Rock anchoring







1.Introduction 1.1Objectives 1.2Methodology 1.3Instrument 2.Geology 2.1General geology of Malekhu and adjacent area 2.2Major rock type 2.3Major Geological structure 2.4.1Benighat slate 2.4.2Malekhu Limestone 2.4.3Robang Phyllite with Dunga Quartzite 2.4.4Radua formation(Garnetiferous Schist) 2.4.5Bhaisedoban Marble 2.4.6Gneiss(Kulekhani Formation) 2.5Engineering Geological comments 3.Study of river Morphology 3.1Types of river channel 3.2 Erosional and Depositional features of the river 3.3 Constructional material survey from river deposit 4.Study of landslide 4.1Study of different landslide during the field trip 4.2.1Landslide no:1 4.2.2Landslide no:2 4.2.3Landslide no:3 4.2.4Landslide no:4 4.2.5Landslide no:5 4.3Landslide stability analysis 5.Rock mapping 5.1Introduction 5.2Stereo photography 5.3Scan Line Survey 5.4Rock map of the outcrop at the site


The highland or the mountainous regions from where the river originates is called its head region. In most cases the tendency of river is to flow towards the sea. Braided (a) Straight river channel This kind of river channel has its flow of water in straight form. The place where a stream or river empties into the sea is called its mouth.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION 3 MORPHOLOGY OF RIVER 3. the river flows through gradually decresing slopes and then through almost flat lands before it actually empties into the sea. . it flows with roaring speeds acquiring energy by virtue of which it is capable of cutting down even the hardest rocks along and across its course. Presence of fault changes the course of flow of river channel.1. This is head region. From head to mouth. This is mostly possible in hard rocks. Based upon its morphology river channels could be divided into 1. INTRODUCTION 1. The geological work performed by water as a body of running water is mostly in the form of rivers and streams. Water in its liquid forms is the most important geoligical agent that modifies the surface morphology of the earth on a very large scale. MORPHOLIGY OF RIVER CHANNEL Appearance of river channel and the study of its external fature is known as morphology of river channel. Meandering 3. a river may exhibit a variety of geological activity. From the head region.1 INTRODUCTION ALmost 71 percent surface area of the earth is covered with water in the form of rivers seas and oceans. Straght 2.

It meanders profusely.(b) Meandering River Channel -River channels in which the course of the river is bent towards different direction within small area -Mostly possible in soft rocks -In middle reaches. i.e. let us see on what factors the rate of river depends. where the river behaves like an old organism: just moving ahead to join the parent body of all the waters. higher is its erosive power. (2) Lithology . greater the velocity of the stream. their broading capacity is also increased considerably. EROSIONAL AND DEPOSITIONAL CHARACTERS OR RIVER CHANNELS Before talking about the erosional and depositional characteristic of the river channels. Rate Of River Erosion The capacity of strems to performerosive work depends on the following main factors: (1)Velocity Fast moving streams are capable of exerting greater pressure on the channel rocks and cause stronger impact bu the course tools. Thus other things being the same. Menders are therefore typical character feature of a mature river. The velocity of a stream itself depends on (i) The gradient of the channel (ii) The volume of water in the stream (iii) The nature of the channel (whether rough or smooth) and (iv) The load of sediments in the stream at a given point of time. It flows in loops. changes its course again and again through a small area. changing its course where it finds obstructions which are insurmountable. the river becomes mature. It has alresdy acquired some load to carry down and the capacity to cut vigorously is gone. It does erode but only selectively. the sea. A high velocity enables the stream to carry all the load it acquirea easily so that still some erosive power is left. This type of river channel is generally present in the flat lands near its mouth. The quantity of tools that can be carried by fasret streams being more. (c)Braided River Channel -Rivers in which flow of water is along different channel along different channel within the same river. are said to have braided river channels. in a majestic manner: without noise and in full compusore.

This is because limestone have a lower hardness and a chemcal composition favorable for solvent action of water. Thus. (b)Meandering river channel The gradient of mendering river channel is quite low which increases the possibility of meandering. Some types of rocks are more easily eroded by stream water than the other exactly identical eroding conditions. In this type of river channel. depositionis predominant over erosion DEPOSITIONAL MORPHOLOGY Deposition by rivers: When water carrying the load losses its every material starts to deposit i. it is incapable of taking any furter load. then the tendency to erode the rocks of the channel will be correspondingly reduced.of a limestone and sandstone forming bed rock of a stream and lying side by side (at the same gradient). deposition is not possible. Now the erosional and depositional characteristic of river channels can be summerised as below: (a) Straight river Channel In this type of river channel.This signifies the nature of rock along the river bed and sides. They are (i)energy (ii)environment (iii)time . The discharge is quite high which also contributes to meandering of a river. resulting accumulation of the load is its deposition. There are basically three factors sufficient to determine the trend of process of deposition by streams. Thus the phenomenon of dropping down of the load by any moving natural agent is called deposition. The gradient of straight river channel is quite high and discharge is quite low.e. limestone will suffer erosion at a higher rate compared to sandstone. erosion and deposition are frequent and approximately equal. It is associated only with erosion. deposition takes place at a place of energy loss. (3) Load If a stream is fully loaded i. Its major power is used in transporting load on the contrary an unloaded stream can erode the rocks more effectively.e. Braided river channel account for more deposition and less erosion i. (c) Braided River Channel Amount of discharge varies accordingly to the season in such river channel.e.

if energy available to transport the load decrease.This takes place where there is an appreciable change in the physico-chemical conditions attending the stream water.Further repeated accumulations over an initial fan or cone contributes to its considerable growth. Similarly the factor of environment influences deposition through configuration or shape of the channel.Its deposition thus becomes commonly seen after major flood.Irregular surfaces of the channel represent such areas which tend to reduce the velocity without a change in gradient or volume of water.shape and mode of origin.the low lying areas surrounding major rivers are actually made up of the layers of mud deposits laid after a number of floods.peripheries and in the main body.Following are some chief types of stream deposits: 1)Alluvial Fans And Cones These are cone shaped accumulation of stream debris that are commonly found at places where small intermittent streamlets coming down from hills enter the low lands.their velocity gets checked everywhere due to obstructions.Such deposits differ greatly in size.These are generally level or plain in nature and .The apex of such a deposit points up hill and its slope may range from almost flat to as much as 50.That when a stream would drop down the load it is carrying will be determined by a general statement"whenever its velocity is appreciably checked".flluvial or fluviatile deposits. Precipitation of dissolved load is another process contributing to deposition. Types of Flluvial Deposits: Deposits laid down by running water are called alluvial.As a consequence they deposit most of the load in the form of a thick layer of mud.then a part of the load can no longer be transported. 2)Flood Plain Deposits Flood waters are invariably heavily loaded with sediments of all types.Alluvium is usually very porous and will be compressible if rich in clay and permeable if composed of gravel.sand or silt. The factor of time operates through the above two factors.the deposit is known as alluvial cone.the alluvial deposit is known as alluvial fan.When these waters overflow the banks and spread as enormous sheets of water in surrounding arears. Alluvial fans and cones show contrasting patterns in distributon of fragments and particles of various sizes at their apices.and when it is from 10-50. When the slope of the deposits is below 10.Since such a process may get repeated year after year.Thus.The decrease in energy may take place due to reduction in velocity(as when a stream enters from a steep to gentle gradient)or due to reduction in volume(as during dry spell in the same area.

since these are commonly made up of sand. 4.DELTAS: Deltas are defined as alluvial deposits of roughly triangular shape that are deposited by the rivers at the points where they enter into the sea.CHANNEL DEPOSITS: Many streams are forced to drop a part of their load along their beds.Small landform in the channel of the river is called a Channel bar. Rivers are sources of the construction material as explained earlier. Construction material from River.So the available deposits of gravel and sand which occur in the terrace gravels are excavated on a large scale for supplies of aggregate and sand for concrete and mortar.A number of fracture are involved in their formation.the design of the structure can be changed so as to make use of the available is necessary to appreciate both their geological character and their mode of formation. 3.This term was first used by Herodotus for the deposits of the river Nile at its entry into the Mediterannean Sea.Very often.The construction sand is taken from the deposited bank.Alluvial mud may be used as one of the raw materials in the manufacture of cement by mixing mud with limestone in the required proportions.clay.river in the most widely used source for excavation of construction materials and also the most cheapest one.aggregate and dimension stone.These are invariably very fertile in nature and hence have been supporting population. River is the most important source of construction such as sand.STUDY OF LANDSLIDE: INTRODUCTION: .especially in the flatten regions along their course. Deltas are very complex in their structure. the sand bars are temporary in nature because with an increase in velocity.This is a common practice in the construction of large structure such as embankment.Being a natural source.roads and airstrips.All the plain around major rivers are actually flood plains.evolution and modification. 4.gravel.extensive in area and are called Flood plains. Two major types of flood plains known as Convex flood plains and flat flood plains are known.These material may be used in their raw state for construction.To correctly assess the potential of economically available raw materials.they are reffered as sand bars.the river mass cut them down(erode) and take the sand along with it to deposit it at new place.Most commonly the deposits so formed take the shape of long narrow rigides called bars. The presence of rivers close to the site makes the use of construction material much cheaper than a manufactured alternative such as concrete and also with some thoughts.

thereby causing excessive destruction to the nearby surrounding. 1.By determining shear stress of the soil sample from the expected region.graphite.Presence of boulder mixed soil which bring about further fracture in the rock structure and thus caused landslide.presence of mineral such as talc.have more chances of landslide.which are found experimentally. 2. STATIC CAUSES OF LANDSLIDE: is said to be unstable.It is a natural phenomenon in which the slip surface looses its component.sediments and larger pieces of rocks are described as the agent of erosion.For stable surface.surface water and the sea. 4.Geophysical study:We can also find the slip surface by inducing physical energy and observing the response of the material of the landslide of the expected area towards that induced physical energy. CAUSES OF THE LANDSLIDE Causes of landslide are primarily classified into static and dynamic causes.Thuse a slope which has steeper slope. In phylitic rock.Drilling:Slip surface can also be found out by drilling exist.They are core drilling and drilling. Thus landslide can be found in the following ways.By determining the crown and tow:crown is the uppermost part of the landslide whereas toe is the lowermost part of the landslide.i.# is mostly less than 40 . 3.Landslide is different from erosion in a way that eroded slope are created by the movement of air.Thus we see that shear stress depends upon c and Q .The material laying between these two surfaces is carried towards the tow.(fig 2) 2.chlorite and even micas on the surface along the rock resulting in landslide.where c and Q are shear paramater.more dip.The quantities that are capable of loosing dislodging and carrying particles of the soil.Slope Angle: If the slope angle is greater than the angle #.Material: Highly weathered rock formed by chemical decay process and mechinical disintegration increases the possibility of landslide.For this purpose we take the soil samplefrom the land of expected region and carry out the test to find the shear stress which is given by --T=c+6tanQ----change it-----.

resulting in landslide.with only two having practical significance.the driving force(dF) become greater than the resistance force(RF) ond normal stress reduces leading to the occurrence of landslide.Presence of all these water results in the stability of the soil structure or rock structure because in such a condition.but if reverse exsist then the surface is said to have unstablle slope and landslide is more prominient in such place.the toe of the road structure or soil structure is out .The explanation of some striking features of the individual landslide wherever required along with their photographs are also given alongside.The third one being only a scarp.there is certain amount of ground vibration always taking place which reduces the stability of the nearby rock or soil structure.i.Construction: During road construction. 4.there is pre-existance of water in the soil pores.In addition to all these water.thus clearing the passage for entry of water through it.e.Vibration: Due to the movement of the loaded vehicles on the highways.e it is greater than 40 degree.However this can be resisted by construction of retaining wall. 3. 1st landslide Features:SAME AS EXPLAINED EARLIER 2ND LANDSLIDE . Below are the sites of landslides visited by us.Excessive rain fall causes cracks in the crown.we visited some sites of landslides which helped us immensely in learning about its features practically. SITE 1 I t included three landslides. STUDY OF DIFFERENT LANDSLIDE DURING THE FIELD TRIP During the course of this geological fieldwork.Pore water pressure: Shear stress is also given by the expression T=c+(6-Q) was called a landslide scarp. DYNAMIC CAUSES OF LANDSLIDE 1.safty factor dF/RF> Q is the pore water pressure. which leads to landslide.Water also entersthe soil pores from underground.Since there was no main body in htis supposed landslide.

Features It actually consists of two landslides as there are two scarps. c)Debris Potentiality: The most important aspect of bridge designing is the determination of debris potentiality in the river upon which the bridge is to made. SOLUTION: Removal of debris alongside JugeKhola is not the is very less.the evidence of which being the presence of completely weathered rocks. However.The information about debris plays an important role in design of bridge.Even tunneling is very dangerous at this place.Since houses have been made below the area of alndslide.Nature itself has brought this landslide with cause.the village residing in this landslide affected area can be protected to a certain degreee by control drainage.and solution of this type of landslide being same as explained there is evry possibility of another landslide at this place.e remove some part of the landslide from one side and fill some on the another side.e the boulder and fine sized particles.e whether it consists of finer or boulder materials should also be taken into account.Such debris is called landslide debris.The size of the debris i. b)Flood Level:The flood level or water level during times of flood in the river upon whiach the bridge is to be made should be found out.While designing a bridge one should look for the followinf things: a)Site Selection:A site for the construction of bridge has to be selected. Presence of six landslides with each having its own slip surface.5) It is a highly landslide affected area. SITE4 (FIG6) Landslides also bring with them the debris i. 5)FIG 7 AND 8 .loose soil etc.In this landslide. 2)Site 2(Ranagaun)(Refer Fig 3) Features: It is an old landslide.along with the calculation of its amount. SITE 3(JugeKhola) (fig4.the orientation of its planar features are in unfavourable direction to its slope. The only solution for this landslide is cut and fill i.

Though most of the reasons given above for the occurance of landslide are true. (c)Construction of surface drainage from the area behind the scarp :We should construct surface drainage from the area behind the scarp so that water does not enter into the crack and thereby also does not affect the pore water pressure.If retaining wall is however maid .it will be waste of money. (e)Construction of Gabonian wall:Gabonian wall should be constructed at the place of differential moment.for eg.However it is costly.When we look at the place of landslide.It has occurred as the orientation of discontinuity is unfavourable to the dip directionand the dip amount.At a place where pore water pressure exist.The drain should however be maid above the crack for this purpose.The first one ahving vegetationon the inclined surface.LANDSLIDE STABILITY ANALYSIS (a)Retaining wall:Retaining walls can be constructed at the landslide expected area. 4. (b)By reducing Q:By bringing about reduction in pore water pressure(Q) also.if we see too many scraps.a small hole should be made before construction of gabinian wall.This has been made possible by taking slope protection measure and slope stability measyre such as construction of the retaining wall and anchoring.we can avoid landslide.Thus one should avoid doing such a thing so that pore water pressure does not develop. 5 ROCK MAPPING .some may be stated otherwise.Even then it should be constructed at the place which do not have differential movement. (d)Avoid disturbing mechanical equilibrium condition:Landslide occure due to disturbance in mechinical equilibrium.Sometime nature itself may bring about devastating landslides.Age of landslide can be recognized by the degree of weathering of the rock at the place of its occurrence. In addition to above stated things one should also know certain important features of landslide.Gabonian wall can also be constructed at a place which have developed pore water pressure. The palce can be protected by anchoring and bolding. we can conclude that many landslide may have been gone at that place.3.It is not always true that construction of road results in landslide. Second Landslide It consists of less weathered rocks and weathering has taken place along the planar feature.It consists of two landslides.The slope of the surface is very steep.

and to help manage and protect Crown Lands. The resultant geological maps contain much more information than the simple distribution of rock types. It may surprise you to hear that the hype of stereo photography was 100 years ago. mineral. and are essential in revealing favourable areas for mineral exploration.(2 photos are attached below). Scan Line Survey is . coal and industrial mineral inventories management.1 INTRODUCTION The main purpose of the rock mapping for much of its history has been reconnaissance mapping of large regions whose geology was essentially unknown.Dip directoin . Yet the relevance of such studies remain strongly dependent on accurate geological mapping.two photograph of the rock outcrop has been taken simultaneously from the same point at a distance of 7.dip amount and strike can be found from the photograph. and providing geoscience expertise to support government's sustainable development objectives. and sequence of geological events. fossil fuels (mainly coal. such as data compiled from geophysical and geochemical surveys as well as from remote sensing. About 2km north from Malekhu bazar . and the work of the rock mapping is now directed more towards the understanding of the cause and effect. stereoplotter. This pair (known as a stereo pair) is used with either a stereo viewer. The inventory is used to attract industry investment. Conclusively Rock mapping (geologic maps) is the plotting of target formations and terraines on maps or areial photographs for later compilation. The main activities include: geological and geochemical surveying. assessing geological hazards. in the late 19th centuary.The stereo photography helps effectively in rock mapping by providing clear 3D image of the rock. essentially what rock is where. SCAN LINE SURVEY Scan line survey is a sampling technique whereby information is detailed along a single pass of the recording device. monitoring exploration activities. to assist government's stewardship of its rich mineral resource endowment.5km away from the site. The process is repeated at intervals to cover the desired area. or digitized for use with soft-copy stereo programs to view the desired area in three dimension (3-D). publishing maps and reports. This entails many studies in addition to geological mapping.5. mineral potential assessments for land use planning. and identification of potential geological hazards Information is gathered through geoscience field surveys and from industry assessment reports filed in compliance with legislation. oil and gas). STEREO PHOTOGRAPHY Stereo photography is the practice of having successive [aerial] photographs overlap the next by 55%-60%. has now been established. The general geological framework.

Rock type:Schist.This survey is carried out on the road alignment before its construction.15 SECOND LINE 0.Phyllite.65 2.6 3.6 9.Following are the geological engineering data collected at the site.75 5.(metamorphic) Weathering:Moderately weathered Distance(m) FIRST LINE 0.6 THIRD LINE 1 1.mostly used in engineering structure.5 76 80 76 50 76 76 26 76 N8 E N85E N8E N74E N8E N8E N40E N8E F J1 F J2 F F J3 F 76 76 76 81 26 7.45 3 4.2 5.15 7 7. The rock outcrop has been surveyed for the different structure feature of the rock massOn the total span of 10meter the survey was carried out at the level of the road and 1meter high from it.15 N8E N8E N8E N86E N40E N74 E F F F J1 J3 J2 76 76 80 76 27 N8E N8E N86E N8E N40E F F J1 F J3 Dip amount(`) Dip direction(`) Joint/Foliation The Dip general attitude of the rock mass is: direction:N42`E .1 5.25 3.85 6.75 5.The discontinuities which impart the loss of strength of the rock are found out by this method.5 2 4.

The scope of field study outlined before were fully met with the co-operation of the faculty member and Malekhu posses wonderful geological diversities and almost all type of the rocks. CONCLUSION This geological field trip to Malekhu was organized to provide the practical knowledge of geology to the students.The geological field trip to Malekhu aimed to provide the acquaintance and knowledge of geological element and their proporties as well as features.and grological factors like rivers.Roughness: J1-Rough 2. .The obserbed point can be plotted on the graph. were available to study within a small area. hills .Opening: J1-Open 3.Intact 6.Slope Characteristics of the planer feature: 1.Infilling: J1-Clay J2-Rough J2-Close J2-Clay J3-Rough J3-Close J3-Clay amount:65` 4. sedimentation etc .Continuity: J1-110cm J2-20cm Rock:Moderately J3-15cm strong STUDY OF THE OUTCROPT AT THE SITE The rock map of the outcrop can be obtain by joining same joints and foliation plane obserbed at different point of the rock outcrop.structures.slopes.Ground water condition: J1-Dry J2-Dry J3-dry 5.