xl, xl, xB) = ()x" WfI
This formula is often found. to be more convenient in computations
than in the defining formula 10·27.
Caution: The Christoffel symbols are not the components of a tensor
field so that i, a, and fJ are not tensor indices; i.e., i is not a contra
variant index and a, fJ are not covariant indices.
The concepts of tensor fields and Euclidean Christoffel symbols can,
by the obvious changes, be studied in plane geometry  twodimen
sional Euclidean space. Since we have two coordinates for a point in
the plane, all components of tensors and the Christoffel symbols will
depend on two variables, and the range of the indjces will be from
1 to 2 instead of 1 to 3. Thus the Euclidean Christoffel symbols for the
plane 1Dill be
(10·32) r'a{J(xt, xl) = igio'(Xl, + ':;  :a:)
in terms of the Euclidean metric tensor ga{J(xt, x') for the plane. The
alternative expression in terms of the derivatives of the transformation
EUCLIDEAN CHRISTOFFEL SYMBOLS
functions from, rectangiUar coordinates (yl, y2) to general coordinates
(xl, xi) and of the inverse transformation functions will be
. b2y). bx'
(10·33) xi) = CY.r!" ?Jx"
. Exercise
Compute from the definition 10·32 the Euclidean Christoffel symbols for the
plane in polar coordinates. Then cheok the results by computing them from 10 ·33.
Hint: Use results of exercise 1 of Chapter 9 and find (fl ... 1, gO '" gil '" 0, gat ...
Answer. .
1
:pl .... I\ .. ... , It .. 0, It '" 0, r:, '" n '" 0, r:a .. o.
:e1
CHAPTER,l1
TENSOR ANALYSIS
Covariant Differentiation of Vector Fields.
Having shown the existence of the Euclidean Christoffel symbols,
we are now in a position to give a complete answer to the fundamental
question  enunciated in the preVious chapter  on the extension of
the notion of partial differentiation. We shall now prove that the
fu'fU'Ji008
(
11.1) xi, xl) + r' (Xl xi xl) ""( 1 xi xl)
()xCI ....,' X, ,
are the components of a mixed tensor field of rank two, called the c0
variant derivative of This result holds for every differentiable con
travariant vector field with the understanding that the r!..(x
1
, xi, xl)
are the Euclidean Christoffel symbols. We shall use the notation
for the oovariant derivative of By hypothesis we have
 ()Xi
(11· 2) Xl, XS) = t(x
1
, xi, xl) ()x>.'
If we then differentiate corresponding sides of equation 11·2 we
obtain, by the wellknown rules of partial differentiation,
()t ()x" ()x' >. ()2Xi ():rJ"
(11· 3) ()x = ():rJ" ()x ()x>' + ()x>. ():rJ" ()X'" •
We also have
_. ()x. ():rJ" ()Xi ()2X>' ()Xi
(11·4) r'ja = r!,. ()Xi ()X'" cnt + ()xi ()XCI ()iA'
If we multiply corresponding sides of 11· 4 by and sum on i we obtain
, . >. ():rJ" ()X' ()Xi ()2x>' ()x'
(11· 5) = ()x ()X>. + ():rJ" i:)ii ()X'" ()i'
on using
in the first set of terms and
 ()x.
,.. = I:.i_
.. ()Xi
56
TENSOR FIELDS OF RANK R = P + Q 57
in the second set of terms. Since). and II are summation indiceS, we
can interchange ). and II in the second derivative terms of 11· 5.
On carrying out the renaming of these umbral indices, we can add
corresponding sides of 11.3 and 11.5 and obtain
{
()E' . . ()f ()Xi .
()Z" + r j.J1 = ()x)' + r ,,.r ()£"
(11· 6) ( ()2Xi ()x" ()Xi (P31' ()Xi)
+ ()31' ()f'" + ()ii ()f'" ()x" •
Now
(11·7)
where
i {I if
8 .. = 0 if
i= a,
i;14 a.
On. differentiating 11· 7 with respect to we obtain
(Pii ()x)' ()Xi (Px)' ()ii
(11·S) ()x" ()£" + ()x)' ()Xi ()£" = 0
and hence 11· 6 reduces to
_. _. ()t ).)()x)' ()x'
(11· 9) ()Xa + rj.J1 = ()x" + r .,.r ()£" ()x). •
But 11·9 states that the functions
()f ).
()x" + r.,.r
are the components of a mixed tensor field of rank two. This completes
the proof of the result stated at the beginning of this chapter.
By a slight variation of the above method of proof, it can be es
tablished that the Junctions
(11·10)
are the components oj a covariant tensor field oj rank two whenever Ei are
the components oj a covariant vector field, called the covariant derivative oj
Ei. As before, r1a are the Euclidean Christoffel symbols. We shall use
the notation ti,a for the covariant derivative of ti.
Tensor Fields of Rank T = P + q. Contravariant of Rank p and Co
variant of Rank q.
It is conyenient at this point to give the definition of a general tensor
field. As in the case of tensor fields of rank two, the definition will be
58 TENSOR ANALYSIS
clear if we give the law of transformation of its components under a
transformation of coordinates.
 ()X" ()x"
(11·11) r, til) = 7'1::::1:(X
1
,:z:2, :J!»?»}, •••
()r
x····
()x')'1 ()x'YfI
We are now in a position to considet: some problems that arise in
taking successive covariant derivatives of teruror fields. However, we
must first say a word or two about the formula for the covariant deriva.
tive of a tensor field. If l!re the components of a ten80r field of
ranJi p + q, contravariant of rank p and covariant of rank q, then the
functions = : : ;:. 'Y defined by
{
'''U ()1';:===:; "'Up
(11.12) 'l': ... II!:'Y = ()x'Y + ..
...,cIJt n1CIl ••• CIpIcr r" n1CIl •• ., t .".. tnCIl ••• cz.
+ ...   ••• 
are the components of a tensor field of rank p + q + 1, contr(Jf)(Jriant of
rank p and covariant of rank q + 1.
'1':: =:;:. 'Y will be called the covariant derivative of The above
result 1 stating that the covariant derivative of a tensor field is indeed
a tensor fiE!ld can be proved by a long but quite straightforward calcu
lation analogous to the method of proof given for the covariant deriva.
tive of vector fields.
Since the covariant derivative of a tensor field is a tensor field, we
can consider the covariant derivative of the latter tensor field, called
the second covariant derivative of the original tensor field. In symbols,
if '1':::::; is the original tensor field, we can consider its second suc
cessive covariant derivative
1';::::;:. 'Y. "
The fundamental questiun arises whether covariant dijJerentioJi;on is a
commutative operation, i.e., whether
(11 13)
,"",,'''Up ,"",,"'Up
• .I. = . .I. '.'Y'
The answer i8 in the ajfirmative.
2
In fact, since all the Euclidean Chris
toffel symbols are zero in cartesian coordinates, the partial derivatives
of all orders of the Christoffel symbols are also zero in cartesian coordi
tes H if
*,"",,·"Up( •• l .3 • .8) th ts f ,"",,'''<110 •
na . ence II, II are e componen 0 m
the cartesian coordinates y", we find with the obvious repeated use of
formula 11·12 that .
:"2*,"",,' •• Up
*maa'''Up ( •• 1 • .2 • .a) _ u •
.I. 'Y. ,\9 , II, II  ()y'Y ()y'
PROPERTIES OF TENSOR FIELDS
59
In other words, we have the result that 8UCCe8sive covariant derivatives
01 a ten80r ji.eW, reduce to partial derivatives 01 the tensor fie7il, whenever
the ten80r ji.eW, and the operations. are evaluated in cartesian coordinates.
Properties of Tensor Fields.
Perhaps the most important property of tensor fieJds is the following:
II the components 01 a tensor fie7il, vanish identically (or at one point, or
at a set 01 points) in one coordinate System, they vanish likewise in all
coordinate systems. This result follows immediately on inspecting the
law of ·transformation 11·11 of the components of a tensor field.
If, then, one can demonstrate that a tensor equation
= 0
holds good in one coordinate system, it will necessarily hold good,
without further calculation, in all coordinate systems. For example,
consider the covariant derivative gil.k of the Euclidean metric tensor.
Now, since.
C>gii ..,., _ 1'cr
gil. k = ()xk  gcrjJ. M:  g ..... ik'
and since the gil are constants when evaluated in cartesian coordinates,
we have gil. k .. 0 in cartesian coordinates, and hence the tensor equation
gil.II'" 0 holds in aU coordinates throughout space.
Exercises
1. Provethat the covariant derivatives of gil and of a; are zero. See equation
10·26 for the definition of the tensor gil. The mixed tensor a;  1 if i '" j and
B; .. 0 if i ;r! j. 
S. If 7'# is any tensor field, then show that T: is a scaJ.a.r field. Similarly, if
7'#7 is a mixed tensor field of rank three, show that is a covariant vector field.
a
8. If the tensor field T'; is defined by 7'# '" >., in terms of the two tensor
fields >.,06 and Pall, prove that the following formula (reminiscent of the differentia
tion of a product in the ordinary differential calculus) holds:
7'#.7  + >., '\"
CHAPTER 12
LAPLACE EQUATION, WAVE EQUATION, AND POISSON
EQUATION IN CURVILINEAR COORDINATES
Some Further Concepts and R e ~ k s on the Tensor Calculus.
We remarked in Chapter 10 that, if 8(X
I
, X2, xl) is a scalar field, then
!;, is a covariant vector field. So, to complete the picture of covariant
difiere1'ltiation, we can call :i the covariant derivative oj the scalar fie1d
8(xl, :tA, xl).
For some discussions it is convenient to extend the notion of a tensor
field. By a relative tensor fie7i oj weight w, we shall mean an object
with components whose transformation law difiers from the transforma
tion law of a tensor field by the appearance of the functional determi
nant (Jacobian) to the wth power as a factor on the right side of the
equations. If w = 0, we have the previous notion of a tensor field.
For example:
C>XI C>Xl
C>xl ..
, ,
()fl ()f2
()f8
§(fl, z2, X8) =
()x2 C>x2 ()x2
8(Xt, :c2, xl)
, ,
()fl ()z2 ()f8
c>XI
()x3 ()x3
, ,
()fl
()z2
()f8
and
C>xl C>xl
C>xl '"
, ,
()fl
()f2 ()f8
{'W, z2, XI) =
()x2 ()x2 C>X2
()fi
, ,
r(xl, :tA, XI)C>x"
()fl ()X2
C>xa
()X' ()x3 ()x3
, ,
()f1 ()X2 ()f8
are the transformation laws for a relative scalar field of weight w and
a relative contravariant vector field of weight w respectively. A rela
tive scalar field of weight one is called a scalar density, a terminology
60
FURTHER CONCEPTS AND ItEMAItKS 61
suggested by the physical example of the density of a solid or fluid.
In fact, the mass m is related to the density function p(xl, z2, z2) of the
solid or fluid by
m = f f fp(xI, z2, xl) dx
1
dx
2
.dxB,
where the triple integral is extended over the whole extent of the solid
or fluid.
Another important example of a scalar demity is given by yg,
where g is the determinant oj the Euclidean metric tensor ga{J' In fact,
()xc ()xb
(12·1) ga{J = gab ()x .....
Let g = I ga{J I , the determinant of the ga{J. By a double use of the
formula for the product of two determinants when applied to 12 ·1,
one can prove that
I
()xc 12
(12·2) g = ()X'" g,
where I :: I stands for the determinant of the partial
d
. . ()xc
envatives
On taking square roots in 12·2 we obviously get
(12·3) v'g = I :: I vg,
which states that yg is a scalar density.
The yg enters in an essential manner in the formula for the volume
enclosed by a closed surface. In fact, the formula for the volume in
general curvilinear coordinates X' is given by the triple integral
(12·4) V = f f fyg dx
1
dx
2
dx3.
This form for the volumecan be calculated readily by the following
steps. If y' are rectangular coordinates, then
Hence.
(12·5)
V = f f f dyl dyl dr.
V = f f f J dx
1
dx
2
dx8,
where J stands for the functional determinant
of the transformation of coordinates from the curvilinear coordinates
Xi to the rectangular coordinates y'. Now
s ()y' c>y'
ga{J(x
1
, xl, XS) = t; ()x'" c>#'
62 EQUATIONS IN CURvn.INEAR COORDINATES
and hence j;he determinant
g= I I
is precisely equal to J2 on using the rule for the multiplication of two
determinants. In other words
(12·6) yg ... J,
from which the formula 12·4 for the volume becomes clear.
Since the formula for volume in general coordinates z' is given by
12·4 it follows that the mass m of a medium in general coordinates z'
has the form
m = f f f Po(Zl, z2, :r;8)yg dz
l
d:l!2 cJx3,
where Po(Zl, r, zS) is an absolute scalar field that defines the (physical)
density of the medium at each particle (Zl, zS, :r;8) of the medium.
Clearly p(Zl, :r!, xii) = Po(z!, :r!, xa)Vi is a scalar density and, since
Vi = 1 in rectangular coordinates, has the same components as the
density Po(zl, zI, xii) of the medium in rectangular cartesian coordinates.
Other concepts and properties of tensors will be discussed later in
the book whenever they are needed.
Laplace's Equation.
Let be the contravariant tensor field of rank two defined in
Chapter 10, i.e.,
(12·7)
ffP = CQfactor of gpa in g.
g
H ",(zt, :r!, Z3) is a scalar field, then the second covariant derivative
"' .... fJ is a covariant tensor field of rank two. Now we can show that
.... fJ i8 a scalar fieM. In fact,
;;,a8 = .N ()ffl
(12·8) 1/ . fI
(12·9)
On multiplying corresponding sides of 12·8 and 12·9 and summing on
a and we obtain
ff'V,.a.I1 (/"", .... (J5fS ()ffl
and hence the desired result
on using the obvious relations
(12·10)
Let
(12·11)
LAPLACE'S EQUATION 63
for the arbitrarily chosen sca.Ia.r field "'(Xl, X2, xl). We have just shown
that F(x
1
, xl, xl) is also a sca.Ia.r field. In rectangular cartesian coordi
nates, the Euclidean metric tensor has components equal to 0 for
a ¢ and equal to 1 for a Furthermore, we saw in Chapter 11
that in cartesian coordinates, and hence in rectangular cartesian
coordinates, y',
.. ,. (0.1 2 • .3) = ?p*"'(y1, y2, '11') •
'I' .G.P II , Y , II . ?¥if' CY/
The component of the scalar field F(x
1
, xl, x
8
) in rectangular coordinates
y'is then
or
(12·12)
?P*I/t(yt, y2, ya) + ?P*I/t(y1, y2, '11') + ?P*I/t(yl, y2, '11'),
(by1)1I (by2)2 «()y8)2
the Laplacean of the function *I/t(y1, y2, '11').
Hence the form. of Laplace's equation in curvilinear coordin0.t6s x·
wiJJ& the scalar field ",(Xl, xli, xl) as unknown i8 given by
(12·13) xl, :r;3)", "".,,(x
1
, xl, xl) = 0,
where g"fJ(x
1
, xli, xl) is the contrauariant tensor field lS.7 deftMd in terms
o/the Euclidean metric tensor and where ",,,,,.,,(x
1
, xl, xl) i8 th£ second
covariant derivative oj the 8calar field ",(Xl, xl, xl).
If we write 12.13 explicitly in terms of the Euclidean Christoffel
symbols rjA;(X
1
, xli, xl), we evidently have
(
12.14) ..a8( 1 xli xI)(CJlI/t(xt, xl, xl) _ ( 1 z2 xB),*(zl, xl, xl») = 0
1/ x,, ():J!'
as the/arm of Laplace'8 equation t in curvilinear coordinates Xi.
It is worth while at this point to give an example of Laplace's
equation in curvilinear coordinates and at the same time review
several concepts and formulas that were studied in previous chapters.
t There is another form of La.place's equation in ourvilinear ooordinates z,
which is sometimes more useful in numerical calculations than 12 ·14. It is given by
{ v'i gall?» )
_  C>z'" ?xrfJ  O. For a. proof see note 3 to Cha.pter 13. SimUa.r rema.rks
vg .
could be made for the wa.ve equation and Poisson's equation since the La.place
differential expression occurs in them.
64 EQUATIONS IN CURVILINEAR COORDINATES
Let yt, if', 11 be rectangular cartesian coordinates and Xl, x2, xl polar
spherical coordinates defined by the coordinate transformation
{
Y
l
= Xl sin X2 cos xl,
(12·15) y2 = Xl sin x2 sin xl,
11 = Xl cos x2.
Clearly the inverse coordinate trans
Z2 .. 1.A (ZI Zl Z8)
,"'/ I "
formation is given by
Xl = V (yl)2 + (yI)2 + (11)2
x
2
= cos{v (yl)2 + + (yI)2)
I
I
xl = tanI
FIo. 12·1.
From the definition of the Euclidean metric tensor g,,{J we find
(12·16) gll = I, g22 = (Xl)2, gaa = (XI)2 (sin x2)2, and all other gi,i = 0,
so that the line element d8 is given by
(12.17) d82 ... (dx
l
)2 + (Xl)2(£lx2)2 + (Xl)2(sin x2)2(dx8)2.
Again, from the definition of the tensor g«6, we find
(12·18) gll = I, g22 = g33 = x2)2 ' and all other gil = O.
The Euclidean Christoffel symbols caD. now be computed in spherical
polar coordinates; use either formula 10·27 or 10·31. They are as
follows:
... _Xl, rk = _Xl (sin x2)2,
1 2 ••
112 = Iii = Xl' r 83 = SIn X" cos X2,
):r
13
= r:l = r:a ... cot x
2
,
all other rjA> = o.
On using 12·18 and" 12·19 in 12·14 rk, are the only non
zero Christoffel symbols that are actually 1;1sed), we find that Laplace's
equation in sphericaJ, polar coordinates Xl, x2, xl is
I
CilI/I 1 CilI/I 1 CilI/I
(()xl)2 + (Xl)! (()xt)2 + (Xl)2(sin x2)2 (()x3)2
2. or cot x2 or
+ Xl ()zl + (Xl)2 ()xt = 0
(12·20)
whenever fhe unkTlQ'lJ}'T/,Junction is a scalar fleW, t/I(x
l
, x2, xl).
WAVE EQUATION
65
Laplace's Equation Vector Fields.
We now turn our attention to the related problem of considering
vector fields whose individual components satisfy Laplace's equation in
rectangular coordinates. The question arises whether each component
of the vector field will satisfy Laplace's equation 12 ·14 in curvilinear
coordinates Xl, xi, :r;8. The answer is in the negative, as a little reflection
will now show. To be specific, let the unknown be a contravariant
vector field Nxl, xl, x8) with components *N1f, 11, 11) in rectangular
cartesian coordinates. By hypothesis
(12·21) «)yl)2 + «)y2)2 + «()y3)2 = o.
By practically the same type of argument used in deriving equations
12·13, we find that the contravariant vector field X2, x8) in curvi
linear coordinates Xl, xl, :r;8 will satisfy the system of three differential
equations
(12·22)
where is the second covariant derivative of X2, :r;8). If we ex
pand 12·22 explicitly in terms of the Euclidean Christoffel symbols
xl, x8) we find
J ri ()r • ()f'
ul()x" ()xIl  «P ()x" + "(1 ():J! + r,,/I at"
(12·23)
(
()r!.. ri r' r
i
• )I!IJ 0
+ + ,/1"(1  .,.r «p 10 = ,
a system of three differential equations in which all three unknowna
r, occur in each differential equation.
Wave Equation.
The propagation of various disturbances in theory of elasticity,
hydrodynamics, theory of sound, and electrodynamics is governed by
the partial differential equation known as the wave equation. In
rectangular cartesian coordinates y', the wave equation is
()2*u(yI, 11,11, t) ()2*U(yl, 11, 11, t)
()t2 «)yl)!
(12·24)
()2*U(yl, y2, 11, t) ()2*U(yl, 11, 11, t)
+ «)y2)2 +. «)y3)!
and hence in curvilinear coordinates x'
(
12.25) ()2u(Xl, x
2
, r, t) _ ,.a6
()/J  1/ . '1.£ .... /1,
66 EQUATIONS IN CURVILINEAR COORDINATES
where u .... 1J is the second covariant derivative of the scalar field
U(Xl, xi, xB, t). If we write 12·25 explicitly in terms of the Euclidean
.
Christoffel symbols we obtain t
(12.26) ()2u(xt, xi, xB, t) = rf'( ()2u _ I'! ()u).
?nf CY.r!
.It is to be observed .that the rigl;lthand side of 12'25, or equivalently
of 12·26, is the Laplacean. If the Xi are spherical polar coordinates,
Laplace's equation has the form 12·20. Hence, immediate},y, we see
that the wave equation has the following form in spherical polar c0
ordinates
. ()2u(xt, X2, xB, t) ()2u. 1 ()2u. 1 ()2u
W = + (xt)2 + (X
l
)2(sin xi)2
(12·27)
2 ()u cot xi ()u
+;i + (Xl)2
By exactly the same calculations as we used in obtainink Laplace's
equation for contravariant vector fields in curvilinear coordinates, we
find that the wave equation in c:u:roilinear coordinate8 x' takes the foUnw
ing form whenever the unknown is a comravariant vector field E'(xt, xi,
xB, t) that depends parametrically on the time t:
(12·28)
on using the corresponding result 12·23 for Laplace's equation. Note
that 12·29.is a system of three differential equations for the three
unknowns E
l
, f, and and not just one differential equation satisfied
by the three functions E
l
, f, and E
a
,
Poisson'S Equation.
As a final exercise in this chapter we consider Poisson's differential
equation. IIi rectangular cartesian coordinates Vi, Poisson's equation is
yl, 11') ?P*tp(yt, yl, 11') ?P*tp(yt, y2, 11')
(12.30) «()yl) 2 + «()y2)2 + «()y3)2
"" _4r*O(yl, y2, 11').
t For another form of the wave equation, see Exercise 1 at the end of the chapter.
POISSON'S EQUATION 67
On the righthand side of 12·30, *U(yl, y2, 11) is the component in rec
tangular coordinates y' of a scalar field
(12.31) U(Xl, z2, xl) "" xl),
where p(Xl, z2, xl) is a scalar density. t Since yg is also a scalar density,
u(xl, z2, xl) is obviously a scalar field. From the definition of g as the
determinant of the gafj, we see that in rectangular coordinates
(12·32)
Hence
and consequently
(12·33)
100
*g(yl, y2, 11) = 0 1 0 = 1.
001
In other words, the scalar field U(Xl, X2, xl) and the scalar density
p(XI, X2, xl) have equal components in rectangular cartesian coordinates.
, On making use of our calculations for Laplace's equation, we can
derive corresponding results for Poisson's differential equation. For
example, P0i8son's differential equation in curm'linear coordinates x·
will be
(12·34)
whenever the unknown is a scalar field ",(Xl, X2, r). As before, the are
the Euclidean Christoffel symbols in the X' coordinates.
Exercises
1. Show that the wave equation in curvilinear coordinates z· with scalar u(Zl,
:r;2, zI, t) as unknown can be written as
i)2u(ZI, z2, zI, t) 1 c{ Vii gafJ )
btl = Vii <n'" •
2. Show that Poisson's equation in curvilinear coordinates z, with scalar .jI{zl, z2,
zI) as unknown can be written as
1 gafJ )
_ r = 4rcr(zl, z2, zI).
v g <n'"
t In most physical problems p(ZI, :r;2, z3) = po(Zl, z2, z3)yg, where po(Zl, z2, z3)
is an absolute scalar field and represents the physical density of a medium.
68 EQUATIONS IN CURVILINEAR COORDINATES
8 •. Obtain Laplace's equation 12·20 in spherical polar coordina.tes from the fol
. 1 b( v f g « # ~ ) , .
lowing form of Laplace's equation: vf i)x'" = O. .
4. Obtain the wave equation and Poisson equation in spherical :olar coordi
nates on using the form of these equations given in exercises 1 and 2 respectively.
CHAPTER 13
SOME ELEMENTARY APPLICATIONS OF THE TENSOR
CALCULUS TO HYDRODYNAMICS
NavierStokes Differential Equations for the Motion of a Viscous
Fluid.
As an interesting application of the covariant derivative of a tensor
field in hydrodynamics, we shall write the famous N avierSt0ke8 differ
ential equations in curoilinear coordinates. Let yt, y2, and y3 be rec
tangular cartesiar. coordinates, and let
(13·1)
u' = Ui(yl, y2, 'II, t), the contravariant velocity com
ponents of a viscous fluid.
t = time.
p = p(yl, y'A, 11, t), pressure.
p = p(yl, y2, 11, t), density.
'" = coefficient of viscosity, a constant.
'" kin .. .
p = , ematic VIscoSIty. .
p
Xi = Xi(yl, y2, y3, t), contravariant vector components
of body force per unit mass.
Then the motion of a viscous fluid is governed by the four Navier
Stokes difierential equations. I
bu
i
( Cl2u
i
()2ui ()2ui \ bu' p CI
Zit = v «()yI)2 + «()y2)2 + «()yB)'A)  u" + :3 ()yo
(13·2)
()P + Xi
Clp + CI(pU'") =0
CIt •
P ()yi '
The last difierential equation is the equation of C01/J,inuity, which
expresses the requirement that the mass of any portion of the liquid is
conserved. For a nonviscous fluid, '" = 0 and hence p = 0, the Navier
Stokes equations reduce to the Eulerian hydrodynamical equations.'
The expression within the in 13.2 is Laplacean of u'.
If we then make use of the results of the previous chapter on the form,
69
70
ELEMENTARY APPLICATIONS
of the Laplacean in curvilinear coordinates, the NavierStokes diBer
ential equations take the following form in curvilinear coordinates x'
00' _ . ...all' _ ... icr fJ) _! icr ()P Xi
()t  "II . U .... fJ U U,.. + 3 g ()x'" 'U,fJ P g + ,
"l)p
"l)t + (pu«) ... = 0,
(13·3)
where, as before, commas denote covariant Qifferentiation based on the
Euclidean Christoffel symbols z2, r). If we expand the co
variant derivatives, we can write the N avierStokes differential equati0n8
in cunn1inear coordinaJ.es x· as
(1?·4)
00' J b2u' . 00" . ()u... 00
0
= + + r!,. &J!  ()Z ...
ni r' r' r' ) ... ] .. (00
0
ni,,)
+ (nfJ +.1.fJ ...  IF< crfJ U  'U ()Z.. + .1_u.
" icr "l) (OOfJ ... ) 1 ia ap X.
+ 3 g "l):r! + "fJU  ; g ()z .. + "
"l)p + "l)(pU'") + r: .. :m ... = o.
()t "l):rf
It is of interest in itself as well as in the above expanSIons to have
equivalent expressions for the "divergence" u:. in c"rVilinear coor
dinates. We have used the evident formula
(13 5)
.... ' ()u" ..,.."
• ·110 ... = + .1 ... U,
but it can also be proved that
3
(13·6)
.. 1 "l)(Vg u'")
u,.. = vti "l):rf
where'g is the determinant oj the Euclidean metric tensor gcrfJ' Formula
13.·6 is often more useful in the calculation of the divergence than
formula 13·5. With the aid of fOl'Llula 13.6 we see that the equation
of continuity Jor a moving fluid toke8 the Jollowing Jorm in curvilinear
coordinates Xi: .
(13·7) .
Examples
... 1! We it;l the last chapter that, if the .x· are spherical, polar
coordinateS, gil = 1, g'12 = (XI)2, gaa = (X
l
)2 (sin z2)2, and all other
MULTIPLEJ...POINT TENSOR FIELDS 71
gil = O. Hence
and
I, 0, o
g = 0, (Xl)2,
0, 0,
o = (X
l
)4(sin xl)!
() log g 4
(Xl)2(sin xI)2
() log g
. = 2cotx2
()x2 '
() logg = O.
()x8
The equation of cuniinuity in spherical polar coordinates Xi then become8
()p ()(pua) (2U
1
)
 + + p  + u
2
cot x
2
= O.
()t ():r!' Xl.
2. As another exercise, we may take the x' to be cylindrical polar
coordinates so that
FIG. 18·1.
Evidently
gu = I, g22 = (Xl)!, gas = 1, and all other g,; = O.
Hence the determinant g = (Xl)2 and we find readily
t.be equation of continuity in cylindrical polar C()(J'fdi
nates Xi
()p ()(pua) u
l
()t + ()x,'" = O.
Incidentally gU = 1, g22 = gas = I, and all other gil = 0, so that
the Euclidean Christoff Ell symbols can easily be computed and found
2 2 1 .
to be rk = _Xl, r
12
= r
2l
= l' and all other rjA; = O. These calcula
X
tions for the Christoffel symbols are very much simpler than the cor
responding ones in Chapter 12 for spherical polar coordinates.
MultiplePoint Tensor Fields. t
The tensor fields that have been studied so far in this book have
components that are functions of the coo:tdinates of only one variable
point in space. It is possible, however, to consider generalized tensor
fields, called multiplepoint tensor fields, t whose components depend
on the coordinates of several points in space. Perhaps the simplest
example of a twopoint scalar field is the distance between two points.
t The first systematic research on multiplepoint tensor fields was initiated by
the writer many years ago. See A. D. Michal, Transactions oj American MIJtiI8.
matical Society, vol. 29 (1927), pp. 612646.
ELEMENTARY APPLICATIONS
Let d(Xt, %s) be the distance between two points having general
coordinates xr) and
respectively.
Each point may not neces
sarily be referred to the
same coordinate system.
. FIG 13·2
For example, the x: may . .
be spherical cooidinates while the may be cylindrical coordinates.
Under transformation of coordinates
(13·S)
and
(13·9)
the components of distance transform by the rule
(13 ·10) d(XI, = d(xt, Xs).
Of course, if both points YI = lA, yr) and Y2 = 1A) are referred
to the same rectangular cartesian coordinate system, then the distance
is given by the wellknown formula
dWI, Y2) = V=±(Yi' yi)2.
i=1
Another simple example of. a twopoint tensor field is obtained as
follows. Define
(13·12)
where d(XI, X2) is the above twopoint distance scalar. Obviously
8(XI, %s) is also a twopoint scalar field. Consider the partial derivatives
of 8(XI, Xs) with respect to the coordinates of the second point
b8(XI' Xs)
(13·13)
Now under transformations of coordinates 13·8 and 13·9 of the two
points, we know that
(13 ·14) S(XI, is) = 8(XI, Xs).
Difierentiating 13 ·14 we" obtain
(13.15) b8(Xl, %s) ()x2'
()X; ....
This shows that the partial derivatives 13·13 are the components of
a twopoint tensor field: a covariant vector field witb respect to the
second point and a scalar field with respect to the first point. If both
TWOPOINT CORRELATION TENSOR FIELD 73
points are referred to the same recta1l{JUlar ca1'te8ian coordiMte system,
then from 13·11 we see that
(13·16)
If we define
(13·17)
then obviously S'(Xl, XI) is a twopoint tensor field: a contravariant
vector field with respect to the second point and a scalar field with
respect to the first point. If both points are referred to the same
rectangular coordinate system, then both twopoint tensor fields
()s(xt, Xi) . . .•
and S'(Xl, XI) have the same components  m that
rectangular coordinate system.
We shall have occasion to consider a twopoint tensor field of rank
two, a contravariant vector field with respect to each of the two points.
AB in the other examples, the two points need not be referred to the
same coordinate system. The transformation law for the components
of su$ a twopoint tensor field are
 ()Xi C>Xl
(1,3 ·18) t
i
;(Xl, ft) = F(Xl, XI) >.J •
<:>xi ""'2
A TwoPoint Correlation Tensor Field in Turbulence •
.
Let Xl, xt, XI) be the contravariant velocity field of a fluid in
motion. We shall denote the mean value of a function f(t) of the time
t over the time interval (to, t
1
) by M(f(t)]. For example
(13·19)
Clearly Xl, xt, XI)] is a contravariant vector field. Define a
set of functions CV(X1, XI) of two points, Xl = and XI =
by
(13,20)
C
.. ( ) x1)E;(t, XI)]
'1
X
1 X1
{ {
,  gA,&(xl)M[t(t, X1W'(t, Xl)J} l gpq(XI)M[M:(t, XI)E"(t, XI)J} l
where gaJj(x
1
, xt, .P) is the Euclidean metric tensor in the general co
ordinates X'. It is evident that CH(Xl, XI) is a twopoint tensor field of
rank two, a contravariant vector field with respect to eooh of the two point,;
we shall call it the (twopoint) correlation tensor field. If both points
are referred to the same rectangular cartesian coordinate system, then
74
ELEMENTARY APPLICATIONS
the e6rrelation tensor field has components
(13·21)
in terms of the notations
ul = yl), t4 = ys).
If we now assume that we are dea.ling with the special case of i80tropic
turbulence, the correlation tensor field 13· 21 in rectangular coordinates
simplifies still further and has components
!M[ulun
3 M[(uP]
on using the isotropic turbulence conditions that M[(ui')2] is inde
pendent of position and the index a, and equal, say, to M[(U)2].
Except for the numerical factor i, the above in rectangular coot;di
nates is the correlation tensor used by Karman in isotropic turbulence.
See his paper entitled "The Fundamentals of the Statistical Theory
of Turbulence," Journal oj the Aeronautical Science8, vol. 4 (1937),
pp. 131138.
CHAPTER 14
APPLICATtONS OF THE TENSOR CALCULUS TO
ELASTICITY THEORY
Finite Deformation Theory of Elastic Media.
1
One of the most natural and fruitful fields of application of the
tensor calculus is to the deformation of media, elastic or otherwise.
In the next three chapters we shall considet. the fundamentals of the
deformation of elastic media. We need not and shall not make the
uSual approximations of the classical ("infinitesimal") theory in
the general development of our subject.
Consider a threedimensional medium (a collection of point particles)
in threedimensional physical Euclidean space. We shall consider a
deformation of tile medium from the initial (unstrained) to its final
(strained) position and obtain the strain tensor field under less stringent
restrictions than those imposed in Chapter 10.
Let (la, 2a, Sa) be the curvilinear coordinates of a representative
particle in an elastic medium, and let (xl, xl, xl) be the curvilinear
coordinates of the representative particle after deformation. The
deformation, a oneone point transformation a x, will be MSumed
FIG. 14·1.
given by difierentiable functions
(14 ·1) x' = J'(la, 2a, 8a).
It is convenient, and of importance for the mathematical founda
tions, to assume that the representative umtrained particle A is repre
sented in a coordinate system not necessarily the same as the one in which
the corresponding strained particle X ill represented. For example, la, 2a,
8a may be cylindrical while xl, xl, xl are spherical polar
coordinates.
We shall adopt the following notational conventions with respect to
onepoint and twopoint tensor fields.. Tensor indices with respect to
75
76 APPLICATIONS TO ELASTICITY THEORY
transformation of coordinates of strained particles will be written to the
righJ" and tensor indices with respect to transformation of coordinates
of unstrained particles Will be written to the Zejt. For example, under a
simultaneous transformation of the coordinates ia of point A in the
unstrained medium and of the coordinates Xi of point X in the strained
medium,
(14·2)
CYa
ra 
,8  ()xe
is a twopoint tensor field of rank two, contravariant vector field with
respect to point A and covariant vector field with respect to point X.
In other words, under transjormati0n8 oj coordinates
{
ia ... iq,(la, 2
a
, Sa)
(14·3) Xi = ""(x
l
, xl, z3)
in the unstmined and strained medium respectively, the twopoint
components ra,. undergo the transformation
(14·4) raIl = "'a'(J @ Cf":
Similarly
(14·5)
()X"
.,X" ... 
()aa
is a twopoint tensor field of rank two, covariant vector field with
respect to point A and contravariant vector field with respect to
point X. The relationships
(14·6) (ra,,)(.,x") ... :6, <..,xr)("a,.) = a:
are clear" where
=1 if r=8.
Let the initial and final squared elements of arc length in curvilinear
coordinates be given respectively by .
(14.7) ...
ds2 = gC</J(x) dx'"
Clearly, the initial and final squared elements in terms of the final
coordinates Xi and initial coordinates ia respectively are
(1 8)
... hcrrdx" dx
r
,
4· 'ds2 = pqk(dpa)(d'la),
where
(14·9)
We are now in a to write down the change produced by the
STRAIN TENSORS '17
deformation in the squared arc element. In fact, in terms of the
coordinates Xi, we have
(14·10) d,8l = 2f..,,(x) a.x'" rbfl,
where
(14·11)
Similarly, in terms of the coordinates ia, we find
(14·12) d,8l = 2"",T/(a)(rl'a)(d"a),
where
(14·13) "",fI(a) =  ..,se(a».
Clearly is a covariant tensor field of rank two in the "8trained"
coordinaJ,es Xi while ""'fI (a) is a covariant ten80r field of rank two in the
"unstrained" coordinates ia. 'We shall call Eat1(X) the Eulerian strain
tensor and "",T/(a) the Lagrangean strain tensor. The Eulerian strain
tensor wiU often be referred to as the 8train tensor. We have chosen this
terminology in analogy with the two viewpoints in hydrodynamics
represented respectively by the Eulerian and the Lagrangean differen
tial equations of motion. AB an immediate consequence.,of formula
14·10 we find the following fundamental result: A necessary and
sujficient condition that the elastic deformaiion of the medium be a rigid
motion (i.e., a degenerate deformation that merely di8places the medium
in space with a preservation of distances between particles) i8 that the Eu
lerian 8train tensor components be zero. Equivalently from 14 ·12 we
have: a nece88ary and sufficient co1ulition for. a rigid motion is the van
ishing of aU the Lagrangean strain components. These results justify
the use of the word "strain" in connection with the tensor fields Ea,e(x)
and "",'l(a).
Strain Tensors in Rectangular Coordinates.
If the 8ame rectangular cartesian coordinate SY8tem is used for the
description of both the initial and final positions of the elastic body,
the EUlerian strain tensor reduces to
1( 8 ()).a
(14·14) Ea,e(xt, x', xl) = 2 6afJ  ():rf"
In terms of the usual notation (a, b, c)
and (x, y, z) for the rectangular coordi
nates in the same coordinate system of
the representative initial and final parti
cles respectively, we have
(a, b, c)
Unstrained StniiMd
FrG.14·2.
78 APPLICATIONS TO ELASTICITY THEORY
(14·15)
. Similarly the Lagrangea.n strain tensor reduces to
(14·16)
(14.17)
)
2 Cf"a CIa
In the classical theory (the usual approri:mate theory) oj elastic deforma
tions, the squares and products oj the partial deritJatitJ68 oj 1£, v, and w are
considered negligible. Hence, to the degree oj appro:cimation considered
in the cla8sical theory, 14·17 yields the Jo'fiqwing wellknown Jormulas
Jor the strain tensor:
(14·18)
()tJ
ew='
()y
()w
Ea =.
()z
Change in Volume under Elastic Deformation.
79
Let us now return to our deformation theory without making the
approximations of the classical theory. One of the first fundamental
questions that arises is the manner in which volumes behave under a
deformation of the medium.
The element of volume in
the unstrained medium is,
by 12.4,
(14· 19) dV
o
= VCOJad2arJ8a,
where c = I ~ I, the deter
minant of the atfJ. Similarly,
/\9;
~ L/
Unstrained
FIG. 14·8.
(14·20) dV = v7J dx
1
dz2 dx3,
where g = I gaIJ I, the determinant of the gaIJ'
In terms of the "strained variables" Xi, we have
(14·21)
where I Ga.. I is the determinant of the ~ ~ .
Now
dto = >,pc (a) a}'a d"a = haIJ(x) ~ rbfl,
where haIJ is given by formula 14·9.
Evidently the determinant h of the haIJ is given by
From this
(14·22)
and
(14·23)
h = c 1 Ga,. 1
2
•
dV
o
= v'h dx
1
dx2 dx'.
Formulas 14·20 and 14·23 imply that
(14.24) dV
o
= 10.
dV V g
Straiftsd
80 APPLICATIONS TO ELASTICITY THEORY
Define
(14·25) h: = r h ~
and thus obtain
(14·26) .
hafJ = g,.,li,;
by an application of the properties of ga/J and g"'iJj see formulas 10·26.
From 14·26 we compute
(14·27) h=gl h6 I,
where 1 h6 1 is the detenninant of the h;. On using 14·24, we have
immediately
(14·28)
d Vo _ fT""':'::I
dV = v 1 h; I·
To express this ratio in terms of the strain tensor EatJ, we first recall the
definition 14·11 and obtain
hafJ(x) = gafJ(x)  2EatJ(x).
On raising the indices with the aid of the g"'iJ, we evidently have
(14·29) h6 = 6';  2E
6
,
where the mixed tensor field e; of rank two is defined by
(14·30) e;(x) = g""(x)e./J(x),
On using 14·29 in 14·28, we arrive at the important result that the
ratio of the element of oolume of a set of particle8 in the UnstTained medium
to the element of oolume of the corresponding particles in the strained
position i8 given in terms of the strain tensor Ea/J(x) by means of thefoUow
ingformula
(14·31)
Notice that, with rigid motion of the medium, the strain tensor
EatJ = 0 and hence E; = O. Hence, from 14·31 and e; = 0, we see that
a rigid motion preserves fJolume8.
We have developed the fundamentals of elastic deformation an'd
strain tensor in threedimensional space. It is clear, however, that
everything we have said can be taken over for the corresponding
elastic deformations in the plane. In all the formulas, there will be
two variables Xl, x
2
, etc., the indices will have tqe range 1 to 2, and the
consequent summations will go from 1 to 2. For example, formulas
14·14, 14'15, 14'17, and 14·18 for the Eulerian strain tensor will be
respectively as follows in elasticity theory in the plane.
VOLUME CHANGE UNDER ELASTIC DEFORMATION 81
(14,32)
1( 2 ()>'a ()>'a)
~ ( Z 1 , X
2
) =  8
o
/J  :E  .
2 >. 1 ()x'" CY:r!
(14·33)
(14,34)
where 'U = x  a and tJ = Y  b.
()u
(14·35)
E:==I
()x
Ezv = ~ ( ~ + ~ ; ) = EvZI
()tJ
fw='
()y
Unstrained Stn&in«l
FIG. 14·4.
Exercises
1. Find the components of the Eulerian strain tensor fo!J{zl, zt, zS) when the
deformation of the elastic body is a stretching whose equations are
Zi = A ia (A is a constant greater than unity)
where both Zi and ia are rectangular coordinates referred to the same rectangular
coordins.te system. Discuss the change in volume elements. Work out the cor
responding problem in plane elasticity.
2. Work out exercise 1 for a contraction so that the constant A is les. than unity.
CHAPTER 15
HOMOGENEOUS AND ISOTROPIC STRAINS, STRAIN IN
VARIANTS, AND VARIATION OF STRAIN TENSOR
Strain Invariants.
If we expand the threerowed determinant I h; I, we find
(15·1) I a;  2f; I = i  211 + 411  8Ia,
where
II = e:, III = sum of the principal tworowed minors in the determinant
(15·2) A = I e; I, and. I a = A.
A function f(un, gl!J, "', gas, EU, ElIl, "', faa) of the Euclidean metric
tensor gall and the strain tensor Ea/J 1JJ1,'U be called a 8train invariant
l
if
(a) it i8 a scalar field; (b) under aU tramformal,ions of coordinates Xi to Xi
(15·3) I(ou, gl!J, "', gsa, ill, its, "', faa) = f(Uu, gill, "', gsa, En, EI!J,
"', Eaa),
where the functiun f, on the left, i8 the 8ame functiun of the gall and f...s
as it i8, on the right, of the gall and Eall' •
We shall now prove that the three fUnctions 1
1
,1
2
, and I. occurring in
the expansiun of the determinant 15·1 are 8train infJariants. From the
law of transformation of the mixed tensor field E; we readily get
E:(r, 5!, XI) = e:(x
l
, X2, xl),
from which follows that II is a strain invariant on recalling that
e; = (f'e.p. To prove that Ia is a strain invariant, we have by hypothesis
()x" ~ Z "
E; (x) = ~ ( x ) bi! ~ ~ .
On taking the determinant of corresponding sides, we obtain
I e; I = I E ~ 1·1 :: ,.\ :: ,.
But the product of the functional determinants is equal to unity.
Hence I e; I = I ~ I , and I. is a strain invariant. To prove that Is
is a strain invariant, we first observe that
~  2E;
82
HOMOGENEOUS STRAINS 83
is a mixed tensor field of rank two. Hence,"by the argument just com
pleted for I ~ I, we see that the determinant I a;  2E$ I is itself a
strain iwariant. But, from the expansion 15·1, we see that
(15·4) I, = tcl a;  2E$ I  1 + 211 + 8IsJ.
Formula 15·4 expresses Is as a linear combination of strain invariants
with numerical multipliers. Hence obviously Is is itself a strain in
variant.
On using the results 14·31 together with what we have just proved,
we obtain the result
dV
o
_ /
(15·5) dV = v 1  211 + 41,  8Is,
which gives the ratio of the element of the volume of a set of particles in the
unstrained medium to the element of volume of the corresponding particles
in the strained medium in terms of the three strain iwariants 11, I" and Ia.
Homogeneous and Isotropic Strains.
Let us now discuss the mathematical description of a homogeneous
strain.
DEFINITION OF HOMOGENEOUS STRAIN. A strain is homogeneous if
the corresponding strain tensor Eafj has a zero covariant derivative,
Le., Eall. 'Y = O.
In rectangular coordinates, the condition reduces to ~ ~ = 0 sinc.e all
the Euclidean Christoffel symbols are identically zero in rectangular
coordinates. In other words, the strain tensor components Ea{J in rec
tangular coordinates are comtants for a homogeneous strain.
It readily follows from the definition of the strain invariants 11, I"
and Ia that for a homogeneous strain
()I
i
()xi = 0
in rectangular coordinates and hence in all coordinates. (Keep in mind
that 1
1
, I" and 18 are three scalars and not the three components of a
. ) H f h . dV
o
• • al
COVarIant vector. ence, or a omogeneous stram, dV 18 a numenc
constant for all coordinates. We thus arrive at the important result
that for a homogeneous strain
V .
(15·6) V
O
= VI  211 + 41.  818 = a constant.
This constant is the 'same for all "unstrained" volumes'V
o
and their cor
84 HOMOGENEOUS AND ISOTROPIC STRAINS
reaporuJ,ing "strained" oolume8 V, and is independent oj eM coordi1UJt8
system.
For the special case of a homogeneous strain which is also isotropic at
each point, we shall have
(15'7) . '3 = EI3
or what amounts to the same thing
(15·8) = the Euclidean metric tensor.)
Since the strain is homogeneous, we have 'Y = O. We also have (see
the end of Chapter 11)
= O.
Hence E in 15·7 and 15·8 is a constant Scalar field, a numerical constant
that is independent of position and the coordinate system.
An example of an isotropic homogeneoqs strain is found in an is0
tropic medium subjected to uniform hydrostatic pressure, i.e., an
isotropic medium subjected to the same pressure in all directions. .
Since 15·6 holds and
1  211 +  81s = I 0;  2e; I,
we see by an evident calculation that for an isotropic homogeneous strain
Vo
(15·9) V = (1  2e)I.
The constant scalar E for an isotropic homogeneous strain is given
by the formula
(15·10)
in terms of anyone volume before and after deformation.
In the usual approximaie theory (usual theory of elasticity) higher
powers of E than the first are negJected; see Chapter 14. Since
(1  2e)1 = 1  3E, approximately,
we have
(15·11) = 1 _ 3t, approximately,
and
(15·12)
1 V  Vo 1aV 1aV .
E = 3 V = 3 V = 3 Vo ' approXImately.
A Fundamental Theorem on Homogeneous Strains.
We shall now outline the proof of the following theorem. A neceB8Q,ry
and sujJicient con4ition that a strain be homogeneous is that, in terms oj
HOMOGENEOUS STRAINS 85
'Unatrained cartesian coordinoJ,es era and strained carlelrian coordinate8 yi,
th£ deJormaUon i8 Zinear, i.e.,
(15.13) 0, = OAt y' + CIA.
OutUne of Proof.
From the definitiol) of the strain tensor we have
1&"Il = g,,'l  2E,.'l'
Since g"'l,r = 0, and since under our "necessity EfJ'l,r ... 0,
we obtain the vanishing of the covariant derivative of h,.Il (x). But
by definition
h,,'l (x) =
so that the x· are the independent variables and the era are the de
pendent variables. Expanding the covariant derivative in hp'l,r (x) = 0,
and rearranging, we find
(15·14)
where
(15·15)
Since
(15·16)
° /J /J er /J
a,pl' a,'l =  ()xr a,,, a,'l  a,,, a,Rr'
the right side of 15·14 must be symmetric in p and r. Hence
(15·17)
er /J /J er /J
a,pl' a,a =  ()xl' a,r a,'l  a,r a,'lP'
On equating the corresponding sides of 15·14 and 15 ·17, rearranging,
and interchanging p and q and fJ and O!, we obtain
(15 18)
er /J /J + ()artJCer /J' + CI /J
• artJC a,F a,'l =  ()xr a,,, a,Il ()x'l a,r a,p artJC a,r a,'lp'
Adding corresponding sides of 15 ·17 and 15 ·18 there results
(15·19)
Recalling that the artJC are functions of the unstrained coordinates "a, we
find
(15.20) . _.r. CIa lIa =  + ().,tf  ()...,c] era lIa :a
crp ,pi' ,'l 2L()"a r:la . ,r ,Il ,,.
86 HOMOGENEOUS AND ISOTROPIC gI'RAINS
Multiplying corresponding sides by .,x
Q
and summing on q, we obtain
CI __ !p)..,.c _ 01 "f
(15·21) ..,.c a,F  2i.()"f
a
+ ()CIa ().a a.
r
a,p'
Finally, if we mUltiply corresponding sides of 15·21 by we arrive
readily at the interesting result
(15·22) "a,fIr = ,:rea) "fa,p Cla,r,
where ,:r(a) are the Eudidean Christoffel symbols based on (he Euclidean
metric tensor in the untJl:rained coordinates ia.
Now from the definition 15·15 9f Cl a.
fIr
and from the vanishing of the
Euclidean Christoffel Symbols r}k(X) and when evaluated in
" strained" cartesian coordinates yi and tt unstrained" cartesian co
ordinates iz respeetively, we see that 15·22 reduces to
()2t1
z
(15·23) {)y" ()yr = O.
This implies that the deformation is linear, i.e., of type 15 ·13.
To prove the converse part of the fundamental theorem. on homo
geneous strains, we have by hypothesis that the deformation, or strain,
is given by a linear transformation 15 ·13 in cartesian coordinates iz
and yi. Now
1&"Q(X) = aIP(a)(Cla,,)(fJa:
Q
)
and alP are constants a(/l in cartesian coordinates. From' 15 ·13 we
have
()CIz _ CIA
()yP  p
and hence the components *1&"Q(Y) in cartesian coordinates yi are
by ,
*1&"i.1/) =..,ad ,ClAp (JA
Q
,
a set of constants. Hence
()*1&"Q(Y) = O.
()yr
But this condition implies that the covariant derivative
1&"Q,r (x) = 0
and hence the covariant derivative E"Q,r (x) = o. In other words, the
,strain is homogeneous, and the proof of the theorem is complete.
Variation of the Strain Tensor.
In preparation for the subject matter of the next chapter, we need
to consider deformations that depend on an accessory parameter t,
VARIATION OF THE STRAIN TENSOR 87.
which in dynamical problems can be taken as the time t. So let the
coordinates x· of a representative particle in the strained medium
depend on the coordinates 'a of the corresponding particle in the
unstrained medium and on the accessory parameter t.· Let
(15·24)
be the partial difierential of Xi in t. If J::: (x) is any tensor field in the
strained medium, define aJ::: (x) by
(15 ·25) lI.r·· () J'" D •
UJ '" X = .... i x,
where J::: .• is the covariant derivative of J:::. Clearly, if the Xi are
cartesian, aJ::: = DJ:::. Moreover, aJ(x) = DJ(x) for a sca.la.r J(x) in
general coordinates Xi. To have a wellrounded notation, define
ax" = Dx" and refer to ax" as the virtual di8placement vector. If
Xi (la, 2a,"'8a , t) have continuous second derivatives, then from the
commutativity of second derivatives
D( = = . ( r").
'0 o'Q or""
Hence
o
D(dxI') = .dr",
which implies the tensor equation
(15·26) a(dxI') = dr".
Obviously ag,.. = 0, since g,.,.e = O. Hence the above tensor equation
may be written
(15·27) a(dxl:) = (aXl:).CI dr".
Since &l("a) = 0, an evident calculation using 15·26 shows that
(15·28) a("a,p) = "a,a(ar"),p.
Recalling that
h,,9(X) = afjC(a)(Cla.p)(fJa.fJ.)
and applying formula 15·28 we find
ah;.fJ. = + Cla,J> fJa.,.(ax").fJ.J,
which can be put in the convenient form
(15·29) ahp'l = h;(aX,.),p  h;,(aX,.).fJ.'
From this, and from the definition of the strain tensor faIJ and the re
lated formula.
88 BOMOOENEX>US AND ISOTROPIC STRAINS
we arrive at the/v/nda'fMnta1,/orm:u'la/or the fJO:riati,on 0/ the atrain tenaor.
(15·30) 8e,g (x) = ![(8xg).p + (rb:p),gJ  [e;(8x .. ),p + ep (8x .. ),gJ.
This formula becomes
(15·31) 8Epg(X) = ![(8xg),p + (8xp),J
within the a'P'JYfOXimati0n8 0/ the usual approximaJe theory 0/ eW.sticity.
Returning to our finite deformation theory, we define a rigid virtual
by the condition 8(M) = O. On using formulas 15·26
and 15·27 in an evident calculation, we find
(15·32) 8(d82) = [(8x
a
),p.+ (8x/J) ... J d:r!' d:rP
for any virtual displacement, rigid or not. Hence the virtual displace
ment vector must satisfy differential equations for a rigid
virtual displacement
(15·33) (8z
a
),p + ... = O.
For the sake of completeness, we shall write down the formula
(without giving the derivation) for the variation of the Lagrangean
strain tensor pgTl under an arbitrary virtual displacement ..
8pgTl = ![(&x
a
)", + (8x/J)...] p,1?
Exercise
Calculate the three fundamental strain invariants for a homogeneous isotropic
stre,in. Hint: since they are constants, calculate them in rectangular cartesian c0
ordinates.
CHAPTER 16
STRESS TENSOR, ELASTIC POTENTIAL, AND
STRESSSTRAIN RELATIONS
Stress Tensor.
Let S be the bounding surface of a portion of the elastic medium
in its strained position. The surface element of S may be described by
means of the covariant vector dS
r
,
(16·1) dS
1
.. yg d(XS, xl), dS
s
" Vg d(xa, Xl), dB
a
= vg d(xl,:r!),
where
(}.z;P
()iP
,
(16·2) d(tt', :rJ1) =
00
()v
du dtJ
()x
ll
(}.z;1I
,

00
()v
and u, v are the surface parameters so that the parametric equations
of the surface S are given by Xi = fi(u, v). In rectangular coordinates
and in the usual notations x, y, z, the components of the covariant
vector dS
r
are given by
dBz = d(y, z), dB" = d(z, x), dB. = d(x, y).
Exercise
Prove that dS
r
is a covariant vector under transformations of the
coordinates Xi. Hint: use the fact that yg is a scalar density.
Let dB be the magnitude of the surface element, i.e.,
(dS)2 = g4 dB
a
dB{J'
Before we introduce the notion of a stress tensor we must define a
stress vector. A stress vector is a surface force that acts on the surface of
a ooZume. An example of a surface force is the tension acting on any
horizontal section of a steel rod suspended vertically. If one thinks,pf
the rod as cut by a horizol),tal plane into two parts, then the action of
the weight of the lower part of the rod is transmittep to the upper part
across the surface of the cut. A hydrostatic pres&ure on the surface of
a submerged solid body provides another example of a surface force.
There are other kinds of forces called body, volume, or mass forcetl,
89
90 STRESS TENSOR, ELASTIC POTENTIAL
i.e., forces that act throughout the volume. AB a typical example of a
mass force one can take the force of gravity, pg fl. V, acting on the mass
contained in the volume fl. V of the medium whose density is p, and
where g is the gravitational acceleration.
A 8tres8 tensor 'r
a
is defi,Md, implicitly' by the relattion
(16·3) . . dB = 'rtl dBa,
where F'" is the 8tress vector acting on the 8UrJOI!e element dBr.
Let us now consider a virtual displacement of the strained medium
corresponding to the accessory parameter t. The virtual work of the
stresses across the boundary B is
(16·4) of fJJfl 5xII dB  f f'J"k' 5xII dB
a
= f f f(T'h 5x
fJ
)"" dV,
8 8' V .
a volume integral extended over the vo\ume V bounded by B and ob
tained by Green's' theorem or generaJized Stokes' theorem in curvi
linear coordinates.
If there are mas8 JorrAJ8 (Mr per unit mass) acting on the medium,
the virtual work of these mass forces is
f f f pMfJ6xfJ dV,
v
where p is the mas8 den8ity. Hence, the virtual work of oJ}, the forces
acting any the medium is
(16·5) f f + pMfI)6x/I + F(5x/I),..] dV.
v
We shall now adopt the
PHYSICAL AsSUMPTION OF EQUILIBRIUM: The virtual work oj oJ}, the
Jorcu ading on any portion oj the medium is zero Jor any rigid virtual
displacement .
. . In particular, the translations, characterized by (6x
II
),fl = 0, are
rigid virtual displacements, and so we must have the condition
(16·6) f f + pMfI) 6x" dV = O.
v' "
Since 6XfJ is arbitrary at any chosen point and V is arbitrary, we have
the differential equations jor equiltOrium:
(16;7) + pMfJ = O.
Consequently the virtual work of all the forces (mass as well as surface)
acting upon any portion of the medium' in i.ny virtual displacement is
given (on using 16·5 and 16·7) by
(16·8) Total virtual work = f f f'J"k'(6xfJ)"" dV.
v
this vanish for any rigid virtual displacement, i.e., tor
(52:p)" + (6xo.),p = 0,
ELASTIC POTENTIAL
the stress tensor must be 81Immetric:
(16·9) 'f"IJ ... Tf1«.
Hence 16.8 can be written
(16·10) Total virtual work = if f fr't(8x .. ),fJ + (6x,,) ... ] dV.
v
91
Within the approximations of the usual approximate elasticity theory,
the total virtual work may be written
(16·11) f f frP 8E .. " dV
v
since formula 15·31 holds for the approximate theory. But note that
this is not a legitimate result for the finite deformation theory; formula
16·10 is the legitimate result for that theory.
Elastic Potential.
We shall now turn our attention to the elastic potential anq its
relation to the stress tensor. Let p be the density of the volume element
dV in the strained medium. The element of mass dm is given then by
dm = p dV. The principle of conservation of ma88 in a virtual dis
placement is expressed by
8(dm) = 8(p dV) = O.
Let T be the temperature of the element of mass dm, tI the entropy
density (per unit mass) so that the entropy of the mass dm is tI dm
= ptI dV, and u dm the internal energy of the mass dm. Then the
fundamental energyconservation law of thermodynamics says that
(16·12) T8(tI dm) = 8(u dm)
(virtual work of all forces acting on dm). Let
(16.13) q, = u  Ttl,
the free energy density or elastic potential.
From the principle of conservation of mass, we have, on integrating
over any portion of the strained medium and making use of equations
16·8,16·12, and 16·13,
(16·14) f f f(aq,)p dV = f f f'J.""fJ(8x .. ),fJ dV  f f f(6T)fJt1 dV.
v . v v
Since V is arbitrary, this yields
(16·15) p 8q, = 'J.""fJ(8x..),fJ  ptl6T.
We shall now work under the following
HYPOTHESIS ON ELASTIC POTENTIAL 4>: q, i8 a function of ra • ., the
Euclidean metric tensor g,lx) in the 8trained medium, the Euclidean metric
tensor ,."c(a) in the unstrained medium, and the temperature T.
92
STRESS TENSOR, ELASTIC POTENTIAL
We shall restrict ourselves to isothermal variations, so that T is a
constant parameter in q,. From 16 ·15 and the sYmmetry of the stress
tensor F, we see that &p = 0 for any isothermal rigid virtual displace
ment. Now, for any virtual displacement, = 0 and ag ... = O. Hence
from Killing's differential equation 15·33 we have
(16·16) 8('"a.fJ) = 0
whenever
(16·17)
Let
rd"(x) = (f'l(x) f'a,fl
and use the formula
8(ra.fJ) = _ra ... (8:t")JJ (see formula 15·28)
and 16·17 in 16·16 to obtain
[
aq,_cra'Y _ ... ). = 0
'" U"''Y.fJ •
Hence q, must satisfy the following system of partial difierential
equations
(16·18)
This is a complete system of three linear firstorder partial difierential
equations in the nine variables a./l' There are nine conditions in 16 ·18
but three. are identities and only three of the remaining six are inde
pendent, From the theory of such systems of differential equations I
we know that the general80lution of 16 ·18 is a function of six functionally
independent 80lutions. It will take us too far afield to give the theory
of such differential equations; we are content here with this mere state
ment of the result concerning the most general solution q,.
There are some particularly interesting solutions of equations 16 ·18.
To consider them it is convenient to define an iootropic medium.
DEFINITION OF IsoTROPIC MEDIUM. A medium whose elastic potential
is a strain inaariant that may depend parametrically on the temperature
T wi1l be called an isotropic medium.
Now it can be shown, but in this brief volume we have not the time
to give the details of proof, that the elastic potential for an jsotropic
medium satisfies the differential equations 16 ·18. It can also be shown
by a long mathematical argument that any strain intJariant is afunction
of the three fundatMntal strain invariants II, It, and 18 of Chapter 16.
The following important result is immediate. A nec688ary and sufficient
STRESSSTRAIN RELATIONS 93

condition that a medium be isof,ropic is that its elastic pot,ential q, ... q,(I
1
,
I It 1
8
, T) where 11, I I, and 18 are the jUndamemal strain i1Wariants •
. In the Usual approximate t h ~ r y of elasticity, the elastic potential q,
for crystalline media (another name for nonisotropic media) is taken
as a quadratic function of the strain tensor components. It is tacitly
assumed in the usual approximate theory that a special privileged
reference frame, determined by the. axes of the crystal, has been
chosen. The coefficients of the quadratic form are accordingly not
scalars but components of a tensor of rank four which depends on the
orientation of the crystalline axes.
StressStrain Relations for an Isotropic Medium.
Consider the elastic potentialq, for an isotropic medium as a function
of the strain tensor e,... Since e,.. is symmetric, we have E
r
, = !(e,., + Eor).
In q" we shall write !(e,.. + Eor) wherever e,., occurs, and thus we see that
()cp ()cp
=,
()e,., ~ r
(16,19)
with the understanding that in ~ , say, all the other E's (including for
ue,.,
for that 8, r) are held constant, so that in this difierentiation no atten
tion is paid to the symmetry relations Eor = e,.,.
We saw in Chapter 15 (see 15·29) that under a virtual displacement
the variation of hpq and hence of the strain tensor Epq was given by
(16·20) 8 ~ = i8hpq = ![h;(8x
T
),p + h ~ (8x,.).oJ,
since hpg ... gpg  2Epq. But 8g
pq
= OJ hence
&p = ~ 8E..p = ~ ~ [hH8xT ) ... + h; (&I:,.)
oII
J,
EotJ EotJ .
or
(16·21) &p = ~ h ~ (8x,.) ...
uEafj
(a and fJ are summation indices t)
on using conditions 16·19. Now, for an isothermal virtual displace
ment, formula 16·15 reduces to p 8q, = T""(8x.,,),IJ, and so for an isotropic
medium
(16·22)
From the arbitrariness of the virtual displacement and the fact that
t Throughout the remaining part of this chapter, a mere repetition of an index
in a term will denote summation over that index.
94 . STRESS TENSOR, ELASTIC POTENTIAL
= a:  we obtain the stre888train relations for an i80f;ropic medium
(16,23) tp"fJ = p(!: 2e:£;)'
We shall put this stressstrain relation in another form. Now by
definition = rt' and hence
Obviously
and hence
(16·24)
.).i
 =" a/ll'
()E(f
btp ()q,
Q
. ()ell ()Eii
Define the mixed stress tensor by
(16·25) = gfly'J.'«'Y
(= gflyT"t% from the symmetry of the stress tensor). Then with the aid
of 16·24 in 16·23 one can show readily that thefoUuwing stress3train
relations hold for an i80tropic medium I
(16·26) = 2e:
From the principle of conservation of mass P dV = Po dV
o
, and from
the fundamental result 15·5, we see that
(16·27) P .. PoVI  211 + 41.  818
in terms of the strain invariants 11, Is, and 18 for media, whether is0
tropic or not. Since It, 1
2
, and 13 are respectively first degree, second
degree, and third degree in the strain tensor components Eap, we see
that to a first approximation p = Po; i.e., volumes are also preserved to
a first approximation. Hence to the same degree of approximation, the
stress8train relations 16·26 for an isotropic medium reduce to Hooke's
law of the u.sual aP'[1l'ozirrwie theory
()q,l
(16·28) =
where = pr;.
CHAPTER 17
TENSOR CALCULUS IN RIEMANNIAN SPACES AND THE
FUNDAMENTALS OF CLASSICAL MECHANICS
Multidimensional EucUdean Spaces.
In the last two chapters of this book we shall attempt to give some
indications of a more general tenser calculus and some of its applica
tions. Although our discussion will of necessity be brief, this fact will
not keep us from going to the heart of our subject. Our study of
Euclidean tensor analysis can 'be used advantageously to accomplish
this.
First of all the subject'matter of Chapters 9, 10, and 11 can obviously
be extended to ndimensional Euclidean spaces, where n is any positive
integer. There will be n variables wherever there were three before,
and indices will have the range 1, 2, ... to n with the consequent
summations going from 1 to n. For example, the squared element of
are in rectangular coordinates yt, y2, "', yfl is
(17·1)
while in general coordinates Xl, x2, "', x
fl
(17·2) M = gafl(x
l
, x2, ••• , zo» fbf' ti:r!,
where
(
17.3) n_,,(xl :rJ ... Xfl) = ()yi()y',
II.... '" f,;;, ()XZ ar!
the ndimensional Euclidean metric tensor (see 9 ·15). The ndimen
siona! Euclidean Christoffel symbols are
(17.4) x2, • H, XfI) = + _
where the g4 are defined in 17·3 while
(17.5) g4(xt, x2, "', XfI) = Cofactor of g(Ja 9
9
95"
96 TENSOR CALCULUS IN RIEMANNIAN SPACES
in terms of the nrowed determinant
(17·6) g=
gu, gJ!J, "', glra
gn, (/t2. • •• , gh
gt>l, gtd, "', g ....
Geometry.l .
An ndimensional Riemannian space is an ndimensional manifold
with coordinates such that length· of curves is determined by D\ean8 of
a symmetric covariant tensor field of rank two gafj(x
l
, ,;2, "', X") in
such a fashion that the squared element of arc
,(17·7) dIP = gafj(x) d1f' dx!
is positive definite, i.e., gafj d1f' dx! ::2: 0 and is equal to zero if and only
if all the d1f' are zero. The length of a curve x· = f(t) given in terms
FIG. 17·1.
(17·9)
of a parameter t is then by tIefinition
(tl)
(17.8) 8 = de.
It can be proved by rather long alge
braic manipulations that from the positive
definiteness of gafj d1f' dx! follows the posi
tive value of the determinant of the gafj' i.e.,
g= ........... > o.
g"l, gfl2, "', g""
The theory of a Riemannian space is a Riemannian geometry.
Exactly as in an ndimensional Euclidean space, we can derive the
contravariant tensor field of rank two gaIJ(x
l
, x2, "', X") and thus have
at our disposal the Christoffel symbols of.our Riemannian geometry
(17·10) xl, "', x") = +  :a:).
Notice that the Riemannian Christoffel symbols depend on the funda
mental Riemannian metric tensor gafj and its first pa.rtial deriva.tives.
Unlike the Euclidean Clpistoffel symbols, it is impossible in general
to find a coordinate system in which a.ll the Riemannian Christoffel
symbols are zero everywhere in the Riemannian space. This is due to
the fact tha.t it is in general impossible to find a coordinate system
RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY
97
in which the metric tensor ga{J has constant components
throughout space. It is to be recalled that in a Euclidean space there
do exist just such coordinate systems, i.e., ca¥an coordinate systems
and rectangular coordinate systems in particular.
We can, however, prove that there exists a coordinate system with
any point of the space as the origin, i.e., the (0, 0, "', 0) point, such
that all the Christoffel symbols vanish at the origin when they are
evaluated in this coordinate system. Such a coordinate system is called
a geodesic coordinate system. We· shall prove that the coordinates yi
defined implicitly by the transformation of coordinates
(17·11)
are geodesic coordinates.
A direct calculation from 17·11 yields the needed formulas
(17·12)
where the 0 mearu. evaluation at the origin of the y' coordinates. Now,
under a transformation of coordinates, the Christoffel symbols of a
Riemannian space transform t by the rule 10·29 for Euclidean Chris
toffel symbols. Let y2, "', y") be the (Riemannian) Chris
toffel symbols in the yi coordinates. Then
(17·13)
i x ()x" OO!
*rClP(yl, 'If, .", 1f') = r,..(xl, xi, .. ', X")
W by'
Now we see from the transformation of coordinates 17·11 that Xi = qi
when Y' = O. In other words, the origin of the yi coordinates has co
ordinates x' = qi in the Xi coordinates.
If we evaluate both sides of 17 ·13 at the origin of the yi coordinates
and if we use formulas 17 ·12 in the calculations, we find
(17,14)
In other words, the yi's are geodesic coordinates.
t With the difference that the number of variables now is n and the indices
have the range 1 to n. The proof is practically a repetition of that given in note 4
to Chapter 10.
98 TENSOR CALCULUS IN RIEMANNIAN SPAC1i2
Curved ·Surfaces as Examples of Riemannian Spaces.
Obviously any Euclidean space is a very special Riemannian apace.
A simple example of a Riemannian space which is not Euclidean is
furnished by a curved surface in ordinary threedimensional Euclidean
space. This can be seen as· follows. Let y' be rectangular coordinates
in the threedimensional Euclidean space, and let the equations of a
curved surface be
(17·15)
in terms of two parameters xl and xl. Then the squared element of arc
for points on the #fUr/ace 17 ·15 is .
8
(17·16) d82 = 2: (dyf)2 = gQ/j(x
1
, xl) d:r!' d:r!
i=1
(a and (J have the range 1 to 2 and corresponding summations go from
1 to 2), where .
(17·17) (
1 _ ?Jf(xl, xl) ?J1'(x
1
, xl)
gQ/j X ,;v  ",,_8·
uw u;,;
So a surface in threedimensional Euclidean space is a twodimensional
Riema.nnian space.
Exercise'
The surface of a sphere is a twodimensional Riemannian space.
Find its fundamental metric tensor and its Christoffel symbols. The
FIG. 17·2.
#fUr/ace of a sphere of fixed r is
given by
'yl = r sin Xl cos xl
'I! = r sin Xl sin xl
'I! = r cos Xl
Therefore the jurulamental metric tensor
is given by gu = rI, gu = g21 = 0,
ga = rI(sin Xl)2. Hence
1 1
gU gl2 = g21 = 0, gt2 = rI(sin xl)2·
The Christoffel symbols are then
and all the other Christoffel symbols of the surface of the sphere are
zero.
RlEMANNCHRISTOFFEL TENSOR
The RiemannChristoffel Curvature Tensor.
99
It was seen in Chapter 11 that covariant differentiation is a commu
tative operation in threedimensional Euclidean space, and by exactly
the same type of reasoning this is also true in an ndimensional Eu
clidean space. To establish this result explicit use was made of car
tesian coordinates. Since such coordinates are in general not available
in a Riemannian space, we cannot use that type of proof. In fact, co
tJOrio:,a diJJerenJ,ioJ,ion in a Riemannian space is not in general commu
tative. We. shall find a formula (see 17·19 below) that makes clear the
noncommutativity of covariant differentiation in Riemannian spaces.
In obtaining Laplace's equation.in curvilinear coordinates for con
travariant vector fields in a Euclidean space, we had to calculate the
second covariant derivative of a contravariant vector field. (See the
bracket term in 12·23.) The calculation for Riemannian spaces is
practically the same, so that we shall write down the second covariant
derivative of xi, "', X") based on the (Riemannian) Christofiel
symbols xt, "', X") without giving any more details (again
see bracket term in 12·23). The result is
.
(17,18) r ... . = CY.rf ():rfI  r cr,8 ()x" + r " .. ():rfI + r "" CY.rf
(
()r!.. ,.
+ ()x" .... 
From the commutativity of the partial derivatives and the symmetry
of the Christoffel symbols = we find
(17·19) t ... .  ... = B!J,
where
(17·20)
To justify the notation B'acr,8 and prove that they are the com
ponents of a tensor field of rank four, contravariant of rank one and
covariant of rank three, we first note that the ieft sides of 17'·19 are
the components of a tensor field of rank three, contravariant of rank
one and covariant of rank two. Hence is a tensor field of the
same type for all contravariant vector field,s Le.,
_.  nl. ():t! ()x" ()x'
B'acr,8(xW(x) = Dp.,(X)r'(x) ()X'" ()x>.'
But, writing r'(x) in terms of we evidently have
i (_) (_) nl. ( ) (_) ()x" ()xv ()xP
B • ." x r: x = Dp.
p
X x ()i!' ()f!" ()i! ()xA'
100 TENSOR CALCULUS IN RIEMANNIAN SPACFlJ
But r (!) are arbitrary, and. hence, equating correspoQ,ding coe1ficients,
we obtain the ·tensor law of for This tensor
field is the famous RiemannChristoifel CU1'fXJture ten8or; it is not a
zero tensor in a general Riemannian space. Hence ( ... (.6 ... in a
Riemannian space with 1W'1/,IJanishing RiemannAJhristotlel curvature
ten8or. But obviously the RiemannChristoffel curvature tensor is
zero in Euclidea.n spaces. Hence (,a,p .. r,/J... in Euclidean spaces;
this checks a result found earlier, in 11.13.
Geodesics.
A line is the shortest distance between two points in Eu
clidean spaces. There are curves in Riemannian spaces that play a
role analogous to the straight lines of Euclidean spaces. Such curves
are called ge0deaic8. In fact, if a Riemannian space is a Euclidean
space, then its geodesics are straight lines. To find the differential
equations satisfied by the geodesics of a Riemannian space, we have
to get the EulerLagrange differential equations for the calculus of
variations problem
(17·21)
f
V dx'dx;
to gWdi di dt .. minimum.
It can be shown that the EulerLagrange equations for this calculus
of variations problem are
(17·22)
hi(8) i d:.t!
d8 = 0,
where 8 is the arc length and are the Christoffel symbols of the
Riemannian space. In other words, if the coordinates of points on a
geodesic are considered as functions of the arc length parameter
8, then the n functions satisfy the system 17 ·22 of n differential
equations of the second order.
If the Riemannian space is Euclidean and we choose rectangular
cartesian coordinates yO, equations 17 ·22 reduce to
and hence
(a' and fJ' are constants),
the parametric equations of straight lines in terms of arc length 8.
EQUATIONS OF MOTION 101
Equations of Motion of a Dynamical System with n Degrees of
Freedom.
In classical mechanics, it is postulated that the motion of a con
servative dynamical system of n degrees of freedom with no moving
constraints is governed by Lagrange's equati0n8 of 'lTWtion
l
(17,23)  O.
If the kinetic energy T, in terms of the generalized coordinates q1, 'q2,
d th alized 1
.. "(t) dqi(t).
"', q" an e gener ve q' = &' 18
T = igi/(q1, "', qr»qoqi (gil = gli)
and if the potential energy is V(q1, q', .. " q"), then the kinetic potential
or Lagrangean L is given by L = T  V. Now the kinetic energy is
positive definite in the velocities qi; i.e" T 0 and T .. 0 if and only
if gi = O. It can be proved by algebraic reasoning that the determinant
g of the gil is positive so that we can form gii in terms of the gi/ ex
actly as in Riemannian geometry. By direct calculation we find
{jL "
  g'.n'
(jqi  """
= +g.A
i
(q; =
= 1{()gi/ ()gUo) . i;Jc AI
2\(jqlo + {jqi q '1 + gin ,
{jL = !(()g I")q' iq'" '_ {j V •
{jqi 2 {jqi {jqi
Hence Lagrange's equations of motion 17·23 can be written in the form
(17 24)
"' 1(?>gil ?>gill ()gi"). "L {jV
. gip/" + 2 (jqlo + {jqi  {jqi q'q .....  {jqi'
Multiplying corresponding sides 'of 17·24 by r and summing on i,
we obtain the foUowing form for Lagrange's equation of motion.'
(17 25)
..,.. ( ). '. L ..,IIi {jV
. if' + 1. ill q1, "', q" q'q = II (jql
where Ij,,(q1, "', q") are (he Christoffel symbols based on the gil (qt,
••• , qr» of (he kinetic energy of the dynamical system. '
102 TENSOR CALCULUS IN RIEMANNIAN SPACES
Exercise
A symmetrical gyroscope with a point 0 fixed on the axis is acted upon by glaV
ity. Let I, I, and J be the principal moments of inertia. Then the kinetic energy
"by TH!)' +",,<,(!)' + ~ J ( ! + ""' .. !)'
and the potential energy by
V ... Mgh cos ql, The ClOOl'dinates rt, qt, and qt are the Eulerian angles, M is the
mass of the gyroscope, and h is the distance of the center of gravity from O. Find
the Lagrangean equations of motion of the symmetrical gyroscope. Compute also
the element of arc length of the threedimensional Riemannja.n space associated
with the symmetrical gyroscope. .
CHAPTER 18
APPLICATIONS OF THE TENSOR CALCULUS TO
BOUNDARYLAYER THEORY
Incompressible and Compressible Fluids.
The of volume of all parts of a fluid in motion sometimes
plays an important role in the theory' of fluid flows. A fluid in motion
with this property is .called an incompre88ible fluid, whereas a fluid in
motion without this property is called a compre88'tole fluid. If u' are the
contravariant components of velocity of the fluid in motion in general
coordinates Xi, then
dx'
(18·1)  = u'
dJ
are the differential equations whose integration gives the paths of the
fluid particles in the coordinates Xi.
It can be proved by a direct calculation that a necessary and sufficient
condition that the volume
(18·2)
of arbitrary portions of the moving fluid' be preserved 1 is that the
divergence of the velocity field u' be zero, i.e.,
(18·3) u:, = o.
In 18'2, g is the determinant of the Euclidean metric tensor gi;
(d82 = g'l dx' dx'), and the comma in u:. stands for covariant differen
tiation based on the Euclidean Christoffel symbols r}k' In other words,
a necessary and sujJicient condition Jor an incompre8sible fluid is that the
velocity vector field u
i
8atisfy the partial differential equation 18 ·S. A
glance at formula 13·6 shows that the condition of incompressibility is
equivalent to
(18·4)
. ()(yguCl) = 0
()x<I •
If recall the NavierStokes equations 13·3 for the motion of a
viscous fluid, incompressible or compressible, we know that the equation
of continuity
(18·5)
()p + (PUCl) = 0
()t ,ex
. 103
104 APPLICATIONS TO BOUNDARYLAYER THEORY
in general coordinates x' merely states the constancy 1 of the mass m
(18·6) , m'= f f fp(x
l
, x2, xl, t)yg dx
l
dx2 dxB
of any portion of the moving flUid. An evident consequence of the con"
ditions 18·3 and 18·5 is that the density p(Xl, :rr, xl, t) (an absolute
a.calar) satisfies the condition
(
18.7) ()p ()P ..  0
()t + ~ u  ,
which states that
(18·8)
dp =0
dt
along any chosen path of fluid particles. This means that 18·7 can be
taken as Q&e defining condition lor an incompres81,Qle fluid in view of the
continuity equation 18.5. The NavierStokes equations for an incom
pressible viscous fluid reduce then to the following system of four
differential equations in general coordinates Xi:
=11 U .. uu g + .
{
emi g«P' .. ilia ()p X'
(18·9) ()t ...... ... p ()x"
u,: = o.
For an incompresSible fluid, the density p(Xl, x2, r, t) is given subject
to condition 18·7. Then the four differential equations 18·9 will have
as unknowns the three velocity components u
l
, u
2
, US and the pressure
p(xl, x2, r, t) of the fluid.
The situation is different for compre8sible fluids. The NavierStokes
equations 13.3 are four in number with five unknown functions ut, u
2
,
us, p, and p. To make the problem determinate a fifth condition must
be imposed. This is usually furnished by the "equation of state,"
which in the isothermal case is of the form
(18·10) p = 1(P).
BoundaryLayer Equations for the Steady Motion of a Homogeneous
Incompressible Fluid. t
We shall now restrict ourselves to the steady motion of a fluid with
out any external forces, so that Xi = 0 and all the quantities u
j
, p, p are
independent of the time t. If in addition we assume that the fluid is
homogeneous, i.e., p is a constant, and incompressible, the four unknowns
t The r e ~ i n g part of this chapter is an expOSition of some unpublished re
searches of Dr. C. C. Lin. These results were presented by Dr. Lin in my seminar
on applied mathematics.
BOUNDARYLAYER EQUATIONS 105
U', P must, by a reference to 18·9, satisfy the four difierential equations
(18·11)
{
. i . i .. C>r
U'u . = vn'J:u . L  nO, 
oJ 't/ oJ,.. If bx
i
'
"t,1 = 0,
where 11" is the pressure p divided by the constant density p of the
fluid., and the constant II is the kinematical viscosity. Since the co
variant derivative of the Euclidean metric tensor rliJ"is zero, it follows
from 18·11 that the covariant vector components u, = guu' of the
velocity field and the function 11" will satisfy the system of differential
equations
)
{
UiU,; = pgileu· i k _ <>r
(18·12 ,', . bx"
u, ~ = O.
For the treatment of "boundarylayer" problems connected with
an arbitrary surface, it is convenient
to take a system of space C()ordinaJ,es
in which Xl, x2 are surface coordinates
and xl is a coordinate measured along
the normals to the surface. Thus
xl = 0 will be the equation of the given
surface. If we allow Latin indices to Surface
run over the range (1, 2, 3) and Greek 1 __ _
indices over the range (1, 2), we have FIG. 18·1.
the following fundamental metrics:
(18,13) d82 = g'j(x
l
, x
2
, xl) dx'dx
i
in 3space,
and
(18·14)
over the surface
xl = 0, a constant.
From the manner in which the coordinate xl was chosen, it follows that
in 3space t
(18,15) d82 = gil dx' dx
i
= r I ~ ( X I , x2, xl) dxf d3fl + (dz8)2.
t In Riemannian geometry, this is sometimes called the "geodesic form" of the
line element. Such forms of the line element were used recently by Dr. W. Z. Chien
in connection with his researches on the intrinsic theory of plates and shells (see
references). Dr. Chien presented some of his work in my seminar on applied mathe
matics and made some exceedingly helpful calculations in connection with interest
ing geometric ideas arising in his and Dr. C. C. Lin's work.
106 APPLICATIONS TO BOUNDARYLAYER THEORY
In other words, the Euclidean metric tensor g'i(X
I
, z2, zS) is such that
(18 ·16) g88 = 1, gSa = g .. = O.
We shall henceforth consider transformations of BUr/ace coordinates xl, :r}
alone so that the coordinate z8 may be regarded as a acaZar para1Mter
under a transformation of surface coordinates. To emphasize this
fact we shall uae the notation :rfl = :co = zS. Thus, in the new notation,
18·16 can be written
(18·17) goo = 1, gOa< = gaO = O.
We saw in the previous chapter that a BUr/ace can be considered as a
twod't'men8ional Riemannian spaCe. There is thus at our disposal the
Riemanni8.D tensor calculus of the previous' chapter for immediate use
in connection with the surface:rfJ = constant. We use a semicolon
to denote sur/ace COfJaria:Tjj di;fferenJiation in contradistinction to the
comma for covariant difierentiation in the enveloping threedimensional
Euclidean space.
To express all covariant differentiations with respect to space co
ordinates in terms of covariant difierentiations with respect to surface
coordinates Xl, z2 and partial difierentiations with respect to :rfl, con
sider first the Euclidean Christoffel symbols r}Al in the coordinates
Xl, z2, z8. If i, j, k are all in the range 1, 2 no reduction is possible
unless a special surface coordinate system is chosen; if one of the
three indices is zero, we have
1 ()g1Jy
(18·18) ro.." =  2?»fJ' r;, = =  ii' ?»fJ •
These are evidently tensor fields with respect to transformation of
surface coordinates, and they shall be denoted by r.." .and r; respec
tively. The other Christoffel symbols riAl, in which two or all of the
i, j, k are zero, vanish identically.
With the help of these relations, it can be easily verified that
{
Uo.o =:' Uo ... = + r!u/I,
(18·19) 00'
u..,o = + r! u/I' = + r J/O,
(18· 20) = ()zO + 11;/1  rgUo,
{
gilouo./.1c = :::  r::: .
(18·21) . ()u 00...
gi1:Ua J,Ic = + : rgzn:o + cit""
BOUNDARYLAYER EQUATIONS
107
where
(18·22) = + r!ufJ + {/,u";/J;"'( : 21'!:; r!;fJ'Uo
_ {4»O = +  r; r! 'Uo + I"$u..,
 + qr! )ufJ'
do not involve differentiation of Ui with respect to :tfJ.
Let US now consider the analytical nature of the system 18 ·12 of
four partial differential equations in the four unknowns 'tr, 'Uo, U
cr
• By
using 18 ·19, 18·20, and 18·21, we can put this system in the normal
. ...ob l·"f C>1r()'u"f th .
form With respect to;v y so vmg or ():tfJ' ()tlS rom e equatlOns
of motion and for:: from the equation of continuity. Thus
(18·23)
<>uo
():tfJ = tI;fJ + r=Uci,
where and :: in the first equation may be expressed in terms of
'Uo and by using the last equation. Thus, highest derivatives
of all the variables with respect to :tfJ have the coefficient unity in
these equations. Hence, if 'tr, 'Uo, u .. , :: are given as fUnctions of Xl
x" on the surface :tfJ = 0, the solution of the problem is uniquely
determined. "
This normal form 18·23 of the system of difierential equations, how
ever is not analytic in the small parameter v, the important case in
aeronautics, in the neighborhood of v = 0, and is consequently incon
venient for the application of the method of successive approximations.
We therefore make the transformation of variables
(18·24)
lOS APPLICATIONS TO BOUND¥tYLAYER THEORY
to bring it into the desired.form. We then have
(18·25)
()". = lIlr a[Jua.,f _ II(W ()w + ua()w) + vf(CAD _ ()w +
()r ()r ()xa ()f2 a ()r
()2ua = W ()u,. + ." + ()". + _
()t2 ()r .....?xr!' a a ()t
()w
()t = + plI1w.
Let US note that CPo and CPa are linear in the small parameter III through
the term in Uo (cf. 18·22), also depend on vi through the geometrical
quantities, which are functions of :rfJ.= lIir. Indeed, it can be shown 2
that the surface metric tensor ga[J is a quadratic function of :rfJ, while all
other geometrical quantities may be e:tpanded as power serie8 of :rfJ con
vergent for I :rf! I < R"" R", being the minimum magnitude of the
pIjncipal radii of curvature over the surface under consideration.
Hence, the righthand sides of the equations 18·25 are Taylor series in
vi, and the solution of 18·25 may be carried out by expanding each of
the dependent variables as a power series of vi, convergent for all finite
values of vi for which I lI
i
r I < R.n.
H we try to solve 18·23 by the same type of expansion, either the
series are asymptotic, or they may terminate; but in general we cannot
find a solution satisfying all the required boundary conditions. In
fact, the initial approximation is easily verified to 'satisfy the non
viscous equation (II = 0). The boundary conditions at infinity and the
condition Uo = 0 at :rf! = 0 are then sufficient to determine this approxi
.mation completely. Indeed, the boundary conditions at infinity are
usually such that the resultant solution is potential. Then the initial
approximation is an exact solution of the complete equations 18·23.
However, the boundary conditions Uo = 0 at:rf! = 0 cannot be satisfied
in general. The effect of viscosity can never be brought into evidence.
This shows that the more elaborate treatment de8crtoed abOfJe is absolutely
necessary. The nonviscous solution (usually potential), however,
serves as a guide for making the exact solutions satisfy the boundary
conditions at infinity. This point will be discussed in more detail
below.
Let us now proceed with the solution of 18.25 by writing
{
1( = 1(0) + vn(l) + n(2) + ... + "',
U
a
= + + + ... + ... ;
W = w(O) + VII'W(l) + 1I'W(2) + . , . + ... ,
(18·26)
BOUNDARYLAYER EQUATIONS 109
Corresponding developments for the geometrical quantities gcrfJ, r..", ...
must also be used. The initial approximation gives
" 00.. C>r ()2u.,.
u"u ;jI+w", +,
II' ()r Cnf" ~
C>r
0=,
()r
(18·27)
()w
t!;/I + ()r = 0,
where the superscripts of the initial approximation are dropped. In
these equations, r is a scalar, and the metric tensor is acx/l(x
l
, xl), being
gcx/l(xl, xl, :r;O) evaluated at :rfJ = O. The conditions over the surface
r = 0 are u.. = 0 and w = O. The condition at infinite r is set according
to the following considerations. For a large but finite value of r,
the value of :& is still small. Hence, the solution may be expected to
pass into the nonviscous solution close to the surface if r is large.
Thus, for the initial approximation, we may lay down the conditions
(18·28) u .. = it .. , 11" = r for r ... co,
where u .. and i' are functions of Xl and X2, being the values of u .. and 11'
of the nonviscous Ilolution at :& = O. The initial approximation is
then completely determined.
H u .. and 11' differ from it .. and 1r by quantities of the order of " for
r = h, then an approximate solution of 18·12 is usually taken to be
given (a) by the nonviscous solution for r > h, and (b) by the solu
tion of 18·27 for r < h. The quo/nitty h0 is known as the "thickne8s
oj the boundary layer" and is arbitrary to a 'certain extent. For ex
ample, we may define h to be given by (say) three times h of the
equation
(18·29) La> (it ..  u .. ) dr = it.,.h,
which is in general different accorc:ling to whether a ... 1 or 2. This
initial approximation is usually known as the boundarylayer theory of
Prandtl. Incidentally, we note that 11' is a function of Xl and x
2
alone,
by the second equation of 18·27. Hence, by 18·28, 11' = i'(xt, xl),
which is known from the nonviscous solution. The first and third
equations of 18·27 then serve as three equations for the velocities
u .. and w.
The higher approximations in 18·26 satisfy certain differential equa
tions obtained together with the derivation of 18·27. The boundary
conditions at r = 0 are u ~ = 0, for any approximation. The boundary
conditions for the nth approximation at infinity will be specified by
110 APPLICATIONS TO BOUNDARYLAYER THEORY
using the nth approximation of the asymptotic solution, which will in
turn be determined from certain boundary conditions related to the
(11.  l)st approximation of the convergent solution. Since we are
never concerned with higher approximations in practice, we shall not
go into further details.
RODS ON PART I
Chapter 1
1. In the modern quantum mechanics of theoretical physics, matrices with an
infinite number of elements as well as with a finite number of elements are used
very widely. The elements of these matrices are often complex numbers. The
reader is referred to the bibliographical entries under Born, Jordan, and Dirac.
2. For applications of matrices to the social sciences the reader is referred to
the references given in a recent paper by Hotelling.
3. We shall deal for the most part with matrices whose elements are real or
complex numbers. It is possible, however, to deal with matricea tDlioae elem6ntB GTe
Uaemaelves matricea. We shall have occasion to use a few such matrieM in connecj;ion
with.our discussion of aircraft Butter in Chapter 7.
ChapterS
1. For the properties of determinants, linear equations, and related questions
on the .bra of matrices, see Booher's Introduction to Higher Aigebm.
2. Cramer's rule for the solution of linear algebraic equations is given in most
books on algebra. In our notations it can be stated in the following manner. If the
determinant a.. I aj I of the n equationll
a':rJ = hi
1
in the n tmknouma:el,:1I', .oo,:rl' ia not zero, then !he equati0n81&ave a unique solution
given by
Ai
z' .. ,
a
where A' is the ATOtDetl determinant obtt&i1l6d from a by TepltJeing t1l8 elem6ntB a1, ~ ,
o •• , a, of tM itA column by tM corr68p07l4ing elem6ntB bl, bt, 0 0 " b".
8. The rule for the multiplication of two determinants takes the following form
in our notations. If a.. I a ~ I mid h.. I hj I are t1.110 nr0tDetl determinants, then
the numerical product c = ab ia iUd/ an ATowed determinant with elem6ntB cj gWen
by the /orm1ila
i i ....
c
i
.. aaul'
4. It can be shown that Sr, the trace of the matrix Ar, is also equal to the sum
of the rth powers of the n characteristic roots of the matrix A.
5. The recurrence formula 2·6 for the coefficients a" •.. , a.. of the chalacteristic
function of a matrix can be derived from Newton's formulas; see Booher's Introdw;·
tion to Higher AlgebnJ. pp. 243244, for a derivation of Newton's formulas.
111
112. NOTES ON PART I
ChapterS
1. To that the matrio exponential eA is convergent for aD square matrices
A, let A .. II /lj II be an nrowed sql1lL!8 matrix, and let V(A) be the greatest .of the
numerical values of the n' numbers /lj  the greatest of tlie moduli of the /lj if the
a; are complex numbers. Then each element in the matrix A i :wID not exceed n
H
in numerical value. Hence each of the n' infinite series in eA will be dominated by
series
nV' nlya 1
1 + V + 21 + 31 + ... + ...... 1) +r.
Hence all the n' numerical series in eA converge. This means that eA is convergent
for all square matrices A. .
In the terminology of modern functional analysis and topoloCIcal spaces, the
V(A) is oalled the norm of the matrix A, and the class of nrowed matrices with
the operations of addition and multiplication of matrices, multiplication by num
bers, and convergence of matrices defined by means of the nonn V(A)  in other
words, V(A) plays an analogous role to the absolute value or modulus of a number
in the convergence of numbers  is oalled a normed linecr ring. Other equivalent
definitions of the Donn of a matrix are possible. For example, V(A) can be
takenas
V.t(/lj)!
,,,""I
if the elements a1 of the matrix A are real numbers. Whatever suitable definition
of a nonn is adopted, the norm V(A) of a matrix will have the following properties:
(1) V(A) 0 and = 0 if and only if A is the zero matrix.
(2) V(A + B) S V(A) + V(B) (triangular inequality).
(3) V(AB) S V(A)V(B).
From property 3 it follows that V(A") S (V(A»", a result that makes obvious the
usefulness of the notion of a nonn for matrices in the treatment of convergence
properties of matrices.
The class of matrices discussed above is only one example of a nonned linear
ring. The first general theory of nonned linear rings was initiated in 1932 by
Michal and Martin in a paper entitled "Some Expansions in Vector Space," Journal
de mathhnatiques pure8 et appliquks.
2. The speoial case of the expansion 8·7 when F(A) is a matric polynomitJl is
known as Sylvester' 8 thwrem.
If the characteristic equationof a matrix Ahas multiple roots, then the expansion
3·7 is not valid. However, a more general result can be proved. For the case of
matrix polynomials F(A) see the Duncan, Frazer, and Collar book. The more
general cases of matric power series expansions are treated briefly in a paper by
L. Fantappie with the aid of the theory of functionals, since the elements
in the F(A) are !undionala of the numerical function F(A). See Volterra's book on
functionals (Blaokie, 1930).
3. Another equivalent form for the n matrices G
1
, 0" ••. , G
n
is
Gi ... (;\)l ,
d>. A=A,
NOTES ON PART I 113
where the >.t are the characteristio roots of the matrix A, leA) is the characteristic
determinant of A, and M(A) '" II II is a matrix whose element is the
• _I 1
cofactor of  in the oha.ra.oteristio determinant I(A). Notice carefully the
position of the indices i and j.
Chapter 4
. . _ ca(t)
1. A good approximation to the solution X(t) .. [e(e toAl]Xo of ;; .. AX(t)
can be obtained by taking 1 + (t _ to)A + (t  to)' AI + ... + (t  to)"A" in the
2' nl
place of the infinite expansion for e(etolA. .For many practioaJ purposes n '" 2 would
be large enough to give a good approximate solution. The approximate solution
can then be written
(t  to)' .
X(t) .. Xo + (t to)AXo +2,AIXo,
where Xo is the column matrix for t .. to initially given.
2. If the solution of the matric differential equation
(1)
cU(t) = AX(t) (X(t
o
) ... Xo)
dt •
has been found, then the solution of
(2) '" (A + bl)X(t) (X(t
o
) .. Xo)
o.an be written down immediately. In fact, from the second property of the matric
exponential given in Chapter 2, we see that eA+bI '" e>eA, where e> is the numerical
exponential. Hence by formula. 4·3 we see that the solution of equation 2 is ob
tained by a mere multiplication by e> of the solution of equation 1.
Chapter IS
1. The reader is referred to Whittaker's Analytical Dyna:mic8 for a treatment
of Lagrange's differential equations of motion of particle dynamics. For some
engineering applications, the reader is referred to M atherrulf,ico.l Methods in Engi,
neering by K4rm8.n and Biot.
2. Consult the references in the above note.
ChapterS
1. If only the fundamental frequency is wanted but not the corresponding
amplitudes, then the application of Rayleigh's principle may be preferable. See
Blementary Matricu by Frazer, Duncan, and Collar, pp. 310, 299301.
2. A special case of theorem is what is actually used; see expansion
3·9.
114 NOTES ON PART n
NOTES ON PART D
Chapter 8
1. Although little use has been made of the tensor calculus in plastic deforJD8;oo
tions, one would suspect that a thoroughgoing application of the tensor calculus
to the func:la.tn8ntals of plastic deformation theory would prove fruitful.
2. For some "elementary applications of the tensor calculus to dynamic meteor
ology, the reader is referred to Ertel's monograph.
3. We shall deal briefly with Riemannian spaces (certain curved spaces) and
their applications to clsssical dynamical. systems with a finite number of degrees
of freedom (see Chapter 17), and to fluid mechanic,. (see Chapter 18).
4. A discussion of the fundamentals of coordinates, coordinate systems, and
the transformation of coordinates in the various spaces, including Euclidean spaces,
is out of the question here. The readers who are interested in modem differential
geometry and topology will find ample references in the bibliography under the
entries for Veblen, Whitehead, Thomas, and Michal.
Chapter 10
1. Some writers, especially those dealing with physical applications, like to think
of the contravariant and covariant components of one object called a vector. For
example, if E' are the contravariant components of a velocity vector field, then e'
and can be considered the contravariant vector and covariant vector "repre
sentations" respectively of the same physical object called "velocity vector field."
This point of view, however, is untenable in spaces without a metric gii.
2. importance of the Christoffel symbols for Euclidean spaces
is, even now, not very well known.
3. Since
8 by; by'
gafJ{zl, 1>', 1>') .. 1: "' ......... .JI (yl, yI, 11 are rectangular coordinates),
i= 1""' CRT"
we obtain, from the rule for the multiplication of two determinants, the result that
g.. I gal I .. .p, where J .. I : I is the Jacobian determinant, or the functional
determinant, of the trpsformation of coordinates to rectangular coordinates y;
from general coordinates z'. ,Hence J ;0' 0 since we deal with transformations of
coordinates that have inverses. This means that the determinant g;o' 0 for all our
"admissible" transformations of coordinates.
4. The following steps establish the law of transformation 10·29 of the Eu
clidean Christoffel symbols; exactly the same method establishes the corresponding
law of transformation for the Riemannia.
n
Christoffel symbols to be discussed in
Chapter 17.
Since g/foP are the components of the Euclidean metric tensor we have under a
transformation of coordinates from coordinates Zl to coordinates

(II) g"tJ.!l, 1;1, !8) ... g,.,,(:&1, 1>', z8)"M!'
NOTES ON PART n 115
Differentiating corresponding sides of (a) we obtain (considering the 88 inde
pendent variables)
()g"" b:rl' b:I! bzP [ ?hi' b:I!] b:rI' bY
(b) = b:r/' M!' bf! + gpM!' b¥' bf! . + gpM!' ?J!fl •
Interchange ere and (T in (b) and, noting that
?hi' ?hi'
=,
obtain
()gp b:rI' b:I! bzP [ b':rI' b:I!] [ b:rI' bY ]
(c) M!' = in" bf'" + gp M!' btJI + M!' •
Interchange fJ and (T in (c) and, noting that
bY bY
bIP M!' = M!' bf}'
obtain
()gp b:rI' b:I! b:r/' ?hi' b:I! [ b:rl' bY ]\
(d) btJI ... in" bfJ? btJI + gp ?J!fl ()!'" b¥ + gp M!' •
Add corresponding sides of (b) and (d) and subtract corresponding sides of (c) after
interchanging" and p in the first terms of (b) and alter interchanging" and p in the
first terms of (d). Then take I of both sides, obtaining
1 (ciifIfJ cii..... ciia/J) 1 (()gp ()gpp ()g",,)b:rI' b:I! bzP 1 b:rI' bY
(6) 2 +  M!' = 2 ():rJ' + b:I!  in" M!' + 2
gP
M!'?J!fl
1 ?hi' b:I!
the terms enclosed in brackets in (b), (c) and (d) canceling out in the additions and
subtractions. On interchanging" and " in the last terms of (6) and on reca.lling that
gpp = g"", we get
(f) ! (cii"fI + _ ciia/J) ... ! (()gp + ()g,.,. _ ():rJ' b:I! b:r/' + (l b:rI' bY .
2 M!' 2 ():rJ' b:I! bzP btJI M!' PM!' btJI
Now
(g)
Multiplying corresponding Bides of (J) and (g), summing on a, and using the identi
ties
we readily obtain
!w(cii"fI ..... _ ... !..>.p(()gpP ()g,.,. _ W b:i',
2
g
+ bIP bf'" 2" ():rJ' + b:I! bzP bIP + i)P' ()rI
from which the desired transformation law 10·29 follows immediately on recalling
the definition of jii a/J and r:..
116 NOTES ON PART n
Chapter 11
1. Formula 11·12 for the covariant derivative of a tensor field can be
Iiahed very quick1y with the aid of normal coordinate methods of modern differential
See the two Michal and Thomas 1921 'papers.
2. In Chapter 17, we shall see that the answer is in general in the negative
for the more general Riemannian spaces.
8. The operation of putting a covariant index equal to a contravariant index in
a tensor and SUIpming over that common index is called contraction. A contraction
reduces the rank of a tensor by two: by one contravariant. index and by ODe covari
Chapter 18
1. The NavierStokes differential equations of hydrodynamics are discussed
in Lamb's Hydrod1/Mmics.
2. There are two viewpoints in htdrodynamics: one is the Eulerian point of
view in terms of the Eulerian variables; the other is the Lagrangean point of view
in terms of the Lagrangea.n variables. For a nonviscous fluid, the Eulerian hydro
dynamical equations are the equations of motion of the fluid from the Eulerian point
of view, and the Lagra.ngean hydrodynamical equations are the equations of motion
of the fluid from the Lagrangean point of view. The Eulerian hydrodynamical
eql"lIotions in rectangular coordinates y' are obtained by putting p .. 0 in the Navier
Stokes equations 18·2.
Eulerlan HydrodyDamica1 Equations.
.. _U .. _! C>p +X'
i)t lJif' p l>y'
+ ()(pU"') .. 0.
i)t lJif'
H a' are the rectangular coordinates of & fluid particle in the initial state of the
fluid, and if the y'(a
l
, ai, a
8
, t) are the coordinates of the particle at time t, then the
LagrcJngean hydrod1/Mmical eqtUJtionB are
t. (blyi _ + ! C>p. = 0,
,=1 ()tI 00
'
P ()a1
l>yl l>yl l>yl
,,
()al ()a' ()a8
by' by' by'
,J.,yl, 1f, yB) ()aI' ()aI' ()a8 = pri.a
l
, ai, at).
byB.byB byB
,t
()al ()al ()a3
For & treatment of classical hydrodynamiCS, including treatments of the Eu
lerian differential equations and the Lagrangea.n differential equations, the reader is
referred to Lamb's Hydrodyno.mics and to Webster's Dynamics; cf. the references
at the end of Part II. Ertel's monograph on dynamic meteorology hall some
interesting remarks.
NOTES ON PART IT 117
3. To obtain 13·6 for the divergence we can proceed 88 follows.
Since g, the determinant of the Euclidean metrio tensor gti, is a relative aoa.la.r of
weight two, it can be shown by the usual methods of obtaining covariant derivatives
of absolute tensors that the oovariant derivative g,. is given by
bg 2g a
g,' .. ()zi  r cd
But, in rectangular coordinates, g is unity and the Euolidean Christollelsymbols r.."
are zero. Hence g,. is zero in rectangular coordinates and consequently g, • .. 0 in
all coordinates. This means that
blog\IU ....
i)zl .. J.iQ'
But the divergence of 'IP is by definition
().,p
'IP '"  + M'u',
... ?n!" lei
so that by the above result we find the following equivalent ezp7'eaaUm lor the diver.
gence
'IP .. .!... b( Vi u'I) •
... VI ?n!"
H in partioular u' ... gifJ :;, where 1/I(Zl, zI, zI) is a scalar field, we see that for
this u'
1 i)( Vi,.." :)
'IP ...  •.
... {Ii ?n!"
But m rectangular cartesian coordinates g .. I, ,.." '" 1f"IJ, and so this scalar u::'
reduces to the Laplaoean in rectangular cartesian coordinates. Hence Lapltu:e' 8
equation in general coorrji1l4te8 Zi is given by
1
vr, ?n!" co 0 when the unkn.oton 1/I(zl, zI, zI) is II 8CGl.Gr jii/AL
Chapter l'
1. The fundamentals of a finite elastio deformation theory are not new. Kirch
holl in 1852 made the first systematio study, and E. and F. Cosserat in 1896 made
an extensive investigation of the subject. Ricci and LeviCivita in 1900 made
brief but important contributions to the applications of the tensor calculus to
elasticity theory. LOOn Brillouin in 1924 simplified and recast Cosserat's treatment
with the aid of the tensor caloulus, and in 1937 F. D. Murnaghan, among several
other authors, made contributions to the tensor theoretio treatment of elasticity
theory.
Chapter 16
1. One can consider strain ditlerential invariants of order T, i.e., scalar fields
that retain their forms 88 functions. of the metrio tensor g..", the strain tensor ...",
118 NOTES ON PART II
mad Ihe deritJati.fJea oJ fall up to order T. Silice successive covariant dift'erentiation
reduces to a corresponding order of partial dift'erentiation In cartesian coordinates,
a strain dift'erential invariant can be written exclusively in terms of tensor fields by
merely replaciflg the derivatives of by corresponding covariant derivatives. The
MichalThomas methods (see the 1927 papers of these authors) can be used to carry
on some interesting researches on strain dift'erential invariants. Strain difterential
tensors can also be considered.
Examples strain invariants of order one are
>"..8 s 'OIl '011,
H = IIIr"g'Y"faII,.,EAw and 11 ?:J:If'l>:rP
where fai.., is the first covariant derivative of the strain tensor fall, and where 11,
la, and I, are the three fundamental strain invariants. The question arises whether
suCCessive covariant differentiation of 11, I" 18 and combination with gall would
yield all the fundamental strain differential invariants. Clearly there exist no strain
differentia/, invariants for homogeneous strains. Note that the vanishing of H is the
necessary and sufficient condition for a homogeneous strain.
Chapter 18
1. The theory of complete systems of partial dift'erential equations is discussed
in Hedrick's translation of Goursat's COUT8 d:a.rwJY8e, Vol. II, part II.
Chapter 1'1
1. For an account of Riemannian geometry, see Eisenhart's Riemannian GeMn
dry. This reference, of course, treats the (classical) finite dimensional Riemannian
geometries. Infinite dimensional and dimensionless "Riemannian" geometries were
first studied by A. D. Michal (see paper 2 under Michal in the references for Part II).
The applications to vibrations of elastic media are now being studied (see papers
4, 5, and 6 under Michal in the references).
2. Several engineenng applications of Lagrange's equations of motion are to
be found in the and Biot book.
3. We have seen that the Lagrangean equations of motion for a cooserva.tive
dynamical system with no constraints and n degrees of freedom were
(a) 9'"+ =
This means that the dynamical traiectoriea can be considered as curI1e8 in (In ndiffUM
8iontJl Riemannian apace whose element· oj CITe length ds is gWen by
'(b) dB' = ... , rr)dq' dII,
whsre t1&e giJ CIT6 the Juncticms occurriflg in t1&e kinetic energy T = The
differential equations of the dynamical ourves are the BeOOndorder differential
equations (a).
These curves are not, in general, geodesics in the Riemannian space with arc
lengths ds given by formula (b). The question then arises whether it is possible to
define a Riemannian space whose geodesics are some of the curves whose differential
equations are Lagrange's equations of motion «(I) for the given 1Hiegree dynamical
NOTES ON PART IT 119
system. We shall show briefly that it is possible to define such a Riemannian
space. To do this we must first show that the Lagrangea.n equations of motion
the energy integral
i.e., the BUm 0/ the 1cinetic tmd potential energies is a constant along any cIwsend1l
namical tra.jectory. In fact,
elL "L::t "L • ,
dt '" + i)q,q.
Hence on using Lagrange's equations of motion
elL. '" "!' il' +
dt i)q' dt z,qi
d(aL.) d
"';it z,qi ql "';it (2T).
We have then immediately T + V", 0, a constant, since the kinetic potential
L .. T·V.
Consider now the dynamical CUrtl88 that correapcmd to /lny chosen energy constant
O. We shall show that theae p/lrticullJr dynamical CUrtl88 lire the geodeaics uJ the
ndimensional RiemlJnnian space whose element 0/ /Ire length dB is gWen by
(e) d8I '" 2(0  V)g;,j(ql, •• " q") dq' dII,
where, as in (/I), the gv /Ire the coejJicient8 in the kinetic energy T. For convenience in
computation, let us define A ... 2(0  V) and /J;j '" At/ii so that (e) can be written
.. /J;j dq' dqi.
By definition
:; Cofactor of 4ii in /I
/I" '" "'
/I
where /I '" the determinant of the /J;j. Hence, since AI factors out In the nu
merator and A in the denominator respectively of /I£i, we see that
ii
/Iv co fL.
A
Let *r}1I be the Christoffel symbols based on the metric tensor /J;j.
(e)
By definition
*11 _..!.. w("Ag"k "Agi" _ Milk)
11:  2A g e;,f + e;qk ()(j'
. 1 ( . M ."A . M )
.. Ijll + 2A "qi + &j e;qk  ,... ()(j' llill
d8I '" 2(0  V)lijdq' dqi
Clearly
and hence along a dynamical trajectory with energy constant 0 we have
'" [2(0  V)J
so that
(I)
dt
 ",Al
d8
120 NOTES ON PART II
along a dynamical trajectory with energy constant C. By elementary calculus we
have therefore
(g)
dq' dq' dIq' dIq' dq' ciA
 ... ,.41 _,.441_,.441
dB tit ' dBI dJ,I. tit tit •
'!'he difterential equations for the geodesics of the Riemannian space whose dB is
given by (c) Is
(h)
On employing results (e), (f), and (g) in (h), we get after obvious simplifications
(
';) ....I. dI/ dtf 1...w aA dI/ dt/'
• dJ,I + 11k tit dt ... U
lf
a('li1c tit di'
But
clt/dt/'
g,'1cdidi ... A
along a dynamical trajectory with energy constant C. Hence equations (i) reduce to
il'q' clt/ dt/ . () V
(j) dJ,I + r;'1c di di  IF
But these ditJerential equations a.re another form of the Lagrangean differential
equations of motion for our dynamical system. We have thus proved that the
geodesicB oj the Riemannian space with a da gWen by (c) lire dyrwmical tro,jectoriea oj
the dyrwmicGl 81/Btem with kinetic energy T ... and potentW energy V.
By retracing o.ur steps of proof, we can show that IInY dyrwmicGl trajectory 'IDith
energy conBI471t C, i.e., GnY CUn16 t1IIJt satiBftu (j) with energy COfIBtGnt C, CCln be c0n
sidered II geodesic in the Riemtmnwn space with an element oj arc length dB gWen in (c).
Dluatratlve Example of a Shaft CarryiDg Four Disks.
A shaft is fixed at one end and carries four disks at a distance l apart. H" is
the moment of inertia of each disk and ql, f', if, tf the respective angular deflections
of the four disks, then, if the shaft has a uniform torsional stiffness 7", the kinetic
and potential energies a.re given respectively by
T =0 i[ e:Y + + (:)1]
and
v =0 + (rJ'  r)l + (if  f')I + (tf  if)l].
This is a conservative dynamical system of four degrees of freedom with no
moving constraints. Hence the dynamical trajectories with total energy constant
C can be represented as the geodesicB of the fourdimensional Riemannian space
whose element of arc length dB Is given by ,
dBlm F(tf, if, if, tf)[(dtf)l + (drt'l + (dtf)l + (dq')ll
where
F(r, f', if. tf) .. r)l+ (if rJ')I +(tf if)IJf·
Numerous other engineering examples can be given, some simpler and some
NOTES ON PART II 121
more sophisticated. For example, if the above shaft carries only t1lJO dilk8. the
trajectories with total energy constant 0 can be represented as the
geodesics of the 8Urface whose dB is given by ,
dIP ..  i[(qI)t + (q'  ql)']f [(dqI)' + (dqI)'].
A more sophisticated example is given by the aymmetrical gyroscope; see the
exercise at the end of Chapter 17. Here the dynamical trajectories with total
energy constant 0 can be represented as the geodesics of the threedimensional
Riemannian space whose element of arc length dB is given by
dIP .. 2[0  Mgh coa ql][J(dqI)' + (1 sin
l
ql + J coat q%iq')B +
2J coa qI dqI dtf + J(dt)']·
Chapter 18
1. The conditions for an incompressible fluid and the continuity equations for
a fluid flow state the invariance of two integrals: the integral for volume and the
integral for mass, respectively. In other words, here we have two important ex
amples of integral infJariootB. For the theory of integral invariants and its modem
generalizations, the is referred to paper 1 under Michal in the references.
There the reader will find ample references to the earlier work on integral invariants
by H. Poincare, S. Lie. E. Cartan, and E. Goursat.
2. We saw in Chapter 17'that the RiemannChristoffel curvature tensor Bjw
is a zero tensor in any Euclidean space and hence in our threedimensional Eu
clidean space. Define the tensor (field) R;.;w by
«(I) R;.;w .. gwB/w.
It is evident that
(b)
holds throughout our threedimensional Euclidean space. It can be shown that"
there are only six independent equations in (b). Three of them are included in
(c) .. O;
two of them are included in
(d)
... O;
and the sixth one is given by
(6)
RulB " O.
By straightforward calculation it can be shown, that.
{
R ........ ! ()tgafJ _
tit.",., 2 4 i>.zO i>.zO
R«fJ'yo .. rf)y;a  rcry;/J
RIBIB '" *RIBIB + (rllru  rlBrU),
wh.ere. it is to be recalled, a semicolon denotes covariant differentiation on the
surface zIl 0 and r.." .. 2 azp' The *R«fJ'yB stande for the curvature tensor on
the surface. Define
bafJ(ZI, :r;I) .. [!
, 2 i>.zO =0
122 NOTES ON PART II.
If we evaluate the last two sets of conditions (f) on the surface .. 0, we now see
readily that the va.nishiDg of the curvature tensor Rt.sw in the threedimensional
Euclidean space implies the following three sets of conditions:
(g) ()tg«fJ ..
2 b:r!' b:r!'
(A)
(i)
b""sl'Y  ba,.;p .. 0
·RpafIy '" bptJJ...,  b,,1J«fJ.
Equations (Ia) and (11 are the wellknown Codazzi and Gauss equations of the
surface '" o. (Of. MoConnell's AppZicationa oj the AbBoZt.Ite Dif/ert/Atiol Colcvl'IU,
p. 204, 1931.)
Conversely it can be shown that equations (g) in aapace and equations (Ia) and
.(11 over the IlUrja.ce .. 0 imply Ri.;111 .. 0 th.rov(J1wul the 8BPa.ce. But we shalI not go
into this matter any further. .
If we differentiate (g) with respect to and if in this result we eliminate the
second derivatives by means of (g), we find
(j) ()Ig«fJ '" ! ?)gP" C)g..,. + !1f"rf'rC)g,., C)gor>.
l)z08 2 b:r!' b:r!' b:r!' 2 ()zO ()zO ()zO
On differentiating the wellknown identity
fA.,g'" .. 6).,
btl" .
we can solve for b:r!' and obtain
btf" co ffi'g'" i)g).r •
b:r!' b:r!'
If we substitute this expression in (j), we evidently obtain
()Ig«fJ ... 0
l)z08 •
Hence the 1lUr/a.ce tensor eomponema gr4/..z1, :ea, aTe quadratic expressions of
Indeed, if we write .
Call ... [! ()tg«fJ] •
2 W;OI zO"'o
then
(k)
A glance at (11) shows that
Call '" a""1l...,bp..
Hence, fl«fJ, bcrlh and Call aTe T68p6dively the tensor coe.tfi,cienta oj the fInt, aecor&d, and
tlriTtl J'UffI14menfqJ JOTf1I,8 oj the 1lUr/a.ce ... O •
. It can be shown, that we may write (i) in the form
(1) KEfJ'yEpa '" bPlAr,  bnbcrlh
where
ea(J .. al"crIh a = I GcrIJ I, 1In '" 'In .. 0, 1111" I, "'1'" 1,
and
.'
NOTES ON PART II 123
the total CW'IICIture (Gclusaian curtllJtuTe) oj the surface:r!l .. o. If we apply the tensor
a"'lP to (I), we find
(m) Ca/J  2HbotlJ + ... 0,

where H is the mean curtllJture oj the surface :r!l ... 0,
H=ja .. "b.r .. .
If HI and Rs are the principal radii of ourvature, it is well known in surface theory
that
H ... K ... _
1
_.
2 HI R,' HIRt
With these relations, we can easily calculate
g.. I gaIJ I ...
For this purpose, we have to caloulate the quantities
"otIJ,,"'I'GayafJ"
if similar quantities fnvolvillg c,... have been reduced with the help of (m). Now
"aIJ,,"'I'a.ry .. aafJ3.
Hence
(n) rfII,,"'I'GayafJ3 a 2a, 2Ha.
ApplyiDg to (l). we obtain
(0) ... 2K.
If we substitute (n) and (0) in the determinant g, we find
9 = (1 +2H:r!l +K(:r!l)')t ... c{ 1 + :y(l + :y.
gafJ ... G.l( 1 + 1 +
Thus, if we expand gaIJ as a power series in:r!l, the series are convergent if I :r!l I
< Rm. where Rm is the minimum value of the prinoipal radii of ourvature of the
surface zp ... O. The same is true of many other geometrical quantities derived
from (/otIJ and gaIJ.
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124
REFERENCES FOR PART I 125
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REFERENCES FOR PART U
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126 REFERENCES FOR PART n
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INDEX
Aircraft flutter, calculation of, 34,35, 36
description of, 32
matric differential equation of, 33
need for matric theory in calculations
for fast aircraft, 37
AITKEN, 124
APPJDLL,l25
BINGBAK, 14, 124 .
BlOT, 34, 113, 124
BLmAKNlily,l24
BOCHER, 111, 124
BORN, Ill, 124
Boundary layer, theory of Prandtl, 109
thickness of, 109
Boundarylayer equations, 104, 105, 106,
107, lOS
BRILLOUIN, 117, 125
CABSLAW, 34, 124
CARTAN,121
CAYL!iIy1LU.ULTON theorem for mat
rices, 12
CBIIIN, x, 105, 127
CBRISTOPFEL symbols, Euclidean, 53
multidimensional Euclidean, 95
proof of law of transformation of,
114, 115
Riemannian, 96
CoDAZZI equations for a surface, 122
CoLLAR, 1, 34, 35, 124
Compressible fluids, 103, 104
Contraction of a tensor, 116
Correlation tensor field in turbulence,
73,74
CossmRAT, E. and F., 117
Covariant differentiation, its commu
tativity in Euclidean spaces, 58, 59
its noncommutativity in general in
Riemannian spaces, 99, 100
of Euclidean metric tensor, 59
of scalar field, 60
of tensor fields in general, 58
of vector fields, 56, 57
Cramer's rule, 111
Crystalline media, 93
Curvature of a surface, Gaussian, 123
mean, 123
DAlUloux" 126
DmN HARTOG, 124
Differential equations, example, 25, 26
. frequencies and amplitudes, 29, 30,
31
harmonic solutions, 28
of small oscillations, 24, 25
solution of linear, 20
with variable coefficients, 21, 22
Differentiation of matrices, 16
DIRAC, Ill, 124
DuNCAN, I, 34, 35, 124
Dynamical systems with n degrees of
freedom, 24, 101
Lagrange's equations of motion of,
24, 101
E ~ B A R T , 118, 126
Elastic deformation, change in yolume
under, 79, SO, 81
matrix methods in formulation of
finite, 38, 39, 40
tensor methods in formulation of
finite, 75, 76, 77
Elastic potential, 91, 92
Equation of continuity, 69, 70, 71, 103
ERTIIL, 114, 116, 126·
Euclidean Christoffel symbols, 58
alternative form for, 54
exercise on, 55
for Euclidean plane, M
law of transformation of, 58
multidimensional, 95
Euclidean metric tensor, 43
exercises on, 47
its law of transformation, 46
Euclidean spaces, 42
multidimensional, 95
Eulerian strain tensor, 77, 78
EUL1IIBLAGRANGJil equations for ge0
desics, 100
129
180
INDEX
FANTAPPIlII, 112, 124
Fluids, compressible, 103, 104:
incompressible, 103, 104
boundarylayer equations for, 104:,
105, 106
N avierStokes equations for incom
pressible viscous, 104:
N avierStokes equations for viscous,
69,70
F'BAzmB, I, 34, 35, 124
FUnction&m, 18, 112
FUndamental forms of a surface, 122
GAlUUCK, 36, 125
GAuss,43
equations for a surface, 122
General theory of relativity, 42
Geodesic coordinates, 97
Geodesics, 100
dynamical trajectories as, 118, 119,
120,121
EulerLagrange equations for, 100
GoUBSAT, 118, 121
HoLZlllB, 124
Homogeneous strains, 88
fundamental theorem on, 84, 85, 86
Hooke's law, 94
 HoTIILLING, 111, 124
HowARTH,l26
Hydrodynamics, 42
Eulerian equations, 116
Lagrangean equations, 116
Integral invariants, 121
Isotropic medium, 92, 93, 94
condition for, 92, 93
stresHtra.in. relations for, 93. 94
Isotropic strain, 84
JAEGlIIB, 34, 124
JEFFBJlYB, 126
JORDAN, Ill, 124
KAtudN, x, 34, 38, 74, 113, 124, 126
KAsNEB, 126
Killing's differential equations, 88
Kinetic potential, 101
KIBCHBOI'II': 117, 126
KussNllB, 124
Lagrange's equations of motion, 24, 101,
102
Lagrangean strain tensor, 77, 78
Lum, 116, 126
Laplace equation, 62, 63
for vector fields, 65
in curvilinear coordinates, 63, 64
LBVICIVITA, 117, 127
LIIIl,121
LIIilBEB, ix, 124, 125
LIN, X, 104:, 105
Line element, 42
exercises on, 45, 46, 47
geodesic form of, 105
in curvilinear coordinates, 45, 46, 47
Riemannian, 96
Linear algebraic equations, solutions, 9
numerical, 14
punchedcard methods, 14
Linear differential equations, applica
tion of matric exponential to, 20
in matrices, 21, 22
method of successive substitutions in
solution of, 22
with constant coefficients, 20
w i ~ h variable coefIicients, 21, 22
wP, Dc
LoVE; 126
MAcDuFFlIIlII, 125
MARTIN, 112, 125
Matric exponential, application to sys
tems of linear differential equa
tions with constant coefficients, 20
convergence of, 112
definition of, 15
properties of, 16
Matric power series, definition of, 15
. theorem on computation of, 18
Matrix, addition, 2
adjoint of, 39
application of inverse, to solution of
linear algebraic equations, 9
CayleyHamilton theorem, 12
characteristic eqlSation of, 12
characteristic function of, 12
characteristic roots of, 12
column, 2 .
definition of, 1
differentiation of, with respect to nu
merical variable, 16
INDEX 131
Matrix, dynamical, 29
example of noncommutativity of
: matrix multiplication, 5
index and power laws, 11
integration of, with respect to numer
ical variable, 17
inverse, 8
multiplication, 5
by number, 11
norm of, 112
of same type, 2
order,2
polynomials in a, 11
I row, 2
rule for computation of inverse, 13
square, 2
strain, 39, 40, 41
symmetric, 40
trace of, 13, 111
unit, 4
zero, 3
McCoNNELL, 122, 126
MICHAL, ix, x, 112, 114, 116, 118, 121,
 125,126
MILLIKAN, x
Multiplepoint tensor fields, 71, 72, 73,
74
in e1asticity theory, 76
in Euclidean geometry, 71, 72, 73,74
in turbulence, 73, 74
MUBNAGBAN, 117, 126
NavierStokes differential equations for
a viscous fluid, 69
in curvilinear coordinates, 70
subjeot to condition of incompressi
bility, 104
Norm of a matrix, 112
Normal' coordinates, 116
Normed linear ring, 112
OLDlIINBUBGIDB, 125
PIPES, 125
Plastic deformation, 114
POINCAU, 121
POISSON equation, 66, 67, 68
Principal radii of curvature of boundary
layer surface, lOS
PO'l'T, ix
Quadratic differential form, 45, 46
RmUTTEB, 127
RICCI, 117, 127
RIIDHANN, 127
RiemannChristoffel curvature tensor,
99,100
Riemannian geometry, 96, W, 98, 99,
100
applioationstoboundarylayer theory,
103, 104, 105, 106, 107, lOS, 109,
110, 121, 123
applications to classical dynamics,
101,lQ2
example, 98
infinite dimensional, x, 118
Rigid displacement, 40, 77
Scalar density, 60, 61,67
Scalar field, 49
relative, 60, 61, 62
SCBWABZ, 124
Strain invariant, 82, 117,118
Strain matrix, 39, 40, 41
in infinitesimal theory, 41
Strain tensor, 48, 49
Eulerian, 77
Lagrangean, 77
variation of, 86, FtT, 88
Stressstrain relations for isotropio
medium, 93, 94
Stress tensor, 89, 90
symmetry of, 91
Stress vector, 89, 90
Summation convention, 4, 43
Sylvester's theorem, 112, 113
SYNGE, 127
Tensor analysis, 56
applications to boundarylayer theory,
103, 104, 105, 106, 107, lOS, 109,
110, 121, 122, 123
applications to classical dynamics,
101, 102, 118, 119, 120, 121
in multidimensional Euclidean spaces,
95
in Riemannian spaces, 97, 99, 100
Tensor field, contraction of a, 116
covariant differentiation of, 57, 58
exercises on, 59
general definition of, 57, 58
property of a, 59
~ t i v e , 60,117
182 INDEX
Teuaor field, RiemannChrfstoffel ourva
ture, 99, 100
weight of, 60
Tensor field of rank two, contravariant,
DO
covariant, 50
mixed, 60
TmIoDOBSBN, 88, 86, 125
TBOKAS, 114, 116, 118, 126, 127
TI¥OSBJIINEO, 125
Turbulence, 78, 74
correlation tensor field in, 73, 74
VULIIIN, 114, 127
vector field, contravariant, 49
covariant, 49 .
in rectangular oartesia.n coordinates.
50 .
Velocity field, 51
divergence of, 103, 117
VOL'1'IIRBA, 112, 126
Wave equation, 65, 66
WUS'l'llB, 116, 127
WlIlDDEaBUBN, 125
Wm'l'llBEAD, 114, 127
WmTTADB, 28, 126, 127
'WJUGJIT, 127
MATRIX AND TENSOR CALCULUS
With Applications to Mechanics, Elasticity and Aeronautics
ARISTOTLE D. MICHAL
DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC.
Mineola, New York
Bibliographical Note
This Dover edition, first published in 2008, is an unabridged republication of the work originally published in 1947 by John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, as part of the GALCIT (Graduate Aeronautical Laboratories, California Institute of Technology) Aeronautical Series.
Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data
Michal, Aristotle D., 1899Matrix and tensor calculus: with applications to mechanics, elasticity, and aeronautics I Aristotle D. Michal.  Dover ed.
p. em.
Originally published: New York: J. Wiley, [1941] Includes index. ISBN13: 9780486462462 ISBNIO: 0486462463 I. Calculus of tensors. 2. Matrices. I. Title. QA433.M45 2008 515'.63dc22 2008000472 Manufactured in the United States of America Dover Publications, Inc., 31 East 2nd Street, Mineola, N.Y. 11501
To my wiJe Luddye Kennerly Michal .".
the mechanics of fluids. these branches of engineering science have often exerted an inspiring influence on the development of novel methods in applied mathematics. One branch of applied mathematics which fits especially the needs of the scientific aeronautical engineer is the matrix and tensor calculus. aeronautical and also electrical engineers are faced with problems reaching much further into several domains of modem mathematics. " However. Engineers at large have always appreciated the help of applied mathematics in furnishing them practical methods for numerical and graphical solutions of algebraic and differential equations. Since the beginnings of the modem age of the aeronautical sciences a close cooperation has existed between applied mathematics and aeronautics. The tensor calculus gives admirable insight into complex problems of the mechanics of continuous media. Professor Michal's course on the subject given in the frame of the wartraining program on engineering science and management has found a surprisingly favorable response among engineers of the aeronautical industry in the Southern Californian region. The matrix operations represent a powerful method for the solution of problems dealing with mechanical systems" with a certain number of degrees of freedom. MILLIKAN v .EDITOR'S PREFACE The editors believe that the reader who has finished the study of this book will see the full justification for including it in a series of volumes dealing with aeronautical" subjects. the editor's preface usUally is addressed to the reader who starts with the reading of the volume. and therefore a few words on our reasons for including Professor Michal's book on matrices and tensors in the GALCIT series seem to be appropriate. As a matter of fact. and elastic and plastic media. THEODORE VON KAmIdN CLARK B. The editors believe that the engineers throughout the country will welcome a book which skillfully unites exact and clear presentation of mathematical statements with fitness for immediate practical applications. However.
I wish to acknowledge with gratitude the kind cooperation of the Douglas Aircraft Company in making available some of its work in connection with the last part of Chapter 7 on aircraft flutter. The last group. which he may apply to his own field. J. and electrical en~eers. and fluid mechanics. being connected with transformations of coordinates and other geometric concepts. hydrodynamics. for making available the material worked out by Mr. Lipp and Messrs. clarify the meaning of the word "tensor. given under the sponsorship of the Engineering. the more advanced mathematical ideas being developed as they are needed in connection with the applications in the later chapters. vii . meteorologists. the second with the tensor calculus and its applications. elasticity. I wish to make special mention of Dr. H. E. Mathematicians. and Management War Training (ESMWT) program. C. physicists. Science. The group taking the course included a considerable number of outstanding research engineers and directors of engineering research and development. The twopart division of the book is primarily due to the fact that matrix and tensor calculus are essentially two distinct mathematical studies. It is a pleasure to thank several of my students." which is occasionally misused in modem scientific and engineering literature. The purpose of this book is to give the reader a working knowledge of the fundamentals of matrix calculus and tensor calculus. The book is divided into two independent parts. will discover principles applicable to their respective fields. C. I am also very glad to thank the members of my seminar on applied mathematics at the California Institute for their helpful suggestions. and their applications. will find material on vibrations. The matrix calculus is a purely analytic and algebraic subject. for instance. A careful reading of the first chapter in each part of the book will. I am very grateful to these men who welcomed me and by their interest in my lectures encouraged me. C. as well as mechaiucal and aeronautical e~ gineers. aircraft flutter.PREFACE This volume is based on a series of lectures on matrix calculus and tensor calculus. whereas the tensor calculus is geometric. especially Dr. from August 1942 to March 1943. The minimum of mathematical concepts is presented in the introduction to each part. . Lieber and his research group._ the first dealing with the matrix calculus and its applications. Putt and Paul Lieber of the Douglas Aircraft Company.
Millikan concerning ways of making the book more useful to aeronautical engineers. I should like also to thank Dr. Chien for his timely help. W.Ifessor Clark B. 1946 .rm8. MiCHAL CALIFORNIA INsTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY OcroBI!lB. director of the Guggenheim Graduate School of Aeronautics at the California Institute. in order not to delay unduly the publication of this boQk. This furnishes an application of the Riemannian tensor calculus described in Chapter 17. Karman for his inspiring conversations and wise counsel on applied mathematics in general and this volume in particular. who not only took an active part in the seminar but who also kindly consented.viii PREFACE Lin. Professor Theodore von K8. I am unable to include some of my more recent unpublished researches on the applications of the tensor calculus of curved infinite dimensional spaces to the vibrations of elastic beams and other elastic media.n. I am indebted to my distinguished colleague and friend. Z. and for encouraging me to make contacts with the aircraft industry on an advanced mathematical level. in Chapter 18.onautics incorporated. I ~ve also the delightful privilege of expressing my indebtedness to Dr. for honoring me by an invitation to put my lecture notes in book form for publicat. I gratefully acknowledge the suggestions of my colleague Prc. I regret that.ion in the GALCIT series. AmsTOTLE D. Above all. . to have his unpublished researches on some dramatic applications of the tensor calculus to boundarylayer theory in aer.
. contravariant vectors. .PTJlB PAGE 1. . • . Notation and summation coDvention • . . ALGlilBBAIC PBELlMINARIES Introduction • . . AND EUCLIDEAN GHlWITOFFilL 42 42 44 SnmoLS 48 The strain tensor . Definitions and notations . . Scalars. . . 10. . . • •• Characteristic equation of a matrix and the CayleyHamilton theorem. . .CONTENTS PART'I MATRIX CALCULUS AND ITS APPLICATIONS CHA. . . • • . . . Euclidean metrio tensor • • . . . • • • • • • . TENSOR FIELDS. . . . DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEIlBAL CALCULUS OF MATBICES (Continued) Systems of linear differential equations with constant coefficients Systems of linear differential equations with variable coefficients. . 7. • . DIFFERENTIAL AND INTl!lGRAL CALCULUS OF MATBICES 8 11 12 15 16 20 Power series in matrices . ALGl!IBBAIC PRELIMINARIES 1 1 (Continued) Inverse of a matrix and the solution of linear equations • • • • • •• Multiplication of matrices by numbers. . • • • • . . . MATBIX METHODS IN PROBLEMS OF SMALL OsCILLATIONS (Continued) Calculation of frequencies and amplitudes . . • • • . • . and matric polynomials. •. SPACIil LINE ELEMENT IN CURVILINEAB COORDINATES Introductory remarks . • • • . 5. . • . and covariant vectors Tensor fields of rank two Euclidean Christoffel symbols ix 49 50 53 . . • . . . . Vl!ICI'OB FIELDS. . Elementary operations on matrices 2. • • • Differentiation and integration depending on a numerical variable • 4. MATRIX METHODS IN THE MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF AIBCllAI'T FLUTTER MATRIX METHODS IN ELASTIC DEFORMATION THEORY I 8. • • • . . . 38 PART 11 TENSOR CALCULUS AND ITS APPLICATIONS 9. .. . • . . 6. MATRIX METHODS IN PROBLl!IMS OF SMALL OSCILLATIONS 21 24 26 28 32 Differential equations pf motion Illustrative example . 3. • • . .
. contravariant of rank p and covariant of rank'p. . STRAIN INV AJUANTS. . . Covariant difierentiation of vector fields Tensor fields of rank r = p + q. . . • . . A fundamental theorem on homogeneous strains Variation of the strain tensor. . . . . . '. APPLICATIONS OF THE TENSOR CALCULUS TO ELASTICITY THJiIORY Finite deformation theory of elastic media • Strain tensors in rectangular coordinates • • Change in volume under elastic deformation 15. . • 60 62 65 . • • . • . . • . • 73 75 77 79 14. • • . • • • • • . • • • • • • Riemannian geometry. • Elastic potential. • • . . • . . . •. . . AND STRESS8TaAJN RELATIONS 82 83 84 86 Stress tensor . • • .' LINlIlAR COORDINATES Some further concepts and remarks on the tensor caloulus Laplace's equation •. .' 65 66 13. . . • • . . . . • . StresHtrain relations for an isotropic medium .x CBAPTIlB CONTENTS PAGlIl TENsoR ANALYSIS 11. • . . . • Curved surfaces as examples of RiElmannian spaces The RiemannChrlstoffel ourvature ~r • • • • Geodesics. AND POISSON EQUATION IN QuaY!. . . SOME ELEMENTARY ApPLICATIONS OF THE TENSOR CALCULUS TO DYNAMICS HYDRO69 71 NavierStokes differential equations for the motion of a viscous'fluid • Multiplepoint tensor fields. . . • A twopoint correlation tensor field in turbulence • . . . HOMOGENEOUS AND ISOTROPIC 8TaAJNs. 95 96 98 99 100 101 . . . . . . • • . . . . • . . Poisson's equation • . . • • .' . . STRESS TENSOR. WAVE EQUATION. . . . . . . • Homogeneous and isotropic strains . • • • • • • " 56 57 59 12. . . • . . . . • 16. AND ATION OF STRAIN TENSOR VARJ Strain invariants . . TENifoR CALCULUS IN RlmMANNJAN SPACliIS AND TBJD FuNDAMENTALS OF CLASSICAL MECHANICS 89 91 93 Multidimensional Euclidean spaces . • • • • Properties of tensor fields • • . • . LAPLACE EQUATION. • • • • . . . 17. . . . .' Laplace's equation for veotor fields Wave equation . . ELASTIC POTENTIAL. • • • . • • • . . . . . Equations of motion of a dynamical system with n degrees of freedom. .
ApPLICA!l'IONB OF THE TENSOB CALCULUS TO BOUNDARyLAYER TBlDOBY "Incompressible and compressible fluids. • • . • . 103 Boundarylayer equations for the steady motion of a homogeneous incompressible fluid • 104 NOTES ON NOTJIlS PART I • • • • I • III 114 124 ON PART IT. . • • IT RuEBENCES FOB PART RmFERENCES FOR PART 125 129 INDEX. . . • • • • • . • • . .. . • • • . . . .CONTENTS CBAPTmB xi PAGE 18.
A table of mn numbers. If the number m of rows is equal to the number n of columns. . the use of matrices in aeronautical engineering in connection with small oscillations. t t . and elastic deformations did not receive much attention before 1935.'. If a} is the element in the ith row and 3th column. MATRIX CALCULUS AND ITS APPLICATIONS CHAPTER 1 ALGEBRAIC PRELIMINARIES Introduction. called elements. a. arranged in a rectangular array of m rows and n columns is called a matrix 3 with m rOW8 n columna. ~.t . a~ ai. ~.such as cryptography.PART I. their thoroughgoing application to physics. a~ . . then Superior numbers refer to the notes at the end of the book. Frazer. psychology. Cambridge University Press. then the matrix can be written down in the following pictorial form with the conventional double bar on each side. In particular... and educational and other statistical measurements . aircraft flutter. Definitions and Notations. It is interesting to note that the only book on matrices with systematic chaptem on the differential and integral calculus of matrices was written by three ~ronautical engineers. 1 . am aI. 1938. It is to be emphasized that the superscript i in oJ is not the ith power of a variable 0.. and other subj~ts2 . Although matrices have been investigated by mathematicians for almost a century. a:' In the expression oj the index i is called a 8Uper8Cl'ipt and the index 3 a 8Ubscript. Duncan.. .. a~. It engineering. and Collar. . ..has taken place o~y since 1925.. ElementaT'/l Matrice& and 80fM ApplicCJtioM to Dynamic8 and Diilertmti4l EguatioM.
See Chapter 5 and the following chapters. and a column matrix with element al: in the kth row will be written Elementary Operations on Matrices. or equivalently the number of columns. the other is the column matrix as. "'. the index notation is unnecessary when the index. i. II. Let A = II II. One is the row matrix II al. whether a subscript or superscript. two other general'types of matrices occur frequently.e. This compact notation is as follows: if oj is the element of a matrix in the ith row and jth column we can write simply instead of stringing out all the mn elements of the matrix. . ax II . will be called the order of the square matrix. Let A and B be matrice8 oj the same type. All this is done in the interest of brevity. cannot have' at least two values. t It will occasionally be convenient to write tliJ for the element in the ith row and jth column of a square matrix. matrices with 'the same number m of rows and the same number n of columns. Similarly the subscript 1 in the elements of the column matrix was also omitted. B = II bj II .2 ALGEBRAIC PRELIMINARIES the matrix is called a square matrix. Before we can use matrices effectively we must define the addition of matrices and the muUiplication of matrices. It is often very convenient to have a more compact notation for matrices than the one just given.. In particular. The definitions are those that have been found most useful in the general theory and in the applications. Besides square matrices. am It is to be observed that the superscript 1 in the elements of the row matrix was omitted. Then by the sum A + B of the matrices A and B we shall mean the a. a row matrix with element al: in the kth column will be written II oj " al: al: II II II.t The number of rows.
0. 0. 2. In other words.inable matrix c= 11411. 0. 2. . O ·. One is the zero matrix. 4 Then 0. i.0"". n). ~..0 0.. mj j = I. To complete the preliminary definitions we must make clear what we mean when we say that two matrices are equal.e. written as A = B.. Before we proceed with the definition of muUiplication of matrices.' ".. 0. a word or two must be said about two very important special square matrices. The addition of two matrices of different type has no meaning for us. .0 . . I. 1.1.0. Exercise A= I. Two matrices A == II oj II and B == II bj II of the same type are equal. 2. 2 4. calbulate the matrix whose elements are precisely the numerical sum of the corresponding elements of the two given matrices. 1. then THEOREM.. 0. if and only if the numerical equalities oj = b} hold for each i and j. . 2. 5 ~. A +B = I. 2.. where c} = oj + b} (i = 1. a square matrix all of whose elements are zero. 1 0. 3. 6 2. If A and B are any two matrices of the same type. 2.3 The following results embodied in a theorem show that matric addition has some of the properties of numerical ad~tion. (A + B) + C = A + (B + 0)..ELEMENTARY OPERATIONS ON MATRICES 3 uniquely obta.0 O. to add two matrices of the same type. 1 1. 0.1. 1 2. . 0. then A +B = B+A. 0. 3 I. 0. If C is any third matrix of the same type as A and B.
Occasionally we shalI use the terminology zero matrix for a nonsqua.1 One of the most useful and simplifying conventions in all mathematics is the 8Ummation convention: the repetition 01 an iru1ex once as a sub8cript and once as a superscript wUZ indicate a summation over the total rafl4e 01 that iru1ex.·.b1 + afb2 + aafJ8 + aJJ4 + aH.. = 0 if i ~j.0. i.0.4 ALGEBRAIC PRELIMINARIES' We can denote the zero matrix by the capital letter O.0"". a matrix . a!.0. . For example.·.e. ~.0. then ' ap' means .0 1= 0. if the range of the indices is 1 to 5.·.0 0. . ... a:.b!. .... 1=1 Ii Again we warn the reader that th~ superscript i in b' is not the ith power of a variable b.1...Eap' or D. a:. b~. . The other is the unit matri3:. . B.0.. . In the more explicit notation 1. a..0 0. I = II 8. A= ~..···... ~.J. ~. The definition of the multiplication of two matrices can now be given in a neat form with the aid of the summation convention. where ~ = 1 if i =j.0.0. b. II. . . Let ~. ~.re matrix with zero elements.1.. . .~..~...
p)..f. .•• . if A is . by the product AB 0/ the two matrice8.. ~ = 1. even if both AB and BA are well defined. 'bm It should be emphasized here that. we 8haJl mean the mcrtri:e C=lIc. = a'J>j If (i = 1. In fact. ~ = 1. Hence AB = Similarly II_~ ~ II· BA But obviously AB ¢ II ~ ~ II· BA. is not always commutative. it must be emphasized that in general AB is not equal to BA.b. 2.. M= 1. unlike numerical multiplication. where c. nj j = 1. same order. .. Take A  and 11 0 1 1 0 0 1 I I so that at = 0. the number of rows in the matrix B must be precisely equal to the number of columns in the matrix A.e type. + Q. i/ A and B are square matrice8 0/ the sam. The unit. Exercise The following example illustrates the noncommutativity of matrix multiplication. It follows in particular that.. in order that the product AB of two matrices be well defined. . then AB as well as BA is always weU defined. However. matrix multiplication of matrices.2. we have i 'bI 'bi Cj=/lij+(J3i+··· c. written 88 AB ¢ BA. matrix 1 of order n baa the interesting property that it commutes with all square matrices of the. c~ = a!b! = (0)(1) + (1)(0) = 0. ~ = 1. is written out in extenso without the aid of the summation qonvention. ~ = a!b. = (0)(0) + (1)(1) = 1. ~ = ~1 = (1)(1) + (0)(0) = 1. = (1)(0) + (0)(1) = o. ~ "" 0. In other words.lI.j. ~ = a2. . ~ = 0. b~ = B Now == 1 I 0 so that 0.ELEMENTARY OPERATIONS ON MATRICES 5 Then.
. .  clt2 =ajtl . ~ The multiplication of row and column matrices with the same number of elements is instructive. The multiplication oj a square matrix with a column matrix occurs frequenJly in the applications. a number. x" ajxi .. Xl.:tJ'. . then AI = IA = A. bi can be written as a ltingZe matrix equation AX=B in the unknown column matrix X = II Xi II and the given square matrix A = I~ a} II and column matrix B = II bi II. A system of n linear al{Jebraic equations in n unknowns Xl.6 ALGEBRAIC PRELIMINARIES an arbitrary square matrix of order n. or a matrix with one element (the doublebar notation has been omitted).(0) (1) = O. 0 II o and B 0 1 . dt Finally a system of secondorder difierential equations occurring in the theory of small oscillations (/Jxi . 1. Exercise HA = II 1. Let A ~ be the row matrix and II II B = II bi II the column matrix. This example also illustrates the fact that the product oj two matrice8 can be a zero matrix although neither of the multipZied matrices i8 a zero matrix.. can be written as one matric difierential. A system of firstorder difierential equations  dx' dt = lLjX' •.then AB = (1) (0) + (1) (0) + .equation dX = AX. Then AB = a...
Compute the matrix AB when A.IWI audBII_~~!II· Is BA defined? Explain. I. Exercises 1. IIl: ~:! I and X = I j I· . Compute the matrix AX when A = Is XA defined? Explain.ELEMENTARY OPERATIONS ON MATRICES 7 can be written as one matric secondorder differential equation ~"'AX. The above illustrations suffice to show the compactness and simplicity of matric equations when use is made of matrix multiplication.
. Let be the cofactor t of a~ in the determinant a... a! . a: then there exists a 'Unique matrix. is called the inverse matrix oj A.. or reciprocal. Then the following results interchanged in I I I I I a: I I a: t The (n . ~ ~O. written A 1 in analogy to the inverse of a number.l The inverse a1.CHAPTER 2 ALGEBRAIC PRELIMINARIES (Continued) Inverse of a Matrix and the Solution of Linear Equations. A nec688ary and sufficient condittion that a matri2: A = II t4 II have an inverse is that the associated determinant a} ~ O. From now on we shall refer to the determinant a = aj as the determinant a of the matrix A. There is an analogous operation for square matrices. 8 . ai. . ~'~'"''..a:.I)rowed determinant obtained from the determinant G by striking out the. and then multiplying the result by (_I)H1..ith row and ith column in G. the following more extensive result holds good. not necessarily different from zero. If A is a square matri2: oj arder n and if the determinant tation ~. 'ID'ith the important propertie8 (2·1) AA1 = I { A1A = I (I is the unit matrix. a. of a real number a is well defined if a ~ O. . Let a = aj be a determinant. write A Ijor the determinant 01 A. Occasionally we sha]J. A=IIt411 I t4 I ~ 0. or in more extended no. if it exists.) The matrix: A1. The general form of the inverse of a matrix can be given with the aid of a few results from the theory of determinants. In fact. note that the indices i and j are as compared with a{.
In. we obtain the solution X". . if aj is the cofactor of a! in the determinant a of A. B = II ~ IIi then' relations 2·2 state. and ex} i8 the coJactor oj '" a matrix A. then the inverse matrix A 1 oj A exists and i8 gifJen by A1 i = II ~ II. where M a.. the matrix B is precisely the inverse'matrix A1 of A.the properties of determinants: a.INVERSE OF A MATRIX 9 come from. (expansion by elements of kth column). computational result: iJ the determinant a oj a square matrix A '" II aj II i8 dijJerent Jrom zero. ajxi=b' (the n'J numbers aj are given and the n numbers bi are given).:tJija i8 the solution oj the 8flstem . the inverse matrix A 1 will exist and we shall have by matrix multiplication A1(AX) = AlB. {~ja£ = ~ = M= a: . Let the n equations be . t4M ai~.al '" a a1 ajai". x". AIB oj the equation AX = B. as in the first chapter. II aj II. . we obtain the following relations.t the determinant a of the matrix A is not zero. "'.a. X =" x' 1/. B = II b' II. we can. To summarize. On defining the matrices A = II aj II. z2. terms of matrix multiplication. If we now assume tha. a· Let A". write the n linear equations as one matric equation AX=B in the unknown column matrix X. a a1 (2·2) on defining (expansion by elements of ith row). In other words. In other words. Since A1A = 1 and IX = X. we have the following. that AB=I. then Xi . H then the determinant a '" 0. at in the determinant a oj the These results on the inverse of a matrix have a simple application to the solution of n nonhomogeneous linear (algebraic) equations in n unknowns xl. BA =1.
The inverse matrix A 1 to A = II oj II can then be read off by inspection . See exercise 2 at the end of Chapter 7. ~ = 1. This gives us immediately ~t = 0. In other words.290.10 oj n equations = b' under the condition a .7. 1. For example. Hence the cofactors aj of A will be al = (cofactor of aD = 0. 741.. 0.9.90289 A = 0. 0.. where ~ = aj/a. It is sometimes possible to solve the equations b' readily and obtain x' = ). A1 = II >. if . al = A 1 = I ~ ~ II· Approximate numerical examples abound in the study of airplanewing oscillations.000725 then approximately 170.. ex: = (cofactor of ~) . 0. ~ = 1. Duncan. It is more explicit than Cramer's rule in that the determinants· in the numerator of the solution expressions are expanded in terms of the given righthand sides b1. 0. Now A 1 = II ~j II .0176.of the linear equations. b. ~ = 1. But the determinant of A is a = 1. ~ = (coflloCtor of ~ = 1. 7 AI. 176.290. 14.00289. including approximate methods.. 741. A simple example on the inverse of a matrix would be instructive at this· point. bt. *1 ALGEBRAIC PRELIMINARIES *' . for the calculation of the inverse (sometimes called reciprocoI) of a matrix are given in Chapter IV of the book on matriees by Frazer.063.000128. 5. 0.0000413 . ExerciSe . 0.00000824. 14..O. 0. and Collar. Practical methods.. 0. .150. ~ = O. This is equivalent to Cramer's rule! for the solution of nonhomogeneous linear equations as ratios of determinants.jbf..0000413.Consider the tworowed matrix A According to our notations = II_~ ~ /I.o! O. ~ = O. 1063. "'. a~ . 0. A method based on the CayleyHamilton theorem will be presented at the end of the chapter. {If = 1.500.} II.in fact. (cofactor of ~) = 1..000128.
where a i8 the determinant of A. then t A (BC) = (A[J)C.. real or complex. there is still another one that is of great importance. From :the rule for the product of two determinants. If then A is a square matrix. then by aA we 8hall mean the matrix II aa} II.. Since AA1 = I.. the above result shows that the determinant of A 1 is 1/a. . + a.. This is with the understanding that negative power8 of matrices are defined as positive power8 of their inver8es. if the two square matrices A and B and the column matrix X have the same number of rows. these index laws hold for all integral r and 8. then the determinant c of the matric product C = AB i8 given by the numerical muUiplication of the two number8 a and b. Furthermore. and a is a number. not .e. Now if we define AD = I. and since the determinant of the unit matrix I is 1.. if A. the unit matrix.4l + .e. Thia operation of multiplication by numbers enables us to consider matrix polynomials of type (2·3) aoA" + alA .. and Matrie Polynomials.necessarily a square matrix. then the following index law8 hold for all poBiJive integral and zero indice8 r and s: A'A' = A'A' = A+(A')' = (A')' = A". i. Multiplication of Matrices by Numbers. then (. By the associativity of the operation of matric multiplication we mean that. Besides the operations on matrices that have been discussed up to this section. Care any three square matrices of the same order. If A = 1\ a} \I is a matrix. t Similarly.MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES 11 . B. there is a unique matrix AA ••• A with 8 factors for any given positive integer 8. From the associativity of the ope~tion of multiplication of square matrices and the properties of inverses of matrices..tB)X = A(BX).. whenever A 1 exists. the usual index laws for powers of numbers hold good for powers of matrices even though matric multiplication is not commutative.8 the following result is immediate on observing closely the definition of the product of two matrices: If A and B are two square matrices with determinants a and b reapectWely. i. positive or negative.1A + aJ.1 + agA. We shall write this matrix as A' and call it the 8th power of the matrix A. A r is defined for any positive integer r by Ar = (AI) •. c = abo This result enables us to calculate immediately the determinant of the inverse of a matrix.
.. Here n=2.) ......) = \' _~ ! I = ). and A is a variable square matrix..) is the characteristic function for a matrix A. The algebraic equation of degree n for )..and'atO. of course.. Such statements are.. a. + a.at=1. THE CAYLEYlIA.1 + . I I. considered as a function of ). perhaps. More then J(). and let I and 0 be the unit matrix and sero matrix respectively with an order equal to that oj A. and the roots of the equation are called the charactmatic roots oj A... is called the charactmatic equation oj the matrix A.. A ie.. If A . Since a. Let J().) = 0 I I. the most famous theorem in the algebra of matrices. are numbers.. We are now in a position to discuss some results whose importance cannot be overestimated in the study of vibrations of all sorts (see Chapter 6). one can form the matrix >J . a.. we see that a. . nonsensical if taken literally at their .at1'W A.. and I is the unit matrix of the same order as A. if J(>.• . au.. + a. at.trix.2 .l + . is (1)" times the determinant oj the matrix A.12 ALGEBRAIC PRELIMINARIES In expression 2 "3. + a.. J(). Example Take A = I ~ ~ II. then J(A) = O.) = ).MruroN THEOREM:." In symbols..rix of A. A is a square matrix..A.. In a given matric polynomial.1X + aJ = 0 is 8atisjied by X = A.l + . We shall close this chapter with what is.. let J(). The CayleyHamilton theorem is often laconically stated in the form "A matrix satisfies its own characteristic equation... is a (numerical) polynomial of degree n in ). be the characteristic Junction oj a m.l). + explicitly. called the characteri8tic maJ. Characteristic Equation of a Matrix and the CayleyHamilton Theorem. + a.II aj II is a given square matrix of order n. called the characteri8tic Junction oj A. Then the matric polynomial equation X" + a1X. The determinant of this J[l8.. + a. = J(O) ..l).) = >J .. then J()... .A at).) has the form J(). ButA2'=II~ ~II' HenceA2I=O..1. + atA.. $e ais are given numbers.)..
~.. at. a" in the characteristic function of the given matrix A. is defined by tr (A) = ~. A2. a. "'.on theorem. 8" = tr (A") so that 8r is the trace of the rth power of the given matrix A. However. "'..). G2. This implies that the determinant a of A is not zero.tAJ. can be computed successively by the following recurrence formulas: a1 = 81 G2 = t(a181 + 82) as = t(G281 + a1Bt + 83) (2·4) (2·6) 1 a. "'.. A1 of the given nrowed' matrix A.. 8" by (2·5) 81 = tr (A). Let A = II aj II i then the trace of the matrix A. To compute A 1 by formula 2·4 one has to know the coefficients a1. a. + a~ + an1I]. 0. ~ successively by means of 2·6. such mnemonics are useful to those who thoroughly understand the statement of the CayleyHamilton theorem. A knowledge oj the characteri8tic Junction oj a matrix enabks one to compute the inver8e oj a matrix.. = (a181 + a2B2 + . with the aid oj the CayleyHam1. + a..[A" + a1 A1 + ~ 1 ... we See that the inver8e matrix A 1 can be compute(llYg the Jollowi1l4 JorTIItula: A 1 = =[A . Finally by formula 2·4 one can calcu 1 . "'. Define the numbers' 81. + a18..1J. 8~ = tr (A~).OHARACTERISTIC EQUATION OF A MATRIX 13 face value...II + .. Since 0 .1 powers A. It can be shown' by a long algebraic argument that the numbers a1. Bt. n We can summarize our results in the following rule for the calculation of the inverse matrix A1 to a given matrix A. "'. First compute the first n .1 + 8. the sum of the n diagonal elements a~.l. and calculate a1. In fact. "'. a. Multiplying both sides by A 1. iJ it exists..8...1 + alA .1)"a. written tr (A).. Then compute the diagonal elements only of A". Insert these values for the 8. A RULE FOR CALCULATION OF THE INVERSE MATRIX A1. "'. in formula 2·6... we find with the aid of the CayleyHamilton theorem that A satisfies the matric equation 1= . Bt = tr (A2). "'.14 ~ = (. "'. 81._~2 + a. let A be an nrowed square matrix with an inverse A1.. as defined in 2·5. Next compute the n numbers 81.
.. 114 '" 135. Now AI '" . Calculate AI by the above rule when 15 11 6 9 15 1 3 9 3 8 7 6 6 3 11 7 7 5 3 11 17 12 5 10 16 Mter calculating A2.51A9 + 135). Calou1ate the inverse matrix to A '" I ~ ~ II by the last method of tlUachapter.. 41. 51. Solution. Notice that the whole A" is not needed in the calculation but merely s. lit '" 33.41 . and the matrices A.[A lit 1 + IItl] '" A. . using formula 2·4.. 17.) '" AI . B4 . 8. IJa . the trace of A". Is '" 3185. The Solution column matrix X = II z' " is given by X = AlB... 207 315 315 225 414 Finally. Bingham's paper. Incidentally the characteristio equation of A is I(). '8 . + 225 _ (A + 1)(). It . Hence I. by punchedcard methods.8 .225 III 171 64 124 30 195 ISO 270 45 270 30 30 0 225 75 75 3 342 52 53 .. find 1 ... ola system of n linear equations in the n 'Unknowns z' 0) is to compute AI of A = II aj II by the above rule with the aid of punchedcard methods and then to compute AIB. find III '" 5. The . ¢ *1 = bi (I aj 1 Exercises 1. " AI. See the exercise given in M..... See the bibliography. 217. D. . "'. Inserting these values in 2·6. 113 .rest of the calculations are easily made by standard calculating machines. A4.SA + 15)1 '" O. and the diagonal elements of AS.. tr (A"). Hence one method of getting numerical solutiona a.9 . 225•. caloulate '1'" 5. P'Unchedcard met1wd8 can be uSed to calculate the powers of the matrix A. where B = /I b' /I.. A. A'.5A4 + 33).14 ALGEBRAIC PRELIMINARIES late At from the kIiowledge of aI. AI.
'.. Then if' 8 p = Ao + Al + As + . + Ap = (1 + 1+ !2! + !3! + .Aa+ .. after a certain value of i are zero. that the matric infinite series . converges to the matrix 8. . p! = Hence. and A p.. A......•• + .!:. . where Ar is the rth power of a square matrix A.CHAPTER 3 DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS MATRICES or Power Series in Matrices. As.!:. we find that . be an infinite sequence of matrices of the same type (Le. by definition. consider matric power series in A r=O as. 15 . Al = 1. An important example of a matric power series is the matric exp0nential Junction e" defined by the following matric power series: e" . Let A o. same number of rows and col1¥Ulls) and let 8 p = Ao + Al + As + . If then the matrix 8 = lim 8 p exi8ts p+CZI in the above sense. A l ..... Before we discuss the subject of power series. = a. 0 D... . . Al .........1 +A +. Aa .Ar.. Example 1 Take Ao = 1.Ar. are numbers... :EAr r==O el. If A is a square matrix and the al. 3! 1 = 1 1 .) Clearly matric polynomials (see Chapter 2) are special matric power series in which aU the numbers a. In other words. + !)1... + Ap be the matric sum of the matrices A o.. As = 1 ' Aa 2! = 1' . matric power series are particular matric series in which each matrix Ar is of special type t A.. . one can .. In other words. ·As. it is convenient to make a few introductory remarks on general series in matrices..A2+... we shall say. lim 8 p p+Q) = el. . If every element in the matrix 8 p converges (in the ordinary numerical sense) as p tends to infinity. 2! 31 t The index r is not summed. (AO = 1 is the identity matrix. on recalling the expansion for the exponential e. :Ea.. . then by 8 = lim 8 p we shall mean the p>o> matrix 8 of the limiting elements.
e. and the matric cosine.. is the inverse matrix of ~.. 2.~ = I. (These relations express the fact that eA. defined by sin A COB = A . a!(t) ~(t).~eA.. = eA. = ~+B whenever A and B are commutative matrices. . whenever AB = BA. Difterentiation and Integration of :Matrices DependiD. ~(t).g on a Numerical Variable.t' .) Every numerical power series has its matric analogue.'.. & ~(t) ~(t) da!(t) . the matric sine. say... .•••• 1 1 The usual trigonometric identities are not always satisfied by sin A and cos A for arbitrary matrices.= dA(t) d. a!(t) A(t) = ar(t). and write it d~(t). Other ~ples are. .16 DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS The following properties of the matrix exponential have been used frequently in investigations on the matrix calculus: 1. i. . '. The matric power series expansion for ~ is convergentl for all square matrices A. However.".!. cos A.. Let A(t) be a matrix depending on a numerical variable t so that the elements of A(t) are numerical functionS of t. 3. a:(t). . .. sin A. a:(t) Then we'define the derivative of A (t). the corresponding matric power series'have more complicated propertiesfor example.~.u:. ~Il = ileA. . ~(t).. by dt'dt' . aW).t' d.A8 + 1_A & 31 sr ••• A = I .2!A2 + 41A4 .u: ~(t) ~(t) da!(t) .
it +. + . then one obtains d(trA) = rtrlA dt • Then. fo!(t) dt fA(t)dt= far(t) dt..A. There are important immediate consequences of properties 3·2 and 3 ·3. f~(t) dt. "'. (3·6) { = AetA = JA. "'. "'. A (t) dB(t) dt dA (t) dB(t) (3·2) (3·3) d[A (t)B(t)] dt = dA (t) B(t) dt ~[A (t)B(t)C(t)] = d~t) B(t)C(t) + A (t) d~t) C(t) + A(t)B(t)d~t). etc. .. For example.u + .4) dAl(t) = _Al(t)dA(t)Al(t) dt dt' Also. frt:(t) dt It is no mathematical feat to show that differentiation of matrices has the following properties: (3·1) d[A (t) + B(t)] dt = . from 3·3. f~(t) dt. we obtain (3. dt dt There are similar formulas for the derivative of any positive integral power of A (t). fa!(t) dt f~(t) dt. the following difJerentiation can be justified: d (e A ) P t3 ~ = A +t42+2~a+3IA4+ . IT t is a real variable and A a constant square matrix. we see that (3.DIFFERENTIATION AND INTEGRATION 11 Similarly we define the integral of A (t) by f~(t) dt.5) dA3(t) = dA(t) A2(t) dt dt + A (t)dA(t) A(t) + A2(t)dA(t). fa:(t) dt. with the usual termbyterm differentiation of the numerical exponential.. from 3·2 and A l(t)A (t) = I..
•• (A. AI.) = (AI .18 DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS There is an important theorem in the matrix calculus that turns up in the mathematicaJ theory of aircroJt flutter (see Chapter 7).. <h. the unit matrix. then the series F(A) can be computed by the ezpansion 2 (3·7) where A ia an nrowed square matrix with n distinct characteri8tic roots Al. There are special cases of particular interest in vibration theory (see Chapters 6 and 7). They correspond to the power of a matrix Ar and the matrix ·exponential~.I . ~ Ai).A) ipt.A) ••• (AJ . TI(Ai . ~. The proof. "'.Ai) .) ••• ipt. + . and (h. THEoREM.A). ll(Ai . .. Exercise Calculate the matrix eA when A is the matrix A by calculating eA directly. In other words AD = 1 is "replaced" by AD = I..)(Ai+t ..i = (All  A)(Asl .Ai)(A2 .A. G. whenever F(A) = era + alA + atX2 + .''. are n matrice8 defined by8 (3·8) G.A)(Ai+1I . in the transition from F(A) to F(A). Secondly to avoid ambiguities we muSt write explicitly the compact products occurring in equation 3·8. have the same meaning as in 3·8.A.•..A) ..nctionals..A. "'. makes use of the modem theory of Ju.. = 1 ll(AI.A.A).. matric pqwer If F(A) is a pqwer 8eries that confJerge8 Jor all A. (A'll .. The expansion 3·7 rields immediately (3·9) and (3·10) where the matrices G.) . into which we' can not enter here. II(AI. In the first place the matric power series F(A) = aJ + alA + atA 2 + . = I ~ ~ II· Check the result . + . i""" There are a few matters that must be kept in mind in order to have a clear underst&ndin& of the meaning of this result.
DIFFERENTIATION AND INTEGRATION
Solution. The eha.racteristio roots are ~1 0 1 and Os are 88 follows:
G1 ..
..
19
1,
~
... 1. Hence the matrices
~s1 
~s  ~1
~1  ~2
A ... ! (I + A) ... ! 2 2
co
III
2
Os .. ~11  A
Now
! (1 _ A) !
co
2
2
I 1
1 1
1
II.
1
1 1
II.
1 1
eA _
Hence
,"1
t e\{J, .. '! III I + 'III
.2
1 1 1
1 1
II
eA ... 11
cosh 1 sinh 1 II. sinh 1 cosh 1 .
CHAPTER 4
DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS OF MATRICES (Continued) Systems of Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefllcients. The matric exponential has important applications to the solution of systems of n linear difierential equations in n unknown functions x1(t), X2(t) , " ' , x.. (t) and with n2 constant coefficients aj. The variable t is usually the time in physical and engineering problems. Without
defining the derivative
d!,
we merely mentioned in the first chapter
that we can write such a system of equations as one matric equation
(4.1)
dX(t) dt
=
AX(t)
.
Having defined the matric derivative, we are enabled to view this equation with complete understanding. From formula 3·6 of the previous chapter we find that (4·2)
to saying that X(t)
where to is an arbitrarily given value of t. But this result is equiValent = [e<tlol.4.JXo is a solution of the matric difierential equation 4·1 for an arbitrary column matrix Xo. A glance at the expansion for the matric exponential e(tlolA shows that the solution X(t) has the property
X(to) =
Xo.
In summary, we have the result 1 that (4·3) X(t) = [eCttolA]Xo
is a 80lution2 0/4·1 with the property that X(to) = Xo/or any prea88igned
constant column matrix Xo.
Example
dx (t) ... x2 dx2(t) dt 'dt
1
= Xl
so that
dX =AX
dt '
20
SYSTEMS OF LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
21
where
A = \I
~ ~ /I
and X =
I ~ II·
Now A1 = I, >.t chapter that
01
= I, and we saw in the last exercise of the previous
=
~,,~ ~ II,
O2
=
~ I ~ ~ II·
to) to)
sinh (t  to) cosh (t  to)
Hence
e('Io)A
= ±e(tIo)).i(]i =
i=1
II s~ (t c~ (t
II.
Therefore the unique solution of the differential system
di = AX, dX
is
X(t)
=
X(to) = Xo =
'II x: I ~
x:
c?sh (t  to) sinh (t  to) II. sinh (t  to) cosh (t  to) This means that the unique solution of the differential system
ch1
II
;it =
ch2
Z2,
dt = Z1,
Z1(to) =~,
z2(to)
=
is
Z1(t) = [cosh (t  to)~ + [sinh (t  to)Jx: { X2(t) = [sinh (t  to)J~ + [cosh (t  to)Jx:.
S;stem.s of Linear Differential Equations with Variable Coefficients. Although the matric exponential is not applicable to the solution of a system of linear difierential equations with variable coefficients aj(t), there are some analogous matric expansions that enter into the solution of such a system. The system of differential equations
(4.4)
dz:t)
= aj(t)xi(t)
is written as one matric differential equation
(4·5)
dX(t)
dt
= A(t)X(t)
where A(t) ... II a;(t) II and X(t) is the column matrix of the n unknown functions x'(t) • . On integrating both sides of 4·5 between to and t we obtain tlie equivalent matric equation
(4·6) X(t) = X(to)':+ [A(S)X(S) ds.
new expansion for X(t). then it"..mation to the solution of the matric differential equation 4·5. .. then.2 ' =:1:1 dzS tit . Exercises L Integrate by matrix methods the secondorder difierential equation /h(t) _ :t(t) = 0 dJ!o subjeCt to the initial conditions :t(to) ":1:0.8ider the following expansion as a. ( : )tate. 1/00 (Hint. :r. we are led to C01J. a few terms in the expansion for ~(A) may suffice in 4·9 to give a good approxi.C&n be proved that.. Continuing indefinitely this way we are led to the matric infinite series 4·7. B Now the method of successive substitutions for equation 4·6 'can be described as follows. for t4(t) continuous in to ~ t ~ t1.8A (Sl)X(Sl) dB1. solution of 4·6: (4·7) X(t) = [I + "[A (8) dB • to + [A(S) to dB f A (81) da1 + ..81 A (&. Again substituting for X(Sl) its equal as given by ~·6 we are led to a.a + .. Write the difierential equation as a system of two firstorder equations thl  tit .. ] Jto X(to).ant matric value Xo for t = to. is the unique 8Olution 01 the matric differential equation 4· 5 that takes on the aibitrarily given con8t.£ A(Bt) dBtJ.. " For approximate numerical calculations... This yields X(t) = X(to) + [(A(S) da]X(to) + [A(S) dsJ. It is often simpler to carry out the matrix multiplications first in 4·8 and 4·9 before carrying out the successive integrations..8A(81) ds1 + [A(S) dB (4·9) . If the matrix is independent of t.. If we define the matrix (4·8) ~(A) = 1 + [A(S) da + J.22 DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS By the method of sucOOlSive substitutions.a) d&..'A(8) dsJ.. X(t) = ~(A)Xo + "'. solution 4·9 reduces precisely to the matrix exponential type 4·3. + . In the integral term in 4· 6 substitute for X(s) its equivalent as given by formula 4· 6 itself. by an evident calculation.
SYSTEMS OF LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 23 with initial conditions Zl(tO) ..) •• Discuss the solutions of the differential equation m+8+k:i:=0 dt dz for free damped osoillations by matrix metliods with the restriotion that {3 . Integrate by matrix methods the seeondorder differential equation fh(t) _ tz(t) = 0 dtI subject to the initial conditions 2:(0) = Zo. Integrate by matrix methods the secondorder differential system for harmonio oscillations with frequency ~ ~t) + ~Bz(t) = 0.ZOo :&'(to) = Yo. {3 = damping factor. Write the equation as a system of two firstorder linear equations.te= y.) . ..) 2. so that..14 2~ m = mass. fh dtI *0) = Zo. fJ. and k = elastic constant.=te= y.. ( : ). Clearly the restriction rules out the critical damping case. k are positive oonstants. all threem. Write the dift'erential equation as a firstorder matrio differential equation dX di=AX. where o A= 1 k_p" m m and notice that the characteristic equation of this matriz is the "characteristio equation" of the given secondorder differential equation in the usual elementary seDSe. (Hint. (Hint. (=).. and use the results of the example illustrating formula 4·3.
Let and be the kinetic and potential energies respectively of our oscillating system with n degrees of freedom. dq' e>q' ()q' '" . on usmg the not a tion q' = dq' dt If we Uf!e the explicit form for the 24 . without loss of generality.=. The theory is approximate in that the constancy of the coefficients in the kinetic energy and the quadratic type of the potential energy are due to approximations in the actual form of the kinetic and potential energies respectively. positive definite if V ~ 0 for all q( and V = 0 if and only if qi = O. 0.. . the potential energy V has a minimum at qi = O. in the velocities and coordinates respectively. these approximations are due to the assumed smallness of the coordinates and velocities ~Qout the equilibrium position. .. . with constant coefficients. Clearly the kinetic energy T . 1 The problem of small oscillations! (of conservative dynanlical systenia) about an equilibrium position concerns itself with the solution of the Lagrangian differential equations of motion in whichthe kinetic a. "'. Now it can be proved that the positive definiteness of V is a necessary and sufficient condition that (0.) C>V. In view of what we have already said. by definition. 18 ·ti pOSl ve definite' the vel ' . 0) be a 8table equilibrium point. If. i.(~=12"·n) dt . We shall consider the case in which the equilibrium point is stable. the aq and b(l are constants..CHAPTER 5 MATRIX :METHODS IN PROBLEMS OF SMALL OSCILLATIONS Differential Equations of Motion.e. dt' m OCltles Lagrange's equations of motion for our oscillating system are d (C>f. V is. we take all the coordinates of the equilibrium position to be zero..nd potential energies are homogeneous quadratic forms.
_ ••  = bv~' used the notat' wn q'. II qi(t) then we can write our difierential equations 5·1 of motion as the one matric differential equation (5·2) A d2~~t) = BQ(t). If A and B are the constant square mill:rice8 of the coefficients of the kinetic and potential energies respectively.DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF MOTION 25 kinetic and potential energies. and the unknown column matrix Q(t) = B = II II. On multiplying both sides of equation 5·2 on the left by AI and remembering that A IA = I. each of mass m. To summarize. bij II . illustrative Example Two equal masses. are connected by a spring with elastic constant k while each mass is connected to a fixed wall by a spring with elastic constant k.iii J. Lagrange's equations reduce to the system of n secondorder differential equations (5·1) J. we obtain the following equivalent matric differential equation I I (5·3) ~t) = CQ(t)."llatory system i8 gorerned by the matric differential equation 5·3. we have the following result. then the motion of our 08C1. The kinetic and potential energies of this twodegreeoffreedom problem are T = i[(~ly + (:t)2] k V = ~ (ql)2 + (rf)2 + (ql  q2)2]. where C is the (constant) square matrix C = AIE. Hence it follows from our discussion in Chapter 2 that the inverse matrix AI exists. wrwre we f/AMJf:} a. = d2qi 2 . the unit matrix. Since the kinetic energy is positive definite. it can be proved that the determinant A p6 O. dt If we defin e two square matrices t· A=lIl1ijll. . t Recall the notations for matrices given in Chapter 1.
..ntcterm istic roots·of U given by (5·7) A1 = 1~ >.t. . II ~~:~ " by ~t) .a . m m o.raJlel" to the springs and are measured. . Now! > 0. lG Y. we can write the secondorder matric differential equation 5·4 as a firstorder matric differential equation (5.4) dJQ(t) = OQ(t)....2 where 2k m.= y . y . 10 >. from the equilibrium position in which all three sprihgs are unstressed.... dJ. k k m 2k m m If we define the column matrix R(t) .... R(t)..A2 + .... 1~ Y.. ql(t) r/(t) r1(t) r2(t~ where and 0 0 (5·6) U= 2k m 0 0 k 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 m k 2k m m 2 The characteristic equation of the matrix U turns out to be 4k 3k A' + . >.. Hence by a direct calculation from the kinetic ~d potential energies we find that the matric equations of motion are (5. . so that there are four distinct pure imaginary cha..26 DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS where ql and r/ are the respective displacements of the centers of the two masses "pa..5) ~~t) = S(t) = US(t)..2 '.
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF MOTION Exercise A abaft of length !ll.. then the kinetio and potential energies are Tai[(~Y +(~YJ . fixed at one end. Find the matrio difierential equation of motion. If I/o is ~e moment of inertia of each disk.. ca. T V . 2i [(t/}I + (rt . Discuss the solutions of this system and then the motion of the disks.t/)'] under the assumption that the shaft has a uniform torsional stiffness T. Write this equation as a system of two firstorder matrio equations. tf are the respective angular deflections of the two disks. .rries one disk at the free end and another in the middle. and t/.
B But p6 0.B). Hence all the I AII AIII I· characteristic roots oj the matrix C = AI B are positive. we see that the determinant I AI(w2A .B 1 = O. so that the characteristic roots of the matrix C are identical with the roots of the "frequency" equation (6·5) 1 M . by 6·4. it can be proved (see any book on dynamics such as Whittaker's) thai aU the roots oj the jrequency equation are positive.2 where C = AlB. we verify immediately the statement that (6·4) w21 .A1n'ER 6 l'4ATRIX: METHODS IN PROBLEMS OF OSCILLATIONS (Continued) SMALL Calculation of Frequencies and AmpUtudes.ratic jorms.CH.dJ. Let us inquire into the pure harmonic solutions of our differential equation of motion d2Q(t) =' CQ(t).C = AI(w2A . On recalling that the determinant of the product of two matrices is equal to the product of their determinants. 28 . (wt where w is an angular frequency.B) 1 = 1 AIII w2A . On substituting 6·2 in 6·1 we obtain (6·2) w2 sin (wt + ~)r = sin (wt + ~)Cr. We thus seek solutions of (6·1) ~·1 of type Q(t) = sin .C)r = O. and r a column matrix of amplitudes.C 1 =0'1 w2A . I w21 .od. + ~)r. Hence a necessary and sufficient condition that 6·2 be a solution of 6·1 is that the frequency w and the corresponding column matrix r of amplitudes satisfy the matrix equation (6·3) (w21 . In order that there exist a solution matrix r ¢ 0 of 6·3. Since C = A IB. ~ an arbitrary phase angle. it is clear from the theory of systems of linear homogeneous algebraic equations that w2 mU8t be a characterimc root oj the matrix C.B I and hence. Si1U!e the kinetic and potential energies are positwe definiie qu. .
we obtain the matric differential equation I I (6. This is especially true when only the fundamental frequency (lowest frequency) and the corresponding amplitudes are desired. C1 = . It is clear from equations 6·3 and 6·7 that the characteristic roots oj the matrix D = C1 are the corresponding reciprocols oj the characteristic roots oj the matrix C. The classical method of finding the frequencies and amplitudes of our oscillating system consists in first finding the frequencies by solving the frequency equation 6·5. and then in determining the amplitudes by solving the system of linear homogeneous equations that corresponds to the matrix equation 6·3.B1A. We shall call D the dynamicoJ matrix. For approximate numerical calculations. Let us write 6·7 in the equivalent form (6·8) r = w2Dr. we are led to the equation (6·7) This equation can also be derived by operating directly with equation 6·3. = w2Dr1 and in general . it follows that B > 0 and hence that B1 exists. 1 We shall assume now that all the JreqtlRJnCies oj our osciUating system are distinct. Therefore C1 exists and is given by C1 = .B1A.6) Q(t) = D fPQ(t).. The method of successive approximations for equation 6·8 is as follows. This equation is obviously equivalent toequation 6·1. Let ro be an arbitrarily given column matrix. Define r1 = w2Dro r. If we now proceed with 6·6 as we did with 6· I. or equivalently in finding the characteristic roots of the matrix C = A lB. the method oj successive approximations when applied to equation 6·8 greatly reduces the laborious calculations. dfl where D . On multiplying both sides of equation 6·1 by C1.CALCULATION OF FREQUENCIES AND AMPUTUDE9 29 Since the potential energy is a positive definite quadratic form. Such a direct way of calculating the frequencies and amplitudes often involves laborious calculations.
(6·9) where [)P is the rth power of the dynamical matrix D. ••• .80 MATRIX METHODS IN PROBLEMS By successive use of this recurrence relation we can express r r in terms of roo In fact. In 6 ·11. one can similarly obtain the t F(A) .Dr1ro to tM corresponding element8 of tM column matrix [)pro is approximately a constant equal to the square of the fundamental fref/U6'IWY wt of our fundamental mode of oBCiUation with disti1ld frequeru:ieB. tM column matrix D'ro has elementB proportiOnal to the amplitudes of tM fundonnental mode of oscillation. for r large enough.pI. aM for arbitrarily chosen r D.1.A) Xa . E F(). .~G." are oharacteristic roots of A. ••• . and a few other theorems on matrices. a theorem t of Sylvester. 1 " '. Bee the disoussion in Chapter 3.. (b) the num(all 1 hers ai.nd ). ). a" are proportional to the amplitudes of the fundamental mode of oscillation.1 > ).M a. The matrix rD is only r68t1'icted by tM nonvanishing of R (see equality 6·11 bekno).. > >. ) rr( II(Xal. such that R" 0... where G. On using equation 6·3 instead of 6·7.2 These theorems are instrumental in showing that.. [)pro is a column matrix. A" are n constants that are themselves obtainable by a successive approximation method. "'. the 'Y~ are the elements of the arbif:rart"Zy chosen column matrix ro and the AI. The proof of this result is a little involved and makes use of the CayleyHamilton theorem. and (c) (6·11) R = A{)'~. . AU this is subject to tM reatridion that aU tM frequeru:ieB are distinct. are the characteristic roots of D.. the following approximate equality holds: wt (6·10) where (0) )... Now it can be shown that for large r the ratio of the elements of tM column matri:f: . Clearly. r . Hence the approximate formula 6·10 shows that for r large enough. hence).. a?. = (wI)rDrro. and .. . > ..1 = 2 in terms of the fundamental frequency CIIl. we have r..
865909. Duncan and A. Byapproximati1l4 oscillating continU0'U8 Bystem8. Collar very useful: "A Method for the Solution of Oscillation Problems by Matrices." Philo8(Jphicol Magazine aruJ Journal of Science.CALCULATION OF FREQUENCIES AND AMPLITUDES 31 greatest frequency and corresponding amplitudes of our oscillating system. pp. . The intermediate overtones and corresponding amplitudes can be obtained by the above successive approximation methods on reducing the number of degrees of freedom successively by one. J. Anyone interested in these topics will find the following paper by W. 17 (1934). R. such as beams. the DuncanC9llar paper shows how the methods of this chapter are applicable in solving oscillation problems for continuous systems. by oscillating systems with a large but finite number of degrees of freedom. vol.
The difi'erential equations of motion are of type d. aileron. but there is the additional COlDplication of damping forces leading to terms depending on the velocities in the equations of motion. rf(t).+ bif/'(t) = 0.U:. The constant coefficients ~j. Unfortunately experiments in wind tunnels are idealized and difficult. Since there ru.2qi(t) dqi(t) . Such dangerous situations may arise when the airplane is flown at a high speed. and actual flight testing is obviously highly dangerous. There is no time in this brief set of mathematical lectures to deal adequately with the present simplified mathematical theories of the mechanism of flutter. b~iI C. The vibrations of an airplane wing and aileron can be considered as those of a mechanical system with three degrees of freedom: the bending and twisting of the wing accounts for two degrees of freedom.I importance therefore so to design the plane as to have the maximum operating speed less than the critical speed at which flutter occurs. (7 ·1) (JqdP" + CiJ. It is here that mathematics enters the stage at a most opportune moment.:e three degrees of freedom. a system of three linear difi'erential equations in the three unknowns ql(t).CHAPI'ER 7 MATRIX METHODS IN THE MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF AIRCRAFT FLUTTER In recent years a group of phenomena known under the caption "flutter" has engaged the attention of aeronautical engineers. q2(t). It is of the greatest practic8. all indices have the range 1 to 3. Not only is the system nonconservative. We shall only give the matric form for the equations of motion and say a few words Itbout the approximate solutions with the aid of matrix iteration methods. The vibrations taking place in flutter phenomena can often lead to bas of control or even to' structural failure in such aircraft parts as wing. and the relative deflection of the aileron gives rise to the third degree of freedom. and tail.j are computed from a large number of aerodynamic constants of our aircraft 32 . Although the results of mathematical theories of flutter are now being applied in the design of aircraft. the need for an adequate mathematical theory is becoming critical.
We can replace the one secondorder differential equation 7·3 by an equivalent pair of two firstorder differential equations with the column matrices Q(t) and R(t) as unknowns dQ(t) = R(t) ~. it is to be expected that complex imaginary frequencies will playa role in the work. for 1934. 419420. 0. Now the general structure of equations 7 ·1 differs from the equations of motion of the preceding two chapters in that biJ ¢ bji (giving rise to a nonconservative system) and in the presence of the linear damping terms Cij~t). Define the column matrix of six elements Set) = 112~2 \I and the constant square matrix of six rows 0. pp. Since A arises from the kinetic energy. Q(t) = II qi(t) II. 413433.2 is equivalent to (7·3) ie~t) = _AlCd~t)  AlBQ(t). C. B. Report 496.2) A'd2Q(t) dt2 + CdQ(') + BQ(t) dt = 0 in terms of the three known constant matrices A. As we are interested in small oscillations around an unstable point of equilibrium. and the unknown column matrix Q(t). Theodorsen's "peneral Theory of Aerodynamic Instability and the Mecbs. especially pp.nism of Flutter. 4t . Then equations 7 ·4 can be written as the one first. C = II eiJ II. If we define A = II av II.order matric differential equation (7·6) dS(t) = US(t). Al exists and hence 7. B = 1\ bii' II. see T. then the equations of motion 7·1 can be written as the one matric differential equation (7. A. I (7·5) u= AlB.~ dt { d:t) = A lBQ(t) _ A lCR(t). A1C where 0 and I are the threerowed zero and unit matrices respectively. A." N.MATRIX METHODS IN THEORY OF AIRCRAFT FLU'ITER 83 structure.
R.t > . Duncan a. L:Plz(t) dt. This obviously leads us to the equation (}J .34 MATRIX METHODS IN THEORY OF AIRCRAFT FLUTTER We are led therefore to consider solutions Set) = e)J1l (7'7) (Il. xCp) . For such an elementary treatment of Laplace transforms see Operational Calculus in Applied M athematic8 by Carslaw and Jaeger.d A. Collar entitled "Matrices Applied to the Motions of Damped Systems..'l. A good table of Laplace transforms together with mechanical or electric methods can cut down the labor of flutter calculations t The modulus of a complex: number . II + vCi y is denoted by I_I and is .. where I is the sixrow unit matrix.. a constant col~ matrix of six elements) of 7 ·6. characteristic root ). I ..1 with the largest modulus can be obtained by the methods of the previous chapter. > then the descending order. i.. Some further aids in computation of the real and imaginary parts of complex characteristic roots are given on pp. To solve the problem we must get good approximations to the values of ). 220228. An illuminating discussion of a specialized flutter problem with two degrees of freedom is given in a 1940 book by K8. Chapters IIll. pp. " ' .. It would be interesting and instructive to solve such specialized flutter problems with the aid of the matrix calculus. The matrix iteration method for small oscillations of conservative systems can now be applied with some modifications made necessary by the fact that the possible values of )..U)A = 0.. in 7·7 are in general complex: imaginary. The methods given there can be immediately extended in the obvious way to apply directly to the matric differential equations 7·3 for flutter problems. The Laplace transform of a function x(t) is a function xCp) defined by I I I I I ). = defined by I..t. Mathematical Methods in Engineering. J.1. 197219. are the characteristic roots of the matrix U lexicographically arranged so that their moduli t are in )." Ph'. ). vol..rman and Biot.n. A more readable and selfcontained account is given in the paper by W. 19 (1935). Mag.e. ). and the matrix Il that will satisfy 7·7. I = v'sa + yJ. If ).1 > ). 148150 and 327331 of the FrazerDuncanCollar book on matrices. If one is willing to omit the proofs of one or two theorems. Another useful method of solving flutter problems is the combination of matrix methods and Laplace transform methods. pp.. the whole Laplace transform theory needed does not require one to be conversant with the residue theory of complex: variable' theory.
and aileron angle measured relative to the wing chord at the wing tip.4722 2.73526 201.01517 0. A.06301 176.2880 0.042 0 11. matrix of damping coefficients. 1935 paper by Duncan and Collar.2880 5.027 0.170883 1. 1155. dt where Ul. Exercises 1.08168 1.89 0.0145 15. USC!).364 0. Duncan..725 II II II II B. J.741731 14. wing twist.60 0." Reports Gnd MemortJnda of the AeronamicGl Research Committee. The data are obtained from R.128 2.9497 0.91908 0 1 0 0.0104 0.89 11121.059016 0 0 1 0.0223 0. Show that AI.128 0. A model airplane wing is placed at a small angle of incidence in a uniform air stream.554 ~7.9097 117. the matrices for the differential equations of flutter are as follows. "The Flutter of Aeroplane Wings.4969 28.23949 1..MATRIX METHODS IN THEORY OF AIRCRAFT FLUTTER 35 materially.89 0.. August. ..888089 3.. Show that the matric differential equation 7·6 for flutter can be written as Set) = UI d8(t). When the wind speed is 12 feet per second.003153 1.57195 0.658333 C . where the "flutter matrix" U is given by 0 0 0 11.14994 I and that the matric differential equation for flutter is ~t) .00824125 0.0413 1. MtJ{J.741731 14. 0.06301 1.6 0..'C B~IA II· S. .8502 41.086931 0 0 0 8. Unfortunately there is no time to take up these matters in detail in our brief introductory treatment.0413 0. No. 15.0756 2.6433 U= 1 0 0 0.105747 3.245 0. 1928. A 1117. Frazer and W.65833 0.10 0.51412 For the lengthy details of the calculations of flutter frequencies and aDlplitudes see t~ Phil. The three degrees of freedom are the wing bending.4464 0 0 0 0. is given by the sixrow square matrix UI = /I B. the inverse matrix of U.62604 2.023 0.433 0.
ntial equations of motion will be in general complex. a. 7 ·1. 7·1. See Fig. ql co h. 7·1. The flutter velocity tI appears in general in the coefficients Coi and biJ and is replaced by the quantity ~. The aerodynamic forces and moments are obtained theoretically in accordance with T. co "y. It is for this reason that the coefficients in the difiere. The four difierential equations of mQtion are of.2 + Cij dt + bill = 0. If co a. 'Garrick's investigations and not from windtunnel data. and k are the airfoil = semichord. Willi elastic axis FIG.. Theodorsen's and I. have the range 1 to 4 and the coefficients llij. E. flutter frequency. t The differential equations of motion and the contributions of the aerodynamic forces and moments to the coefficients of the differential equations for the fourdegreeoffreedom problem are given in the Douglas reports.(or more) offreedom problems in which the motion of the tab defines the fourth degree t of freedom with generalized coordinate t. See Fig. This yields a system of four linear difierential equations 7·8 In accordance with the flutter notation used in this country. w. where all the indices. bq. {j.nd the flutter parameter k :~ respec tively. and Cij are in general complex. t tf . where b. q' .the form t cflqi dqj (7 ·8) av df. in contradistinction to 7 ·1.36 MATRIX METHODS IN THEORY OF AIRCRAFT FLUTTER More recent developments in aircraft design require an extension of the flutter theory to handle fourdegree.
t Matrix methods are also used in treating other phenomena related to Hutter. The flutter analyst is attempting to approximate the actual flutter characteristics of the airplane by representing them by as small a number of degrees of . Col is the flutter frequency. = v=i giiKi/li (gii = 0 if i:p4 3).e apprlXCimation. or (i = v=i). The design of faster and larger aircraft requires the consideration of a larger number of degrees of freedom so as to make the Butter analysis an aiiequoJ. qi = qf.e (i = vI) of the differential equations. some of which are functions of Col and the structural damping coefficients gii' The damping coefficients gii are defined by F. where F.MATRIX METHODS IN THEORY OF AIRCRAFT FLUTTER 37 in which C. where c is some constant. one is led to a system of four linear algebraic equations with complex coefficients.j and bii are expressed as functions of the flutter frequency Col and not of the flutter velocity fl. and g is a structural damping coefficient.03.freedom as possible. is the damping force in the·q'th direction and the Kii are the spring constants. . . If one then considers solutions of the form ·iut _r:. provided that no extraneous damping devices are used. the need for matrix methods becomes acute. The algebraic eql:lations are so arranged . Upon obtaining the characteristic roots of the matrix of the linear algebraic equations by matric iteration methods. When many degrees of freedom are required to represent the Butter characteristics of an airplane. See Douglas reports. Matrix methods t also serve to improve the theory of the mechanism of flutter.and this constitutes an important aspect of the development in that it lends itself to matric iteration procedures that the characteristic roots are of the form z=+~ c . one ultimately finds the flutter velocity fI as a function of the flutter frequency Col and the structural damping coefficients gii' Flutter is likely to occur if the structural damping coefficients gii from the pure imaginary part of the characteristic root exceeds 0..
Let a medium be acted on by deforming forces.. and Xl. Then the elastic deformation is represente<l by particletoparticle transformations (8·1) x' = j'(a1 a2. for various papers and other references. This chapter is purely introductory and suggestive. Jj = ()j'(a~2. the matrix calculus can aJao be used to advantage in furnishing a short and neat "treatment. t AB a result the finite deformation theory is beginning to be used in engineering problems. t See the KGrmtln Anniversary Volume. a2. a8 be the rectangular cartesian coordinateS of a representative particle of the medium in the initial state. Institute of Teclmology. Let A and X be defined as the column matrices of three elements: A = II at II and X = II Xi " • Similarly the differential matrices are dA = " da i Define the square matrix F by II. 38 .CHAPTER 8 MATRIX METHODS IN ELASTIC DEFORMATION THEORY Although the tensor calculU8 is the most natural and powerful mathematical method in the treatment of the fundamentals of elastic deformation of bodies. Let a1. a8). California. II dx' II. xl." Such crude approximations have been found inadequate in some investigations on thin plates and shells. dX ..8 the rectangular cartesian coordinates of the corresponding particle in the final state. The position of the medium before and after deformation will be called the initial and final state of the medium respectively. Hence by the ordinary differential calculus (8·2) where dx i = Ii dai . F=1I1i II. 1941. . In what we shall have to say we shall make the restrictive assumptions of the classical infinitesimal theory only toward the end of the chapter. The classical theory of elastic bodies assumes that the deformations 8·1 are "in£nitesimaI. a8). :r.
Thus A * and X* are row matrices while ()xl .3) dX = FdA. where lis the unit matrix) and hence with the aid of 8·4 we find the formula (8·8) dsi . l ()al ()a ()x3 ()al ()x3 F*= ()x . called the deformation or strain matrix. the matrix of the partial derivatives of the deformation 8·1. (8·9) we find (8·10) H = i(F*F 1).1/Iji. By a direct computationJt can be shown that the matrix (8·5) where (8·6) F*F = 8 II 1/I'J II . This is expressed by saying that F*F is a symmetric matrix. For example.()a' ()a/ Note that 1/Iii =. ()x2 . Hence the square of the differential line element in the final state of the medium will be (8·4) dsi = dA*F*F dA since ds!r =. On defining the matrix.e. . ()a2 ()a2 ()xl 2 cxi2 ()z3 ()a3 ()xl ()as . ()a3 ()x2 It can be proved by a routine procedure that (M i M 2)* = ~~.(dxl)2 + (dx2)2 + (dx')2 =. In other words.MATRIX METHODS IN ELASTIC DEFORMATION THEORY 39 i. Then the differential relations 8·2 can be written in matric form as (8.dX* dX. . The adjoint M* of a matrix M is the matrix obtained from M by interchanging the rows and columns of M.dsl = 2 dA*H dA. . dsi .. ()zk ()zk 1/IiJ= (. !>EFmmON. the adjoint of the product of two matrices is the product of their adjointB in the reverse order.dsl = dA*(F*F . dX* = dA*F*.1) dA. The square of the differential line element in the initial state is (8·7) dsl = dA* dA (= dA*I dA.
lJ.. 0 if i ¢j. when H = 0. 01 where 1 if i = j. Let be the elements (more commonly called components in elasticity theory) of the strain matrix H. by definition.). . On using result 8·5 and definition 8·9. 8·1. i. for the strain matrix H we obtain H = i[(Y* + I)(Y + 1) .6. we see that "v f1V = !(t 2 a'i = ()xk A:=l ()at ()ai 2>x1' . This property then justifies the terminology "strain matrix H" since H measures. the amount of strain or deformation undergone by the medium.... It is clear from definition 8·9 that the 8train matrix H is a trymmetric matrix. we have. . A glance at g·10 shows that a neces8ary a:IIIl w:fPcien1 condition that the change of the medium from the initial to the final 8tate be a rigid displacement is that the 8train ~ H be a zero matrix. Hence. a rigid displacement of the medium from the initi8. Xi  a'.. In other words. U=XA FIG. the medium is not deformed or strained but is merely transported to a different p0sition by a rigid displacement. in a sense. from definition g·9.1 state to the final state. H = II "ii ".. Let u' .40 MATRIX METHODS IN ELASTIC DEFORMATION THEORY Now. d8i for all particles of the initial state and for ail dA.e. if d8i . then Define the matrix and obtain the relation F = V +1.
the components 'IiJ of H are given by the familiar f / 'I" = + 00 ). to the degree of approX'imoJ. the strain moJ.ri. Hence.x is given by H = l(V*+ V) in rectangular cartesian coordinates. \1 2 001 00' !(oo From the symmetry of 'Iii there are thus in general five distinct components of the strain matrix in three dimensions while there are three components for plane elastic problems. In other words. .MATRIX METHODS IN ELASTIC DEFORMATION THEORY 41 Expanding the righthand side gives H = ![V*V + V*+ YJ. In the classical infinitesimal theory of elasticity only firstdegree terms in : : are kept.ion contemplated by injinifaimal theory of elastic deformations.
42 a. Notation and Summation Convention. we must embark on some formal preliminaries including some matters of notation.. "'.2t. The vague beginnings of the tensor calculus. x" • (9·2) Xl as = ~.."PART II. . With few exceptions. 1/. as we shall see. It is worthy of notice that the tensor calculus is a generalization of the widely studied differential calculus of freshman and sophomore fame. x8 = Z. The systematic investigation of tensor calculi by a considerable number of mathematicians has taken place since 1920. Before we begin the study of tensor calculus. devote two chapters to curved tensor calculus in connection with the' fundamentals of classical mechanics 8 and fluid mechanics. are developed and have tlieir being in plane and solid Euclidean space. " ' .w. = X. + ). We shall. = ). Consider a linear function in the n real variables x. Z. The result was an undue emphasis on the tensor calculus of curood spaces as distinguished from the tensor calculus of Euclidean spaces. TENSOR CALCULUS AND ITS APPLICATIONS CHAPTER 9 SPACE LINE ELEMENT IN CURVILINEAR COORDINATES Introductory Remarks. = w. It is for this reason that we shall be primarily concerned with Euclidean tensor calculus in this book. w (9·1) Define ax + ~1/ + 'YZ + al = a. . as = 'Y. or absolute differenti8J calculus as it is sometimes called. a detailed study of the classical differential calculus along a certain direction demands the introduction of the tensor calculus. In fact. :tJ = 1/. can be traced back more than a century to Gauss's researches on curved surfaces.:. 88 studied and used by aeronautical engineers. " ' . The subjects of elasticity 1 and hydrodynamics. however. the applications of tensor calculus were confined to the general theory oj relativity.
NOTATION AND SUMMATION CONVENTION
43
We emphasize once for all that xl, Xl, " ' , x· are n independent variables and not the first n powers of one variable x. In terms of the notations of 9·2 we can rewrite 9·1 in the form 
(9·3)
oras
(9·4)
The set of n integer values 1 to n is called the range of the index i in 9·4. A lower index i as in ai will be called a subscript, and an upper index i as in Xi will be called a sUperscript. Throughout our work we .. shall adopt the following useful summation convention: The repetition oj an index in a term once as a subscript and once as a superscript wiU denote a summation with respect to that index over its range. An index that is not summed out will be called a Jree index. In accordance .with this convention then we shall write the sum 9·4 simply as
(9·5)
aiX'.
A summation index as i in 9·5 is called a dummy or an umbraZ, since it is immaterial what symbol is used for the index. For example, ap;; is the same sum as 9·5. All this is analogous to the (umbral) variable of integration x in an integral
I
b J(X) dz.
Any other letter, say y, could' be used in the place of x. . Thus b LbJ(y) dy = J(X) dz.
I
Aside from compactness, the subscript and superscript notation together with the summation convention has advantages that will become evident later. . . As a further illustration of the summation convention, consider the square of the line element
(9 ',6)
dIP
=
dz2 + dy'J. + dz2
in a threedimensional Euclidean space with rectangular cartesian coordinates x, y, and z. Define
(9·7) and (9,8)
yl
= x, y2 ... y, 'II = ,
•
44
SPACE LINE ELEMENT IN CURVILINEAR COORDINATES
Then 9·6 can be rewritten
(9·9)
or again (9 ·10) M = 8'1 dy' dyi with the understanding that the range of the indices i and j is 1 to 3. Note that there are two summations in 9·10 one over the index i and one over the index j. Let f(x 1, :ct, "', X") be a function of n numerical variables Xl, x 2, .. " x"; then its differential can be written
d.f = ()X, dx' 'bf 'I
with the understanding that the summation conuention has been extended as to apply to repeaied flUperscripts in differentiation formulas. We shall adhere to this extension of the summation convention. It is worth while at this early stage to give an example of a tensor and show the fundamental nature of such a concept even for elementary portions of the usual differential and integral calculus. This will disp~, I hope, any illusions' common among educated laymen that the tensor calculus is a very "highbrow" and esoteric subject and that its main applications are to the physical speculations of relativistic cosmology.
80
Euclidean Metric Tensor.4 In the following example, free as well as umbral indices will have the range 1 to 3 as we shall deal with a threedimensional Euclidean space. Let (9·11) x' = f(yt, y2, y8)
be a transformation of coordinates from the rectangular cartesian coordinates y1, y2, y8 to some general coordinates Xl, :ct, x8 not necessarily rectangular cartesian coordinates j for example, they may be spherical coordinates. The inverse transformation of coordinates to 9·11 is the transformation of coordinates that takes one from the coordinates Xl, X2, x8 to the rectangular cartesian coordinates yl, y2, y8. Let (9 ·12) y' = gi(xl, :ct, xli) be the inverse transformation of coordinates to 9·11.
NOTATION AND SUMMATION CONVENTION
Example
Let yt, y2, 11 be rectangular cartesian coordinates and xl, x2, :r;8 polar spherical coordinates. The transformation of coordinates from rectangular cartesian to polar spherical coordinates is clearly 1/8
Xl =
v' (y1)2 + 0l)2 + (11)2
l X2 = COS (
Y(yl)2 + ~2)2 + (11)2)
FIG. 9·1.
The inverse transformation of coordinates is given by yl = Xl sin x2 cos xl y2 = Xl sin x2 sin:r;8 11 = Xl cos x 2• The differentials of the transformation functions in 9 ·12 may be written (9·13)
.3_a dy'· = "'II u;c • ()xa
~.i
On using 9·13 we obtain, after an evident rearrangement, the formula
(9 ·14)
dIP
=
&; 2>x"' 2>xI' dx
X2,
8
8
?>gi?>gi
a
d3!.
If we define the functions ga6(xt, ables Xl, x2, zS by
:r;8) of the three independent vari
(9·15)
, g...A(XI X2 zS) = ~ .... " ~ ()xa 2>xI'
X2,
?>gi ?>gi
we see that the square of the line element in the general xl,
nates takes the form
zS coordi
(9·16)
ds2
= gtr# dx"' d3!
This is a homogeneous quadratic polynomial, called quadratic differential form in the three independent variables dxt, dx2, dxB. Caution: Once an index has been used in one summation of a series of repeated summations, it cannot be used again in another summation of the same series. For example, g.... dxa dxa has a meaning and is equal to gll(dxl )2 + g22(dx2)2 + gaa(dzS)2, but that is not what one gets by
fJ) be the' transformation of coordinates from the general coordinates Xl. fJ) = golJ(xl .. Let (9 ·18) x' = Fi(r.ble repeated summation in 9 ·16.LINE ELEMENT IN CURVILINEAR COORDINATES carrying out the dou. xa by means of the law of trans formation 9·S0. xl. xl) of the square of the line element 9·16 in the Xl. Zi. XI be any chosen general coordinates. EO Now let r. za respectively are related by. x2. x 2. za by g.(x l . xl. xl. fB) dX. xl c0ordinates are related to the coejficients golJ(x1. In each coordinate system with coordinates Xl.J coordinates.ent8 golJ(x l . a glance at the definition 9 ·15 shows that golJ g{1« for each a and /3 and hence glJ = gSI. xl). f2. with the aid of the definition 9·20. we obtain. xl. Zi. 9 ·16 stands for (9.. Zi. f8 to the general coordinates Xl. xl. The factor 2 in three of the terms in 9 ·17 comes from combining terms due to the fact that golJ is symmetric in a and /3.. Z)f. atG Define the functions g.means of the characteri8tic rule 9·20. and if the transformation of coordinates 9·18 from the x's to the x's has suitable differentiabiZity properties. Zi.. xl.(fl . f2. :!' are two arbitrarily chosen sets of general coordinates.17) {dB' co gU(dXl)1 + 2glJ dzl dz2 + 2g18 dzl dz8 + gll(dx2)2 + 2g..(r. f2. f2. xl. f2. then the coeJfici. gl8 = ga. xl. not necessarily distinct from the general coordinates Xl. and the components of the Euclidean metric tensor in any two coordinate systems with coordinates Xl. dx' . which gives the square of the line element in the Xl. xI)()Z. we have a set of functions golJ(xl . the formula (9·21) ds2 = g. Expanded in extenso.. Zi.. xl and r. f2..46 SPACE. :J!S. at ?n!' G Then. g18 = gn. We have thus arrived at the following result: If Xl. 5. dz2 dz8 + gaa(~)2. .. (9·20) xa) of the three variables :J!l. xl and Xl. xl. zS. Clearly the differentials dzG have the form (9·19) dzG = ()Z" d£'. called the components of the Euclidean metric tensor (field). XI) oj the 8fJUf13'e of the line eZemem 9·S1 in the coordinates Xl. if we use 9 ·19 in 9 '16.
(d:l. zI. zI) .. ga(z1. sinI ~ . z8) .. x2). AnatDer. x2) will.. zI... zI) co cosl zI + sin2 zI .zl cos zI. V (1/1)1 + (11')1. Hence ~/ /# (x 1. the line elements dB in rectangular coordinates ul. ... The line element dB' ... and the components of the plane Euclidean metric tensor gajJ(x1.I)1 + (zl)l(dzI)l. an (11') • v~+~ Y 2 . Find the components of the (space) Euclidean metric tensor and the expression for the line element in polar spherical coordinates. lIz'~ + liz' ~. ZS) = gajJ(x1. 9·2. 1.. { 11' .{/e oJ the i1lllice8 is 1 to 2. ~ll1zi ~ Therefore 111 FIa. gu(zl. zI) = (cos zlX _Zl sin zI) + (sin zI)(Zl cos zI) = 0 = gn(zl. For example.. gn(ZI. (zl)l(sin zI)t and aJl other g. (d:l. Zl sin zI. y2) d82 = (dy1)2 + (dy2)2 will become dst = gajJ(x1. ()yl ()yl / X2 "'' gi/. so that dB' . zI. Find the components of the plane Euclidean metric tensor in polar coordinates (Zl. y1 . z8) . We now have two coordinates instead of three so that the ra1l.undergo the transformation g. which in the usual notation is written dB' .(ZI)I.NOTATION AND SUMMATION CONVENTION 47 An analOgoUS discussion can obviously be given for the line element and Euclidean metric tensor of the plane. z8) .I)1 + (z1)1(dzI)I + (Zl)l(sin zI)I(dzI)l. (In(z1.. x2) : : ::.. gaa(Zl. zI).(a twodimensional Euclidean space).. x2) dxt% tbJ in general coordina.z1.. zI.tes (Xl. gajJ dz"' d:rP in polar coordinates (z1.. Z2) is then dB' . Exercises 1.(X1. d zI . zI) and the corresponding expression for the line element. {Zl .X~ ::/' 2 ?iyt%?)yt% ()yI ()yI . D . drS + rI dD'. 1. zI) '" (_Zl sin zI)' + (Zl cos zI)I = (Zl)l.i.•ZI.. z8) 0. guCzl. I.
:.~ OO'Y ()a' C'Y'?)zCl ~. oJ be the curvilinear coordinates of a representative particle in an elastic medium. Let (10·1) be the square of the line element in the medium. 48 . TENSOR FIELDS. 10·1. and let Xl. a2. Aliother interesting example of a tensor is to be found in elasticity. Let a1. E. In terms of the coordinates written r the line element 10·1 can be (10·4) where (10·5) hatJ = ds2 .CHAPTER 10 VECTOR FIELDS.2. r be the coordinates of the representative particle after an elastic deformation of the medium. and let (10·2) ds2 = g~ dxCl dz'l be the corresponding square of the line element in the deformed medium induced by the elastic deformation whose equations are (10. as). Xl. On subtracting corresponding sides of 10·2 and 10·4 we find (10·6) = 2E~ dx'" d3!. a". FIG. :.3) x· = f(at.2. AND EUCLIDEAN CHlUSTOFFEL SYMBOLS The Straia Tensor.? Mali".
An object is called a contravariant vector field (an equivalent terminology is contravariant tensor field oj rank one) if in each coordinate system there corresponds a set of three functions. called a component. x2. EafJ are the components of a strain tensor. Xl.. Contravariant Vectors. Because of the characteristic law 10·8. If then we calculate d82 . X2. x 3) ()x. _ (10·10) E'(il .SCALARS AND VECTORS 49 if we define EaB by (10·7) Now EaB are functions of the coordinates Xl. such that the relationship between the components in any two coordinate systems is given by the characteristic law (10 ·11) . An object is called a scaktr (field) if in each coordinate system there corresponds a function. f3). and Covariant Vectors. XI) = '1. ~) coordinates respectively is x8) = s(xt.~ = Z"EaB dZ" di!.~ in any other curvilinear coordinates Xl. XS) = ~(Xl. x8.lO·~) . :rr. x8) coordinates and (ii. fI.. such that the relationship between the components in (xl. x8 ) C>ii' ()x'" It is to be noticed at this point that the laws of transformation 10·10 and 10·11 are in general distinct so that there is a difference I between the notions of contravariant vector field and covariant vectOr . We shall have a good deal to say about the strain tensor in some of the later chapters. such that the relationship between the components in any two coordinate systems is given by the characteristic law (10 ·9) 8(XI. (xl . and because EafJ in 10·6 is a measure of the strain of the elastic medium. XI. we would obtain by the method of the preceding chapter d82 . EaB are the components of a tensor (field). ' ~i An object is called a covariant vector field (an equivalent terminology is covariant tensor field oj ranJc one) if in each coordinate system there corresponds a set of three functions. We shall now begin the subject of the tensor calculus by defining the simplest types of tensors. i2. fI. where (. Scalars. called components.joW. X2. za. called components. xl.
and the components in any two coordinate systems are related by characteristic transformation laws. :ct. called tensor fields (of various sorts). _ ()z?nJ' _ ()zen! Mixed Tensor Field of Rank Two. To shorten the statements of the following definitions we shall merely give the characteristic transformation law of components.p(xl . called covariant index. Contravariant Tensor Field of Rank Two. z8) ()z>. £8). (10·15) t. Covariant Tensor Field of Rank Two. (10·14) ia. z8) ()x>. £2. if orUy redangtdar cartesian coordinates are considered. whose components in any two coordinate systems are related by a characteristic transformation law. z8) and any other roctangular coordinates (i1. £2. In all three objects .scalar fields. (i 1. We have to consider other objects. ~ = t}.Again because of relation 10·12. Tensor Fields of Rank Two. Before proceeding any further with the development of our subject.()z". However. ta. (10·13) ()z>?nJ' Xl. It is for this reason that the notions of contravariant as distinguished from covariant vector fields are not introduced in elementary vector analysis. £8) = ~(X1. It is worthy of notice at this point that the indices in the various characteristic transformation laws tell a story which depends on whether the index is a superscript. tJ. tJ. and covariant vector fields . or a subscript. it would be illuminating to have some examples of vector fields and .50 VECTOR FIELDS AND TENSOR FIELDS field. Xl. contravariant vector fields. .8(X1. £8) = F(x 1. Xl.en! . called contrrwariant index.8(il. the difference between the above three types of tensor fields is nonexistent as long as one considers orU1} rectangular cartesian coordinates. That the characteristic laws 10·10 and 10·11 are identical in rectangular cartesian coordinates follows from some calculations leading to the' result (10·12) between rectangular c~rdinates (Xl. this distinction disappears. z8) ()z.there are components in any two coordinate systems.~.
5. XS. then the "gradient" : . Suppose that the motion of a particle is governed by the differential equations dx~ di = ~'(zt. which is precisely the contravariant vector field rule. Xi. uX ' x2. One of the first fundamental problems in the tensor calculus is to extend the notion of partial derivative to the notion of covariant derivative in such a manner that the covariant derivative of a tensor field is . We gave two examples of a covariant tensor field of rank two: the Euclidean metric tensor and the strain tensor. we have the mixed tensor field with constant components 8'3=0 in the x~ coordinates. Z2.Xi ()X~ chi ()x' di = ()zi di = ()zi~i(X1. An important example of a scalar field is the potential energy of a moving particle. Xi) = 0 if a ¢ ~ =1 if a=~.v.(xt. In other words. xl) in the x' coordinates by the rule _ ~'(xt. If Xi = /. xl). xl).(Zl. but they are also the same constants in all coordinates. Perhaps the most important example of a contravariant vector field is a velocity field. f8) = &"?n! ()zX ?n!' ()XG = ?n! ()z)" Hence 8.. A little later in the chapter we shall give an example of a contravariant tensor field of rank two. XI) of the velocity field in the Xi coordinates are related to the components ~~(X1. f8) ()Xi = . If 8(Xt. not only are the components constant throughout space. . . xl) is a 'transformation of coordinates to new coordinates x'. then (/. :ct. ~) is a scalar field. xl).2. Thus the components ~i(Xt. X2. where t is the time variable. are the com pon~ts of a covariant vector field.~i(X1. the g«P associated with the Euclidean metric tensor gafJ' As an example of a mixed tensor field of rank two.MIXED TENSOR FIELD OF RANK TWO 61 other tensor fields. :ct. But if a¢~ =1 if a=~ 1 ~ x ()z" ()if" 8'3 ( x. z2.
2)2fi oo:i ()x" = o. Hence (10·17) a set of con. xl) are cartesian coordinates and (Xl. then (10·19) On difierentiating corresponding sides of 10·19. ()E'" C>:r! + C. xi. if field. . then the partial derivatives of any tensor field behave like the components of a tensor field under a tranSformation of cartesian coordinates to cartesian coordinates. we obtain ()~. f8) are any other cartesian coordinates. . Hence on using 10·18 in 10·20 we obtain ()~i C>E'" ()xfJ ()fi (10· 21) ()zi = C>:xfJ ()fi 00:'" ' which states that the partial derivatives : : behave as though they were the components of a mixed tensor field of ranJc two and this under a transformation from cartesian coordinates to cartesian coordinates. . then it can be shown that for suitable constants aj and ao (10·16J is the transformation of coordinates taking the. So the fundamental question arises whether it is possible to add corrective terms C. It is true that. suppose that (Xl. The presence of the second detivative terms in 10·20 in curvilinear coordinates Xi shows that the : : are not really the components of a tensor field.52 VECTOR FIELDS AND TENSOR FIELDS also some tensor field.cartesian coordinates x'to the cartesian coordinates Xi. if one restricts his work only to cartesian coordinates (oblique axes). (all zero in cartesian coordinates) to the partial derivatives (10·22) ~ so as to make . E'(~. ()2xi C>:r! But both Xi and Zi are cartesian coordinates. 5:'. xi. xl) are the components of a contravariant tensor ()E'" ()x! ()xi C>:r! ()fi 00:'" (10·20) ()fi = + E'" ()x'" ()x! ()fi' .For example.stai:tts. and so (10·18) Now.
where. xli).(xl. Let gap and ~ be the components of the Euclidean metric tensor and its associated contravariant tensor respectively in the Xi coordinates. gl3 g21. ga. f8) = igw(?JU"fj + ?JU__ C>gafJ).gafJ(x1. ()2X" ()xi . = r".xt% ih!.. (10·29) r!.. called the Euclidean metric tensor. Now it can be proved that the determinant 3 (10·24) Define g= gn. xt. ga(J are the components of a covariant tensor field of rank two. xl') are related to the r~(w.2. in the present terminology...s(i1 X2. gm gal. Define the Euclidean Christoffel symbols r~(x1. and the possibility of the corrective terms depends on the existence of the Euclidean Christoffel symbols. We saw in the previous chapter that the element of arc length squared in general coordinates takes the form (10·23) d82 . X2. (10·25) ffP= Cofactor of g{J« in g g . The answer to "this question is in the affirmative. xl) as follows: (10.28) ii' afJ (w i . g'J.g C>xt% + ?)g. X2. gaa ~O. of rank two with the JoUowing properties: (10·26) ffP = t/" t/"gv(J = ~ (equals 0 if a ~ ~ and 1 if a = ~). f8) . 2 . 2 EucUdean Christoffel Symbols. X2. one can calculate the law of transformation of the r~(x1.EUCLIDEAN CHRISTOFFEL SYMBOLS 53 the components of a mixed tensor field of rank two for all contravariant fields r'. XI) by the foUowing famous transformation law: 4 _. Then if we define (10. it can be proved that the functions ffP are the components oj a oontrOJJariant tensor jieUJ.27) r'afJ (X1" xt xl) _ 1 w(?)gv(J . w.2._ ?)gap). As the notation indicates. i:)Xt% b5! ()i'" we can prove by a long but straightforward calculation that the r'ap (Xl. g32. ()x" C>x" Since the law of transformation of the components gap and gaIJ are known. xl) under a general transformation of coordinates X· = f(x 1. X2. xl) d. " ()x" ()xP ()Xi xI)()xt% ()xfJ ()x" + ()xt% ()xfJ ~.
W ~i This formula is often found. '::II ~. We have then immediately the iinportant result that the Euclidean Christoffel symbols r~(xl./. Thus the Euclidean Christoffel symbols for the plane 1Dill be (10·32) r'a{J(xt. If the yi are cartesian coordina~ and the Xi are general coordinates. Since we have two coordinates for a point in the plane.ruites. and the range of the indjces will be from 1 to 2 instead of 1 to 3. i is not a contravariant index and a. xl) . xl. Since all the Euclidean Christoffel symbols are zero when they are evaluated in cartesian coordinates yi. xl. fJ are not covariant indices. be studied in plane geometry . 11') and in the inverse transformation of coordinates y' = q. xB). x') for the plane. xl.1 o:rr 8 ()y.1(xt. to be more convenient in computations than in the defining formula 10·27. coordinates x' are given by the simple formula (10·31) r'a{J(Xl. '::~ = 0 in cartesian coordinates x'. . The alternative expression in terms of the derivatives of the transformation .. = l: IT. xB) are identically zero in cartesian coordinates. Caution: The Christoffel symbols are not the components of a tensor field so that i.  :a:) in terms of the Euclidean metric tensor ga{J(xt. The concepts of tensor fields and Euclidean Christoffel symbols can. all components of tensors and the Christoffel symbols will depend on two variables. X2)(~~ + ':. it follows that all the components ga{J(x1. . .twodimensional Euclidean space.e. one can calculate the Euclidean Christoffel symbols r~(xt. xl) = igio'(Xl. by the obvious changes.. X2.. In other words. xl. i. if the x's are ca:rte~n coordi. it follows immediately from the transformation law 10·29 that the Euclidean Christoffel symbols in generaJ. ()y. y2. Consequently. xB) are con8tants. xB) directly in terms of the derivatives of the transformation functions in the transformation of coordinates Xi = Ji(yl. xB) = ()x" WfI ~. a.VECTOR' FIELDS AND TENSOR FIELDS In the previous chapter we saw that (10·30) ga{J(x1 xl. and fJ are not tensor indices. where the VS are rectangular cartesian coordinates.
.. xi) and of the inverse transformation functions will be . '" n '" 0. 0.(xl. It :e1 I\ . r:... Exercise Compute from the definition 10·32 the Euclidean Christoffel symbols for the plane in polar coordinates... . ~. bx' (10·33) r~. . . (:t~i Answer. :pl . gO '" gil '" 0. xi) = CY. gat . ....r!" ?Jx" ~. It '" 0. ~ .. r:a . b2y). 1. Then cheok the results by computing them from 10 ·33. 1 . rectangiUar coordinates (yl.. o... Hint: Use results of exercise 1 of Chapter 9 and find (fl .EUCLIDEAN CHRISTOFFEL SYMBOLS functions from. y2) to general coordinates (xl..
This result holds for every differentiable con (11· 2) ~i(X1. ():rJ" ()Xi ()t ()x" ()x' >. we are now in a position to give a complete answer to the fundamental question .on the extension of the notion of partial differentiation.l1 TENSOR ANALYSIS Covariant Differentiation of Vector Fields. . xi.. XS) = t(x 1.~ ()x. . .1) ()~'(Xl. travariant vector field with the understanding that the r!. By hypothesis we have  are the components of a mixed tensor field of rank two. Xl. = .enunciated in the preVious chapter . xl) ()x>. ()Xi I:. . . xl) are the Euclidean Christoffel symbols. by the wellknown rules of partial differentiation. ()2Xi ():rJ" ()x>. ():rJ" ()X'" • ()2X>' (11·4) r'ja = r!..' ()Xi If we then differentiate corresponding sides of equation 11·2 we obtain..CHAPTER.()X>. called the c0variant derivative of ~i.i_ in the first set of terms and 56 . = ():rJ" ()x. ()Xi . xi' xl) ~ X. + ~I' ():rJ" i:)ii ()X'" ()i' ~ ():rJ" ()X' ()x' on using ()x. xi. We shall use the notation ~. ~i (11· 3) We also have ()x_.. >. xl) + r' .~ for the oovariant derivative of ~i. ()X'" cnt + ()xi ()XCI ()iA' ()Xi ()2x>' ()Xi If we multiply corresponding sides of 11· 4 by ~i and sum on i we obtain (11· 5) r~' = r. xi.(x1. Having shown the existence of the Euclidean Christoffel symbols.()x>' + ~ ()x. xi. xl) (Xl ""( 1 ()xCI . We shall now prove that the fu'fU'Ji008 (11..
By a slight variation of the above method of proof. As in the case of tensor fields of rank two. r1a are the Euclidean Christoffel symbols.3 and 11.r ()x~ ~)()x" ()Xi .r ). We shall use the notation ti.. and II. This completes the proof of the result stated at the beginning of this chapter.J1 = ()f + r . As before. called the covariant derivative oj Ei. .r ()x' ).J1 = _. • But 11·9 states that the functions ()f ()x" are the components of a mixed tensor field of rank two. Tensor Fields of Rank T = P + q.. ()£" ()x).. we can add corresponding sides of 11. we obtain (11·S) ()x~ ()x" ()~i ()Xa (Pii ()x)' ()£" + ()x)' ()Xi ()£" ()x~ = ()x" ()Xi 0 and hence 11· 6 reduces to (11· 9) + rj...are summation indiceS. it can be established that the Junctions (11·10) are the components oj a covariant tensor field oj rank two whenever Ei are the components oj a covariant vector field. i = {I 0 if i= a.14 a. if i.)()x)' + r. ()t + r .a for the covariant derivative of ti.5 and obtain ()Z" ()E' . Contravariant of Rank p and Covariant of Rank q.. _. It is conyenient at this point to give the definition of a general tensor field. Since).in the second derivative terms of 11· 5. and II. the definition will be . + r j. On carrying out the renaming of these umbral indices. differentiating 11· 7 with respect to x~. we can interchange ).TENSOR FIELDS OF RANK R = P +Q 57 in the second set of terms. (Px)' ()ii On.. ()x)' ()£" (11· 6) { + E~ ()~ ()31' ()f'" + ()x~ ()ii ()f'" ()x" ( ()2Xi ()x" ()Xi (P31' ()Xi) • Now (11·7) where 8.
contr(Jf)(Jriant of rank p and covariant of rank q + 1. (I1'''~. 2 In fact.I.I.:.I. we can consider the covariant derivative of the latter tensor field./Ia"'~\9' II. 'Y defined by : 'l': . r."". whether . " The fundamental questiun arises whether covariant dijJerentioJi. since all the Euclidean Christoffel symbols are zero in cartesian coordinates. 'Y.'''<110 m . til) = 7'1::::1:(X1 .. H ence if *.e.·"Up(••l .r" (I1'Y.. fJI"'~. +J.'Y' The answer i8 in the ajfirmative..:===:. (I1·"~. '.:..... *maa'''Up (••1 • . ••• ~ x···· ()x')'1 ()x'YfI ()r ~fI We are now in a position to considet: some problems that arise in taking successive covariant derivatives of teruror fields... 'Y will be called the covariant derivative of ~:::.J.. II!:'Y = ()x'Y + ~~.I."..'Y. "'Up .{Ja"'fI.. we can consider its second successive covariant derivative 1'.••• .12) { '''U ()1'.I.a) _ .""..:.tive of vector fields. ()X" ()x" (11·11) r. .2 • . However. i."Ih"'~ .::::.~.I... . Since the covariant derivative of a tensor field is a tensor field.. we must first say a word or two about the formula for the covariant deriva. contravariant of rank p and covariant of rank q.' •• Up u./Ia"'~ • ()y'Y ()y' . t .fJI'''~ the cartesian coordinates y".fh"·~ .. ~ CIpIcr cz."'Up (11 • 13) ."". tnCIl ••• '1':: =:."". 'Y.\9 .58 TENSOR ANALYSIS clear if we give the law of transformation of its components under a transformation of coordinates. + .. .cIJt n1CIl ••• n1CIl. is the original tensor field. called the second covariant derivative of the original tensor field.. then the functions ~ =:. II. the partial derivatives of all orders of the Christoffel symbols are also zero in cartesian coordi• nates.•• . The above result 1 stating that the covariant derivative of a tensor field is indeed a tensor fiE!ld can be proved by a long but quite straightforward calculation analogous to the method of proof given for the covariant deriva."".8) are the components 0 f . II . we find with the obvious repeated use of formula 11·12 that . (11.I.t" are the components of a tensor field of rank p + q + 1.tive of a tensor field.I. if '1':::::. If ~:::~ l!re the components of a ten80r field of ranJi p + q.:z:2.:. In symbols.' =. II :"2*..'''Up ... :J!»?»}.3 • .on is a commutative operation.::::~(Xl.I.
. are zero. in all coordinate systems.. Exercises 1.. Perhaps the most important property of tensor fieJds is the following: II the components 01 a tensor fie7il.. we have gil.r! j. The mixed tensor a..PROPERTIES OF TENSOR FIELDS 59 In other words. they vanish likewise in all coordinate systems.. Similarly..eW. are evaluated in cartesian coordinates. prove that the following formula (reminiscent of the differentiation of a product in the ordinary differential calculus) holds: 7'#. then. 0 in cartesian coordinates. S... See equation 10·26 for the definition of the tensor gil. _1'cr and since the gil are constants when evaluated in cartesian coordinates.g. ~fJ + >. if 7'#7 is a mixed tensor field of rank three.06 and Pall. show that ~ is a covariant vector field. Properties of Tensor Fields.>. gil. k = ()xk C>gii .. is defined by 7'# '" >. and hence the tensor equation gil.~ in terms of the two tensor fields >.7 . whenever the ten80r ji. .. This result follows immediately on inspecting the law of ·transformation 11·11 of the components of a tensor field.II'" 0 holds in aU coordinates throughout space. without further calculation. we have the result that 8UCCe8sive covariant derivatives 01 a ten80r ji.~fJ.::::~ = 0 holds good in one coordinate system.r field. and the operations. a 8.1 if i '" j and B. one can demonstrate that a tensor equation T.. M: .gcrjJ. If the tensor field T'. 0 if i . consider the covariant derivative gil. k . since. reduce to partial derivatives 01 the tensor fie7il. .eW.a... If.~. or at a set 01 points) in one coordinate System. it will necessarily hold good.k of the Euclidean metric tensor. then show that T: is a scaJ. Provethat the covariant derivatives of gil and of a. If 7'# is any tensor field. '\" .. ik' . For example.. Now. vanish identically (or at one point.
:tA. we can call We remarked in Chapter 10 that. X2. ()fl ()z2 c>XI .CHAPTER 12 LAPLACE EQUATION. to complete the picture of covariant the covariant derivative oj the scalar fie1d 8(xl. :tA. a terminology 60 . . we shall mean an object with components whose transformation law difiers from the transformation law of a tensor field by the appearance of the functional determinant (Jacobian) to the wth power as a factor on the right side of the equations. ()X2 . ()fl . if 8(XI. !. For example: C>Xl C>XI . xl) is a scalar field. z2. is a covariant vector field. . ()fl ()f2 {'W. xl). WAVE EQUATION. we have the previous notion of a tensor field. X8) = . difiere1'ltiation. . z2. ()fl ()f2 C>xl .. . :c2. If w = 0. ()f1 ()X2 ()X' ()x3 ()x2 ()x2 C>xa ()x3 r(xl. xl) ()f8 C>xl '" ()f8 C>X2 and C>xl C>xl . ()fl ()z2 ()x3 ()x2 C>x2 ()f8 ()x3 8(Xt. ()fi XI)C>x" ()f8 are the transformation laws for a relative scalar field of weight w and a relative contravariant vector field of weight w respectively. AND POISSON EQUATION IN CURVILINEAR COORDINATES Some Further Concepts and Re~ks on the Tensor Calculus. For some discussions it is convenient to extend the notion of a tensor field.. then :i So. By a relative tensor fie7i oj weight w. XI) = . A relative scalar field of weight one is called a scalar density. . ()f8 ()x2 §(fl.
. ()xc ()xb (12·1) ga{J = gab ()x ~. Let g = ga{J the determinant of the ga{J.. . determinant of the partial . In fact. ()y' c>#' ()x'" . . then V = f f f dyl dyl dr. Another important example of a scalar demity is given by yg. denvatives ~.dxB. (12·5) V = f f f J dx1 dx 2 dx8. one can prove that (12·2) I I. By a double use of the formula for the product of two determinants when applied to 12 ·1. Hence. On taking square roots in 12·2 we obviously get (12·3) v'g = I:: Ivg. where I:: I ()xc g= stands for the funct~onal I ()X'" ()xc 12 g. xl. xl) dx1 dx2 . z2. Now ga{J(x1. z2. z2) of the solid or fluid by m = f f fp(xI. If y' are rectangular coordinates. In fact. The yg enters in an essential manner in the formula for the volume enclosed by a closed surface. the mass m is related to the density function p(xl.FURTHER CONCEPTS AND ItEMAItKS 61 suggested by the physical example of the density of a solid or fluid. where the triple integral is extended over the whole extent of the solid or fluid. XS) = s c>y' t. which states that yg is a scalar density.. where g is the determinant oj the Euclidean metric tensor ga{J' In fact.. This form for the volumecan be calculated readily by the following steps. the formula for the volume in general curvilinear coordinates X' is given by the triple integral (12·4) V = f f fyg dx1 dx2 dx3. where J stands for the functional determinant I:~I of the transformation of coordinates from the curvilinear coordinates Xi to the rectangular coordinates y'.
.e. :r.INEAR COORDINATES g= and hence j. In other words (12·6) yg . (12·7) g H ".8) of the medium.. :r!.. In fact. zS.T on using the obvious relations (12·10) . zI.cr.. Clearly p(Zl...I1 and hence the desired result (/"". zS) is an absolute scalar field that defines the (physical) density of the medium at each particle (Zl.. Since the formula for volume in general coordinates z' is given by 12·4 it follows that the mass mof a medium in general coordinates z' has the form m = f f f Po(Zl.a.. :r. :r!. ffP = CQfactor of gpa in g. z2.(zt.. r. Z3) is a scalar field. since Vi = 1 in rectangular coordinates.fJ i8 a scalar fieM.. i.N ~if" ()ffl (12·8) 1/ . Other concepts and properties of tensors will be discussed later in the book whenever they are needed.a8 = . xa)Vi is a scalar density and. Laplace's Equation.. :r!. ~~ ~:t" (J5fS ()ffl ~~.8)yg dz l d:l!2 cJx3. then the second covariant derivative "'.~cr~ZT ~~""'fJ=r"'.he determinant I g~ I is precisely equal to J2 on using the rule for the multiplication of two determinants. where Po(Zl... Now we can show that ~"'. xii) = Po(z!. fI ~~:t" (12·9) On multiplying corresponding sides of 12·8 and 12·9 and summing on a and ~. J. xii) of the medium in rectangular cartesian coordinates. we obtain ff'V..62 EQUATIONS IN CURvn.. has the same components as the density Po(zl....fJ is a covariant tensor field of rank two. from which the formula 12·4 for the volume becomes clear. Let ~ be the contravariant tensor field of rank two defined in Chapter 10.
:r.3)".place differential expression occurs in them..."". ~~ xl) _~~x" z2 xB). xl) = 0.7 deftMd in terms o/the Euclidean metric tensor g~. xl) is the contrauariant tensor field lS. SimUa. could be made for the wa.ve equation and Poisson's equation since the La. '11') + ?P*I/t(yl.14) 1/ x . y2... we evidently have .r rema. xl.. II .(x1. X2. which is sometimes more useful in numerical calculations than 12 ·14. the Euclidean metric tensor has components 6~ equal to 0 for a ¢ ~ and equal to 1 for a =~.. and hence in rectangular cartesian coordinates. where g"fJ(x1. { v'i gall?» ) . '11') • 'I' . xl) is also a sca. '11'). y2.r field.*(zl.r field "'(Xl.. We have just shown that F(x1.1 2 • . If we write 12.Ia. y2. xl. y'. ya) (by1)1I + ?P*I/t(y1.. It is given by _~ C>z'" ?xrfJ . ?¥if' CY/ The component of the scalar field F(x1.O. xl) i8 th£ second covariant derivative oj the 8calar field ".place's equation in ourvilinear ooordinates z. xl. xl.(Xl. xl).(Xl.rks vg . of Laplace's equation in curvilinear coordin0. Hence the form. t There is another form of La. xl)..(x1. . (0. xli.G. For a. xI)(CJlI/t(xt. It is worth while at this point to give an example of Laplace's equation in curvilinear coordinates and at the same time review several concepts and formulas that were studied in previous chapters. Y .13 explicitly in terms of the Euclidean Christoffel symbols rjA. xl. xl.3) = ?p*"'(y1. '11'). we saw in Chapter 11 that in cartesian coordinates. and where ". xl») ( 1 ():J!' = 0 as the/arm of Laplace'8 equation t in curvilinear coordinates Xi. .pter 13.P II .. xli. In rectangular cartesian coordinates.t6s x· wiJJ& the scalar field ". xli.. y2.. (by2)2 «()y8)2 the Laplacean of the function *I/t(y1. y2. x8) in rectangular coordinates y'is then or (12·12) ?P*I/t(yt.Ia. xl) as unknown i8 given by (12·13) ~(Xl. Furthermore.a8( 1 xli (12. proof see note 3 to Cha. xl).(X1. xl.. xl.LAPLACE'S EQUATION 63 Let (12·11) for the arbitrarily chosen sca.
or cot x2 (Xl)2 ()xt = 0 or . we find (12·18) gll = I.. (dx l)2 + (Xl)2(£lx2)2 + (Xl)2(sin x2)2(dx8)2. 1. x2.64 EQUATIONS IN CURVILINEAR COORDINATES Let yt. Again. cot x . xl).19) ):r ~112 = Iii = Xl' = r:l 1 r 2 83 = SIn X" •• cos X2.. rk = _Xl (sin x2)2.1sed). 12·1. The Euclidean Christoffel symbols caD. I CilI/I 1 CilI/I 1 CilI/I (()xl)2 + (Xl)! (()xt)2 + (Xl)2(sin x2)2 (()x3)2 + Xl ()zl + 2. xl is ~d all other rjA> = o. and all other gi.17) d82 .."'/ I .. use either formula 10·27 or 10·31. so that the line element d8 is given by (12. { 11 = Xl cos x2. xl = tanI From the definition of the Euclidean metric tensor g. 11 be rectangular cartesian coordinates and Xl. (12·20) whenever fhe unkTlQ'lJ}'T/. from the definition of the tensor g«6.. Clearly the inverse coordinate transformation is given by Xl = V (yl)2 + (yI)2 + (11)2 Z2 . we find that Laplace's equation in sphericaJ. xl polar spherical coordinates defined by the coordinate transformation Yl = Xl sin X2 cos xl. g22 = (X~)2' g33 = (Xl)!(S~ x2)2 ' and all other gil = O..A (ZI Zl Z8) " I I x = 2 cos{v (yl)2 + ~)2 + (yI)2) (~)FIo.Junction is a scalar fleW. (12·15) y2 = Xl sin x2 sin xl.. 2 On using 12·18 and" 12·19 in 12·14 (r~. They are as follows: r~ . g22 = (Xl)2. gaa = (XI)2 (sin x2)2. x2. r~ are the only nonzero Christoffel symbols that are actually 1. t/I(xl . now be computed in spherical polar coordinates. ~28 = r:a . _Xl. ~12. if'. 13 =~. x2..i = 0. rk.{J we find (12·16) gll = I. polar coordinates Xl.
To be specific.. t) «)y3)! and hence in curvilinear coordinates x' ( 12. the wave equation is ()2*u(yI.WAVE EQUATION 65 Laplace's Equation f~r Vector Fields./1"(1 . We now turn our attention to the related problem of considering vector fields whose individual components satisfy Laplace's equation in rectangular coordinates./1. If we expand 12·22 explicitly in terms of the Euclidean Christoffel symbols r~(xt. hydrodynamics. X2... 11. x8) with components *N1f. In rectangular cartesian coordinates y'. r.8). By practically the same type of argument used in deriving equations 12·13.r . Wave Equation.11. let the unknown be a contravariant vector field Nxl.8 will satisfy the system of three differential equations (12·22) where ~~~ is the second covariant derivative of ~i(Xt. .1/ . 11.£ . ()2*U(yl. t) + «)y2)2 +. By hypothesis (12·21) «)yl)2 + «)y2)2 + «()y3)2 ()2*~i ()2*~' ()2*~i = o. x2. y2. xi. x8) in curvilinear coordinates Xl. 11. t) ()t2 ()2*U(yl. The propagation of various disturbances in theory of elasticity. and electrodynamics is governed by the partial differential equation known as the wave equation. as a little reflection will now show./I at" • ()f' i • r' + ( ()r!. The question arises whether each component of the vector field will satisfy Laplace's equation 12 ·14 in curvilinear coordinates Xl. we find that the contravariant vector field ~i(Xt..a6 . x8) we find J ()2~' r"~' ul()x" ()xIl . :r. t) _ . xl. 11) in rectangular cartesian coordinates.r«p ()~ )I!IJ 10 = 0. 11... a system of three differential equations in which all three unknowna ~ occur in each differential equation. :r. 11. ()/J r. X2. ~t. xl.8.. 11. + ri. xl. '1. :r. theory of sound.25) ()2u(Xl. t) «)yl)! ()2*U(yl. The answer is in the negative.«P ()x" (12·23) + ri ()r "(1 ():J! + r.. (12·24) 11.
Christoffel symbols we obtain t ~ (12. xB. IIi rectangular cartesian coordinates Vi. t) ()2u.lthand side of 12'25. . If we write 12·25 explicitly in terms of the Euclidean . 11') «()yl) 2 + ?P*tp(yt. 11') «()y2)2 + ?P*tp(yt. t For another form of the wave equation. (12. t) = ~tt rf'( ()2u _ I'! ?nf CY. y2. or equivalently of 12·26. f. Note that 12·29. xB. ()2u(xt. t). see Exercise 1 at the end of the chapter. f. 11') «()y3)2 "" _4r*O(yl. 11'). Laplace's equation has the form 12·20.26) ()2u(xt. is the Laplacean. . Hence. t) that depends parametrically on the time t: (12·28) on using the corresponding result 12·23 for Laplace's equation.y.r! ~ ~" ()u).. As a final exercise in this chapter we consider Poisson's differential equation. immediate}. xi. y2. Poisson's equation is ~(yl. we find that the wave equation in c:u:roilinear coordinate8 x' takes the foUnwing form whenever the unknown is a comravariant vector field E'(xt. 1 ()2u W = (~l)2 + (xt)2 (~xi)ll + (Xl)2(sin xi)2 (~)2 (12·27) 2 cot xi +.It is to be observed . xi. we see that the wave equation has the following form in spherical polar c0ordinates .66 EQUATIONS IN CURVILINEAR COORDINATES where u . and ~ and not just one differential equation satisfied l a by the three functions E. X2.is a system of three differential equations for the three l unknowns E.30) yl. xi. and E.1J is the second covariant derivative of the scalar field U(Xl. yl.. xB. ()u ()u By exactly the same calculations as we used in obtainink Laplace's equation for contravariant vector fields in curvilinear coordinates. 1 ()2u..that the rigl.i ~1 + (Xl)2 ~. Poisson'S Equation. xB. If the Xi are spherical polar coordinates.
we can derive corresponding results for Poisson's differential equation. t) = 1 btl Vii c{Vii gafJ ~) <n'" • 2.POISSON'S EQUATION 67 On the righthand side of 12·30. t) as unknown can be written as i)2u(ZI. xl) is obviously a scalar field. 11) is the component in rectangular coordinates y' of a scalar field (12. xl) "" p(Xl~ xl). 1. X2. the r~ are the Euclidean Christoffel symbols in the X' coordinates. z2. y2. y2. *U(yl. zI) as unknown can be written as 1 _r v g ~(Vii gafJ ~) <n'" = 4rcr(zl. z2. t In most physical problems p(ZI. r). xl) is a scalar density. P0i8son's differential equation in curm'linear coordinates x· will be p(XI.2. with scalar . where p(Xl. z2.2. z3)yg. u(xl. z2. xl) (12·34) whenever the unknown is a scalar field ". the scalar field U(Xl.31) U(Xl. On making use of our calculations for Laplace's equation.jI{zl. z2. where po(Zl. :r. we see that in rectangular coordinates 100 (12·32) *g(yl. For example. z3) = po(Zl. zI. 11) = 0 1 0 = 1. . z2. Exercises :r. . xl) and the scalar density have equal components in rectangular cartesian coordinates. X2. 001 Hence and consequently (12·33) In other words. t Since yg is also a scalar density. zI). z2. Show that Poisson's equation in curvilinear coordinates z. X2. z3) is an absolute scalar field and represents the physical density of a medium. z2. Show that the wave equation in curvilinear coordinates z· with scalar u(Zl. From the definition of g as the determinant of the gafj.(Xl. zI. As before.
Obtain Laplace's equation 12·20 in spherical polar coordina.tes from the fol .68 EQUATIONS IN CURVILINEAR COORDINATES 8 •. O. . . = . Obtain the wave equation and Poisson equation in spherical :olar coordinates on using the form of these equations given in exercises 1 and 2 respectively. lowing form of Laplace's equation: vf 1b( vfg«#~) i)x'" . 4.
p = p(yl. 69 . pressure. we shall write the famous N avierSt0ke8 differential equations in curoilinear coordinates. coordinates. density. If we then make use of the results of the previous chapter on the form.CHAPTER 13 SOME ELEMENTARY APPLICATIONS OF THE TENSOR CALCULUS TO HYDRODYNAMICS NavierStokes Differential Equations for the Motion of a Viscous Fluid.inuity. and y3 be rectangular cartesiar. .' The expression within the pa~nthesis in 13.u" ~ ( Cl2u i ()2ui ()2ui \ bu' + :3 ()yo CI~) ~ P ()yi p CI (bu~ ()P + Xi ' + CI(pU'") ~ =0 • The last difierential equation is the equation of C01/J. t). VIscoSIty. 11. of body force per unit mass. which expresses the requirement that the mass of any portion of the liquid is conserved. y2. Let yt. .2 is ~e Laplacean of u'. Xi Xi(yl. p = kinematic . y3. . y2. t). As an interesting application of the covariant derivative of a tensor field in hydrodynamics. t). y2. For a nonviscous fluid. contravariant vector components Then the motion of a viscous fluid is governed by the four NavierStokes difierential equations. I (13·2) bui Zit = Clp CIt v «()yI)2 + «()y2)2 + «()yB)'A) . 11. y'A. '" = coefficient of viscosity. the contravariant velocity comt p (13·1) ponents of a viscous fluid. a constant. '" = 0 and hence p = 0. time. p(yl. 'II. y2. t). = = p '" = . the NavierStokes equations reduce to the Eulerian hydrodynamical equations. and let u' = Ui(yl.
... z2. = o. gil = 1...fJ _ ... = vti . Examples ... and all other .. .1.1! We ~w it.'U ia . 3 P "l)p "l)t + (pu«) ... r).... gaa = (X l)2 (sin z2)2.1_u.70 ELEMENTARY APPLICATIONS of the Laplacean in curvilinear coordinates... .·6 is often more useful in the calculation of the divergence than formula 13·5. r~ ()Z.. = 0.. We have used the evident formula u:. 1 "l)(Vg u'") "l):rf where'g is the determinant oj the Euclidean metric tensor gcrfJ' Formula 13...) "l):r! "fJU  .. 1 g ()z. If we expand the covariant derivatives..r' r' ) U.. ()Z.1 .. the NavierStokes diBerential equations take the following form in curvilinear coordinates x' 00' _ . 00" ~ = vg~L~" ~ + r~ ~ 00' + r!. U U.fJ _! gicr ~x" + Xi.. we can write the N avierStokes differential equati0n8 in cunn1inear coordinaJ.] (nfJ IF< . &J! .all' (13·3) ()t .. where... 0 000 (1?·4) ni ... ()u.6 we see that the equation of continuity Jor a moving fluid toke8 the Jollowing Jorm in curvilinear coordinates Xi: (13·7) . ~( fJ) ()P + ~ gicr ()x'" 'U. polar coordinateS. if the ... " "l) + 3gicr ~(OOfJ + ~ .U. U.. ... (13 • 5) ·110.. " "l)p ()t + "l)(pU'") + r:.l the last chapter that. g'12 = (XI)2. crfJ + ("l)r~ +. .. ' = ~ ()u" + . as before.:m.es x· as J b2u' . (00 + ni. + ap X.." .) . With the aid of fOl'Llula 13..."II . "l):rf It is of interest in itself as well as in the above expanSIons to have equivalent expressions for the "divergence" in c"rVilinear coordinates. commas denote covariant Qifferentiation based on the Euclidean Christoffel symbols r~(xl.fJr' .x· are spherical. but it can also be proved that 3 (13·6) u..
As another exercise. See A. (Xl)2. + u 2 cot x2 ) = O. D.'" +~. t whose components depend on the coordinates of several points in space. g= and () log g 4 ~=Xl' 0. called multiplepoint tensor fields. we may take the x' to be cylindrical polar coordinates so that Evidently gu = I.MULTIPLEJ. 0. 18·1. Transactions oj American MIJtiI8. Hence the determinant g = (Xl)2 and we find readily t. gas = 1.POINT TENSOR FIELDS gil = O. r 12 = r 2l = l' and all other rjA. t The first systematic research on multiplepoint tensor fields was initiated by the writer many years ago. matical Society. These calculaX tions for the Christoffel symbols are very much simpler than the corresponding ones in Chapter 12 for spherical polar coordinates.= () log g ()x2 2cotx2 = O. and all other g. 0. to consider generalized tensor fields.. (Xl)2(sin xI)2 .. = O.be equation of continuity in cylindrical polar C()(J'fdi nates Xi FIG. 29 (1927). It is possible. so that the Euclidean ChristoffEll symbols can easily be computed and found 2 2 1 . Perhaps the simplest example of a twopoint scalar field is the distance between two points. MultiplePoint Tensor Fields. g22 = (Xl)!. Michal. g22 = (X~)2' gas = I. pp. to be rk = _Xl. and all other gil =.+ p ():r!' ()(pua) (2U  1 Xl.. 612646. however. Hence 71 I.0. ul = O. . vol. ()p ()t + ()(pua) ()x.. ' The equation of cuniinuity in spherical polar coordinates Xi then become8  ()p ()t + . o o = (Xl)4(sin xl)! () logg ()x8 0. t The tensor fields that have been studied so far in this book have components that are functions of the coo:tdinates of only one variable point in space. Incidentally gU = 1. 2. = O.
the . Consider the partial derivatives of 8(XI. %s) be the distance between two points having general coordinates (x~. Xs). lA.. ~. is) = 8(XI. ()x2' This shows that the partial derivatives 13·13 are the components of a twopoint tensor field: a covariant vector field witb respect to the second point and a scalar field with respect to the first point. if both points YI = (y~. ~) respectively. xr) and (~.15) S(XI. Obviously 8(XI. ~. Of course. ~) = d(xt. ()S(~l' ~) Difierentiating 13 ·14 we" obtain ()X. Each point may not necessarily be referred to the same coordinate system. Y2) = V=±(Yi'yi)2. b8(Xl. i=1 Another simple example of. . 1A) are referred to the same rectangular cartesian coordinate system. %s) ~ ~. %s) is also a twopoint scalar field. a twopoint tensor field is obtained as follows. . Xs) with respect to the coordinates of the second point (13·13) b8(XI' Xs) ~ Now under transformations of coordinates 13·8 and 13·9 of the two points. Under transformation of coordinates x: (13·S) and (13·9) the components of distance transform by the rule (13 ·10) d(XI. may . yr) and Y2 = (y~. then the distance is given by the wellknown formula (~3·1l) dWI. we know that (13 ·14) (13. FIG 13·2 For example. be spherical cooidinates while the ~ may be cylindrical coordinates. X2) is the above twopoint distance scalar.. ~. Define (13·12) where d(XI. Xs)..ELEMENTARY APPLICATIONS Let d(Xt. If both .
a contravariant vector field with respect to each of the two points. a contravariant vector field with respect to eooh of the two point. XI) be the contravariant velocity field of a fluid in motion. XI) have the same components . ft) = F(Xl. XI) is a twopoint tensor field: a contravariant vector field with respect to the second point and a scalar field with respect to the first point. we shall call it the (twopoint) correlation tensor field. ~.3 ·18) i . The transformation law for the components of su$ a twopoint tensor field are (1. Xl. AB in the other examples. . Xi) ~ and S'(Xl. Xl = (x~.gA.~).(t.( ) M[~. XI)J} l where gaJj(x1. XI). x~) and XI = (~. xt. X1W'(t. then from 13·11 we see that (13·16) If we define (13·17) then obviously S'(Xl.  y~ . For example (13·19) .20) . xt. XI) is a twopoint tensor field of rank two. xt.(t.. then . XI)E"(t. We shall denote the mean value of a function f(t) of the time t over the time interval (to. XI)] is a contravariant vector field..P) is the Euclidean metric tensor in the general coordinates X'. Xl. t1) by M(f(t)]. .TWOPOINT CORRELATION TENSOR FIELD 73 points are referred to the same recta1l{JUlar ca1'te8ian coordiMte system. XI)] C'1 X 1 X1 . It is evident that CH(Xl.(t.&(xl)M[t(t.(Xl.C>Xl • ()Xi >.• m that rectangular coordinate system. by (13. x1)E. If both points are referred to the same rectangular coordinate system. Xl)J} l { gpq(XI)M[M:(t.J t <:>xi ""'2 A TwoPoint Correlation Tensor Field in Turbulence• Let ~i(t. y~ .~. We shall have occasion to consider a twopoint tensor field of rank two. Define a set of functions CV(X1. Clearly M[~.{ . If both points are referred to the same rectangular cartesian coordinate system. XI) of two points. then both twopoint tensor fields ()s(xt. the two points need not be referred to the same coordinate system.
131138. If we now assume that we are dea. pp. 4 (1937). yl). ." Journal oj the Aeronautical Science8. the above in rectangular coot. vol.Ut~ in terms of the notations ul = ~'(t. and equal. ys).dinates is the correlation tensor used by Karman in isotropic turbulence.ling with the special case of i80tropic turbulence. the correlation tensor field 13· 21 in rectangular coordinates simplifies still further and has components !M[ulun 3 M[(uP] on using the isotropic turbulence conditions that M[(ui')2] is independent of position and the index a. to M[(U)2]. See his paper entitled "The Fundamentals of the Statistical Theory of Turbulence. say.74 ELEMENTARY APPLICATIONS the e6rrelation tensor field has components (13·21) M[ul. Except for the numerical factor i. t4 = ~'(t.
In the next three chapters we shall considet. particle in an elastic medium. xl.1 One of the most natural and fruitful fields of application of the tensor calculus is to the deformation of media. Let (la. to assume that the representative umtrained particle A is represented in a coordinate system not necessarily the same as the one in which the corresponding strained particle X ill represented. Consider a threedimensional medium (a collection of point particles) in threedimensional physical Euclidean space.. Tensor indices with respect to 75 . 2 Sa) be the curvilinear coordinates of a representative a. and of som~ importance for the mathematical foundations. a oneone point transformation a ~ x. and let (xl. For example. 2a. la. The deformation. We shall adopt the following notational conventions with respect to onepoint and twopoint tensor fields. 8a). 8a may be cylindrical coordina~ while xl. 2 a. We need not and shall not make the uSual approximations of the classical ("infinitesimal") theory in the general development of our subject. xl. the fundamentals of the deformation of elastic media.CHAPTER 14 APPLICATtONS OF THE TENSOR CALCULUS TO ELASTICITY THEORY Finite Deformation Theory of Elastic Media. elastic or otherwise. 14·1. given by difierentiable functions (14 ·1) x' = J'(la. xl) be the curvilinear coordinates of the representative particle after deformation. will be MSumed FIG. It is convenient. We shall consider a deformation of tile medium from the initial (unstrained) to its final (strained) position and obtain the strain tensor field under less stringent restrictions than those imposed in Chapter 10. xl are spherical polar coordinates.
undergo the transformation (14·4) Similarly raIl = "'a'(J @ ~~ Cf": (14·5) . For example.. z3) (14·3) = in the unstmined and strained medium respectively. 2a . ()aa ()X" is a twopoint tensor field of rank two. under transjormati0n8 oj coordinates ia . iq. the initial and final squared elements in terms of the final coordinates Xi and initial coordinates ia respectively are r ~ .... ds2 = gC</J(x) dx'" ~.)(. ~(a)(a:za)(rfJa).x") ....xr)("a..(la. under a simultaneous transformation of the coordinates ia of point A in the unstrained medium and of the coordinates Xi of point X in the strained medium. the twopoint components ra. <.8 ()xe  CYa is a twopoint tensor field of rank two. Let the initial and final squared elements of arc length in curvilinear coordinates be given respectively by ... (1 4· 8) 'ds2 = pqk(dpa)(d'la).....7) { (14·9) We are now in a ~ition to write down the change produced by the . The relationships (14·6) (ra. {d~ . Sa) { Xi ""(xl . =1 if r=8. (14·2) ra. Clearly.. In other words. :6. where (14.) = are clear" where a: :a=6~{=O ~ r~8.X" . covariant vector field with respect to point A and contravariant vector field with respect to point X. hcrrdx" dx . xl. contravariant vector field with respect to point A and covariant vector field with respect to point X...76 APPLICATIONS TO ELASTICITY THEORY transformation of coordinates of strained particles will be written to the righJ" and tensor indices with respect to transformation of coordinates of unstrained particles Will be written to the Zejt.
. Similarly. c) and (x.. Equivalently from 14 ·12 we have: a nece88ary and sufficient co1ulition for.~ = 2f.se(a». If the 8ame rectangular cartesian coordinate SY8tem is used for the description of both the initial and final positions of the elastic body. y.. x'.(x) a. the EUlerian strain tensor reduces to (14·14) Ea. a rigid motion is the vanishing of aU the Lagrangean strain components. c) the representative initial and final particles respectively.e.. b... b. Strain Tensors in Rectangular Coordinates. we find (14·12) where (14·13) d. "". The Eulerian strain tensor wiU often be referred to as the 8train tensor. z) for the rectangular coordinates in the same coordinate system of (a. we have In fact. Clearly ~(x) is a covariant tensor field of rank two in the "8trained" coordinaJ..8l. in terms of the (14·10) where (14·11) d. We have chosen this terminology in analogy with the two viewpoints in hydrodynamics represented respectively by the Eulerian and the Lagrangean differential equations of motion. 'We shall call Eat1(X) the Eulerian strain tensor and "".T/(a) the Lagrangean strain tensor.es Xi while ""'fI (a) is a covariant ten80r field of rank two in the "unstrained" coordinates ia.of formula 14·10 we find the following fundamental result: A necessary and sujficient condition that the elastic deformaiion of the medium be a rigid motion (i.T/(a)(rl'a)(d"a). These results justify the use of the word "strain" in connection with the tensor fields Ea. in terms of the coordinates i a.ds~ = 2"".. a degenerate deformation that merely di8places the medium in space with a preservation of distances between particles) i8 that the Eulerian 8train tensor components be zero.e(xt.14·2.x'" rbfl.a ~a\ In terms of the usual notation (a.STRAIN TENSORS '17 deformation in the squared arc element.'l(a).fI(a) = i~k(a) . xl) = 2 6afJ  1( ~ ():rf" ~r 8 ()). coordinates Xi. AB an immediate consequence. we have Unstrained StniiMd FrG.8l..e(x) and "".
14·17 yields the Jo'fiqwing wellknown Jormulas Jor the strain tensor: . and w are considered negligible. 2 >. Hence. v. the squares and products oj the partial deritJatitJ68 oj 1£.n strain tensor reduces to (14·16) ~1J= l:~._~ Cf"a CIa K 8()x~~ ) (14. to the degree oj appro:cimation considered in the cla8sical theory. Similarly the Lagrangea.78 APPLICATIONS TO ELASTICITY THEORY (14·15) .17) In the classical theory (the usual approri:mate theory) oj elastic deformations.
dV = v7J dx dz2 dx3. where haIJ is given by formula 14·9. One of the first fundamental questions that arises is the manner in which volumes behave under a deformation of the medium. 12• From this (14·22) and (14·23) dVo = v'h dx1 dx2 dx'. by 12. dto = >. we have I I.. (14· 19) dVo = VCOJad2arJ8a. The element of volume in the unstrained medium is. I is the determinant of the ~~. I I. Formulas 14·20 and 14·23 imply that (14. where g = gaIJ the determinant of the gaIJ' In terms of the "strained variables" Xi.. (14·20) ~ Unstrained 1 /\9.24) dVo = dV Vg 10. .79 (14·18) ew=' ()y Ea ()tJ =. 14·8. Let us now return to our deformation theory without making the approximations of the classical theory.pc (a) Now a}'a d"a = haIJ(x) ~ rbfl. Evidently the determinant h of the haIJ is given by h = c 1 G a. where c = ~ the determinant of the atfJ. L/ Straiftsd FIG. Similarly. (14·21) where I Ga.4. ()z ()w Change in Volume under Elastic Deformation.
there will be two variables Xl. 14'15. we first recall the definition 14·11 and obtain hafJ(x) = gafJ(x) . and 14·18 for the Eulerian strain tensor will be respectively as follows in elasticity theory in the plane. On raising the indices with the aid of the g"'iJ.80 APPLICATIONS TO ELASTICITY THEORY Define (14·25) and thus obtain (14·26) . On using 14·29 in 14·28.. however. etc. = 0. It is clear.2E6 .. by an application of the properties of ga/J and g"'iJj see formulas 10·26. For example. we see that a rigid motion preserves fJolume8. the strain tensor EatJ = 0 and hence E. In all the formulas. From 14·26 we compute (14·27) h=gl h6 I. where the mixed tensor field e. . of rank two is defined by (14·30) e. Hence. = O. with rigid motion of the medium. where 1 h6 1 is the detenninant of the h. we evidently have (14·29) h6 = 6'. from 14·31 and e.(x) = g""(x)e. . x2. we have immediately d Vo _ fT""':'::I (14·28) dV = v 1 h. 14'17../J(x). h: = rh~ hafJ = g. We have developed the fundamentals of elastic deformation an'd strain tensor in threedimensional space.2EatJ(x).li. we arrive at the important result that the ratio of the element of oolume of a set of particle8 in the UnstTained medium to the element of oolume of the corresponding particles in the strained position i8 given in terms of the strain tensor Ea/J(x) by means of thefoUowingformula (14·31) Notice that.. the indices will have tqe range 1 to 2. and the consequent summations will go from 1 to 2. formulas 14·14. On using 14·24.. that everything we have said can be taken over for the corresponding elastic deformations in the plane. I· To express this ratio in terms of the strain tensor EatJ.
X 2) =  1( 81 2 8o /J  ()>'a ()>'a) :E . Discuss the change in volume elements. >.32) ~(Z1.. 14·4.te system. .. than unity. zt. zS) when the deformation of the elastic body is a stretching whose equations are Zi = A ia (A is a constant greater than unity) where both Zi and ia are rectangular coordinates referred to the same rectangular coordins. 2. Stn&in«l ()y Exercises 1.34) where 'U = x . Work out the corresponding problem in plane elasticity. Find the components of the Eulerian strain tensor fo!J{zl.) = ()tJ EvZI fw=' Unstrained FIG. Work out exercise 1 for a contraction so that the constant A is les.VOLUME CHANGE UNDER ELASTIC DEFORMATION (14. ()x'" CY:r! 2 1 (14·33) (14. ()x (14·35) Ezv = ~(~ + ~.a and tJ ()u E:==I = Y b.
of the gall and Eall' • We shall now prove that the three fUnctions 11. I I E~ 1·1 :: . from which follows that II is a strain invariant on recalling that e. and I. EI!J. " ' . I a = A. where II = III e:.2E. ElIl.. From the law of transformation of the mixed tensor field E. En. i8 the 8ame functiun of the gall and f. If we expand the threerowed determinant I h.211 + 411 . XI) = e:(xl . xl). where the functiun f. faa) = f(Uu.'U be called a 8train invariant l if (a) it i8 a scalar field. gl!J. we find (15·1) I a. on the right.12. "'. we first observe that ~ . = sum of the principal tworowed minors in the determinant A= (15·2) I e. I. and I. on the left.p.CHAPTER 15 HOMOGENEOUS AND ISOTROPIC STRAINS. "'. EU. gill. I = I ~ I . we obtain Ie. gsa. A function f(un.\ :: . gas. occurring in the expansiun of the determinant 15·1 are 8train infJariants. we have by hypothesis E. To prove that Ia is a strain invariant. Hence I e. To prove that Is is a strain invariant. I. AND VARIATION OF STRAIN TENSOR Strain Invariants. "'. 5!. ill.ions of coordinates Xi to Xi (15·3) I(ou. . and. faa) of the Euclidean metric tensor gall and the strain tensor Ea/J 1JJ1.2f. gl!J.. STRAIN INVARIANTS. we readily get E:(r. its. = (f'e.s as it i8. X2. gsa. "'. (b) under aU tramformal... Eaa). "'. I = i . On taking the determinant of corresponding sides.8Ia. 82 . = But the product of the functional determinants is equal to unity. is a strain invariant. (x) = ~(x) ()x" ~Z" bi! ~~ .
. But. In rectangular coordinates. Let us now discuss the mathematical description of a homogeneous strain. (Keep in mind that 11 I" and 18 are three scalars and not the three components of a . Le. the condition reduces to ~~ = 0 sinc..2E$ I . .2E$ is itself a pleted for ~ strain iwariant. dVo • • COVarIant vector.1 + 211 + 8IsJ. dV 18 a numencal constant for all coordinates.818 . = a constant. the strain tensor components Ea{J in rec tangular coordinates are comtants for a homogeneous strain. On using the results 14·31 together with what we have just proved. Hence. Hence obviously Is is itself a strain invariant. = tcl a. Homogeneous and Isotropic Strains. which gives the ratio of the element of the volume of a set of particles in the unstrained medium to the element of volume of the corresponding particles in the strained medium in terms of the three strain iwariants 11. from the expansion 15·1.HOMOGENEOUS STRAINS 83 is a mixed tensor field of rank two. It readily follows from the definition of the strain invariants 11."by the argument just comwe see that the determinant a. .8Is. 'Y = O. DEFINITION OF HOMOGENEOUS STRAIN. . We thus arrive at the important result that for a homogeneous strain (15·6) VO V = VI  211 + 41. f or a homogeneous stram. . A strain is homogeneous if the corresponding strain tensor Eafj has a zero covariant derivative. I I (15·4) I. I" and Ia. we obtain the result dVo _ / (15·5) dV = v 1 . Formula 15·4 expresses Is as a linear combination of strain invariants with numerical multipliers. In other words. we see that I I. ) H ence. Eall. I" and Ia that for a homogeneous strain ()I i ()xi = 0 in rectangular coordinates and hence in all coordinates. This constant is the 'same for all "unstrained" volumes'Vo and their cor .e all the Euclidean Christoffel symbols are identically zero in rectangular coordinates. .211 + 41.
2e)I.2e)1 we have (15·11) and (15·12) E E 1 . approximately.) Since the strain is homogeneous. and is independent oj eM coordi1UJt8 system. Since (1 . 1aV . . 'Y = O. We shall now outline the proof of the following theorem. A neceB8Q. we see by an evident calculation that for an isotropic homogeneous strain (15·9) The constant scalar by the formula (15·10) in terms of anyone volume before and after deformation. we have ~.ing "strained" oolume8 V.81s = I 0. 3t. see Chapter 14.e. i.  I.84 HOMOGENEOUS AND ISOTROPIC STRAINS reaporuJ. an isotropic medium subjected to the same pressure in all directions. in terms oj . Hence E in 15·7 and 15·8 is a constant Scalar field. ~o = 1 _ =3 V 1 V .. We also have (see the end of Chapter 11) g~:'Y = O. '3 = EI3 or what amounts to the same thing (15·8) ~ = E{/~. Since 15·6 holds and 2e.Vo = 3V 1aV = 3 Vo ' approXImately. A Fundamental Theorem on Homogeneous Strains.211 + 4I~ .3E. a numerical constant that is independent of position and the coordinate system. In the usual approximaie theory (usual theory of elasticity) higher powers of E than the first are negJected. An example of an isotropic homogeneoqs strain is found in an is0tropic medium subjected to uniform hydrostatic pressure. approximately. V Vo = (1 . For the special case of a homogeneous strain which is also isotropic at each point. the Euclidean metric tensor. for an isotropic homogeneous strain is given = 1 . (g~. we shall have (15'7) .ry and sujJicient con4ition that a strain be homogeneous is that.
.r /Ja..'l = ..HOMOGENEOUS STRAINS 85 'Unatrained cartesian coordinoJ.r . /Ja..()xl' a. OutUne of Proof.'lP' /J On equating the corresponding sides of 15·14 and 15 ·17..'l 2L()"a ~a r:la . we have 1&"Il = g. . we find (15.'l  ~ er a. 0......'lp' ()xr ()x'l a.Il (x).'l (x) = ~}(Cla. Expanding the covariant derivative in hp'l..r (x) = 0.r a. (15.r = 0.p}(/Ja.. and rearranging.pl' a.pi' lIa = . 0.tf .r /J' + artJC CIa.pl' /Ja..es era and strained carlelrian coordinate8 yi. i.F a.. and since under our "necessity hypoth~" EfJ'l... we obtain the vanishing of the covariant derivative of h.20) .e. _. But by definition h. /Ja.~era. rearranging.().r . Hence (15·17) ~ ~ °a. and interchanging p and q and fJ and O!. we obtain (15 • 18) er /J artJC a.c] era lIa :a .r.a) so that the x· are the independent variables and the era are the dependent variables. .Il + ()artJCera. we find (15·14) where (15·15) Since (15·16) the right side of 15·14 must be symmetric in p and r. From the definitiol) of the strain tensor ~.13) = OAt y' + CIA.p Adding corresponding sides of 15 ·17 and 15 ·18 there results (15·19) Recalling that the artJC are functions of the unstrained coordinates "a..'l =  ()~era. CIa crp.Rr' er a.'l  2E.Il . th£ deJormaUon i8 Zinear..'l ()xr ~ er a. /Ja.!r~ + ().r /Ja.a /J ()~er = .'l' Since g"'l..
) when evaluated in " strained" cartesian coordinates yi and tt unstrained" cartesian coordinates iz respeetively. we see that 15·22 reduces to (15·23) {)y" ()yr ()2t1 z = O. In other words. we arrive readily at the interesting result (15·22) "a.p Cla.()"f a 01 "f a. Now 1&"Q(X) = aIP(a)(Cla. Hence ()*1&"Q(Y) ()yr = O. i.... of type 15 ·13. or strain.fIr and from the vanishing of the Euclidean Christoffel Symbols r}k(X) and ~~(a. . we have by hypothesis that the deformation. we need to consider deformations that depend on an accessory parameter t. the .. if we mUltiply corresponding sides of 15·21 by ~".x Q and summing on q.r (x) = o. *1&"i.. Now from the definition 15·15 9f Cl a.a ()~ ~] 2i. In preparation for the subject matter of the next chapter. From' 15 ·13 we have ()CIz _ CIA ()yP p and hence the components *1&"Q(Y) in cartesian coordinates yi are ~ven by .ad . is given by a linear transformation 15 ·13 in cartesian coordinates iz and yi. on homogeneous strains.r (x) = 0 and hence the covariant derivative E"Q. To prove the converse part of the fundamental theorem.strain is homogeneous..p' Finally. and the proof of the theorem is complete.. This implies that the deformation is linear.. But this condition implies that the covariant derivative 1&"Q. we obtain (15·21) .:r(a) are the Eudidean Christoffel symbols based on (he Euclidean metric tensor ~(a) in the untJl:rained coordinates ia.r a.c CI __ a.ClAp (JA Q.c + ()CIa _ (). a set of constants. Variation of the Strain Tensor. where .)(fJa:Q) and alP are constants a(/l in cartesian coordinates.:rea) "fa.86 HOMOGENEOUS AND ISOTROPIC gI'RAINS Multiplying corresponding sides by ..r.F  !p).1/) =.fIr = .e...
dr".. aJ(x) = DJ(x) for a sca.p)(fJa.. (15·29) = Cl~['"a. If Xi (la. 2a. = Obviously ag.)..fJ.CI dr".(aX.fJ.) and applying formula 15·28 we find ah.• is the covariant derivative of J:::.' From this.. So let the coordinates x· of a representative particle in the strained medium depend on the coordinates 'a of the corresponding particle in the unstrained medium and on the accessory parameter t. = If J::: (x) is any tensor field in the strained medium. h..e may be written (15·27) Since &l("a) (15·28) Recalling that O. and from the definition of the strain tensor faIJ and the related formula..la. Moreover.la.p) (aXl:)..J> fJa.h. which can be put in the convenient form ahp'l = h.a dr"..a(ar")... define aJ::: (x) by lI. To have a wellrounded notation. Clearly.fJ.9(X) = afjC(a)(Cla. if the Xi are cartesian.(ax").r(ax'").p. where J::: . or"" Hence D(dxI') = or"(a~) . o which implies the tensor equation (15·26) a(dxI') = (a~).fJ.fJ..J. an evident calculation using 15·26 shows that = "a. = 0. + Cla."'8a .). = 0.r J(x) in general coordinates Xi.· Let (15·24) be the partial difierential of (15 ·25) Xi in t..r·· X UJ '" () J'" i D x. since g.p . aJ::: = DJ:::. t) have continuous second derivatives. • .VARIATION OF THE STRAIN TENSOR 87... which in dynamical problems can be taken as the time t. Hence the above tensor equation = a(dxl:) a("a. define ax" = Dx" and refer to ax" as the virtual di8placement vector.. ( o'Q r"). then from the commutativity of second derivatives D( ~) '0 = o(a~) = o(a~) . .(aX.
rigid or not.gJ. Exercise Calculate the three fundamental strain invariants for a homogeneous isotropic stre.~..p.[e. (15·30) 8e./orm:u'la/or the fJO:riati. (15·33) 8pgTl = ![(&xa )".gJ . we find (15·32) 8(d82) = [(8xa ). For the sake of completeness. calculate them in rectangular cartesian c0ordinates..88 BOMOOENEX>US AND ISOTROPIC STRAINS we arrive at the/v/nda'fMnta1.in..sticity. we shall write down the formula (without giving the derivation) for the variation of the Lagrangean strain tensor pgTl under an arbitrary virtual displacement.g (x) = ![(8xg).p + ep (8x. This formula becomes (15·31) 8Epg(X) = ![(8xg)... . Hence the virtual displacement vector must satisfy K~'Uing'8 differential equations for a rigid virtual displacement (8za ).1? g.J d:r!' d:rP for any virtual displacement. On using formulas 15·26 and 15·27 in an evident calculation. Hint: since they are constants. = O.] p.p + (~) ..+ (8x/J) .p + (8xp). Returning to our finite deformation theory.(8x.p + (rb:p).J within the a'P'JYfOXimati0n8 0/ the usual approximaJe theory 0/ eW..). we define a rigid virtual di8p~ by the condition 8(M) = O..on 0/ the atrain tenaor. ). + (8x/J)..
Let S be the bounding surface of a portion of the elastic medium in its strained position. dSs " Vg d(xa. v are the surface parameters so that the parametric equations of the surface S are given by Xi = fi(u. z. volume.pf the rod as cut by a horizol). The surface element of S may be described by means of the covariant vector dSr . dB. dBa = vg d(xl. ELASTIC POTENTIAL.z. Let dB be the magnitude of the surface element. y. xl). :rJ1) = .. 89 . Xl). i. An example of a surface force is the tension acting on any horizontal section of a steel rod suspended vertically. or mass forcetl. 00 ()x ll ()iP ()v (}. Exercise Prove that dSr is a covariant vector under transformations of the coordinates Xi. There are other kinds of forces called body. then the action of the weight of the lower part of the rod is transmittep to the upper part across the surface of the cut. the components of the covariant vector dSr are given by dBz = d(y.. AND STRESSSTRAIN RELATIONS Stress Tensor. v). Hint: use the fact that yg is a scalar density.:r!).P yg d(XS.z.CHAPTER 16 STRESS TENSOR.e.tal plane into two parts. z). A stress vector is a surface force that acts on the surface of a ooZume. A hydrostatic pres&ure on the surface of a submerged solid body provides another example of a surface force. y). . (dS)2 = g4 dBa dB{J' Before we introduce the notion of a stress tensor we must define a stress vector. where (}. (16·1) dS1 . In rectangular coordinates and in the usual notations x.1I (16·2) d(tt'. ()v 00 du dtJ and u. If one thinks. dB" = d(z. x). = d(x.
e. ELASTIC POTENTIAL i.7) ~ + pMfJ = O. If there are mas8 JorrAJ8 (Mr per unit mass) acting on the medium. the forces acting ~n any po~ion ~f the medium is (16·5) f f f(~ + pMfI)6x/I + F(5x/I). we have (16·6) the ~ollowing differential equations jor equiltOrium: (16. The virtual work of the stresses across the boundary B is (16·4) of fJJfl 5xII dB 8 f f'J"k' 5xII dBa = f f f(T'h 5xfJ)"" dV. i. v where p is the mas8 den8ity. and so we must have the condition f f f(~ + pMfI) 6x" dV = O. V of the medium whose density is p. .~ . AB a typical example of a mass force one can take the force of gravity... Let us now consider a virtual displacement of the strained medium corresponding to the accessory parameter t. acting on the mass contained in the volume fl. V.ny virtual displacement is given (on using 16·5 and 16·7) by (16·8) Sin~ Total virtual work = f f f'J"k'(6xfJ)"" dV. pg fl.90 STRESS TENSOR.fl = 0. tor (52:p)" + (6xo. ~F'" dB = 'rtl dBa.Md.e. A 8tres8 tensor 'ra is defi. Hence. a volume integral extended over the vo\ume V bounded by B and obtained by Green's' theorem or generaJized Stokes' theorem in curvilinear coordinates. the Jorcu ading on any portion oj the medium is zero Jor any rigid virtual displacement.] dV. In particular. the virtual work of these mass forces is f f f pMfJ6xfJ dV.. forces that act throughout the volume.p = 0. Consequently the virtual work of all the forces (mass as well as surface) acting upon any portion of the medium' in i. characterized by (6xII). v We shall now adopt the PHYSICAL AsSUMPTION OF EQUILIBRIUM: The virtual work oj oJ}. 8' V . v' " Since 6XfJ is arbitrary at any chosen point and V is arbitrary. . where F'" is the 8tress vector acting on the 8UrJOI!e element dBr. v this m~ vanish for any rigid virtual displacement. are rigid virtual displacements.. the virtual work of oJ}. and where g is the gravitational acceleration. the translations. implicitly' by the relattion (16·3) . .).
Let the free energy density or elastic potential. = 8(p dV) = O. Let T be the temperature of the element of mass dm.fJ + (6x.13) T8(tI dm) = 8(u dm) q.16·12. The principle of conservation of ma88 in a virtual displacement is expressed by 8(dm) (16·11) f f frP 8E. formula 16·10 is the legitimate result for that theory.. ). Euclidean metric tensor g. the Euclidean metric tensor ."c(a) in the unstrained medium.ELASTIC POTENTIAL 91 the stress tensor must be 81Immetric: (16·9) Hence 16. (virtual work of all forces acting on dm)..8 can be written (16·10) 'f"IJ .] dV.. and the temperature T. we have.fJ dV . this yields (16·15) p 8q.""fJ(8x. Total virtual work = v Within the approximations of the usual approximate elasticity theory.""fJ(8x.ptl6T..lx) in the 8trained medium. Let p be the density of the volume element dV in the strained medium..)p dV = f f f'J. We shall now work under the following HYPOTHESIS ON ELASTIC POTENTIAL 4>: q. on integrating over any portion of the strained medium and making use of equations 16·8.fJ . and 16·13.. . We shall now turn our attention to the elastic potential anq its relation to the stress tensor.. Tf1«. Then the fundamental energyconservation law of thermodynamics says that (16·12) (16. tI the entropy density (per unit mass) so that the entropy of the mass dm is tI dm = ptI dV. The element of mass dm is given then by dm = p dV. Elastic Potential. i8 a function of ra• the .. v ." dV if f fr't(8x ...) .Ttl. But note that this is not a legitimate result for the finite deformation theory.). (16·14) f f f(aq.f f f(6T)fJt1 dV. = u .). and u dm the internal energy of the mass dm. From the principle of conservation of mass. v v Since V is arbitrary. = 'J. the total virtual work may be written v since formula 15·31 holds for the approximate theory..
92 STRESS TENSOR. It will take us too far afield to give the theory of such differential equations. It. (8:t")JJ and 16·17 in 16·16 to obtain aq. that the elastic potential for an jsotropic medium satisfies the differential equations 16 ·18. = O. To consider them it is convenient to define an iootropic medium.. From 16 ·15 and the sYmmetry of the stress tensor F. ELASTIC POTENTIAL We shall restrict ourselves to isothermal variations.fJ) = _ra.. for any virtual displacement. we see that &p = 0 for any isothermal rigid virtual displacement.. so that T is a constant parameter in q._cra'Y _ ~crB](~ ../l' There are nine conditions in 16 ·18 but three. and 18 of Chapter 16.'Y) '" U"''Y. [ ~(craJJ) ~(cra..fJ) = 0 whenever (16·17) Let rd"(x) = (f'l(x) f'a..fJ =0 • Hence q.. There are some particularly interesting solutions of equations 16 ·18. Now it can be shown. are identities and only three of the remaining six are independent.fl (see formula 15·28) and use the formula 8(ra. fJ~ = 0 and ag. From the theory of such systems of differential equations I we know that the general80lution of 16 ·18 is a function of six functionally independent 80lutions. A medium whose elastic potential is a strain inaariant that may depend parametrically on the temperature T wi1l be called an isotropic medium. Now. DEFINITION OF IsoTROPIC MEDIUM. we are content here with this mere statement of the result concerning the most general solution q. The following important result is immediate. Hence from Killing's differential equation 15·33 we have (16·16) ~(~JJ) 8('"a. but in this brief volume we have not the time to give the details of proof. A nec688ary and sufficient .. ). It can also be shown by a long mathematical argument that any strain intJariant is afunction of the three fundatMntal strain invariants II. must satisfy the following system of partial difierential equations (16·18) This is a complete system of three linear firstorder partial difierential equations in the nine variables a.
.. for crystalline media (another name for nonisotropic media) is taken as a quadratic function of the strain tensor components. for an isotropic medium as a function of the strain tensor e..). a mere repetition of an index in a term will denote summation over that index.. and 18 are the jUndamemal strain i1Wariants• . ()e.. T since hpg . I I. (&I:.19) ()cp ()cp =.. .. + Eor) wherever e.. q. is symmetric. and thus we see that (16. we have Er... ~... the elastic potential q. determined by the.. 1 STRESSSTRAIN RELATIONS 93 I It 18 T) where 11. has been chosen. + Eor).p = ~~ EotJ [hH8x T ) . all the other E's (including for for that 8.ential q. so that in this difierentiation no attention is paid to the symmetry relations Eor = e... In q" we shall write !(e. ~r with the understanding that in ue. StressStrain Relations for an Isotropic Medium..IJ. and so for an isotropic medium (16·22) From the arbitrariness of the virtual displacement and the fact that t Throughout the remaining part of this chapter.(I . Now.).. Consider the elastic potentialq....ropic is that its elastic pot.2Epq. occurs. ..) .. .) oIIJ. But 8gpq &p = OJ hence =~ EotJ 8E.... for an isothermal virtual displacement. In the Usual approximate th~ry of elasticity. The coefficients of the quadratic form are accordingly not scalars but components of a tensor of rank four which depends on the orientation of the crystalline axes... gpg .. axes of the crystal. uEafj (a and fJ are summation indices t) on using conditions 16·19. r) are held constant.. Since e. It is tacitly assumed in the usual approximate theory that a special privileged reference frame. = T""(8x. We saw in Chapter 15 (see 15·29) that under a virtual displacement the variation of hpq and hence of the strain tensor Epq was given by (16·20) 8~ = i8hpq = ![h. say. .(8x )...condition that a medium be isof.p + h~ (8x. + h.. = !(e. or (16·21) &p = ~ h~ (8x.oJ. formula 16·15 reduces to p 8q.
~. volumes are also preserved to a first approximation. and from the fundamental result 15·5. second degree..818 in terms of the strain invariants 11.'«'Y (= gflyT"t% from the symmetry of the stress tensor). Since It.. and 18 for media.2e:£.. and 13 are respectively first degree.Q =~' ()q.2e: ~)P . ()ell ()Eii and hence (16·24) Define the mixed stress tensor ~ by (16·25) ~ = gfly'J.. . the stress8train relations 16·26 for an isotropic medium reduce to Hooke's law of the u.l ~' where ~ = pr. Then with the aid of 16·24 in 16·23 one can show readily that thefoUuwing stress3train relations hold for an i80tropic medium I (16·26) ~ = p(~ .). Hence to the same degree of approximation.sual aP'[1l'ozirrwie theory (16·28) ~ = ()q.94 . ()e~ . ELASTIC POTENTIAL = a: .e.=" ()E(f . and hence a/ll' Obviously btp ~ . and third degree in the strain tensor components Eap. PoVI  From the principle of conservation of mass P dV = Po dVo. i.)' bE~ .23) = p(!: . ~ STRESS TENSOR. we see that 211 + 41.~ we obtain the stre888train relations for an i80f. . Is. 12.ropic medium tp"fJ (16. whether is0tropic or not.i We shall put this stressstrain relation in another form. Now by definition E~ = rt'f. we see (16·27) that to a first approximation p = Po.
"'. xfl (17·2) where (17. and 11 can obviously be extended to ndimensional Euclidean spaces. y2... For example. "'. x2. • H. . x2.3) M = gafl(xl .. to n with the consequent summations going from 1 to n. the squared element of are in rectangular coordinates yt.r(~ + ~ _ ~~} g4(xt. and indices will have the range 1. The ndimensiona! Euclidean Christoffel symbols are (17. this fact will not keep us from going to the heart of our subject.. Although our discussion will of necessity be brief. First of all the subject'matter of Chapters 9.. n_. 10. There will be n variables wherever there were three before. "'. where n is any positive integer.4) r~(xl.(xl :rJ . In the last two chapters of this book we shall attempt to give some indications of a more general tenser calculus and some of its applications. XfI) = ~gi...5) ~9 . yfl is (17·1) while in general coordinates Xl. ()XZ ar! the ndimensional Euclidean metric tensor (see 9 ·15).. x2. 2... '" zo» fbf' ti:r!. Xfl) II. XfI) = Cofactor of g(Ja 9 95" where the g4 are defined in 17·3 while (17. Our study of Euclidean tensor analysis can 'be used advantageously to accomplish this.CHAPTER 17 TENSOR CALCULUS IN RIEMANNIAN SPACES AND THE FUNDAMENTALS OF CLASSICAL MECHANICS Multidimensional EucUdean Spaces.. f. ••• . x2. = ~ ()yi()y'.
17·1. X") and thus have at our disposal the Christoffel symbols of. FIG. gh (17·6) g= gt>l. Exactly as in an ndimensional Euclidean space.ll the Riemannian Christoffel symbols are zero everywhere in the Riemannian space..e.e.. x") = ~gw(~ + ~. " ' . > o.our Riemannian geometry (17·10) r~(xl.. .. (/t2. it is impossible in general to find a coordinate system in which a.. Notice that the Riemannian Christoffel symbols depend on the fundamental Riemannian metric tensor gafj and its first pa...8) 8 = . . gfl2. i. (17·9) g= .... "'.:a:).96 TENSOR CALCULUS IN RIEMANNIAN SPACES in terms of the nrowed determinant gu. g. This is due to the fact tha.2. "'. • •• . gJ!J.. glra gn. RJemannj~n Geometry.. x2.l . Unlike the Euclidean Clpistoffel symbols. g"" The theory of a Riemannian space is a Riemannian geometry. g"l.(17·7) dIP = gafj(x) d1f' dx! is positive definite...tives. It can be proved by rather long algebraic manipulations that from the positive definiteness of gafj d1f' dx! follows the positive value of the determinant of the gafj' i. "'. X") in such a fashion that the squared element of arc . An ndimensional Riemannian space is an ndimensional manifold with coordinates such that length· of curves is determined by D\ean8 of a symmetric covariant tensor field of rank two gafj(xl. gtd. xl. we can derive the contravariant tensor field of rank two gaIJ(xl .rtial deriva.~l (tl) (17. "'.. The length of a curve x· = f(t) given in terms of a parameter t is then by tIefinition ..('Vg·/(X)~'~i de. "'.t it is in general impossible to find a coordinate system . gafj d1f' dx! ::2: 0 and is equal to zero if and only if all the d1f' are zero.
e. 0) point. i. the Christoffel symbols of a Riemannian space transform t by the rule 10·29 for Euclidean Christoffel symbols. i. under a transformation of coordinates. Now we see from the transformation of coordinates 17·11 that Xi = qi when Y' = O.. . Let *r~(yl. Then (17·13) *rClP(yl. y2. We· shall prove that the coordinates yi defined implicitly by the transformation of coordinates (17·11) are geodesic coordinates. prove that there exists a coordinate system with any point of the space as the origin.(xl. A direct calculation from 17·11 yields the needed formulas (17·12) where the 0 mearu.. ca¥an coordinate systems and rectangular coordinate systems in particular. the origin of the yi coordinates has coordinates x' = qi in the Xi coordinates. t With the difference that the number of variables now is n and the indices have the range 1 to n. we find (17. x ()x" OO! ~i xi. the (0. In other words.14) In other words.l metric tensor ga{J has constant components throughout space. Now.. X") ~C¥i/()xx W by' +~~~. "'. the yi's are geodesic coordinates. It is to be recalled that in a Euclidean space there do exist just such coordinate systems.. 1f') = r. "'. The proof is practically a repetition of that given in note 4 to Chapter 10. . evaluation at the origin of the y' coordinates. Such a coordinate system is called a geodesic coordinate system. y") be the (Riemannian) Christoffel symbols in the yi coordinates. i .. If we evaluate both sides of 17 ·13 at the origin of the yi coordinates and if we use formulas 17 ·12 in the calculations.e. 0. '. We can.".RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY 97 in which the fun~enta. such that all the Christoffel symbols vanish at the origin when they are evaluated in this coordinate system. however. 'If.
.. A simple example of a Riemannian space which is not Euclidean is furnished by a curved surface in ordinary threedimensional Euclidean space.A uw ". . where . xl) d:r!' d:r! i=1 8 (a and (J have the range 1 to 2 and corresponding summations go from 1 to 2).. Let y' be rectangular coordinates in the threedimensional Euclidean space.nnian space. Then the squared element of arc for points on the #fUr/ace 17 ·15 is .. Find its fundamental metric tensor and its Christoffel symbols.v  ~ ?Jf(xl. This can be seen as· follows. So a surface in threedimensional Euclidean space is a twodimensional Riema. ga = rI(sin Xl)2. The #fUr/ace of a sphere of fixed ~UB r is given by 'yl = r sin Xl cos xl 'I! = r sin Xl sin xl 'I! = r cos Xl Therefore the jurulamental metric tensor is given by gu = rI. Hence 1 gU =~' gl2 = g21 FIG. gt2 = rI(sin xl)2· 1 The Christoffel symbols are then and all the other Christoffel symbols of the surface of the sphere are zero.. xl) ?J1'(x1.98 TENSOR CALCULUS IN RIEMANNIAN SPAC1i2 Curved ·Surfaces as Examples of Riemannian Spaces. = 0. (17·16) d82 = 2: (dyf)2 = gQ/j(x1. Obviously any Euclidean space is a very special Riemannian apace. Exercise' The surface of a sphere is a twodimensional Riemannian space. 17·2. xl) ._8· u. gu = g21 = 0. and let the equations of a curved surface be (17·15) in terms of two parameters xl and xl. (17·17) gQ/j ( X 1 ~) _ ..~1 ~::>.
" x (_)...8~. "'..s ~. _.~:". In obtaining Laplace's equation.in curvilinear coordinates for contravariant vector fields in a Euclidean space. xt. ():rfI + r "" CY..()~i cr. Since such coordinates are in general not available in a Riemannian space. contravariant of rank one and covariant of rank two.8 and prove that they are the components of a tensor field of rank four..RlEMANNCHRISTOFFEL TENSOR 99 The RiemannChristoffel Curvature Tensor. we cannot use that type of proof. = B!J.= CY.18) r. we evidently have i B•.. It was seen in Chapter 11 that covariant differentiation is a commutative operation in threedimensional Euclidean space.. shall find a formula (see 17·19 below) that makes clear the noncommutativity of covariant differentiation in Riemannian spaces.r .. We.8 ()x" + r ".(X)r'(x) ()X'" ~ ()x>. In fact. ()x" . The result is (17.. +r~"r. "'. ( p ).rf ():rfI .) The calculation for Riemannian spaces is practically the same...~:. and by exactly the same type of reasoning this is also true in an ndimensional Euclidean space.' ()x' But. X") based on the (Riemannian) Christofiel symbols r~(xl. . Hence B~ is a tensor field of the same type for all contravariant vector field. X") without giving any more details (again see bracket term in 12·23).(_) r: x = Dp.. (See the bracket term in 12·23.ion in a Riemannian space is not in general commutative. B'acr... ():t! ()x" = Dp.I'cr.. To establish this result explicit use was made of cartesian coordinates.()~ .rf . we first note that the ieft sides of 17'·19 are the components of a tensor field of rank three.a diJJerenJ. ~ ~) + ( ()r!.. To justify the notation B'acr.ioJ.. xi. we find (17·19) where (17·20) t..(_) ()x" ()xv ()xP ~.. X ~ x ()i!' ()f!" ()i! ()xA' . nl. writing r'(x) in terms of ~(x). Le.~ From the commutativity of the partial derivatives and the symmetry of the Christoffel symbols r~ = r~. so that we shall write down the second covariant derivative of ~1(Xl. we had to calculate the second covariant derivative of a contravariant vector field. cotJOrio:.8(xW(x)  nl. contravariant of rank one and covariant of rank three. ()2~i ...
then the n functions ~i(8) satisfy the system 17 ·22 of n differential equations of the second order. and. this checks a result found earlier. But obviously the RiemannChristoffel curvature tensor is zero in Euclidea.IJanishing RiemannAJhristotlel curvature ten8or.13.~.. Hence ( . . the parametric equations of straight lines in terms of arc length 8.a. equations 17 ·22 reduce to and hence (a' and fJ' are constants). if a Riemannian space is a Euclidean space.6. in a r Riemannian space with 1W'1/. This tensor field is the famous RiemannChristoifel CU1'fXJture ten8or. d8 = 0.p . It can be shown that the EulerLagrange equations for this calculus of variations problem are (17·22) hi(8) i ~ d:. in 11.. then its geodesics are straight lines. A ~t line is the shortest distance between two points in Euclidean spaces. equating correspoQ..t! ~+ ra/J(~)d. There are curves in Riemannian spaces that play a role analogous to the straight lines of Euclidean spaces. we have to get the EulerLagrange differential equations for the calculus of variations problem (17·21) fV to gWdi di dt .. in Euclidean spaces.. Hence (. In other words. r./J. if the coordinates of points on a geodesic are considered as functions ~i(8) of the arc length parameter 8. it is not a zero tensor in a general Riemannian space. In fact. To find the differential equations satisfied by the geodesics of a Riemannian space. If the Riemannian space is Euclidean and we choose rectangular cartesian coordinates yO... minimum. we obtain the ·tensor law of ~ormation for ~p(~)..n spaces. hence. dx'dx. Such curves are called ge0deaic8.ding coe1ficients.14 (. where 8 is the arc length and r~tI(~) are the Christoffel symbols of the Riemannian space.100 TENSOR CALCULUS IN RIEMANNIAN SPACFlJ But (!) are arbitrary. Geodesics.
.V.exactly as in Riemannian geometry. we obtain the foUowing form for Lagrange's equation of motion.g'..()gi").' (17 . "(t) dqi(t).. ••• .. qr» of (he kinetic energy of the dynamical system. 'q2. It can be proved by algebraic reasoning that the determinant g of the gil is positive so that we can form gii in terms of the gi/. "'.(q1. . {jL = !(()g I")q' iq'" '_ {j V • {jqi 2 {jqi {jqi Hence Lagrange's equations of motion 17·23 can be written in the form (17 . '. "'. "'.(f +g. 25) if' + 1. By direct calculation we find .Jc + gin . "'..Ai = (q. ( ).(jqi .~= O..e" T ~ 0 and T . 0 if and only if gi = O.EQUATIONS OF MOTION 101 Equations of Motion of a Dynamical System with n Degrees of Freedom. in terms of the generalized coordinates q1.. 24) gip/" "' 1(?>gil {jqi {jqi q'q + 2 (jqlo + ?>gill ... q" and the generalized ve1 OClti~ q' = &' 18 (gil = gli) and if the potential energy is V(q1. '1 AI 2\(jqlo + ()gUo) qi... qr»qoqi {jL " ~~~) = (~/~.23) :(~~) . "L {jV {jqi' Multiplying corresponding sides 'of 17·24 by and summing on i. . " q").IIi = II {jV (jql where Ij. q'. q" q'qL r . q") are (he Christoffel symbols based on the gil (qt. ' . then the kinetic potential or Lagrangean L is given by L = T . Now the kinetic energy is positive definite in the velocities qi.. it is postulated that the motion of a conservative dynamical system of n degrees of freedom with no moving constraints is governed by Lagrange's equati0n8 of 'lTWtion l (17..n' """ T = igi/(q1. If the kinetic energy T.. = Z~) 1{()gi/ {jqi . In classical mechanics.. i. . ill q1.
.(!)' +~J(! + ""' .n space associated with the symmetrical gyroscope. Find the Lagrangean equations of motion of the symmetrical gyroscope. !)' and the potential energy by V . and qt are the Eulerian angles. and h is the distance of the center of gravity from O.. Compute also the element of arc length of the threedimensional Riemannja. . Then the kinetic energy "by TH!)' +". I. The ClOOl'dinates rt.. M is the mass of the gyroscope. Let I. Mgh cos ql.<.. qt. and J be the principal moments of inertia.102 TENSOR CALCULUS IN RIEMANNIAN SPACES Exercise A symmetrical gyroscope with a point 0 fixed on the axis is acted upon by glaVity. .
then . = o. A glance at formula 13·6 shows that the condition of incompressibility is equivalent to .= u' dJ are the differential equations whose integration gives the paths of the fluid particles in the coordinates Xi. ()(yguCl) = 0 (18·4) ()x<I • If w~ recall the NavierStokes equations 13·3 for the motion of a viscous fluid.CHAPTER 18 APPLICATIONS OF THE TENSOR CALCULUS TO BOUNDARYLAYER THEORY Incompressible and Compressible Fluids.e. and the comma in u:. It can be proved by a direct calculation that a necessary and sufficient condition that the volume (18·1) (18·2) of arbitrary portions of the moving fluid' be preserved 1 is that the divergence of the velocity field u' be zero.. A fluid in motion with this property is . (18·3) dx' u:.ex = 0 . a necessary and sujJicient condition Jor an incompre8sible fluid is that the velocity vector field u i 8atisfy the partial differential equation 18 ·S. g is the determinant of the Euclidean metric tensor gi. i. incompressible or compressible. The co~tancy of volume of all parts of a fluid in motion sometimes plays an important role in the theory' of fluid flows.called an incompre88ible fluid. 103 . we know that the equation of continuity (18·5) ()p ()t + (PUCl) . (d82 = g'l dx' dx'). In 18'2. stands for covariant differentiation based on the Euclidean Christoffel symbols r}k' In other words. whereas a fluid in motion without this property is called a compre88'tole fluid. If u' are the contravariant components of velocity of the fluid in motion in general coordinates Xi.
t We shall now restrict ourselves to the steady motion of a fluid without any external forces.. This is usually furnished by the "equation of state. :rr. BoundaryLayer Equations for the Steady Motion of a Homogeneous Incompressible Fluid. p is a constant. us. The NavierStokes equations 13.e.3 are four in number with five unknown functions ut. t) is given subject to condition 18·7. p.. t) of the fluid. so that Xi = 0 and all the quantities u j .. p are independent of the time t.Qle fluid in view of the continuity equation 18. and incompressible. x2.calar) satisfies the condition (18.. xl. u 2. g ()p U .. the four unknowns t The re~ing part of this chapter is an expOSition of some unpublished researches of Dr.7) which states that (18·8) ()p ()t ()P + ~u. These results were presented by Dr.. g«P' . .. t) (an absolute a. C." which in the isothermal case is of the form (18·10) p = 1(P). m'= f f fp(x l .. C.: = o. x2. r. . t)yg dxl dx2 dxB of any portion of the moving flUid. dp =0 dt along any chosen path of fluid particles.  0 .. uui l i a+ X' . The situation is different for compre8sible fluids.. Then the four differential equations 18·9 will have as unknowns the three velocity components u l . p ()x" For an incompresSible fluid. p. . If in addition we assume that the fluid is homogeneous. Lin in my seminar on applied mathematics.5. US and the pressure p(xl. and p. The NavierStokes equations for an incompressible viscous fluid reduce then to the following system of four differential equations in general coordinates Xi: (18·9) { =11 emi ()t u. r. u2. This means that 18·7 can be taken as Q&e defining condition lor an incompres81. To make the problem determinate a fifth condition must be imposed.104 APPLICATIONS TO BOUNDARYLAYER THEORY in general coordinates x' merely states the constancy 1 of the mass m (18·6) . xl. An evident consequence of the con" ditions 18·3 and 18·5 is that the density p(Xl.. the density p(Xl. Lin. x2. i.
x2 are surface coordinates and xl is a coordinate measured along the normals to the surface. C. <>r bx" For the treatment of "boundarylayer" problems connected with an arbitrary surface. 2. it is convenient to take a system of space C()ordinaJ. = pgileu· i k _ { .' bx { i "t... t In Riemannian geometry. . Since the covariant derivative of the Euclidean metric tensor rliJ"is zero. it follows that in 3space t (18. this is sometimes called the "geodesic form" of the line element.13) and d82 = g'j(xl . 3) and Greek 1 _. and the constant II is the kinematical viscosity. Z. Such forms of the line element were used recently by Dr. .. W._ _ indices over the range (1.BOUNDARYLAYER EQUATIONS 105 U'. C>r nO. If we allow Latin indices to Surface run over the range (1. Chien in connection with his researches on the intrinsic theory of plates and shells (see references). we have FIG. = 't/ oJ.. Chien presented some of his work in my seminar on applied mathematics and made some exceedingly helpful calculations in connection with interesting geometric ideas arising in his and Dr..15) d82 = gil dx' dxi = rI~(XI.. 2). xl) dxf d3fl + (dz8)2. P must.es in which Xl. where 11" is the pressure p divided by the constant density p of the fluid. the following fundamental metrics: (18. From the manner in which the coordinate xl was chosen. x 2 . xl) dx'dx i in 3space. C. = guu' of the velocity field and the function 11" will satisfy the system of differential equations (18·12) UiU. 18·1.. i .1 = 0. ~ = O. by a reference to 18·9. satisfy the four difierential equations (18·11) U'u oJ. (18·14) over the surface xl = 0. Lin's work. L . Dr. vn'J:u . u.. x2..'.. i  If . a constant. it follows from 18·11 that the covariant vector components u. Thus xl = 0 will be the equation of the given surface.
If i. z8. To express all covariant differentiations with respect to space coordinates in terms of covariant difierentiations with respect to surface coordinates Xl.o = ~ + r! u/I' u~:. j.o (18·19) =:' ~ ()zO Uo. There is thus at our disposal the Riemanni8." =  2?»fJ' 1()g~ r. in which two or all of the i. . = ~ =  1 ii'()g1Jy • ?»fJ These are evidently tensor fields with respect to transformation of surface coordinates. = ~ + r!u/I.Ic = ~ + ~~ : rgzn:o + cit"" .. ()u { gi1:Ua J. We shall henceforth consider transformations of BUr/ace coordinates xl. z2. and they shall be denoted by r.. the Euclidean metric tensor g'i(X I . in the new notation... . { u.. j.." .1c = ::: (18·21) r::: +~. gSa = g. respectively./1 . zS) is such that (18 ·16) g88 = 1..fferenJiation in contradistinction to the comma for covariant difierentiation in the enveloping threedimensional Euclidean space.and r./. ~ gilouo. z2. 18·16 can be written (18·17) goo = 1.106 APPLICATIONS TO BOUNDARYLAYER THEORY In other words. We sh~ use a semicolon to denote sur/ace COfJaria:Tjj di.. = u. if one of the three indices is zero. With the help of these relations. z2 and partial difierentiations with respect to :rfl. consider first the Euclidean Christoffel symbols r}Al in the coordinates Xl.rgUo. we have (18·18) ro. gOa< = gaO = O. :r} alone so that the coordinate z8 may be regarded as a acaZar para1Mter under a transformation of surface coordinates. k are zero..~ + r J/O. 2 no reduction is possible unless a special surface coordinate system is chosen. vanish identically. ~= 00' (18· 20) + 11.. To emphasize this fact we shall uae the notation :rfl = :co = zS. it can be easily verified that Uo. k are all in the range 1. We saw in the previous chapter that a BUr/ace can be considered as a twod't'men8ional Riemannian spaCe. The other Christoffel symbols riAl.. 00.D tensor calculus of the previous' chapter for immediate use in connection with the surface:rfJ = constant. = O. Thus.
the important case in aeronautics.. in the neighborhood of v = 0.. and is consequently inconvenient for the application of the method of successive approximations. ~e highest derivatives Xl of all the variables with respect to :tfJ have the coefficient unity in these equations.fJ + ~U"lfJ . if ~d 'Uo..u". ~ and : : in the first equation may be expressed in terms of ~ by using the last equation.fJ + r=Uci. We therefore make the transformation of variables (18·24) . U cr • By using 18 ·19. r! 'Uo + I"$u. Thus (18·23) <>uo where 'Uo and ():tfJ = tI. Let US now consider the analytical nature of the system 18 ·12 of four partial differential equations in the four unknowns 'tr.. .(r!I'~ + qr! )ufJ' do not involve differentiation of Ui with respect to :tfJ.. form With respect to.r!. (18·22) ~'" = 3r~ufJ + r!ufJ + {/. Hence. u.fJ'Uo . 'Uo. . 18·20.BOUNDARYLAYER EQUATIONS 107 where _{4»O = ~'Uo14. This normal form 18·23 of the system of difierential equations. the solution of the problem is uniquely " determined.v y sol · " for ():tfJ' ()tlS rom the equatlOns vmg of motion and for:: from the equation of continuity.ob C>1r()'u"f . : : are given as fUnctions of x" on the surface :tfJ = 0. and 18·21. Thus. however is not analytic in the small parameter v."'( : 21'!:. 'tr. we can put this system in the normal ../J.r.
which are functions of :rfJ. it can be shown 2 that the surface metric tensor ga[J is a quadratic function of :rfJ. . This point will be discussed in more detail below. This shows that the more elaborate treatment de8crtoed abOfJe is absolutely necessary. 18·22). and the solution of 18·25 may be carried out by expanding each of the dependent variables as a power series of vi... however. Let US note that CPo and CPa are linear in the small parameter III through the term in Uo (cf..= lIir.lOS APPLICATIONS TO BOUND¥tYLAYER THEORY to bring it into the desired. the boundary conditions Uo = 0 at:rf! = 0 cannot be satisfied in general. the boundary conditions at infinity are usually such that the resultant solution is potential. ~d also depend on vi through the geometrical quantities.n. Indeed. + "'. The effect of viscosity can never be brought into evidence." + ()". convergent for all finite values of vi for which lIi < R.. + .... Then the initial approximation is an exact solution of the complete equations 18·23. either the series are asymptotic..mation completely. However. being the minimum magnitude of the pIjncipal radii of curvature over the surface under consideration. = lIlra[Jua. the initial approximation is easily verified to 'satisfy the nonviscous equation (II = 0). + . Let us now proceed with the solution of 18.form.. Hence. ()r + u~u. the righthand sides of the equations 18·25 are Taylor series in vi. + .?xr!' + ~(2wr~u _ 2r~ ()u~ ()t +rg~)~a ~ a ()t = 11. Indeed. . or they may terminate.. ... while all other geometrical quantities may be e:tpanded as power serie8 of :rfJ convergent for :rf! < R"" R". serves as a guide for making the exact solutions satisfy the boundary conditions at infinity. The boundary conditions at infinity and the condition Uo = 0 at :rf! = 0 are then sufficient to determine this approxi. In fact. + ... The nonviscous solution (usually potential).25 by writing I I I rI 1( = 1(0) (18·26) U { a = u~o) + V~l) + ~2) W = w(O) + VII'W(l) + 1I'W(2) + vn(l) + n(2) + . . H we try to solve 18·23 by the same type of expansion. .~ + plI1w. but in general we cannot find a solution satisfying all the required boundary conditions. .f ()r _ II(W ()w + ua()w) + vf(CAD _ ~ ()w + ~o) ()r ()xa ()f2 a ()r a ()2ua = ()t2 (18·25) ()w W ()u. We then have ()".
For example. and i' are functions of Xl and X2. xl. (18·27) C>r ()2u.  u. which is known from the nonviscous solution. u"uII'.O) evaluated at :rfJ = O. 11" ()w = r for r ... 11' = i'(xt. for the initial approximation. xl). the value of :& is still small. and 11' of the nonviscous Ilolution at :& = O.".. For a large but finite value of r. The initial approximation gives " 00. ) dr = it.. being gcx/l(xl... The boundary conditions for the nth approximation at infinity will be specified by . then an approximate solution of 18·12 is usually taken to be given (a) by the nonviscous solution for r > h. the solution may be expected to pass into the nonviscous solution close to the surface if r is large.BOUNDARYLAYER EQUATIONS 109 Corresponding developments for the geometrical quantities gcrfJ.. ()r +.. we may define h to be given by (say) three times h of the equation (18·29) La> (it. which is in general different accorc:ling to whether a . for any approximation... being the values of u. Incidentally. xl). In these equations. :r. we note that 11' is a function of Xl and x2 alone. The boundary conditions at r = 0 are u~ = 0. H u.. This initial approximation is usually known as the boundarylayer theory of Prandtl.. and 11' differ from it. The initial approximation is then completely determined. co. The condition at infinite r is set according to the following considerations. and 1r by quantities of the order of " for r = h.../I + ()r = 0. by the second equation of 18·27... r.. 1 or 2. = 0 and w = O. C>r 0=. The quo/nitty h0 is known as the "thickne8s oj the boundary layer" and is arbitrary to a 'certain extent... where the superscripts of the initial approximation are dropped.. must also be used. = it. Thus. and the metric tensor is acx/l(x l . r is a scalar.. Hence.. The first and third equations of 18·27 then serve as three equations for the velocities u. Hence.h. Cnf" ~ . ()r t!.. The higher approximations in 18·26 satisfy certain differential equations obtained together with the derivation of 18·27.jI+w". by 18·28. and (b) by the solution of 18·27 for r < h. where u. and w. The conditions over the surface r = 0 are u. we may lay down the conditions (18·28) u.
.l)st approximation of the convergent solution.110 APPLICATIONS TO BOUNDARYLAYER THEORY using the nth approximation of the asymptotic solution. . we shall not go into further details. which will in turn be determined from certain boundary conditions related to the (11. Since we are never concerned with higher approximations in practice.
of the chalacteristic function of a matrix can be derived from Newton's formulas. 243244.. It can be shown that Sr. In our notations it can be stated in the following manner. however. . then the numerical product c = ab ia iUd/ an ATowed determinant with elem6ntB cj gWen by the /orm1ila i i . for a derivation of Newton's formulas.. the trace of the matrix Ar.ion with. It is possible.. Jordan. 111 . The elements of these matrices are often complex numbers. b".RODS ON PART I Chapter 1 1. Cramer's rule for the solution of linear algebraic equations is given in most books on algebra. ci . 3. o • • . see Booher's Introduction to Higher Aigebm. 2.. ~. 2.. and related questions on the . linear equations. bt. 0 0 " 8.oo. For the properties of determinants. I hj I are t1.110 nr0tDetl determinants. The rule for the multiplication of two determinants takes the following form in our notations. a.. aj of the n equationll a':rJ = hi 1 I I in the n tmknouma:el. . We shall have occasion to use a few such matrieM in connecj. pp. of tM itA column by tM corr68p07l4ing elem6ntB bl.bra of matrices..· tion to Higher AlgebnJ. then !he equati0n81&ave a unique solution given by Ai z' . If a. and Dirac.. For applications of matrices to the social sciences the reader is referred to the references given in a recent paper by Hotelling. is also equal to the sum of the rth powers of the n characteristic roots of the matrix A. matrices with an infinite number of elements as well as with a finite number of elements are used very widely.. We shall deal for the most part with matrices whose elements are real or complex numbers. . The recurrence formula 2·6 for the coefficients a" •. a. aaul' 4. In the modern quantum mechanics of theoretical physics.:rl' ia not zero. If the determinant a.our discussion of aircraft Butter in Chapter 7. a where A' is the ATOtDetl determinant obtt&i1l6d from a by TepltJeing t1l8 elem6ntB a1. see Booher's Introdw. ChapterS 1. to deal with matricea tDlioae elem6ntB GTe Uaemaelves matricea.. 5. The reader is referred to the bibliographical entries under Born.:1I'. I a~ I mid h.
112.
NOTES ON PART I
ChapterS
1. To ~ve that the matrio exponential eA is convergent for aD square matrices A, let A .. /lj be an nrowed sql1lL!8 matrix, and let V(A) be the greatest .of the numerical values of the n' numbers /lj  the greatest of tlie moduli of the /lj if the are complex numbers. Then each element in the matrix A i :wID not exceed n H V~ in numerical value. Hence each of the n' infinite series in eA will be dominated by series nV' nlya 1 1 + V + 21 + 31 + ... + ...... ~tI'V 1) +r.
II
II
a;
Hence all the n' numerical series in eA converge. This means that eA is convergent for all square matrices A. . In the terminology of modern functional analysis and topoloCIcal spaces, the V(A) is oalled the norm of the matrix A, and the class of nrowed matrices with the operations of addition and multiplication of matrices, multiplication by numbers, and convergence of matrices defined by means of the nonn V(A)  in other words, V(A) plays an analogous role to the absolute value or modulus of a number in the convergence of numbers  is oalled a normed linecr ring. Other equivalent definitions of the Donn of a matrix are possible. For example, V(A) can be takenas
V.t(/lj)! ,,,""I
if the elements of the matrix A are real numbers. Whatever suitable definition of a nonn is adopted, the norm V(A) of a matrix will have the following properties:
a1
(1) (2)
(3)
V(A) ~ 0 and = 0 if and only if A is the zero matrix. V(A + B) S V(A) + V(B) (triangular inequality). V(AB) S V(A)V(B).
From property 3 it follows that V(A") S (V(A»", a result that makes obvious the usefulness of the notion of a nonn for matrices in the treatment of convergence properties of matrices. The class of matrices discussed above is only one example of a nonned linear ring. The first general theory of nonned linear rings was initiated in 1932 by Michal and Martin in a paper entitled "Some Expansions in Vector Space," Journal
de mathhnatiques pure8 et appliquks.
2. The speoial case of the expansion 8·7 when F(A) is a matric polynomitJl is known as Sylvester' 8 thwrem. If the characteristic equationof a matrix Ahas multiple roots, then the expansion 3·7 is not valid. However, a more general result can be proved. For the case of matrix polynomials F(A) see the Duncan, Frazer, and Collar book. The more general cases of matric power series expansions are treated briefly in a paper by L. Fantappie with the aid of the theory of functionals, since the elements ~(A) in the F(A) are !undionala of the numerical function F(A). See Volterra's book on functionals (Blaokie, 1930).
3. Another equivalent form for the n matrices G1,
0" ••. , Gn is
Gi . . (;\)l ,
d>.
A=A,
NOTES ON PART I
113
where the >.t are the characteristio roots of the matrix A, leA) is the characteristic determinant of A, and M(A) '" ~{A) is a matrix whose element ~A) is the • _I 1 cofactor of ~  ~ in the oha.ra.oteristio determinant I(A). Notice carefully the position of the indices i and j.
II
II
Chapter 4
1. A good approximation to the solution X(t) .. [e(e toAl]Xo of ;; .. AX(t)
can be obtained by taking 1
.
.
_
ca(t)
+ (t _
to)A
place of the infinite expansion for e(etolA. be large enough to give a good approximate solution. The approximate solution can then be written
X(t) .. Xo
+ ... + 2'to)'practioaJ purposes n '" 2in the nl .For many would
AI
(t  to)"A" (t  to)'
.
+ (t 
+ (t to)AXo +2,AIXo,
where Xo is the column matrix for t .. to initially given. 2. If the solution of the matric differential equation
(1)
cU(t) = AX(t)
dt
(X(t o) ... Xo)
•
has been found, then the solution of
(2)
~t) '" (A + bl)X(t)
(X(t o) .. Xo)
o.an be written down immediately. In fact, from the second property of the matric exponential given in Chapter 2, we see that eA+bI '" e>eA, where e> is the numerical exponential. Hence by formula. 4·3 we see that the solution of equation 2 is obtained by a mere multiplication by e> of the solution of equation 1.
Chapter IS
1. The reader is referred to Whittaker's Analytical Dyna:mic8 for a treatment of Lagrange's differential equations of motion of particle dynamics. For some engineering applications, the reader is referred to Matherrulf,ico.l Methods in Engi,neering by K4rm8.n and Biot. 2. Consult the references in the above note.
ChapterS
1. If only the fundamental frequency is wanted but not the corresponding amplitudes, then the application of Rayleigh's principle may be preferable. See Blementary Matricu by Frazer, Duncan, and Collar, pp. 310, 299301. 2. A special case of 8y1~ter's theorem is what is actually used; see expansion
3·9.
114
NOTES ON PART
n
NOTES ON PART D
Chapter 8
1. Although little use has been made of the tensor calculus in plastic deforJD8;oo tions, one would suspect that a thoroughgoing application of the tensor calculus to the func:la.tn8ntals of plastic deformation theory would prove fruitful. 2. For some "elementary applications of the tensor calculus to dynamic meteorology, the reader is referred to Ertel's monograph. 3. We shall deal briefly with Riemannian spaces (certain curved spaces) and their applications to clsssical dynamical. systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom (see Chapter 17), and to fluid mechanic,. (see Chapter 18).
4. A discussion of the fundamentals of coordinates, coordinate systems, and the transformation of coordinates in the various spaces, including Euclidean spaces, is out of the question here. The readers who are interested in modem differential geometry and topology will find ample references in the bibliography under the entries for Veblen, Whitehead, Thomas, and Michal.
Chapter 10
1. Some writers, especially those dealing with physical applications, like to think of the contravariant and covariant components of one object called a vector. For example, if E' are the contravariant components of a velocity vector field, then and g~ can be considered the contravariant vector and covariant vector "representations" respectively of the same physical object called "velocity vector field." This point of view, however, is untenable in spaces without a metric gii.
e'
2. ~ importance of the E~clidean Christoffel symbols for Euclidean spaces is, even now, not very well known.
3. Since gafJ{zl, 1>', 1>') .. 1: "'......... .JI
i= 1""' CRT"
8
by; by'
(yl, yI, 11 are rectangular coordinates),
we obtain, from the rule for the multiplication of two determinants, the result that
g..
I gal I .. .p, where J
..
I: I
is the Jacobian determinant, or the functional
determinant, of the trpsformation of coordinates to rectangular coordinates y; from general coordinates ,Hence J ;0' 0 since we deal with transformations of coordinates that have inverses. This means that the determinant g;o' 0 for all our "admissible" transformations of coordinates.
z'.
4. The following steps establish the law of transformation 10·29 of the Euclidean Christoffel symbols; exactly the same method establishes the corresponding law of transformation for the Riemannia.n Christoffel symbols to be discussed in Chapter 17. Since g/foP are the components of the Euclidean metric tensor we have under a transformation of coordinates from coordinates Zl to coordinates ~,
(II)
 1;1, !8) ... g,.,,(:&1, 1>', z8)"M!' ~. ~~~ g"tJ.!l,
in" ~ bfJ? btJI + gp ?J!fl ()!'" b¥ + ()gp b:rI' b:I! b:r/' ?hi' b:I! [ gp ~ ~ M!' • b:rl' bY ]\ Add corresponding sides of (b) and (d) and subtract corresponding sides of (c) after interchanging" and p in the first terms of (b) and alter interchanging" and p in the first terms of (d)...... we get (f) 2 ~ Now ! (cii"fI + ~.in" ~ ~ M!' + 2gP M!'?J!fl ~ 1 ?hi' b:I! +2gPb~~b¥' the terms enclosed in brackets in (b)....... .)b:rI' b:I! bzP 1 b:rI' bY 2 ~ + ~ . (g) Multiplying corresponding Bides of (J) and (g).. (c) and (d) canceling out in the additions and subtractions.. obtaining (6) 1 (ciifIfJ cii.. _ ~)b:rl'b:I!i)3!' W + b:I! bzP ~ bIP ~ + i)P' ():rJ' ()rI ~ b:i'..lling that gpp = g"". summing on a. ciia/J) 1 (()gp ()gpp ()g". On interchanging" and " in the last terms of (6) and on reca.p(()gpP ()g... noting that ?hi' ?hi' =..>.NOTES ON PART pendent variables) (b) n ~j 88 115 Differentiating corresponding sides of (a) we obtain (considering the inde ~ b~" = b:r/' M!' bf! ~ + gpM!' b¥' bf! . and using the identities we readily obtain !w(cii"fI g 2 ~.M!' = 2 ():rJ' + b:I! . M!'~ ~M!' obtain (c) ~a/J ()gp b:rI' b:I! bzP M!' = in" ~?J!fl bf'" (T + [ b':rI' b:I!] gp M!' ~ btJI + [ b:rI' bY ] gP~?J!fl M!' • Interchange fJ and in (c) and. ! (()gp + ()g... Then take I of both sides. btJI . _ ~a/J) ~ + bIP bf'" ...+ gpM!' ?J!fl ~ • (T ()g"" b:rl' b:I! bzP [ ?hi' b:I!] b:rI' bY Interchange ere and in (b) and. 2" !. _ ~) ():rJ' b:I! b:r/' + (l ~ M!' 2 ():rJ' b:I! bzP ~ btJI M!' PM!' btJI ~ b:rI' bY . from which the desired transformation law 10·29 follows immediately on recalling the definition of jii and a/J r:..._ ciia/J) . . noting that bY obtain (d) bY bIP M!' = M!' bf}' ~..
. For a nonviscous fluid.()a8 . 2.=1 t. 2. the reader is referred to Lamb's Hydrodyno. the Eulerian hydrodynamical equations are the equations of motion of the fluid from the Eulerian point of view. Eulerlan HydrodyDamica1 Equations. 0. The Eulerian hydrodynamical eql"lIotions in rectangular coordinates y' are obtained by putting p .n variables. at).. t) are the coordinates of the particle at time t.al . ai. In Chapter 17. ai. _U. we shall see that the answer is in general in the negative for the more general Riemannian spaces. ()a'. A contraction reduces the rank of a tensor by two: by one contravariant.116 NOTES ON PART Chapter 11 n ~ 1.()al For & treatment of classical hydrodynamiCS. i)t lJif' H are the rectangular coordinates of & fluid particle in the initial state of the fluid.. 00 P ()a1 ' l>yl l>yl l>yl . yB) by' by' by' ()aI' ()aI' ()a8 = pri. 8. The NavierStokes differential equations of hydrodynamics are discussed in Lamb's Hydrod1/Mmics.yl. the other is the Lagrangean point of view in terms of the Lagrangea. ()alt()a3 .mics and to Webster's Dynamics.n differential equations. See the two Michal and Thomas 1921'papers. the references at the end of Part II. and if the y'(al . index and by ODe covariantin~ Chapter 18 1..J.()al .ngean hydrodynamical equations are the equations of motion of the fluid from the Lagrangean point of view. then the LagrcJngean hydrod1/Mmical eqtUJtionB are .byB byB .. There are two viewpoints in htdrodynamics: one is the Eulerian point of view in terms of the Eulerian variables. 0 in the NavierStokes equations 18·2. a8. Formula 11·12 for the covariant derivative of a tensor field can be Iiahed very quick1y with the aid of normal coordinate methods of modern differential geome~. The operation of putting a covariant index equal to a contravariant index in a tensor and SUIpming over that common index is called contraction. = 0. and the Lagra. { a' ~' .. cf. byB. including treatments of the Eulerian differential equations and the Lagrangea. Ertel's monograph on dynamic meteorology hall some interesting remarks.. ~f _! C>p +X' i)t lJif' p l>y' ~ + ()(pU"') . (blyi _Xi)l>y~ + ! ()tI C>p. 1f. .
scalar fields that retain their forms 88 functions. Cosserat in 1896 made an extensive investigation of the subject..Gr jii/AL Chapter l' 1. b( Vi u'I) • ?n!" H in partioular u' ...... . J. I.. is a relative aoa. . we see that for this u' 1 'IP .' . i. ?n!" + M'u'. g is unity and the Euolidean Christollelsymbols are zero. Kirchholl in 1852 made the first systematio study. One can consider strain ditlerential invariants of order T. LOOn Brillouin in 1924 simplified and recast Cosserat's treatment with the aid of the tensor caloulus. .. Since g.. gence ~: 'IP . of the metrio tensor g. where 1/I(Zl. Murnaghan.".". ?n!" But m rectangular cartesian coordinates g . {Ii i)( Vi..... gifJ : ..p so that by the above result we find the following equivalent ezp7'eaaUm lor the diver.. zI) is II 8CGl.. and F. ()zi  bg 2g a r cd But. the determinant of the Euclidean metrio tensor gti. .iQ' r. The fundamentals of a finite elastio deformation theory are not new... made contributions to the tensor theoretio treatment of elasticity theory. Chapter 16 1. is zero in rectangular coordinates and consequently g.oton 1/I(zl." '" 1f"IJ. zI." : )•.. the strain tensor .NOTES ON PART IT 117 3. 0 in all coordinates. and in 1937 F.." But the divergence ~ of 'IP is by definition 'IP '" .. in rectangular coordinates. Hence Lapltu:e'8 equation in general coorrji1l4te8 Zi is given by vr.. Hence g. VI .. zI) is a scalar field.• .. . 1 ~ vg..~) ?n!" co 0 when the unkn.. This means that blog\IU ..r of weight two. among several other authors. D..la. zI.. and so this scalar u::' reduces to the Laplaoean in rectangular cartesian coordinates.. Ricci and LeviCivita in 1900 made brief but important contributions to the applications of the tensor calculus to elasticity theory. lei (). To obtain expaDSio~ 13·6 for the divergence ~ we can proceed 88 follows... it can be shown by the usual methods of obtaining covariant derivatives of absolute tensors that the oovariant derivative g. i)zl ..e.. and E.!... is given by g.
. geodesics in the Riemannian space with arc lengths ds given by formula (b). ?:J:If'l>:rP where fai.~ = ~..q. For an account of Riemannian geometry.. The differential equations of the dynamical ourves are the BeOOndorder differential whsre t1&e giJ CIT6 equations (a). This reference. invariants for homogeneous strains.8 = IIIr"g'Y"faII. .. II. treats the (classical) finite dimensional Riemannian geometries. Strain difterential tensors can also be considered.. The MichalThomas methods (see the 1927 papers of these authors) can be used to carry on some interesting researches on strain dift'erential invariants. and where 11. Clearly there exist no strain differentia/. see Eisenhart's Riemannian GeMndry. Silice successive covariant dift'erentiation reduces to a corresponding order of partial dift'erentiation In cartesian coordinates. in general. rr)dq' dII. . This means that the dynamical traiectoriea can be considered as curI1e8 in (In ndiffUM8iontJl Riemannian apace whose element· oj CITe length ds is gWen by '(b) dB' = gv~rf. Note that the vanishing of H is the necessary and sufficient condition for a homogeneous strain. and I. la. is the first covariant derivative of the strain tensor fall. Chapter 18 1.. 2. Examples o~ strain ~erential invariants of order one are H >". part II. I" 18 and combination with gall would yield all the fundamental strain differential invariants. 5. Infinite dimensional and dimensionless "Riemannian" geometries were first studied by A.rwJY8e.fJea oJ fall up to order T. the Juncticms occurriflg in t1&e kinetic energy T = igili~.118 NOTES ON PART II mad Ihe deritJati. a strain dift'erential invariant can be written exclusively in terms of tensor fields by merely replaciflg the derivatives of ~ by corresponding covariant derivatives. We have seen that the Lagrangean equations of motion for a cooserva. D.tive dynamical system with no constraints and n degrees of freedom were (a) 9'"+ lji. The question then arises whether it is possible to define a Riemannian space whose geodesics are some of the curves whose differential equations are Lagrange's equations of motion «(I) for the given 1Hiegree dynamical .. Chapter 1'1 1. Michal (see paper 2 under Michal in the references for Part II). are the three fundamental strain invariants. The applications to vibrations of elastic media are now being studied (see papers 4. The theory of complete systems of partial dift'erential equations is discussed in Hedrick's translation of Goursat's COUT8 d:a. Vol. These curves are not. and 6 under Michal in the references). of course. 3. The question arises whether suCCessive covariant differentiation of 11.EAw and 11 s 'OIl '011. Several engineenng applications of Lagrange's equations of motion are to be found in the ~ and Biot book.
let us define A . M ) . A ii Let *r}1I be the Christoffel symbols based on the metric tensor /J. :..e.. Cofactor of 4ii in /I /I" '" . /J.. In fact. We have then immediately T + V". 1 ( ./I where /I '" the determinant of the /J. elL "L::t "L •. For convenience in computation. we see that /Iv co fL.jectory. since AI factors out In the numerator and A. Hence. where.. Ijll + 2A &~ "qi + &j e. 0.2A g e.Al .qi ql d (2T).q.NOTES ON PART IT 119 system.V)lijdq' dqi By definition and hence along a dynamical trajectory with energy constant 0 we have (~y so that (I) '" [2(0 .M . the gv /Ire the coejJicient8 in the kinetic energy T..j '" At/ii so that (e) can be written (d~ By definition ~ . Hence on using Lagrange's equations of motion elL.qk ()(j' (e) .in the denominator respectively of /I£i. T·V. 2(0 ."A .qi "!' "'.. Clearly *11 _....it z.j(ql.. •• " q") dq' dII.' .it d(aL. ()(j' llill d8I '" 2(0 ." .f + e. '" il' + ~(aL)q. a constant.. w("Ag"k "Agi" _ Milk) 11: . dt '" ~.j..n equations of motion ha~ the energy integral i.j. We shall show briefly that it is possible to define such a Riemannian space. To do this we must first show that the Lagrangea. dt i)q' dt z.V) and /J..1I + i)q.!.. since the kinetic potential L .V)g..V)J d8 dt .) "'.qk . as in (/I).. We shall show that theae p/lrticullJr dynamical CUrtl88 lire the geodeaics uJ the ndimensional RiemlJnnian space whose element 0/ /Ire length dB is gWen by (e) d8I '" 2(0 .j dq' dqi. Consider now the dynamical CUrtl88 that correapcmd to /lny chosen energy constant O..". the BUm namical 0/ the 1cinetic tmd potential energies is a constant along any cIwsend1ltra..
( '.e. dI/ dtf 1. H" is the moment of inertia of each disk and ql. f'.re another form of the Lagrangean differential equations of motion for our dynamical system..441 (g) dB tit ' dBI dJ. (f)...re given respectively by T and =0 i[(~)I ~ e:Y + (~Y + (:)1] v =0 ~[(r)l + (rJ' .. . tit tit • '!'he difterential equations for the geodesics of the Riemannian space whose dB is given by (c) Is (h) On employing results (e)..I. Hence equations (i) reduce to il'q' (j) dJ. then. we can show that IInY dyrwmicGl trajectory 'IDith energy conBI471t C.w aA dI/ dt/' + 11k tit dt . and (g) in (h). By retracing o. GnY CUn16 t1IIJt satiBftu (j) with energy COfIBtGnt C. if. if..if)l].) we get after obvious simplifications ~.I • . 2.. if. i.s~Ci[(r)l+(if. tf)[(dtf)l + (drt'l + (dtf)l + (dq')ll where F(r.'1cdidi ..I + r. tf) . A shaft is fixed at one end and carries four disks at a distance l apart. Dluatratlve Example of a Shaft CarryiDg Four Disks. Hence the dynamical trajectories with total energy constant C can be represented as the geodesicB of the fourdimensional Riemannian space whose element of arc length dB Is given by .IF~. ()V But these ditJerential equations a. some simpler and some .r)l + (if .441_. We have thus proved that the geodesicB oj the Riemannian space with a da gWen by (c) lire dyrwmical tro. CCln be c0nsidered II geodesic in the Riemtmnwn space with an element oj arc length dB gWen in (c). ~ii ~'a: and potentW energy V. dJ. f'..I. if. tf the respective angular deflections of the four disks.'1cdi di ..f')I + (tf .. dBlm F(tf. U lf a('li1c tit di' But clt/dt/' g...r)l+ (if rJ')I +(tf if)IJf· Numerous other engineering examples can be given. By elementary calculus we have therefore dq' dq' dIq' dIq' dq' ciA ...41 _. the kinetic and potential energies a.. This is a conservative dynamical system of four degrees of freedom with no moving constraints... if the shaft has a uniform torsional stiffness 7".jectoriea oj the dyrwmicGl 81/Btem with kinetic energy T .ur steps of proof. A along a dynamical trajectory with energy constant C.120 NOTES ON PART II along a dynamical trajectory with energy constant C. clt/ dt/ ..
that.. Here the dynamical trajectories with total energy constant 0 can be represented as the geodesics of the threedimensional Riemannian space whose element of arc length dB is given by dIP . O. [! ~l 2 i>. the surface. Cartan. O. 2[0 .. Define the tensor (field) R. E. :r. Lie...ql)']f [(dqI)' + (dqI)']../J RIBIB '" *RIBIB + (rllru . 1~afJ 2 azp' wh.. By straightforward calculation it can be shown. tit. Poincare.zO i>. Three of them are included in (c) ~ .rcry.zO =0 . It is evident that (b) holds throughout our threedimensional Euclidean space. RulB " O.. For example. if the above shaft carries only t1lJO dilk8. ... In other words..Mgh coa ql][J(dqI)' + (1 sinl ql + J coat q%iq')B + 2J coa qI dqI dtf + J(dt)']· Chapter 18 1.0 and r. and E.". R .. a semicolon denotes covariant differentiation on the surface zIl. rf)y.I) . ! ()tgafJ _ !g"B~cry ~B' 2 ~ 4 i>. two of them are included in (d) and the sixth one is given by (6) ~ .rlBrU).i[(qI)t + (q' .NOTES ON PART II 121 more sophisticated.. the dyn~cal trajectories with total energy constant 0 can be represented as the geodesics of the 8Urface whose dB is given by ...w by «(I) R. A more sophisticated example is given by the aymmetrical gyroscope. here we have two important examples of integral infJariootB. it is to be recalled.. dIP .. the ~er is referred to paper 1 under Michal in the references...zO { R«fJ'yo ... It can be shown that" there are only six independent equations in (b). Define The *R«fJ'yB stande for the curvature tensor on bafJ(ZI. respectively.. For the theory of integral invariants and its modem generalizations. 21'~0 ..ere.w . We saw in Chapter 17'that the RiemannChristoffel curvature tensor Bjw is a zero tensor in any Euclidean space and hence in our threedimensional Euclidean space. 2. S. gwB/w.a .. see the exercise at the end of Chapter 17. Goursat. There the reader will find ample references to the earlier work on integral invariants by H. The conditions for an incompressible fluid and the continuity equations for a fluid flow state the invariance of two integrals: the integral for volume and the integral for mass." .
0 th. ()tg«fJ] • 2 W.(11 over the IlUrja. 0 imply Ri. 1In '" 'In .....bp... . ~) aTe quadratic expressions of ~. [! . that we may write (i) in the form (1) where ea(J . It can be shown.) Conversely it can be shown that equations (g) in aapace and equations (Ia) and ... If we evaluate the last two sets of conditions (f) on the surface ~ . . Hence.. p. 0.nishiDg of the curvature tensor Rt. Call ..ce ~ .... .' and . 6).b... MoConnell's AppZicationa oj the AbBoZt.122 NOTES ON PART II. Equations (Ia) and (11 are the wellknown Codazzi and Gauss equations of the surface ~ '" o...1J«fJ.. if we write eomponema gr4/. and tlriTtl J'UffI14menfqJ JOTf1I.cienta oj the fInt.p .ce ~ .rov(J1wul the 8BPa. KEfJ'yEpa '" bPlAr. fl«fJ.. If we differentiate (g) with respect to ~ and if in this result we eliminate the second derivatives ~ by means of (g).bnbcrlh al"crIh a = I GcrIJ I.. 2 b:r!' b:r!' b:r!' 2 ()zO ()zO ()zO On differentiating the wellknown identity fA.8 oj the 1lUr/a.111 .ba..sw in the threedimensional Euclidean space implies the following three sets of conditions: (g) ()tg«fJ .. !If"~~ ~ 2 b:r!' b:r!' b""sl'Y ... we evidently obtain ()Ig«fJ . we find (j) ()Ig«fJ '" l)z08 ! ?)gP" C)g. we now see readily that the va.z1. 1931.Ite Dif/ert/Atiol Colcvl'IU. aecor&d.. 0 l)z08 • Hence the 1lUr/a.. O • .ce tensor Indeed. btf" co ffi'g'" i)g). ~. we can solve for b:r!' and obtain btl" .. 204.r • b:r!' b:r!' If we substitute this expression in (j).. But we shalI not go into this matter any further.ce.. "'1'" 1.g'" . 0. (Of. C)gor>. 0 (A) (i) ·RpafIy '" bptJJ.. bg~ + !1f"rf'rC)g.tfi.OI zO"'o then (k) A glance at (11) shows that Call '" a""1l. bcrlh and Call aTe T68p6dively the tensor coe... :ea.. 1111" I. .
.. H .... !(. HIRt With these relations.."'I'a. where H is the mean curtllJture oj the surface :r!l ."'I'GayafJ" ~. we find 9 = (1 +2H:r!l +K(:r!l)')t ... it is well known in surface theory that 2 HI R.' 1 K .r.."'I'GayafJ3 a 2a."tJ~9"'l3....bfJ" if similar quantities fnvolvillg c. o. The same is true of many other geometrical quantities derived from (/otIJ and gaIJ. c{ 1+ :y(l :y."b.."'Iag..... _ _. 0.. ApplyiDg ~1J"'I' to (l). where Rm is the minimum value of the prinoipal radii of ourvature of the surface zp .. G.+~) the total CW'IICIture (Gclusaian curtllJtuTe) oj the surface:r!l .ry .... "aIJ. 2K."'Iaa...NOTES ON PART II 123 a"'lP to (I). aafJ3.. if we expand gaIJ as a power series in:r!l.... If we apply the tensor If HI and Rs are the principal radii of ourvature. we have to caloulate the quantities "otIJ. Thus... H=ja. have been reduced with the help of (m). ·ltfII. + gafJ . O.2HbotlJ + K~ .l(1 + ~tl(1 + :tl"."'Ia~fJa'" 2Ha.."'I'b... we can easily calculate g.. ... I gaIJ I . we obtain ~.b~ . If we substitute (n) and (0) in the determinant g. the series are convergent if I :r!l I < Rm.....!..rybfJ" ~.... we find (m) Ca/J .g~.. Hence (n) (0) rfII..."'I'b. For this purpose. 0. Now "aIJ..
HOTELLING. 60th Anniversary Volume. Edifllmrgh. FRAZER. 3. pp. vol. 57 (1937). The Principles of Quantum Mechanics." S." Proc.REFERENCES FOR PART I AmoDN. 29. 2. Oxford University Press. Berlin." N. 858. p. C. "Studies in Practical Mathematics. THEODORE VON.C. 1155. Sept. California Institute of Technology. "Outline of Four Degrees of Freedom Flutter Analysis. The Evaluation of a Certain Triple Matrix Product. pp. II. 197219. P. Mathematical Methods in Efil/ineerifllJ. The Evaluation of the Latent Roots and Latent Vectors of a Matrix. TechnictJl Memoro. pp." S. • BLEAXNlDY. 1938.. "The Flutter of Aeroplane Wings. 34 (1925). vol. 1928. Bdin11urgh..s Aircro/t Corporation Report 3572. M. FRAZER.. 1. DUNCAN. 1940. &c." Philosophical MCJ(faZine and Journal of 8cUmce. "The Oscillating Wing with Aerodynamically BoJanced Elevator. "Studies in Practical Mathematics. 1942. 1. LuaBER. M. Die BerechnufIIJ der DrehschwifllJUfllJe7l. 1930. McGrawHill Book Co. Roy. J. 3. and A.. M. 36 (1941).s Aircraft Corporation Report 3587. CAlISLAW and JAEGER. A. April 4. Cambridge University Press. vol. 1942. CoLLAR. Bletnentary Matrices and Some Applications to Dymmic8 and Di:/ferentiaJ. H. H. BORN and JORDAN." J. 1934. "Some New Methods in Matri. DUNCAN. and W. KAlmAN. Soc. 5663. W. DIRAC. 19 (1935). I." Comptea rendus (Paris).. October..A. 111lroduction to Higher Algebra. R. MechanictJZ Vibrations. vol. vol. vol. SkltiBtictJZ AB8OC. Am. pp. 865909. Oxford University Press. Operational Calculus in Applied MathematiCB.. A. ScHWARZ. DEN H. M. FANTAPPIE. D. Dougla. pp. Sci. 1941.A. M. vol. J. p.ft Corporotion Report 3855. J." Proc.ndum 991.urroo. 134. 124 . 1941. H. 1. 46 (1926)." S. "Three Dimensional Four :begrees of Freedom Flutter Analysis. pp. "A New Method for Obtaining the Inverse Matrix. 2. Dougla. 1943). 1941. pp. Roy. August. and COLLAR.'t Calculation. Roy. 619621. A. Soc. 289: BINGHAK. 17 (1934). KuBSNEB. and L. KARMAN and BlOT. R.s Aircro. "A Method for the Solution of Oscillation Problems by Matrices. pp. DUNCAN." Proc. 186 (1928). G. Aerooout. "Matrices Applied to the Motions of Damped Systems. 269304. "Le ca1cul des matrices. March 20. PAUL. "An Iteration Method for Calculating the Latent Roote of a Flutter Matrix. BoCHlDR." PhiloaophictJZ MtJ(JtJrine and Journal oj Science.1942. vol. Dougla.thematiclJl SkltiBtic8. Zeit8chri/t fur Physik. HOLZER. 57 (1987). H.) AeroooutictJl Research Committee. Edinburgh. 530534. 172181. M. "On Bernoulli's Numerical Solution of Algebraic Equations." Reports and Memoranda of the (British.. Equations." AnfUlls of Mo. 14 (March. L. 2. McGrawHill Book Co. vol. vol. 9 (1941). Julius Springer.
1938." 8. 849860. Part I .1940. 5. TmlODOBSEN. Report 685. "Matrix Theory of Oscillatory Networks. 3. "Les lois de l'Basticit6 BOUS forme tensorie1le valable pour des coordonn~ quelconques. 1930. 413433. 1927. contains a good bibliography on pure matrix theory up to 1934. l!i. pp. Theory oj Fu. Coss1DltAT. 6 (1940). "Some Expansions iii. M. "The Matrix Theory of Torsional Oscillations. A Treatise on the AnaZytical Dynamics oj Particles end Rigid Bodies. MARTIN." Adllanced Restricted Report 334. D. 4. GauthierVillars. No. 6991.A. Aileron Reversal Speed. pp. 1942. pp. Vibration Problems in Engineering. 1933. Vector Space. VOLTERRA. "Matrices in Engineering. vol. and R. S. T. March. The Theory oj Matrices. 1924. New York." N. 1942. 3 (1925).C. pp.lancing Process. E. Van Nostrand Co. vol.rine.ft Corporation Report 8142. pp. 1928. BRILLOUIN. 370395. 3. 251298.. Tome V. S. "The Transient Behavior of FourTerminal Networks. . "Convergence of Hardy Cross's Ba. P. A. "Sur la tMorie de I'Basticit6. REFERENCES FOR PART U APPlIILL. 2. 1." JO'Umal de f1IIlthbnatiqueB pures et appl~. "NonStationary Flow about a WingAileronTab Combination Including Aerodynamic Ba. 10 (1939). voL 1 (1944). OLDENBURGEB. especially pp. "Mechanism of Flutter. 434444. J." Electrical Bngineering.REFERENCES FOR PART I 125 4. CmmN. V.7 (1942). C.A. WEDDERBURN.lance. 1943." JO'Urnal of Applied Phyllic8. Langley Memorial Aeronautical Library.A. 5. "The Matrix Theory of Four Terminal Networks. 297~7. TamoDOBSEN. vol. T. p. Oct. T.." Journal 01 Applied Mechanics. pp.A." N. WHITI'AXEB. and I. Paris. 2. Z." PhiZosophical Magazine. vol. D. pp. Douglas Aircra!t Corporation Report 8127.1177. Lectures on Matrices (American Mathematical Society Colloquium Publications. M. and F. Les tenaeurs en mkanique et en ela8ticiU." Annales de Toulouse. 2. "Matric Methods for Calculating Wing Divergence Speed. CO'Urs de mkaniq'lte rationeUe. M. TIMOSBENKo. C. Report 496. 1926. Masson. PIPES. Cambridge University Press." Duke. 13. 1. 1940." JO'Urnal oj Applied Phyllic8. pp. 174214." Quarterly oj Applied Mathematics. LoUIS A. Julius Springer.. W.General Theory. 1937. 357361. Toronto Mathematical Congress. 13. 1. 1934. 10 (1896). "The Intrinsic Theory of Thin Shells and Plates. GARRICK. pp. 1.C. "General Theory of Aerodynamic Instability and the Mechanism of Flutter. a bibliographical report." Philosophical Maga." 8. and Effective Control. 1934). MAcDtJFFEE. 1940. E. London. "A General Three Dimensional Flutter Theory as Applied to Aircraft.maJ" vol. MICHAL. LmON. Mathematical Jqu. voL 13 (1934). 2. Blackie & Son. RUlI'US.nctioMls. 419420. H. Dougla8 AirCTa." Annales de physique. " Infinite Powers of Matrices and Characteristic Roots. Berlin.
December. American Mathematical Society. IUBCBBol'P'. vol.. London. London. 862.. 4. American M~ matical Society. H. qJ the Royal AeronouticalSociety. LAd." Jourruit oJ the AeronauticGZ Scimcea. "General Differential Geometries and Related Topics. 1943. E. abstract 154. Mich. Ulcture. 1988. vol. 9 (1852). and LBsuJD HOWAlmL "On the Statistical Theory of Turbulence. pp." Bull." Science. Vibrations of Elastio BeaIDS and Other Elastic Media as Studies in Geodesics. JJDP'I'BJIYs. K1lt¥1N.. 1927. vol.) 2. "'Ober die Gleichungen des Gleiohgewiohtes eines elastiRchen Korpers bei nioht unendlioh kleinen Versohiebungen seiner Theile. American Mathematical Society. Vol. pp. Berlin.Not. Paris. McCoNNIILL. TmloOOlUlJ VON." 8iU. pp.." Tram.. Blaokie and Son.ct8. Cambridge University Press. American Mathematical Society. The Absolute DifJerential Calculus (Calculus qJ Ten80f'8). 1.. 2. DifJerent/iIlJ. D. 1926. voL 28 (1927). Y. D.. . n. pp. Math. p. E. and T. AppZicatiOM oj the Absolute DifJerentio. H. F. vol. "Differential Invariants of Affine1y C0nnected Manifolds. "The Fundamentals of the Statistical Theory of Turbulence. Wave Motion as a Study in Geodesics. 1915. Cambridge University Press. 1924. Ann Arbor. 192215." Bull.. 1927}. "An Analogue of the MaupertuisJaoobi 'Least' Action Prinoiple for Dynamical Systems of Infinite Degrees of Freedom. . LAMB. pp. 1931. G. 529563. 92 (1940). ~OM aur lea coordonnll curtJiZign68. H. T. 4 (1937). "Recent. 612646. vol. 1umdN. Cambridge University Press. P. pp. Riemannian Geometry. 49 (1943). 631688." American Joumal oj MathemtJtics. KAsNmt. Edwards Brothers. p. vol. dtJr.aue dtJr kaiBerlic1wm Akad. Blaokie and Son. pp. "Physical Models of Some Curved DifferentialGeoInetrio Metrio Spaces of Infinite Dimensions. p. voL 2. vol. 340. A.et leurs dirJer868 appZietJtionB. Q. MUBNAGHAN." B1lU." AnMlB of Mathematics. LoVll. abstract 288. 1913. 6. TBEoDOlUlJ VON. . 164 (1938). 235260.General Trends in Mathematics. A. 1937. 50 (1944). 49 (1943). vol. MICHAL. D. 1. voL 28 (1927). 862." Bull. 59 (1937). (This paper includes an introduction to multiplepoint tell80r fields." Procudings qJ the Royal Society qJ London. pp. "Dmerential Invariants or Relative Quadratic Differential Fonns. Hydrool/fl4mics. . "Physical Models of SoIne Curved DifferentialGeometrio Metrio 8paoes of Infinite Dimeosions. 3." JoumoJ. K'l. vol. American Mathematical Society. 29 (1927). G. LJm"CIVlTA. 131. Carie8ian Tensor8. Twentyfifth Wilbur Wright Memorial. L. 452521. A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory oj BlaBticity. A. H. MetJuxJm U1Id Probleme dtJr dynGmiacI&en M~. "Turbulence. J. 1." AnMlB qj Mathematics. ER'1'IIIL. ~ aur lG thM1riedea avrja. 1859. Julius Springer.126 REFERENCES FOR PART n DABBotJX.138. "Finite Deformations of an Elastio SOUd. THOMAS. 5. p. American MtJt1umuJtical Society. ~thierVillars. 1931. 2. EIsmNBABT. abstract 289. MICHAL.(Jeometric Aapecta oj Dynamic8. 196236. I. 762. "Funotionals of RDimensionaI Manifolds AdInitttng Continuous Groups of Transformations.. 45 (1939). WiBB. New York. pp. A. Paris. 563566.l CalcuZus. Princeton University Press.
and W. Math. VEBLEN. "Invariants of Quadratic Differential Forms. 54 (1900).'Sociely Londun. CHIEN.th. /lnge1II." C~ Tract 9. "The Intrinsic Theory of Elastic Shells and Plates. "The Foundations of Differential Geometry. Cambridge University Press." C/lmbridge Troct 24. E. WEBS'!'EB. New York. Cambridge University Press. 226 (19261927). Y. "Methodes de calcul differentiel absoIu et leurs applicatioDS. 1934. Invariants of Gener/Iliud Spaces. 8798.dro. B. RmIuNN. G. 1927. 31106. welch. pp. THOMAS. RoyW. Z. SYNGE. Cambridge University Press." Z.254269). Cambridge University Press. 1854 (GuommeUe Werke. E.tic Differential Forms. ·F." Theodore lIOn K4nn4n Annivers/lry Volume. L. pp. E. vol. Vol. A. pp. T. vol. 103120. 1941. 127 "EiDe Anwendung des absoluten Parallelismus auf die Schalentheorie. 1908. 1942 reprint. J. "Invariants of Qus. SYNGE. Cambridge University Press. and T.e der Geometrie 3U Grunde liegen.. WBIOBT. 0. 1876. J.. H." C/lmbridge Tract 29. Dber die Hypothaen." Ma. The Dynamics of P/lrtide8 /lnd of Rigid. Tnma. LmVICIVITA. tmd Fluid Bodies. pp." Pl"l. 125201.. and J. J.. Stechert & Co. O. C. A. L: "On the Geometry of Dynamics. 1932.ematiache Annalen. Md. Hlc&stic. pp.REFERENCES FOR PART II Rmtl'l'TllB. WHlTJllBEAD. G. RICCI. . Differentia}. T.. O. 22 (1942). 1927. . A Treatise on the AooZytirol Dynamic8 of Particles tmd Rigid Bodies. WHlTTAXEB. VEBLEN.
111. 105. 124 BLmAKNlily.l24 of small oscillations. 69. 92 CoDAZZI equations for a surface. 1.E~BART. 34. 124 Differential equations. 124 Dynamical systems with n degrees of 107. 35. 57 EUL1IIBLAGRANGJil equations for ge0Cramer's rule. 111 desics. 124 ERTIIL. x. 35. 124 Boundary layer. 118. 79. 116 alternative form for. 32 matric differential equation of. 100 129 . example. 106. 58 Contraction of a tensor. Ill. 24. 124 APPJDLL. 104. 24. 127 CBRISTOPFEL symbols. Ill. 59 Euclidean spaces. 54 Correlation tensor field in turbulence. 22 BORN. lOS freedom. 75. exercise on. SO. 123 mean.INDEX Aircraft flutter. 103 CoLLAR. DuNCAN. 100 its law of transformation. 40 proof of law of transformation of.121 CAYL!iIy1LU. 33 need for matric theory in calculations for fast aircraft. 123 DAlUloux" 126 DmN HARTOG. E. I. 14.31 harmonic solutions. 124 with variable coefficients. 113. 99. 25 solution of linear. 47 Riemannian spaces. 105. 36 description of. BINGBAK. 12 under. 125 Lagrange's equations of motion of. 53 matrix methods in formulation of multidimensional Euclidean. 38. 96 Elastic potential. 76. 122 Equation of continuity. 116. 30. 126 Elastic deformation. 91. 34. 95 tativity in Euclidean spaces. M 73. and F. 39. 78 of vector fields. 29. 124 . calculation of. 43 its noncommutativity in general in exercises on. 117. 58 Eulerian strain tensor. 114. 109 Boundarylayer equations. 103. change in yolume rices. 37 AITKEN. 126· Compressible fluids.35. 95 finite. 55 for Euclidean plane.l25 Crystalline media. 16 DIRAC. 109 Differentiation of matrices. 124 thickness of. Gaussian. tensor methods in formulation of 114.. 58 Covariant differentiation. Euclidean. 95 of tensor fields in general. 26 . 46 of Euclidean metric tensor.ULTON theorem for mat. 60 multidimensional. 70. frequencies and amplitudes. 59 Euclidean metric tensor. 101 BRILLOUIN. 71. 28 BlOT. 21. 77. 56. 77 Riemannian. 81 CBIIIN. 24. 20 BOCHER. 25. 117 law of transformation of. 34. 34. 58. its commumultidimensional. 34. 104 Euclidean Christoffel symbols. theory of Prandtl. 42 of scalar field. 124 CARTAN. 101 CABSLAW. 93 Curvature of a surface. 115 finite.74 CossmRAT.
20 120. 85. 46. 84. 121 Isotropic medium. 122 Lagrange's equations of motion. 124 Fluids. I.121 LIIilBEB. 88 wP. 125 in curvilinear coordinates. 124 . application of matric exponential to. 69. 103. 18. 124 FUnction&m. 18 Matrix. 112. 112 FUndamental forms of a surface. 34. 20 HoLZlllB. with respect to numerical variable. 42 Eulerian equations. 106 N avierStokes equations for incompressible viscous. 63 for vector fields. X. 105 Line element. 16 Matric power series. 92. 122 Linear algebraic equations. 35. 124. 34. 118. 12 column. 21.in. 125 Matric exponential. 34. 93. 94 111. 124 JEFFBJlYB. 16 . 119. Ill. 20 convergence of. 126 KussNllB. 100 method of successive substitutions in GoUBSAT. 105 GAlUUCK. 116 Integral invariants. relations for. 104 boundarylayer equations for. 22 Homogeneous strains. 126 JORDAN. 21. 116. 84 MAcDuFFlIIlII. compressible. 63. 38. 126Laplace equation. 112. solutions. 124 HowARTH. to solution of linear algebraic equations. 94 Isotropic strain. 42 numerical. definition of. 96 equations for a surface. 74. 102 Lagrangean strain tensor. 112 definition of. 116 Lagrangean equations. 86 LoVE. 121 solution of. 1 differentiation of. 104: incompressible. addition. 22 EulerLagrange equations for. 36. 92. 101. 125 MARTIN. 15 properties of. 62. 47 GAuss. 118. 104:. 39 application of inverse. 77. 100 dynamical trajectories as. 9 General theory of relativity. 104:. 126 KAsNEB. 14 Geodesics. 103. 64 LBVICIVITA.43 Riemannian. 9 CayleyHamilton theorem.l26 Hydrodynamics. 93. 126 Killing's differential equations. Linear differential equations. JAEGlIIB. 124 KAtudN. 125 LIN. 45. 12 characteristic roots of. 88 Kinetic potential. theorem on computation of. application to systems of linear differential equations with constant coefficients. 65 in curvilinear coordinates. 22 with constant coefficients.70 F'BAzmB. 45. 12 characteristic function of. 14 Geodesic coordinates. ix. 2 . Dc fundamental theorem on. 127 LIIIl. 94 condition for. 12 characteristic eqlSation of. 93 stresHtra. 78 Lum. x. 126 Hooke's law. 47 geodesic form of. 2 adjoint of. 46. definition of. 124. 105.121 in matrices. 124 wi~h variable coefIicients. 42 exercises on. 104: N avierStokes equations for viscous.180 INDEX FANTAPPIlII. 101 KIBCHBOI'II': 117. 97 punchedcard methods. 113. 24.HoTIILLING. 117. 15 .
117. 82. FtT. 109. 112 of same type. 120. 94 Stress tensor. 127 subjeot to condition of incompressibility. 114. 58 Principal radii of curvature of boundaryexercises on. dynamical. 104. 125 95 Plastic deformation. 121. 61. Normed linear ring. 100 applioationstoboundarylayer theory. x. 98 infinite dimensional. 123 applications to classical dynamics. 4. 99. 58 PO'l'T. 101. 118 Rigid displacement.117 Quadratic differential form. 111 unit. 70 SYNGE.74 in turbulence. 103. 124 Strain invariant. 97. 121. 41 in infinitesimal theory. lOS. 62 SCBWABZ. 71. 13. 74 MUBNAGBAN. 127 RiemannChristoffel curvature tensor. 121 Tensor field. 8 multiplication. 68 covariant differentiation of. 71. OLDlIINBUBGIDB.lQ2 example. 72. 96. 104. 39. 91 Stress vector.100 Riemannian geometry. 59 layer surface. 29 example of noncommutativity of : matrix multiplication.2 I polynomials in a. 2 RmUTTEB. 73. 112. 86. 90 NavierStokes differential equations for Summation convention. 4 zero. 77 Lagrangean. 116. 126 Scalar density. 60. 100 POINCAU. 3 McCoNNELL. 127 RIIDHANN. 40. 116 POISSON equation. 46 . 39. 112 110. 60. 41 Strain tensor. 61. 109. 48.INDEX Matrix. PIPES. 112 applications to boundarylayer theory.126 MILLIKAN. 99. 73. W. 126 MICHAL. 17 inverse. 114 in Riemannian spaces. 93. 11 integration of. 107. 123 applications to classical dynamics. 11 norm of. 107.118 Strain matrix. lOS general definition of. Normal' coordinates. 74 in e1asticity theory. 125 101. 43 a viscous fluid. 77 order. x. 5 by number. 110. 105. 90 symmetry of. 106. 56 Norm of a matrix. 117. 66. 102. 113 in curvilinear coordinates. 112. 88 Stressstrain relations for isotropio medium. ix property of a. 98. 77 variation of. 118. ix. 131 127 RICCI. 2 strain. 122. x Multiplepoint tensor fields. 57. 59 ~tive. 60. 121 in multidimensional Euclidean spaces. 49 Eulerian. 11 row. 41 symmetric. 99. 121.67 Scalar field. lOS. 45. 2 rule for computation of inverse. 40 trace of. contraction of a. 89. 104 Tensor analysis. . 40. 76 in Euclidean geometry. 13 square. 72. 118. with respect to numerical variable. 73.125. 69 Sylvester's theorem. 89. 49 relative. 117. 122. 67. 116 103. 40. 57. 106. 119. 105. 5 index and power laws.
78. 126 mixed. 74 correlation tensor field in. 51 DO divergence of. weight of. 127 VULIIIN. contravariant.182 INDEX Teuaor field. 127 WmTTADB. 127 'WJUGJIT. Velocity field. 49 ture. 49 . 127 TI¥OSBJIINEO.n coordinates. 125 Wave equation. 74 Wm'l'llBEAD. 116. 114. 99. 66 TBOKAS. 114. 100 covariant. 112. 125 WlIlDDEaBUBN. 60 TmIoDOBSBN. 88. 60 in rectangular oartesia. 126. RiemannChrfstoffel ourva. contravariant. 125 Turbulence. 118. 126. 50 VOL'1'IIRBA.vector field. 127 . 116. 73. 127 WUS'l'llB. 65. 103. Tensor field of rank two. 114. 50 . 86. 117 covariant. 28.
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