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What are the main types of signals with respect to time as independent variable? Continous time (analog) signals &discrete time (discrete) signals 3.What is analog signal? The analog signal is a continous function of independent variabls.The analog signal is defined for every instant of independent variable and so magnitude of independent variable is continous in the specified range.here both the independent variable and magnitude are continous. 4.What is discrete signal? The discrete signal is a function of discreted independent variabls.The indindependent variable is divided into uniform interval and is represented by an integer,The discrete signal is is defined for every integer value of independent variable.here both the values of signal and independent variable are discrete. 5.What is digital signal? The digital signal is same as discrete signal except that the magnitude of signal isquantised. 6.What are the different types of signal representations? 1. Graphical representation 2. Functional representations 3. Tabular representation 4. Sequence representation 7.Define periodic and non periodic discrete timesignals? If the discrete time signal repeated after equal samples of time then it is called periodic signal.When the discrete time signal x[n] satis fies the condition x[n+N]=x(n), then it is called periodic signal with fundamental period x(n+N) then it is called nonperiodic signals. N samples.if x(n) 11.Define a system? A system is a physical device or algorithm that performs an operation on the signal 12.What is digital signal processing? The dsp refers processing of signal by digital system. 13. What are the steps involved in digital signal processing? 1. Converting the analog signal to digital signal ,which is performed by A/D converter 2. Processing the digital signal by digital systems. 3. Converting the digital output signal from the digital system to analog signal by D/A converter. 14. What are the advantages of DSP? 1. The programme can be modified easily for better Performance. 2. Better accuracy can be achieved by using adaptive algorithm. 3. The digital signal can be easily stored and transported. 4. Digital systems are cheaper than analog equallent. 15. Give some applications of DSP? 1. Speech processing ,Communications , Biomedical 16. Write the difference equation governing the Nth order LTI system. N M aY(n)=k by(n-k) +k x(n-k)

k=1

k=0

2. y(n)&x(n) are output and input to the system 17.List the various methods of classifying discrete time systems? 1. Static and dynamic systems. 2. Time invariant and time variant 3. Linear and nonlinear 4. Causal and noncausal 5. Stable and unstable 6. FIR and IIR systems 7. Recursive and non recursive systems 18. What are static and dynamic systems? Give examples? A discrete time system is called static(memory less)if its output at any instant n dependent on the input sample at the same time (but does not depend on past or future samples).If the response depends on past or future samples, then the system is called dynamic system. Eg.y(n)=ax(n) static system Y(n)=ax(n)+bx(n-1) 19. Define time invariant system? A system is said to be time invariant if its input output characteristics does not change with time. Let H be a system and H{X(n)}=Y(n).now if H{X(n-k)}=Y(n-k) then the system H is called time invariant. 20. What is linear and nonlinear systems? If a system satisfies superposition and homogeneity principles then the system is called linear otherwise it is called nonlinear If H is a system,X1(n) and X2(n) are inputs a and b are constants then H{aX1(n) +BX2(n)}=aH{X1(n)}+bH{X2(n)} then His linear. 21. What is a causal system give an example? A system is said to be causal, if the output of the system at any time n depends on present and past inputs ,but does not depend on future inputs. Eg.y(n)=x(n)+x(n-1) 22. Define a stable system? Any relaxed system is said to be bounded input bounded output stable if and only if every bounded input yields a bounded output. 23. What is LTI system? A linear time invariant system is defined that a system obeys both linearity and time invariant properties. If a system satisfies superposition and homogeneity principles then the system is called linearA system is said to be time invariant if it,s input output characteristics does not change with time. 24. What are FIR and IIR systems? FIR (finite impulse response):this type of system has an impulse response which is zero outside the finite time interval eg. h(n)=0 for n<0 and n>N IIR (Infinite Impulse Response):An IIR system exhibits an impulse response of infinite duration. 25. State sampling theorem. A band limited continous time signal ,with higher frequency fc Hz can be uniquely recovered from it s samples provided that the sampling rate F>2fc samples per second. 26. Show whether the system is linear?

Y(n)=n x(n) H{aX1(n)+BX2(n)}=a H{X1(n)}+b H{X2(n)} then H is linear. a H{X1(n)}+b H{X2(n)}=anx1(n)+bnx2(n)-------(1) H{aX1(n)+BX2(n)}= anx1(n)+bnx2(n) -------------(2) (1)=(2) So the system is linear. 27. Show whether the system is linear? Y(n)=nx2(n) Since x2(n) term is present in the system which implies non linearity in to the system. Therefore the system is nonlinear. 28. Determine if the following system is time invariant or time variant? Y(n)=x(n)+x(n-1) If the input is delayed by k units in time we have y(n,k)=H{x(n-k)}=x(n-k)+x(n-k-1) If we delay the output by k units then y(n-k)= x(n-k)+x(n-k-1) So the system is time invariant. 29. Determine if the system described by the following equation is causal or not? Y(n)=x(n2) For n = -1

Y(-1)=x(1) For n = 2 Y(2) = x(4) Therefore the output of the system depends on future input and hence the system is non causal. 30. Define unit sample response of a system and what is it s significance? The response of a system denoted as h(n),obtained from a discrete time system when the input signal is a unit sample sequence is known as unit sample response. 16 Marks 1.Describe the concept of frequency in continuous time and discrete time sinusoidal signals 2. State and prove sampling theorem 3. Explain the classification of DT signals 4. Explain analog to digital conversion in detail. 5. Consider the analog signal X(t)=3cos 100t.Determine the minimum sampling rate to avoid Aliasing. If Fs=200 Hz what is the discrete time signal obtained after sampling ? (ii) If Fs=75 Hz what is the discrete time signal obtained after sampling ? 6.Explin quantization and quantization error 7. Determine if the following system is (i) time invariant or time variant?(ii)static?(iii)linear(iv)casual(v)stable Y(n)=x(n)+x(n-1) 8. Determine the values of power and energy signals and state if it is power or energy signal. (i)x(n)=(1/3)^n (ii)x(n)=sin(( /4)n) (iii)x(n)=e^2n u(n) 9. Explain the different types of representation of signals and draw elementary discrete time signals 10. Explain with examples ,for a given impulse response how will you find out the given system is causal and stable

UNIT II

31.Define z transform? The Z transform of a discrete time signal x(n) is defined as X(z) =x(n)z-n where z is a complex variable. In polar form z=re-jw 32. What is meant by ROC? The region of convergence (ROC) is defined as the set of all values of z for which x(z) converges. 33. Explain about the roc of causal and anti-causal infinite sequences? For causal system the roc is exterior to the circle of radius r. For anti causal system it is interior to the circle of radius r. 34. Explain about the roc of causal and anti causal finite sequences For causal system the roc is entire z plane except z=0 . For anti causal system it is entire z plane except z= 35. What are the properties of roc? 1. The roc is a ring or disk in the z plane centered at the origin. 2. The roc cannot contain any pole. 3. The roc must be a connected region 4. The roc of an LTI stable system contains the unit circle. 36. Explain the linearity property of the z transform If z{x1(n)}=x1(z) and z{x2(n)}=x2(z) then z{ax1(n)+bx2(n)}=ax1(z)+bx2(z) a&b are constants. 37. State the time shifting property of the z transform If z{x(n)}=x(z) then z{x(n-k)}=z-kx(z) 38. State the scaling property of the z transform If z{x(n)}=x(z) then z{anx(n)}=x(a-1z) 39. State the time reversal property of the z transform If z{x(n)}=x(z) then z{x(-n)}=x(z-1) 40. Explain convolution property of the z transform If z{x(n)}=x(z) & z{h(n)}=h(z) then z {x(n)*h(n)}=x(z)h(z) 41. Explain the multiplication property of z transform 42. State Parseval s relation in z transform If x1[n] and x2[n] are complex valued sequences, then the parsevals relation states that x1[n] x2*[n]= 1/2j X1(v). X2*(1/v*)v-1dv. 43. State initial value theorem of z transform If x(n) is causal then x(0)= lt x(z) 44. State final value theorem of z tramsform If x(n) is causal z{x(n)}=x(z), where the roc of x(z) includes, but it is not entire z plane

45. Define system function? The ratio between z transform of out put signal y(z) to z transform of input signal x(z) is called system function of the particular system Y(z) H(z)= --------X(Z) 46. What are the conditions of stability of a causal system ? All the poles of the system are with in the unit circle. The sum of impulse response for all values of n is bounded 47. Determine z transform and roc of the signal {1,2,3,4} X(z) =x(0)z-0+x(1)z-1+x(2)z-2+x(3)z-3 n=0 = 1z-0+2z-1+3z-2+4z-3 roc is entire z plane except z = 0 48. Determine z transform and roc of the signal {1,2,3,4} X(z) = x(-3)z3+x(-2)z2+x(-1)z1+x(0) n=-3 = 4+3z1+2z2+1z3 ROC is entire z plane except z=infinite 49.Determine z transform and roc of the signal {1,2,3,4} X(z) = x(-1)z1 + x(0)z0 + x(1)z-1 + x(2)z -2

= 1z1+2+3z-1+4z-2 ROC is entire z plane except z=0 50. Find the ztransform and roc of au(n) X(z) =1/(1-az-1)roc:z>a 51. Find the z transform and roc of -anu(-n-1) X(z) = 1/(1-az-1) roc ] D

52. The z-transform of a sequence x(n) is x(z),what is the z transform of nx(n) If z{x(n)}=x(z) then z{nx(n)}=-zd(x(z))/dz 53. Find the z-transform of (a) A digital impulse (b) A digital step. (a)Since x(n) is zero except for n 0,wherex(n)is1, wefind x(z) = 1. (b) Since x(n) is zero except for n 55. What are the different methods of evaluating inverse z-transform? It can be evaluated using several methods. 1. Long division method 2. Partial fraction expansion method 3. Residue method 4. Convolution method 16 Marks 1. State and prove the properties of Z transform 2. Determine the impulse response of the system described by y(n)=y(n-1)-0.5y(n-2)+x(n)+x(n-1).plot the pole zero pattern and discuss its stability 3. Determine the response and stability of the system

y(n)=o.7y(n-1)-0.12y(n-2)+x(n-1)+x(n-2).to the input x(n)=nu(n) 4. Determine the unit step response and stability of the system y(n)=o.7y(n-1)-0.12y(n-2)+x(n-1)+x(n-2).if y(-1)=y(-2)=1 5.Find the inverse Z- transform of X(z)=z^2+z/(z-1)(z-3)ROC:z>3 using partial fraction and residue method. 6. Find the inverse Z- transform of X(z)=z^2+z^3/(z-1)(z-3)ROC:z>3 using partial fraction and residue method 7. Find the z-transform of (i)x(n)=cosnu(n) (ii) x(n)=(n+0.5)(1/3)^n u(n) 8. State and prove the properties of discrete fourier series. 9. Determine the impulse response and the system described by y(n)=x(n)+2x(n-1)+4x(n-2)+x(n-3). 10. Determine the pole zero plot for the system described by y(n)=3/4y(n-1)-1/8y(n-2)+x(n)-x(n-1). UNIT IV 91.What is filter? Filter is a frequency selective device ,which amplify particular range of frequencies and attenuate particular range of frequencies. 92.What are the types of digital filter according to their impulse response? IIR(Infinite impulse response )filter FIR(Finite Impulse Response)filter. 93. How phase distortion and delay distortion are introduced? The phase distortion is introduced when the phase characteristics of a filter is nonlinear with in the desired frequency band. The delay distortion is introduced when the delay is not constant with in the desired frequency band. 94. What are FIR filters? The filter designed by selecting finite number of samples of impulse response (h(n) obtained from inverse fourier transform of desired frequency response H(w)) are called FIR filters 95. Write the steps involved in FIR filter design Choose the desired frequency response Hd(w) Take the inverse fourier transform and obtain Hd(n) Convert the infinite duration sequence Hd(n) to h(n) Take Z transform of h(n) to get H(Z) 96. What are advantages of FIR filter? Linear phase FIR filter can be easily designed . Efficient realization of FIR filter exists as both recurrisive and non recursive structures. FIR filter realized non recursively are stable.The round off noise can be made small in non recursive realization of FIR filter 97. what are the disadvantages of FIR FILTER The duration of impulse response should be large to realize sharp cutoff filters. The non integral delay can lead to problems in some signal processing applications. 98.what is the necessary and sufficient condition for the linear phase characteristic of a FIR filter? The phase function should be a linear function of w, which inturn requires constant group delay and phase delay. 99. List the well known design technique for linear phase FIR filter design? Fourier series method and window method Frequency sampling method. Optimal filter design method.

100.Define IIR filter? The filter designed by considering all the infinite samples of impulse response are called IIR filter. 101. How one can design digital filters from analog filters? Digital filter can de designed from analog filter using the following methods 1. Approximation of derivatives 2. Impulse invariant method 3. Bilinear transformation 102. Mention the procedures for digitizing the transfer function of an analog filter. 103. What do you understand by backward difference? One of the simplest methods of converting analog to digital filter is to approximate the differential equation by an equivalent difference equation. d/dt(y(t)/t=nT=(y(nT)-y(nT-T))/T 104. What is the mapping procedure between S-plane & Z-plane in the method of mapping differentials? What are its characteristics? The mapping procedure between S-plane & Z-plane in the method of mapping of differentials is given by H(Z) =H(S)|S=(1-Z-1)/T The above mapping has the following characteristics The left half of S-plane maps inside a circle of radius centered at Z= in the Z-plane. The right half of S-plane maps into the region outside the circle of radius in the Zplane. The j -axis maps onto the perimeter of the circle of radius in the Z-plane.

105 .What is meant by impulse invariant method of designing IIR filter? In this method of digitizing an analog filter, the impulse response of resulting digital filter is a sampled version of the impulse response of the analog filter.The transfer function of analog filter in partial fraction form, 106. Give the bilinear transform equation between S-plane & Z-plane. plane s=2/T (z-1/z+1) 107. What is bilinear transformation? The bilinear transformation is a mapping that transforms the left half of S-plane into the unit circle in the Z-plane only once, thus avoiding aliasing of frequency components. The mapping from the S-plane to the Z-plane is in bilinear transformation is S=2/T(1-Z-1/1+Z-1) 108. What are the properties of bilinear transformation? The mapping for the bilinear transformation is a one-to-one mapping that is for every point Z, there is exactly one corresponding point S, and vice- versa. The j -axis maps on to the unit circle |z|=1,the left half of the s-plane maps to the interior of the unit circle |z|=1 and the half of the s-plane maps on to the exterior of the unit circle |z|=1. 109. Write a short note on pre-warping. The effect of the non linear compression at high frequencies can be compensated. When the desired magnitude response is piecewise constant over frequency, this compression can be compensated by introducing a suitable rescaling or prewar ping the critical frequencies.

110. What are the advantages & disadvantages of bilinear transformation? Advantages: The bilinear transformation provides one-to-one mapping. Stable continuous systems can be mapped into realizable, stable digital systems. There is no aliasing.

Disadvantage: The mapping is highly non-linear producing frequency, compression at high frequencies. Neither the impulse response nor the phase response of the analog filter is preserved in a digital filter obtained by bilinear transformation. 111. Define signal flow graph. A signal flow graph is a graphical representation of the relationships between the variables of a set of linear difference equations. 112. . Draw the M stage lattice filter. 113. Draw the direct form realization of a linear Phase FIR system for N even. 114. Draw the direct form realization of a linear Phase FIR system for N odd 115. Draw the direct form realization of FIR system. 116. What are the desirable characteristics of the window function? The desirable characteristics of the window are The central lobe of the frequency response of the window should contain most of the energy and should be narrow. The highest side lobe level of the frequency response should be small. 3.The side lobes of the frequency response should decrease in energy rapidly as tends to 16 Marks 1.Explain the steps involved in the design of FIR filter using frequency sampling technique. 2. . Explain the steps involved in the design of FIR filter using Kaiser window 3. Draw the structures of FIR filters 4. Draw the structures of IIR filters 5. Derive the equation for designing IIR filter using backward difference method. 6. Derive the equation for designing IIR filter using impulse invariant method 7. Explain the steps involved in the design of FIR filter using window technique. 8. For the second order filter Draw the direct form II realization and find the scaling factor S0 to avoid over flow 9.Design an analog Butterworth filter that has a -2dB pass band attenuation at a frequency of 20rad/sec and at least-10dB stop band attenuation at 30 rad/sec 10.Given the specifications p=3dB, s=16dB,Fp=1kHz& Fs=2kHz.Determine the order of filter using Chebyshev approximation. Find H(s). UNIT V 1.Give some examples for fixed point DSPs? TM32OC50, TMS 320C54, TMS 320 C55, ADSP-219xx. 2.Give some examples for floating point DSP Cms320C3x, TMS320C67x, ADSP-21xxx 3.What are the factors that influence selection of DSPs? Architectural features, Execution Speed,

Types of Arithmatic Word length 4.What are the applications of PDSPs? Digital cell phones, automated inspection, voice mail, motor control, video conferencing. Noise cancellation, Medical imaging, speech synthesis, satellite communication etc. 5.What are the advantages and disadvantages of VLIW architecture? ADVANTAGES OF VLIW ARCHITECTURE i. Increased performance Better compiler targets Potentially easier to program Disadvantages of VLIW architecture v New kind of programmer / compiler complexity v Increased memory use 6.What is pipelining? Pipelining a processor means breaking down its instruction into a series of discrete pipeline stages `which can be completed in sequence by specialized hardware. 7.What is pipeline depth? The number of pipe line stages is referred to as the pipeline depth 8.What are the different buses of TMS320C5x and their functions? The C5x architecture has four buses I. Programm bus(PB) : Carries the instruction code and immediate operands from program memory to the CPU. II. Programm address bus (PAB): Provides address to program memory space for both read and write. III. Data read bus (DB) : Inter connects various elements of the CPU to data memory space. IV. Data read Address bus (DAB) : Provides the address to access the data memory space. 9. What are the different stages in pipelining? 1. The fetch phase 2. The decode phase 3. Memory phase 4. The execute phase 10. What are the pipeline depth of TMS320C50 and TMS320C54x? TMS 320 C50 4 TMS320C54x 6 11. List the various registers used with ARAU Eight auxiliary register (ARO AR 7). Auxiliary register Pointer (ARP) Unsigned 16-BIT ALU. 12. What are the elements that the control processing unit of C5x consists of The central processing unit consists of the following elements: Central Arithmetic logic unit( CALU) Parallel logic unit (PLU) Auxiliary register arithmetic unit (ARAU) Memory mapped registers. Program controller

13. What are the functions of parallel logic unit? PLU is a second logic unit, that execute logic operations on data without affecting the contents of accumulator. 14. List the on chip peripherals in C5x. The on chip peripheral interfaces connected to the C5Xcpuinclude Clock generated Hardware timer Software programmable wait state generators. 15.What are the general purpose I/O pins? Branch control input (BIO) External flag (XF) 16. What are the arithmetic instructions of C5x? ADD, ADDB, ADDC, SUB , SUBB, MPY, MPYU 17. What are the logical instructions of C5x? AND, ANDB, OR, ORB, XOR, XORB. 18. What are the shift instructions? ROR, ROL, ROLB, RORB, BSAR. 19.What are load instructions? LACB, LACC, LACL, LAMM, LAR, SACB, SACH, SACL, SAR, SAMM. 20. What are the types of indirect addressing? Auto INR&DCR,post indexing by adding&subtracting the contents of addressing 21.What are functions of program controller ? 1.Decodes the operational instructions 2.manages the CPU pipeline 3. Stores the status of cpu operations 22.What is meant by PLU? Parallel logic unit 23.What is meant by circular addressing mode? Many algorithms such as convolution ,correlation,and FIR filtering can use circular buffers to implement sliding window, which contains most recent data to be processed 24. Describe BZDD, RETE. Block move from data to data memory. Return from interrupt with context switch 16 Marks .Explain the functional block diagram of TMS320c50 2. Explain the addressing modes of TMS320c50 3. Explain the arithmetic ,logical and branching instructions . 4. Explain the multiplier /adder and CSS unit. 5. Explain the on chip peripherals in C5x. 6. Explain the functional block diagram of TMS320LC541 7.Write a program that explain the usage of RPT instruction. 8. Write a program that explain the importance of scaling in DSP Algorithms ARO,bit reversed

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