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PHN 1: TNG QUAN

1.1. Tnh cp thit ca ti


Ngnh cng nghip ch bin thy hi sn v ang em li nhng
li nhun khng nh cho nn kinh t Vit Nam ni chung v ca ngi
nng dn nui trng thy hi sn ni ring. Nhng bn cnh nhng li ch
m n mang li nh gim i ngho, tng trng GDP cho quc gia th n
cng li nhng hu qu tht kh lng i vi mi trng sng ca
chng ta. Hu qu l cc con sng, knh rch nc b en bn v bc mi
hi thi mt phn l do vic sn xut v ch bin thy hi sn thi ra mt
lng ln nc thi c mi hi tanh vo mi trng m khng qua bt k
giai on x l no. Chnh iu ny gy nh hng rt ln i vi con
ngi v h sinh thi gn cc khu vc c lng nc thi ny thi ra.
ng trc nhng i hi v mt mi trng sng trong lnh ca
ngi dn, cng nh qui nh v vic sn xut i vi cc doanh nghip khi
nc ta gia nhp WTO i hi mi mt n v sn xut kinh doanh phi
cn c mt h thng x l nc thi nhm gim thiu nh hng n mi
trng xung quanh. ng trc nhng i hi cp bch , nhm ting
hnh nghin cu tnh ton thit k h thng x l nc thi ca cc nh
my sn xut v ch bin thy hi sn.

1.2. Mc ch
X l nc thi nh my A ang xt hot ng ch bin thy hi
sn lu lng trung bnh l 1000 m3/ngy m, vi cc thng s u vo
bng 1 t TCVN 5945 2005 ct B c th thi vo ngun tip nhn.

TCVN

5945

Ch tiu

Hm lng

Thi gian thi


Lu lng

24

1000

M3/ngy m

trung bnh
pH
COD
BOD
SS
N tng
P tng

-2005 (ct B)

6.9 7.9
1500
1050
270
120
10

5.5 9
100
50
100
60
6

n v

Mg/l
Mg/l
Mg/l
Mg/l
Mg/l

Bng 1.1: Phn tch ch tiu phn tch


1.3.

Phng php nghin cu

Phng php phn tch, x l s liu.


Phng php quan st.
Phng php su tm, thng k s liu.

PHN 2: NGUN GC PHT SINH, THNH


PHN V TC NG MI TRNG CA

CC CHT NHIM TRONG NGNH CH


BIN THY HI SN
2.1. Ngun gc pht sinh cc cht nhim trong ngnh ch bin
thy hi sn.
Ty thuc vo cc loi nguyn liu nh tm, c, s, mc, cua m
cng ngh s c nhiu im ring bit. tuy nhin quy trnh sn xut c cc
dng sau:
Nguyn liu th

Phn c, loi

ng gi

COD = 100 800


S ch (chi sch
mg/L
ct, cht u, lt Nc thi SS = 30 100
d, b sng)
mg/L
Ntc = 17 - 31
mg/L

Nng
Bo qun lnh
(-180C)

ng gi

Cn, x mng

Bo qun lnh
(-180C)

Quy trnh cng ngh sn xut cc sn phm kh ca cng ty Seapimex


(Ngun Phan Thu nga lun vn cao hc 1997)

Nguyn liu ti p
c

Ra

S ch
Nc thi
Phn c,loi

SS : 128 280 mg/L


COD :400 2.200 mg/L
Ntc : 57 126 mg/L
Ptc : 23 98 mg/L

Ra

Xp khun

ng lnh

ng gi

Bo qun lnh
(-250C -180C)

Quy trnh cng ngh sn xut cc sn phm ng lnh


ca cng ty Seapimex
(Ngun Phan Thu nga lun vn cao hc 1997)

Nguyn liu (tm, tht chn p lnh)


Nc thi

Ra
Loi b tp cht

SS : 150 250 mg/L


COD : 336 1000 mg/L
Ntc : 42 127 mg/L
Ptc : 37 125 mg/L

Luc s b
ng vo hp
Cho nc mui vo
Ghp m hp
Kh trng
ngui
Dn nhn
ng gi

Bo qun

Quy trnh cng ngh sn xut cc sn phm ng hp ca cng ty


Seapimex
(Ngun Phan Thu nga lun vn cao hc 1997)

2.2. Thnh phn v tnh cht nc thi thy hi sn.


Vi cc quy trnh cng ngh nh trn th ngun pht sinh
cht thi gy nhim ch yu trong cc cng ty ch bin ng lnh th
c chia lm ba dng: cht thi rn, cht thi lng v cht thi kh. Trong
qu trnh sn xut cn gy ra cc ngun nhim khc nh ting n,
rung v kh nng gy chy n.
Cht thi rn
Cht thi rn thu c t qu trnh ch bin tm, mc, c, s c u
v tm, v s, da, mai mc, ni tng Thnh phn chnh ca ph thi sn
xut cc sn phm thu sn ch yu l cc cht hu c giu m, canxi,
phtpho. Ton b ph liu ny c tn dng ch bin cc sn phm
ph, hoc em bn cho dn lm thc n cho ngi, thc n chn nui gia
sc, gia cm hoc thu sn.
Ngoi ra cn c mt lng nh rc thi sinh hot, cc bao b, dy
ning h hng hoc qua s dng vi thnh phn c trng ca rc thi
th.
Cht thi lng
Nc thi trong cng ty my ch bin ng lnh phn ln l nc
thi trong qu trnh sn xut bao gm nc ra nguyn liu, bn thnh
phm, nc s dng cho v sinh v nh xng, thit b, dng c ch bin,
nc v sinh cho cng nhn.
Lng nc thi v ngun gy nhim chnh l do nc thi trong
sn xut.
Cht thi kh
Kh thi sinh ra t cng ty c th l:
- Kh thi Chlor sinh ra trong qu trnh kh trng thit b, nh
xng ch bin v kh trng nguyn liu, bn thnh phm.
- Mi tanh t mc, tm nguyn liu, mi hi tanh t ni cha ph
thi, v s, cng rnh.
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- Hi tc nhn lnh c th b r r: NH3


- Ting n xut hin trong cng ty ch bin thu sn ch yu do
hot ng ca cc thit b lnh, chy n, phng tin vn chuyn
- Trong phn xng ch bin ca cc cng ty thu sn nhit
thng thp v m hn so khu vc khc.
2.3.

Tc ng ca nc thi ch bin thy hi sn n mi


trng.
Nc thi ch bin thu sn c hm lng cc cht nhim cao nu

khng c x l s gy nhim cc ngun nc mt v nc ngm trong


khu vc.
i vi nc ngm tng nng, nc thi ch bin thu sn c th
thm xung t v gy nhim nc ngm. Cc ngun nc ngm nhim
cc cht hu c, dinh dng v vi trng rt kh x l thnh nc sch cung
cp cho sinh hot.
i vi cc ngun nc mt, cc cht nhim c trong nc thi
ch bin thu sn s lm suy thoi cht lng nc, tc ng xu n mi
trng v thy sinh vt, c th nh sau:
Cc cht hu c
Cc cht hu c cha trong nc thi ch bin thu sn ch yu l
d b phn hy. Trong nc thi cha cc cht nh cacbonhydrat, protein,
cht bo... khi x vo ngun nc s lm suy gim nng oxy ha tan
trong nc do vi sinh vt s dng xy ha tan phn hy cc cht hu c.
Nng oxy ha tan di 50% bo ha c kh nng gy nh hng ti s
pht trin ca tm, c. Oxy ha tan gim khng ch gy suy thoi ti
nguyn thy sn m cn lm gim kh nng t lm sch ca ngun nc,
dn n gim cht lng nc cp cho sinh hot v cng nghip.
Cht rn l lng
Cc cht rn l lng lm cho nc c hoc c mu, n hn ch
su tng nc c nh sng chiu xung, gy nh hng ti qu trnh
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quang hp ca to, rong ru... Cht rn l lng cng l tc nhn gy nh


hng tiu cc n ti nguyn thy sinh ng thi gy tc hi v mt cm
quan (tng c ngun nc) v gy bi lng lng sng, cn tr s lu
thng nc v tu b
Cht dinh dng (N, P)
Nng cc cht nit, photpho cao gy ra hin tng pht trin
bng n cc loi to, n mc gii hn to s b cht v phn hy gy
nn hin tng thiu oxy. Nu nng oxy gim ti 0 gy ra hin tng
thy vc cht nh hng ti cht lng nc ca thy vc. Ngoi ra, cc
loi to ni trn mt nc to thnh lp mng khin cho bn di khng c
nh sng. Qu trnh quang hp ca cc thc vt tng di b ngng tr. Tt
c cc hin tng trn gy tc ng xu ti cht lng nc, nh hng ti
h thu sinh, ngh nui trng thu sn, du lch v cp nc.
Amonia rt c cho tm, c d nng rt nh. Nng lm cht
tm, c, t 1,2 3 mg/l. Tiu chun cht lng nc nui trng thy sn
ca nhiu quc gia yu cu nng Amonia khng vt qu 1mg/l.
Vi sinh vt
Cc vi sinh vt c bit vi khun gy bnh v trng giun sn trong
ngun nc l ngun nhim c bit. Con ngi trc tip s dng ngun
nc nhim bn hay qua cc nhn t ly bnh s truyn dn cc bnh dch
cho ngi nh bnh l, thng hn, bi lit, nhim khun ng tit niu,
tiu chy cp tnh.

PHN 3: TNG QUAN V


C S L THUYT
3.1. Phng php x l c hc.
Phng php x l c hc s dng nhm mc ch tch cc cht khng
ha tan v mt phn cc cht dng keo ra khi nc thi .Nhng cng
trnh x l c hc bao gm :
3.1.1. Song chn rc
Song chn rc nhm chn gi cc cn bn c kch thc ln hay
dng si: giy, rau c, rc c gi chung l rc. Rc c chuyn ti
my nghin nghin nh, sau c chuyn ti b phn hy cn (b
mtan). i vi cc tp cht < 5 mm thng dng li chn rc. Cu to
ca thanh chn rc gm cc thanh kim loi tit din hnh ch nht, hnh
trn hoc bu dc Song chn rc c chia lm 2 loi di ng hoc c
nh, c th thu gom rc bng th cng hoc c kh. Song chn rc c
t nghing mt gc 60 90 0 theo hng dng chy.
3.1.2.

B lng ct

B lng ct dng tch cc cht bn v c c trng lng ring


ln hn nhiu so vi trng lng ring ca nc nh x than, ct ra
khi nc th. Ct t b lng ct c a i phi kh sn phi v ct
kh thng c s dng li cho nhng mc ch xy dng.
3.1.3.

B lng

B lng dng tch cc cht l lng c trng lng ring ln hn


trng lng ring ca nc. Cht l lng nng hn s t t lng xung y,
cn cht l lng nh hn s ni ln mt nc hoc tip tc theo dng nc
n cng trnh x l tip theo. Dng nhng thit b thu gom v vn chuyn
cc cht bn lng v ni (ta gi l cn ) ti cng trnh x l cn .

Da vo chc nng, v tr c th chia b lng thnh cc

loi: b lng t 1 trc cng trnh x l sinh hc v b lng t 2 sau cng


trnh x l sinh hc.

Da vo nguyn tc hot ng, ngi ta c th chia ra cc

loi b lng nh: b lng hot ng gin on hoc b lng hot ng lin
tc.

Da vo cu to c th chia b lng thnh cc loi nh sau:

b lng ng, b lng ngang, b lng ly tm v mt s b lng khc.


3.1.3.1. B lng ng
B lng ng c dng hnh trn hoc hnh ch nht trn mt bng.
B lng ng thng dng cho cc trm x l c cng sut di 20.000
m3/ngym. Nc thi c dn vo ng trung tm v chuyn ng t
di ln theo phng thng ng. Vn tc dng nc chuyn ng ln phi
nh hn vn tc ca cc ht lng. Nc trong c tp trung vo mng thu
pha trn. Cn lng c cha phn hnh nn hoc chp ct pha di.
3.1.3.2. B lng ngang
B lng ngang c hnh dng ch nht trn mt bng, t l gia chiu
rng v chiu di khng nh hn v chiu su n 4m. B lng ngang
dng cho cc trm x l c cng sut ln hn 15.000 m3/ ngym. Trong
b lng nc thi chuyn ng theo phng ngang t u b n cui b v
c dn ti cc cng trnh x l tip theo, vn tc dng chy trong vng
cng tc ca b khng c vt qu 40 mm/s. B lng ngang c h thu
cn u b v nc trong c thu vo mng cui b.
3.1.3.3. B lng ly tm
B lng ly tm c dng hnh trn trn mt bng. B lng ly tm
c dng cho cc trm x l c cng sut ln hn 20.000 m 3/ngym.
Trong b lng nc chy t trung tm ra quanh thnh b. Cn lng c
dn vo h thu cn c xy dng trung tm y b bng h thng co
gom cn phn di dn quay hp vi trc 1 gc 450. y b thng c
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thit k vi dc i = 0,02 0,05. Dn quay vi tc 2-3 vng trong 1


gi. Nc trong c thu vo mng t dc theo thnh b pha trn.
3.1.4.

B vt du m

B vt du m thng c p dng khi x l nc thi c cha


du m (nc thi cng ngip), nhm tch cc tp cht nh. i vi thi
sinh hot khi hm lng du m khng cao th vic vt du m thc hin
ngay b lng nh thit b gt cht ni.
3.1.5.

B lc

B lc nhm tch cc cht trng thi l lng kch thc nh bng


cch cho nc thi i qua lp lc c bit hoc qua lp vt liu lc. B ny
c s dng ch yu cho mt s loi nc thi cng nghip. Qu trnh
phn ring c thc hin nh vch ngn xp, n cho nc i qua v gi
pha phn tn li. Qu trnh din ra di tc dng ca p sut ct nc.
Hiu qu ca phng php x l c hc
C th loi b c n 60% tp cht khng ho tan c trong nc
thi v gim BOD n 30%. tng hiu sut cng tc ca cc cng trnh
x l c hc c th dng bin php lm thong s b, thong gi ng t
sinh hc, hiu qu x l c th t ti 75% theo hm lng cht l lng v
40-50 % theo BOD.
Trong s cc cng trnh x l c hc c th k n b t hoi, b
lng hai v, b lng trong c ngn phn hu l nhng cng trnh va
lng va phn hu cn lng.
3.2.

Phng php x l ha l.
Bn cht ca qu trnh x l nc thi bng phng php ho l l

p dng cc qu trnh vt l v ho hc a vo nc thi cht phn ng


no gy tc ng vi cc tp cht bn, bin i ho hc, to thnh
cc cht khc di dng cn hoc cht ho tan nhng khng c hi hoc
gy nhim mi trng. Giai on x l ho l c th l giai on x l

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c lp hoc x l cng vi cc phng php c hc, ho hc, sinh hc


trong cng ngh x l nc thi hon chnh.
Nhng phng php ho l thng c p dng x l nc thi
l : keo t, ng t, tuyn ni, hp ph, trao i ion, thm lc ngc v siu
lc
3.2.1.

Phng php keo t v ng t

Qu trnh lng ch c th tch c cc ht rn huyn ph nhng


khng th tch c cc cht gy nhim bn dng keo v ha tan v
chng l nhng ht rn c kch thc qu nh. tch cc ht rn mt
cch c hiu qu bng phng php lng, cn tng kch thc ca chng
nh s tc ng tng h gia cc ht phn tn lin kt thnh tp hp cc
ht, nhm tng vn tc lng ca chng. Vic kh cc ht keo rn bng lng
trng lng i hi trc ht cn trung ha in tch ca chng, th n l
lin kt chng vi nhau. Qu trnh trung ho in tch thng c gi l
qu trnh ng t (coagulation), cn qu trnh to thnh cc bng ln hn
t cc ht nh gi l qu trnh keo t (flocculation).
3.2.1.1. Phng php keo t
Keo t l qu trnh kt hp cc ht l lng khi cho cc cht cao
phn t vo nc. Khc vi qu trnh ng t, khi keo t th s kt hp
din ra khng ch do tip xc trc tip m cn do tng tc ln nhau gia
cc phn t cht keo t b hp ph trn cc ht l lng .
Cht keo t thng dng c th l hp cht t nhin v tng hp
cht keo t nhin l tinh bt, ete, xenluloz, dectrin (C 6H10O5)n v dioxyt
silic hot tnh (xSiO2.yH2O).
3.2.1.2

Phng php ng t

Qu trnh thu phn cc cht ng t v to thnh cc bng keo xy


ra theo cc giai on sau :

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Me3+

HOH

Me(OH)2+

H+

Me(OH)2+ +

HOH

Me(OH)+

H+

Me(OH)+ +

HOH

Me(OH)3

H+

Me3+

3HOH

Me(OH)3

3 H+

Cht ng t thng dng l mui nhm, st hoc hoc hn hp


ca chng. Vic chn cht ng t ph thuc vo thnh phn, tnh cht ho
l, gi thnh, nng tp cht trong nc, pH .
Cc mui nhm c dng lm cht ng t: Al 2(SO4)3.18H2O,
NaAlO2, Al(OH)2Cl, Kal(SO4)2.12H2O, NH4Al(SO4)2.12H2O. Thng
sunfat nhm lm cht ng t v hot ng hiu qu pH = 5 7.5, tan tt
trong nc, s dng dng kh hoc dng dung dch 50% v gi thnh
tng i r.
Cc mui st c dng lm cht ng t: Fe(SO 3).2H2O,
Fe(SO4)3.3H2O, FeSO4.7H2O v FeCl3. Hiu qu lng cao khi s dng
dng kh hay dung dch 10 -15%.
3.2.2. Tuyn ni
Phng php tuyn ni thng c s dng tch cc tp cht (
dng rn hoc lng) phn tn khng tan, t lng km ra khi pha lng.
Trong x l nc thi, tuyn ni thng c s dng kh cc cht l
lng v lm c bn sinh hc. u im c bn ca phng php ny so vi
phng php lng l c th kh c hon ton cc ht nh hoc nh, lng
chm, trong mt thi gian ngn. Khi cc ht ni ln b mt, chng c
th thu gom bng b phn vt bt.
Qu trnh tuyn ni c thc hin bng cch sc cc bt kh nh
(thng l khng kh ) vo trong pha lng. Cc kh kt dnh vi cc ht
v khi lc ni ca tp hp cc bng kh v ht ln s ko theo ht cng

13

ni ln b mt, sau chng tp hp li vi nhau thnh cc lp bt cha


hm lng cc ht cao hn trong cht lng ban u .
3.2.3.

Hp ph

Phng php hp ph c dng rng ri lm sch trit nc


thi khi cc cht hu c ho tan sau khi x l sinh hc cng nh x l cc
b khi nc thi c cha mt hm lng rt nh cc cht . Nhng cht
ny khng phn hu bng con ng sinh hc v thng c c tnh cao.
Nu cc cht cn kh b hp ph tt v chi ph ring cho lng cht hp
ph khng ln th vic ng dng phng php ny l hp l hn c.
Cc cht hp ph thng c s dng nh: than hot tnh, cc cht
tng hp v cht thi ca vi ngnh sn xut c dng lm cht hp ph
(tro, r, mt ca ). Cht hp ph v c nh t st, silicagen, keo nhm
v cc cht hydroxit kim loi t c s dng v nng lng tng tc ca
chng vi cc phn t nc ln. Cht hp ph ph bin nht l than hot
tnh, nhng chng cn c cc tnh cht xc nh nh : tng tc yu vi cc
phn t nc v mnh vi cc cht hu c, c l xp th c th hp ph
cc phn t hu c ln v phc tp, c kh nng phc hi. Ngoi ra, than
phi bn vi nc v thm nc nhanh. Quan trng l than phi c hot
tnh xc tc thp i vi phn ng oxy ha bi v mt s cht hu c trong
nc thi c kh nng b oxy ho v b ho nha. Cc cht ho nha bt kn
l xp ca than v cn tr vic ti sinh n nhit thp.
3.2.4.

Phng php trao i ion

Trao i ion l mt qu trnh trong cc ion trn b mt ca cht


rn trao i vi ion c cng in tch trong dung dch khi tip xc vi nhau.
Cc cht ny gi l cc ionit (cht trao i ion), chng hon ton khng tan
trong nc.
Cc cht c kh nng ht cc ion dng t dung dch in ly gi l
cationit, nhng cht ny mang tnh axit. Cc cht c kh nng ht cc ion

14

m gi l anionit v chng mang tnh kim. Nu nh cc ionit no trao


i c cation v anion gi l cc ionit lng tnh.
Phng php trao i ion thng c ng dng loi ra khi
nc cc kim loi nh: Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Hg, M ,vv, cc hp cht
ca Asen, photpho, Cyanua v cc cht phng x.
Cc cht trao i ion l cc cht v c hoc hu c c ngun gc t
nhin hay tng hp nhn to. Cc cht trao i ion v c t nhin gm c
cc zeolit, kim loi khong cht, t st, fenspat, cht mica khc nhau
v c tng hp gm silicagen, pecmutit (cht lm mm nc ), cc oxyt
kh tan v hydroxyt ca mt s kim loi nh nhm, crm, ziriconi Cc
cht trao i ion hu c c ngun gc t nhin gm axit humic v than
chng mang tnh axit, cc cht c ngun gc tng hp l cc nha c b
mt ring ln l nhng hp cht cao phn t.
3.2.5.

Cc qu trnh tch bng mng

Mng c nh ngha l mt pha ng vai tr ngn cch gia cc


pha khc nhau .Vic ng dng mng tch cc cht ph thuc vo
thm ca cc hp cht qua mng. Ngi ta dng cc k thut nh: in
thm tch, thm thu ngc, siu lc v cc qu trnh tng t khc.
Thm thu ngc v siu lc l qu trnh lc dung dch qua mng
bn thm thu, di p sut cao hn p sut thm lc. Mng lc cho cc
phn t dung mi i qua v gi li cc cht ho tan. S khc bit gia hai
qu trnh l ch siu lc thng c s dng tch dung dch c khi
lng phn t trn 500 v c p sut thm thu nh (v d nh cc vi
khun, tinh bt, protein, t st ). Cn thm thu ngc thng c s
dng kh cc vt liu c khi lng phn t thp v c p sut cao.
3.2.6.

Phng php in ho

Mc ch ca phng php ny l x l cc tp cht tan v phn tn


trong nc thi, c th p dng trong qu trnh oxy ho dng cc, kh m

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cc, ng t in v in thm tch. Tt c cc qu trnh ny u xy ra


trn cc in cc khi cho dng in 1 chiu i qua nc thi.
Nhc im ln ca phng php ny l tiu hao in nng ln.
3.3.

Phng php x l sinh hc.


Phng php x l sinh hc l s dng kh nng sng, hot ng

ca vi sinh vt phn hu cc cht bn hu c c trong nc thi. Cc vi


sinh vt s dng cc hp cht hu c v mt s khong cht lm ngun
dinh dng v to nng lng. Trong qu trnh dinh dng, chng nhn
cc cht dinh dng xy dng t bo, sinh trng v sinh sn v th sinh
khi ca chng c tng ln . Qu trnh phn hy cc cht hu c nh vi
sinh vt gi l qu trnh oxy ha sinh ha. Phng php x l sinh hc c
th thc hin trong iu kin hiu kh ( vi s c mt ca oxy) hoc trong
iu kin k kh( khng c oxy).
Phng php x l sinh hc c th ng dng lm sch hon ton
cc loi nc thi cha cht hu c ho tan hoc phn tn nh. Do vy
phng php ny thng c p dng sau khi loi b cc loi tp cht th
ra khi nc thi c hm lng cht hu c cao.
Qu trnh x l sinh hc gm cc bc

Chuyn ho cc hp cht c ngun gc cacbon dng

keo v dng ho tan thnh th kh v thnh cc v t bo vi sinh.

To ra cc bng cn sinh hc gm cc t bo vi sinh

vt v cc cht keo v c trong nc thi

Loi cc bng cn ra khi nc thi bng qu trnh lng

3.3.1 X l nc thi bng phng php sinh hc trong iu


kin t nhin.
tch cc cht bn hu c dng keo v ho tan trong iu kin t
nhin ngi ta x l nc thi trong ao, h ( h sinh vt) hay trn t ( cnh
ng ti, cnh ng lc).

16

3.3.1.1. H sinh vt
H sinh vt l cc ao h c ngun gc t nhin hoc nhn to, cn
gi l h oxy ho, h n nh nc thi, x l nc thi bng phng
php sinh hc. Trong h sinh vt din ra qu trnh oxy ha sinh ha cc
cht hu c nh cc loi vi khun, to v cc loi thy sinh vt khc, tng
t nh qu trnh lm sch ngun nc mt. Vi sinh vt s dng oxy sinh ra
t ru to trong qu trnh quang hp cng nh oxy t khng kh oxy ho
cc cht hu c, rong to li tiu th CO2, photphat v nitrat amon sinh ra
t s phn hu, oxy ho cc cht hu c bi vi sinh vt. h hot ng
bnh thng cn phi gi gi tr pH v nhit ti u. Nhit khng
c thp hn 60C.
Theo bn cht qu trnh sinh ho, ngi ta chia h sinh vt ra cc
loi h hiu kh, h sinh vt tu tin (Faculative) v h sinh vt ym kh.

H sinh vt hiu kh

Qu trnh x l nc thi xy ra trong iu kin y oxy, oxy


c cung cp qua mt thong v nh quang hp ca to hoc h c lm
thong cng bc nh cc h thng thit b cp kh. su ca h sinh vt
hiu kh khng ln t 0,5-1,5m.

H sinh vt tu tin

C su t 1.5 2.5m, trong h sinh vt ty tin, theo chiu su


lp nc c th din ra hai qu trnh: oxy ho hiu kh v ln men ym kh
cc cht bn hu c. Trong h sinh vt ty tin vi khun v to c quan h
tng h ng vai tr c bn i vi s chuyn ha cc cht.

H sinh vt ym kh

C su trn 3m, vi s tham gia ca hng trm chng loi vi


khun k kh bt buc v k kh khng bt buc. Cc vi sinh vt ny tin
hnh hng chc phn ng ho sinh hc phn hu v bin i cc hp
cht hu c phc tp thnh nhng cht n gin, d x l. Hiu sut gim
BOD trong h c th ln n 70%. Tuy nhin nc thi sau khi ra khi h
17

vn c BOD cao nn loi h ny ch ch yu p dng cho x l nc thi


cng nghip rt m c v dng lm h bc 1 trong t hp nhiu bc.
3.3.1.2. Cnh ng ti - Cnh ng lc
Cnh ng ti l nhng khong t canh tc, c th tip nhn v x
l nc thi. X l trong iu kin ny din ra di tc dng ca vi sinh
vt, nh sng mt tri, khng kh v di nh hng ca cc hot ng
sng thc vt, cht thi b hp th v gi li trong t, sau cc loi vi
khun c sn trong t s phn hu chng thnh cc cht n gin cy
trng hp th. Nc thi sau khi ngm vo t, mt phn c cy trng s
dng. Phn cn li chy vo h thng tiu nc ra sng hoc b sung cho
nc ngun.
3.3.2. X l nc thi bng phng php sinh hc trong iu
kin nhn to
3.3.2.1. B lc sinh hc
B lc sinh hc l cng trnh nhn to, trong nc thi c lc
qua vt liu rn c bao bc mt lp mng vi sinh vt. B lc sinh hc gm
cc phn chnh nh sau: phn cha vt liu lc, h thng phn phi nc
m bo ti u ln ton b b mt b, h thng thu v dn nc sau khi
lc, h thng phn phi kh cho b lc.
Qu trnh oxy ha cht thi trong b lc sinh hc din ra ging nh
trn cnh ng lc nhng vi cng ln hn nhiu. Mng vi sinh vt
s dng v xc vi sinh vt cht theo nc tri khi b c tch khi nc
thi b lng t 2. m bo qu trnh oxy ho sinh ha din ra n
nh, oxy c cp cho b lc bng cc bin php thng gi t nhin hoc
thng gi nhn to. Vt liu lc ca b lc sinh hc c th l nha Plastic,
x vng gm, Granit

B lc sinh hc nh git

B c dng hnh vung, hnh ch nht hoc hnh trn trn mt bng,
b lc sinh hc nh git lm vic theo nguyn tc sau :
18

Nc thi sau b lng t 1 c a v thit b phn phi,

theo chu k ti u nc trn ton b b mt b lc. Nc thi sau khi lc


chy vo h thng thu nc v c dn ra khi b. Oxy cp cho b ch
yu qua h thng l xung quanh thnh b.
Vt liu lc ca b sinh hc nh git thng l cc ht cui,

ng knh trung bnh 20 30 mm. Ti trng nc thi ca b thp (0,5


1,5 m3/m3 vt liu lc /ngym). Chiu cao lp vt liu lc l 1.5 2m.
Hiu qu x l nc thi theo tiu chun BOD t 90%. Dng cho cc trm
x l nc thi c cng sut di 1000 m3/ngym.

B lc sinh hc cao ti

B lc sinh hc cao ti c cu to v qun l khc vi b lc sinh hc


nh git, nc thi ti ln mt b nh h thng phn phi phn lc. B c
ti trng 10 20 m3 nc thi/1m2 b mt b /ngym. Nu trng hp
BOD ca nc thi qu ln ngi ta tin hnh pha long chng bng nc
thi lm sch. B c thit k cho cc trm x l di 5000
m3/ngym
3.3.2.2. B hiu kh bn hot tnh B Aerotank
L b cha hn hp nc thi v bn hot tnh, kh c cp lin tc
vo b trn u v gi cho bn trng thi l lng trong nc thi v
cp oxy cho vi sinh vt oxy ha cc cht hu c c trong nc thi. Khi
trong b, cc cht l lng ng vai tr l cc ht nhn cho cc vi
khun c tr, sinh sn v pht trin dn ln thnh cc bng cn gi l bn
hot tnh. Vi khun v cc vi sinh vt sng dng cht nn (BOD) v cht
dinh dng (N, P) lm thc n chuyn ho chng thnh cc cht tr
khng ha tan v thnh cc t bo mi. S lng bn hot tnh sinh ra
trong thi gian lu li trong b Aerotank ca lng nc thi ban u i
vo trong b khng lm gim nhanh cc cht hu c do phi s dng
li mt phn bn hot tnh lng xung y b lng t 2, bng cch
tun hon bn v b Aerotank m bo nng vi sinh vt trong b.
19

Phn bn hot tnh d c a v b nn bn hoc cc cng trnh x l


bn cn khc x l. B Aerotank hot ng phi c h thng cung cp
kh y v lin tc.
3.3.2.3.

Qu trnh x l sinh hc k kh - B UASB

3.3.2.3.1. Qu trnh x l sinh hc k kh


Qu trnh phn hy k kh l qu trnh phn hy sinh hc cc cht
hu c c trong nc thi trong iu kin khng c oxy to ra sn phm
cui cng l kh CH4 v CO2 (trng hp nc thi khng cha NO3- v
SO42-). C ch ca qu trnh ny n nay vn cha c bit n mt cch
y v chnh xc nhng cch chung, qu trnh phn hy c th c
chia ra cc giai on nh sau:
GIAI ON

VT CHT

LOI VI KHUN

VT CHT HU C
PROTEINS

HYDROCARBON

Thy phn
ACID AMIN / NG

Acid ha

LIPIDS

Vi khun lipolytic,
proteolytic
v
cellulytic
Vi khun ln men

ACID BO

Vi khun to kh H2

Acetic ha
ACETATE / H2

Methane ha
CH4 / CO2

Vi khun
ha

methane

Hnh 2: S chuyn ha vt cht trong iu kin k kh


3 giai on u, COD ca dung dch hu nh khng thay i, n
ch gim trong giai on methane ha. Sinh khi mi c to thnh lin
tc trong tt c cc giai on.

20

Trong mt h thng vn hnh tt, cc giai on ny din ra ng thi


v khng c s tch ly qu mc cc sn phm trung gian. Nu c mt s
thay i bt ng no xy ra, cc giai on c th mt cn bng. Pha
methane ha rt nhy cm vi s thay i ca pH hay nng acid bo
cao. Do , khi vn hnh h thng, cn ch phng nga nhng thay i
bt ng, c pH ln s qu ti.
Cc yu t nh hng n qu trnh phn hy k kh
duy tr s n nh ca qu trnh x l k kh, phi duy tr c
trng thi cn bng ng ca qu trnh theo 4 pha nu trn. Mun vy
trong b x l phi m bo cc yu t sau:
Nhit : khong 30350C. Nhit ti u cho qu trnh

ny l 350C. pH: pH ti u cho qu trnh dao ng trong phm vi rt hp,


t 6.5 n 7.5. S sai lch khi khong ny u khng tt cho pha methane
ha.
Cht dinh dng: Cn cht dinh dng theo t l

COD:N:P = (4001000):7:1 vi sinh vt pht trin tt, nu thiu th b


sung thm. Trong nc thi sinh hot thng c cha cc cht dinh dng
ny nn khi kt hp x l nc thi sn xut v nc thi sinh hot th
khng cn b sung thm cc nguyn t dinh dng.
kim: kim ti u cn duy tr trong b l 15003000

mg CaCO3/l to kh nng m tt cho dung dch, ngn cn s gim pH


di mc trung tnh.
Mui (Na+, K+, Ca2+): Pha methane ha v acid ha lipid

u b c ch khi mn vt qu 0,2 M NaCl. S thy phn protein trong


c cng b c ch mc 20 g/l NaCl.
Lipid: y l cc hp cht rt kh b phn hy bi vi sinh

vt. N to mng trn VSV lm gim s hp th cc cht vo bn trong.

21

Ngoi ra cn ko bn ni ln b mt, gim hiu qu ca qu trnh chuyn


i methane.
Kim loi nng: Mt s kim loi nng (Cu, Ni, Zn) rt

c, c bit l khi chng tn ti dng ha tan. Trong h thng x l k


kh, kim loi nng thng c loi b nh kt ta cng vi carbonate v
sulfide. Ngoi ra cn m bo khng cha cc ha cht c, khng c hm
lng qu mc cc hp cht hu c khc.
B UASB

Nc thi c a trc tip vo di y b v c phn phi

ng u , sau chy ngc ln xuyn qua lp bn sinh hc ht nh


(bng bn) v cc cht bn hu c c tiu th .
Cc bt kh mtan v cacbonic ni ln trn c thu bng cc chp
kh dn ra khi b.

Nc thi tip theo s din ra s phn tch 2 pha lng v rn. Pha

lng c dn ra khi b, cn pha rn th hon lu li lp bng bn.

S to thnh v duy tr cc ht bn l v cng quan trng khi vn

hnh b UASB.
3.3.2.4.

B sinh hc theo m SBR (Sequence Batch Reactor)

H thng x l sinh hc tng m bao gm a nc thi vo b phn


ng v to cc iu kin cn thit nh mi trng thiu kh (khng c oxy,
ch c NO3-), k kh (khng c oxy), hiu kh (c oxi, NO3- ) cho vi
sinh tng sinh khi, hp th v tiu ha cc cht thi hu c trong nc
thi.
Cht thi hu c (C,N,P) t dng ha tan s chuyn ha vo sinh
khi vi sinh v khi lp sinh khi vi sinh ny lng kt xung s cn li nc
trong tch cht nhim, chu k x l trn li tip tc cho mt m nc
thi mi.

22

PHN 4: LA CHN CC
PHNG N X L
x l nc thi ca nh my ch bin thy hi sn nhm a ra cc
phng n x l.

4.1. Phng n 1.
Nc thi

Song chn
rc
My thi
kh

B lng ct

em chn lp
em san lp mt ng
Sn phi ct

B iu ha
B lng ng kt
hp ng t sinh
hc

B cha bn

B phn hy
bn hiu kh

My p bn

B Aerotank
My thi kh
Thi b, lm
phn bn

B lng 2
Ngun tip nhn
B kh trng

ng dn nc
ng dn bn
ng dn nc tun hon
ng thi kh
ng dn bn tun
hon

Hnh 4.1: S cng ngh phng n 1


23

Thuyt minh quy trnh cng ngh


Nc thi qua song chn rc c tch b mt phn rc c kch
thc ln, rc t y c thu em lm thc n cho gia sc, chn lp.
Nc thi chy qua b lng ct lng bt ct ht ct c kch thc ln.
Nc thi c ly qua mng thu v bm ln b iu ha, c gn h thng
thi kh n nh lu lng v nng . Lng ct lng b lng ct
c a qua sn phi ct lm kh ct s dng cho mc ch xy dng
hay san lp ng.
Trc khi n cng trnh x l chnh (b Aeroten), nc c a n
b lng ng kt hp ng t sinh hc tin hnh lm thong s b gip
vic gim mt phn cc hp cht hu c v lng cc thnh phn l lng.
Nc thi c thnh phn hu c gim ng k c a n b lng II
lng bn (vi sinh vt). Bn lng b lng II c tun hon li b aeroten
v b ng t sinh hc. Nc sau lng II tha iu kin thi ra ngun tip
nhn. Bn c n nh ti b sinh hc hiu kh, y, mt phn nc
c tch khi bn v c dn tr li b iu ha. Trc khi em bn i
b, bn c gim m ng k ti my p bn .
u im
-

Chim din tch xy dng nh hn bi s lng cng trnh t (gim

bt 1 cng trnh x l sinh hc chnh l b k kh, thm vo x l s b


ti b lng I trc Aeroten).
-

t nhy cm vi cc hp cht gy c ch.

Chi ph nng lng cao hn.

Nhc im
-

Xy dng v qun l phc tp.

i hi ngi qun l c chuyn mn cao.

- Chi ph vn hnh cao v cn nhiu my thi kh nn tn nhiu nng


lng.
-

Kh nit cha trit . D b tt nghn b lc sinh hc.


24

4.2.

Phng n 2

Nc thi

Song chn rc

em chn lp
Ra ct, em san lp mt ng

My thi
kh

B lng ct

Sn phi ct

B iu ha

B lng 1

B cha bn

B nn bn

B UASB

Sn phi bn

Thi b hoc
lm phn bn

B lc sinh
hc cao ti
B lng 2
Ngun tip nhn
B kh trng

ng dn nc
ng dn bn
ng dn nc tun hon
ng dn kh
ng dn bn tun hon

Hnh 4.2: S cng ngh phng n 2

25

Thuyt minh quy trnh cng ngh


Nc thi qua song chn rc c tch b mt phn rc c kch
thc ln, rc t y c thu em chn lp, thi b. Nc thi chy qua
b lng ct. Nc thi c ly qua mng thu v bm ln b iu ha, c
gn h thng thi kh n nh lu lng v nng . Sau , nc thi
c bm n b lng 1, c s dng l b lng ng tch mt phn
cht hu c d lng. Bn thu c ti y l dng bn ti, c bm v
b cha bn. Nc c tip tc a qua b UASB, sau cng trnh ny
nc c a qua b lc sinh hc cao ti. Nc thu c cho chy qua b
lng t 2, sau kh trng bng clo trc khi a ra ra ngun tip nhn.
Bn d c thu ti b cha bn, em nn bn gim m, ri
a qua sn phi bn tip tc lm gim bt lng nc. Bn sau khi x
l c em chn lp hoc s dng bn cho cy trng. Nc t b nn
bn c tun hon v b iu ha tip tc tham gia qu trnh x l.
u im
-

Vn hnh tng i n gin.

Ph hp cho cc loi nc thi c hm lng COD t thp n cao.

X Nng cn kh t 15%-25%.
Khuyt im

Khng ph hp vi nc thi c SS cao.

D b bt kn b lc sinh hc cao ti.

Phi s dng ni c nhiu t thng l vng nng thn, th trn.

C s dng polymer chm vo tng kh nng tch nc.

Hot ng ph thuc vo iu kin thi tit v kh hu.

Cn c lao ng th cng xc bn kh t sn phi bn ln xe ti.

Thi gian lm kh bn di.

26

4.3. Phng n 3
Nc thi

Song chn rc
My thi
kh

em chn lp
em san lp mt ng
Sn phi ct

B lng ct

B iu ha
Phn bn
B lng 1

B nn bn

My p bn

B UASB

B aerotank

B lng 2
Ngun tip nhn
B kh trng
Bm clo

ng dn nc
ng dn bn
ng dn nc tun hon
ng dn bn tun hon
ng dn kh

Hinh 4.3: S cng ngh phng n 3

27

Thuyt minh quy trnh cng ngh


Nc qua song chn rc c a n b UASB tng t nh
phng n 2. Nc sau khi qua cng trnh ny tip tc c x l hiu kh
ti aerotank, ri chy trn qua b lng t 2. Bn thu c t b lng t 2
l bn hot tnh, mt phn c bm tun hon li b aerotank, phn cn
li c bm qua b cha bn tip tc x l. Nc c kh trng bng
Clo, t TCVN 5945- 2005 ct B trc khi thi ra ngun tip nhn.
Bn thi ra b lng 1, b UASB, b lng 2 s c bm qua b
nn bn tch m, gip gim ti lng ng k. Lng bn sau c
a qua my p bn c th tch nc ti mc ti a, lng bn sau khi
p c th s dng bn cho cy trng hoc em chn lp. Nc p thu t b
nn bn, my p bn c tun hon li b iu ha tip tc x l.
u im
-

Thng c s dng, do n ph hp vi iu kin kh hu cc

nc nhit i.
-

Vn hnh tng i n gin.

Ph hp cho cc loi nc thi c hm lng COD t thp n cao.

Nhng nm gn y UASB c ng dng rng ri hn cc cng

ngh khc do nguyn l qu trnh c xem l thun tin v n gin nht,


nhng hn ch trong qu trnh vn hnh UASB c th d dng khc phc
bng cc phng php x l s b. Tnh kinh t cng l mt u im ca
UASB.
-

Chi ph u t thp

Nng cn kh t 20%-30%

Khng s dng ha cht

28

Khuyt im
-

Rt nhy cm vi cc hp cht gy c ch.

Thi gian vn hnh khi ng di (3 4 thng).

Trong mt s trng hp cn x l th cp gim s sinh mi.

Thi gian lm kh bn di.

Hot ng khng ph thuc vo iu kin mi trng v thi tit.

Tuy nhin nhng mt hn ch ny d khc phc. X l s b tt s

m bo c mi trng sinh trng thun li cho vi sinh vt k kh. Nu


cy vi khun to acid v vi khun to methane trc (phn tru b ti) vi
nng thch hp v vn hnh vi ch thy lc 1/2 cng sut thit k
th thi gian khi ng c th rt ngn xung t 2-3 tun.

Kt lun
Tm li qua ba phng n x l nc thi ch bin thy hi sn nhm
quyt nh chn phng n 3 tin hnh tnh ton v thit k h thng x
l.
L do m nhm chn phng n 3.
-

Ph hp vi iu kin kh hu Vit Nam.

Vn hnh tng i n gin.

Khng x dng nhiu ha cht trong qu trnh vn hnh.

Chi ph vn hnh thp.

Khng phi b tt nghn h thng x l nh 2 phng n, v

phng n 1. Bn cnh khng phi tn chi ph cho vic mua cc


loi vt liu lc.

29

PHN 5: TNH TON- THIT K H THNG


X L NC THI THY HI SN CNG
XUT 1000M3/NGYM THEO S
CNG NGH CA PHNG N 3
Mt s thng s u vo
Lu lng trung bnh ngy m
Qtb = 1000 m 3 / ngaydem
Qmax ngay = Qtbngay k max = 1000 1.7 = 1700 m 3 / ngaydem
Qmin ngay = Qtbngay k min = 1000 0.4 = 400m 3 / ngaydem
Lu long theo h
Qtbh =

1000
= 41.67 m 3 / h
24

Qmax h = Qtbh k max =

1000
1.7 = 70.83m 3 / h
24

Qmin h = Qtbh k min =

1000
0.4 = 16.67 m 3 / h
24

Lu lng theo s
Qtbs =

1000
= 0.01157 m 3 / s
24 3600

Qmax s = Qtbs k max =

1000
1.7 = 0.0197 m 3 / s
24 3600

Qmin s = Qtbs k min =

1000
0.4 = 0.0046 m 3 / s
24 3600

max

, k min : H s khng iu ha gi ln nht, nh nht

30

5.1. Song chn rc


Nhim v ca song chn rc

Song chn rc gi li cc tp cht c kch thc ln nh: xng c,


cc loi v ngu, tm, cua... Lng rc thi c tch ra song chn rc s
c a i lm thc n cho gia sc hoc c th em i chn lp. y l
cng trnh u tin trong thnh phn ca trm x l nc thi.
Ni dung tnh ton SCR

Kch thc mng t song chn


Tnh ton SCR
Chn vn tc qua song chn rc l v = 0.5m / s
Khong cch gia hai thanh chn l b = 0.02m
dy lp nc trong mng l h1 = 0.14m
dy ca mi thanh chn: d = 0.005m
Tnh ton s khe ca song chn rc:
n=

Qmax s
0.0197 1.05
k =
= 14.7 14 khe
v b h1
0.5 0.02 0.14

Vi k = 1.05 l h s tnh hin tng thu hp dng chy


Chn s khe song chn rc l 14 khe, s thanh chn rc l 15 thanh.
B rng tng cng ca song chn rc
Bs = d ( n + 1) + b n = 0.005 (14 + 1) + 0.02 14 = 0.35m
Kim tra vn tc dng chy trc song chn rc khc phc kh nng
ng cn.
v kt =

Qmax s
0.0197
=
= 0.41m / s > 0.4m / s
Bs h1 0.35 0.14

Tn tht p lc qua song chn rc:


1 V 2 v2
1 0.5 2 0.412
hs =

= 0.006 m = 6mm < 150 mm


0.7
2g
0.7
2 9.81

31

350 mm

Chiu cao tng cng ca song chn rc


H = h1 + hs + hbv = 0.14 + 0.006 + 0.3 = 0.446m
5.2. B lng ct
Nhim v ca b lng ct
B lng ct c ch nhim v lng ct, khng lng cc tp cht hu c.
Ct ly ra em i ra, qua sn phi ct ri em b, hoc s dng san lp
mt ng.

Ni dung tnh ton gm

Th tch ca b lng ct

Lng ct lng trong mt ngy m


Chn thi gian lu ca b lng ct ngang: t = 30s
Chn vn tc nc trong b lng ngang: vn = 0.2 (m/s)
Th tch tng cng ca b lng ct ngang
W = Qmax s t = 0.0197 30 = 0.591m3

Din tch mt ct ngang ca b lng ct


Fn =

Qmax s 0.0197
=
= 0.0985m 2
vn
0.2

Chiu rng ca b lng ct ngang


B=

Fn 0.0985
=
= 0.4m
H
0.25

Vi H = 0.25 m l chiu cao cng tc ca b lng ct ngang.


Chia b lng ct thnh 2 n nguyn n = 2
32

Chiu di ca b lng ngang


W
0.591
=
= 3m
n B H 2 0.4 0.25

L=

Chn chiu cao bo v ca b lng ct: 0.25 m


Vy kch thc ca b lng ct: L x B x H = 3 x 0.4 x 0.5 m.
Lng ct trung bnh sau mi ngy m
Wc =

Qtbngay q 0
1000

1000 0.15
= 0.15m 3 / ngaydem
1000

Vi q o : lng ct trong 1000m 3 nc thi, q 0 =0.15m 3 ct/ngaydem


Chiu cao lp ct trong b lng ct ngang trong ngy m
hc =

Wc t x
0.15 2
=
= 0.125m
L B n 3 0.4 2

Vi t x l chu k x ct, t x =2 ngy m.

Tnh din tch sn phi ct

Nhim v ca sn phi ct
Ra cn bm trong qu trnh lng ct, gy mi trong ct. ng thi lm
kh ct em tn dng tri mt ng.
Chiu di ca sn phi ct: L = 3 m
Chn thi gian phi ct = chu k x ct, t = 2 ngy m
Th tch ct trn sn: W = 0.3 m3
Tnh chiu rng sn phi ct:
B=

w
0.3
=
= 0.4m
t h L 2 0.125 3

Din tch sn phi ct: B x L = 0.4m x 3m

5.3. B iu ha.
Nhim v ca b iu ha
Gim bt s dao ng ca hm lng cc cht bn trong nc do qu trnh
sn xut thi ra khng u.
Tit kim ha cht trung ha nc thi.

33

Gi n nh lu lng nc i vo cc cng trnh x l tip theo.


Hm lng BOD, COD, SS sau b iu ha t
BOD = 95% x 1050 = 998 mg/l
COD = 95% x 1500 = 1425 mg/l
SS = 85% x 270 = 230 mg/l
Xc nh th tch b iu ha
Th tch tch ly
Th tch tch ly dng vo ca gi th i c xc nh:
Vv (i ) = Vv ( i 1) + Qi

Trong
Vv(I-1): th tch tch ly dng vo ca gi trc (m3)
Qv(i): lu lng nc thi ca gi ang xt (m3/h)
Th tch tch ly bm i ca gi th i
Vb (i ) = Vb ( i 1) + Qb ( i )

Trong :
Vb(I-1): th tch tch ly bm ca gi trc (m3)
Qb(i): lu lng bm ca gi ang xt (m3/h)
Th tch b iu ha
Da vo cc cng thc tnh nh trn ta c th lp bng th tch tch
ly cho mi gi trong ngy nh bng sau.

Th tch tch Th tch tch


ly vo b
Gi

Q(m3/h)
(m

1
2
3

22
20
15

Vtli

ly bm i
)

22
42
57

Vbdi
41.6
83.4
124.8

34

Hiu

th

tch
(m3)

Vbdi Vtli (m3 )


19.6
41.4
67.8

Th tch tch Th tch tch


ly vo b
Gi

Q(m3/h)
(m

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

15
15
17
35
70.8
70
69.2
65
38
35
35
39
79
54
54
45
44
49
48
42
30

Vtli

ly bm i

Vbdi

72
87
104
139
209.8
279.8
349
414
452
487
522
562
641
695
742
787
831
880
928
970
1000

Hiu

th

tch
(m3)

166.5
208
249.7
291.2
332.9
374.4
416.1
457.6
499.3
540.8
582.5
624
665.6
702.3
748.8
790.6
832
873.8
956.8
956.7
1000

Vbdi Vtli (m3 )


94.5
121
145.7
152.2 (max)
123.1
94.6
67.1
43.6
47.3
53.8
60.5
62
24.6
7.3
6.8
3.6
1
-6.2
28.8
-13.3 (min)
0

Bng 5.1: Th tch tch ly theo gi


Th tch l thuyt b iu ha bng hiu i s gi tr dng ln nht v
gi tr m nh nht ca ct hiu s th tch tch ly
Vdh ( LT ) = Vmax Vmin = 152.2 (- 13.3) = 165.5 (m3)
Th tch thc t ca b iu ha

Vdh ( TT ) = (1.1 1.2)Vdh ( LT )


Vdh ( TT ) = 1.2 165.5 = 198.6(m 3 )
Vy th tch thc ca b iu ha l: 198.6 m3
35

Da vo s liu bng th tch tch ly theo gi, ta v c biu tch ly


theo gi
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
0

10

15

Th tch tch ly vo b

20

25

30

Th tch tch ly bm i

Biu 5.1: Biu tch ly


Chn b c hnh dng trn: Chiu cao lp nc ln nht hmax = 4m
Chiu cao bo v hbv = 0.5m
Vy chiu cao tng cng:
H = hmax + hbv = 4 + 0.5 = 4.5(m)
ng knh b: D =

4 V
4 198.6
=

= 7.95(m)
H

Vy kch thc b iu ha: D x H = 7.95m x 4.5m

Tnh ton bm dng trong b iu ha

Ti b iu ha c t bm nhng chm bm nc thi qua b lng 1, do


ta phi tnh cng sut ca bm t ti y.
Ct p ton phn ca bm: H = 4.5m + 0.3m = 4.8m
Lu lng bm: Q = 1000 m3/ngy.m
36

Cng sut ca my bm:


N=

gHQ 1000 9.81 4.8 1000


=
= 0.68( kW )
1000
1000 0.8 86400

Cng sut thc t ca my bm:


N TT = 1.5 N = 1.5 0.68 = 1.02( kW ) = 1.37( HP )

Xc nh hiu qu kh BOD5 ca b iu ha

Da vo kt qu phn tch biu hoc bng, ta xc nh c thi


im b cn nht l lc 7 gi.
- Thi im tnh ton bt u t lc 8 gi.
Th tch nc trong b iu ha gi ang xt th I c xc nh
theo cng thc sau:

V( i ) = V(i 1) + Vin (i ) Vout (i )


Trong :
V(i): th tch nc trong b iu ha gi ang xt (m3)
V(I-1): th tch nc trong b iu ha gi trc (m3)
Vin(i): th tch nc i vo b iu ha gi ang xt (m3)
Vout(i): th tch nc bm ra khi b iu ha gi ang xt (m3)
Ta tnh c th tch nc trong b iu ha vo lc 8 gi:
V( 8 ) = V( 7 ) + Vin ( 8 ) Vout ( 8 ) = 0 + 70.8 41.6 = 29.2( m 3 )
Th tch nc trong b iu ha vo lc 9 gi:
V( 9 ) = V( 8 ) + Vin ( 9 ) Vout ( 9 ) = 29.2 + 70 41.6 = 57.6( m 3 )
Gi s khi nc trong b iu ha c xo trn hon ton. Vy hm lng
BOD5 trung bnh bm ra khi b c th tnh theo biu thc sau:

Sout (i ) =

Vin (i ) .Sin (i ) +V(i 1) .S (i 1)


Vin (i ) + V(i 1)

Trong : Sout(i): hm lng BOD5 trung bnh ca dng ra gi ang


xt (mg/l)

37

S in(i): hm lng BOD5 trung bnh ca dng vo gi


ang xt (mg/l)
V(i-1): th tch nc trong b iu ha gi trc (m3)
Vin(i): th tch nc i vo b iu ha gi ang xt (m3)
Vy ta tnh c hm lng BOD5 trung bnh ca dng ra vo lc 8
gi:
S out ( 8 ) =

Vin ( 8 ) .S in ( 8 ) + V7 .S 7
Vin ( 8 ) + V7

70.8 1500 + 0 1330


= 1500(mg / m 3 )
70.8 + 0

Hm lng BOD5 trung bnh ca dng ra vo lc 9 gi:


S out ( 9 ) =

Vin ( 9 ) .S in ( 9 ) + V( 8 ) .S ( 8 )
Vin ( 9 ) + V( 8 )
Th tch

Gi
trong

Q(m3/h)

ngy
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
1
2

70.8
70
69.2
65
38
35
35
39
79
54
54
45
44
49
48
42
30
22
20

nc
trong b
(m3)
29.2
57.6
85.2
108.6
103
96.4
89.8
87.2
124.6
137
149.4
152.8
155.2
162.6
169
169.4
157.8
138.2
116.6

70 1310 + 29.2 1500


= 1366(mg / m 3 )
70 + 29.2

BOD
vo
(mg/l)
1500
1310
1250
1220
1030
790
770
855
1350
1310
1230
790
870
1150
1250
990
695
695
792

BOD

Ti

trung bnh BOD

lng
trc

ra khi b iu
(mg/l)
1500
1366
1277
1237
1170
969
785
795
1090
1338
1287
1128
807
937
1172
1198
945
695
707
38

ha(kgBOD5)
106.2 (max)
91.7
86.5
79.3
39.1
27.6
26.9
33.3
86.1
70.7
66.4
35.5
38.3
56.3
60
41.6
20.8
15.3
15.8

Ti lng BOD
sau

iu

ha(kgBOD5/h)
62.4 (max)
56.8
53.1
51.4
48.6
40.3
32.6
33.1
45.3
55.6
55.5
46.9
33.5
38.9
48.7
49.8
39.3
28.9 (min)
29.4

Th tch

Gi
trong

Q(m3/h)

ngy

nc
trong b
(m3)
90
63.4
36.8
12.2
0

3
4
5
6
7
Trung

15
15
15
17
35

bnh

41.6

BOD

BOD

Ti

trung bnh BOD

vo

lng
trc

ra khi b iu

(mg/l)
890
910
1060
1220
1330

(mg/l)
803
892
938
1110
1301

ha(kgBOD5)
13.5 (min)
13.6
15.9
20.7
46.5

1050

1060

46.1

Ti lng BOD
sau

ha(kgBOD5/h)
33.4
37.1
39.1
46.2
54.1
44.2

Bng 5.2: Hm lng BOD5 trung bnh v ti lng BOD5 trc v sau
b iu ha

T s
Lmax : Ltb
Lmin : Ltb
Lmax : Lmin

Trc iu ha
106.2 : 46.1 = 2.3
13.5 : 46.1 = 0.3
106.2 : 13.5 = 7.8

Sau iu ha
62.4 : 44.2 = 1.4
28.9 : 44.2 = 0.65
62.4 : 28.9 = 2.2

Bng 5.3: H s khng iu ha v ti trng BOD5


Cc dng xo trn trong b iu ha
Dng khuy trn
Khuy trn c kh
Tc kh nn

Gi tr
4-8
10-15

n v
W/m3th tch b
Lit/m3th tch b.pht

Bng 5.4: Cc dng xo trn trong b iu ha


Chn khuy trn b iu ha bng h thng thi kh.
Chn: tc kh nn R=13lit/m3pht=0.013m3/m3pht
Lu lng kh nn cn cho khuy trn
q k = Vdh ( LT ) R = 165.5 0.013 = 2.1515m 3 / pht
= 129 m 3 / h = 0.036 m 3 / s

39

iu

Tnh ton my nn kh cho b iu ha

p lc cn thit cho h thng ng kh nn

Hd = hd + hc + hf + H
Trong :
o hd, hc: tn tht p lc do ma st dc theo chiu di trn ng

ng dn v tn tht cc b ti cc im un, khc quanh.


hd + hc 0.4m
o hf: tn tht qua h thng phn phi kh

hf 0.5m
o H: ngp su ca ng phn phi kh, ly bng chiu cao hu
ch ca b iu ha
H = 4m

Vy p lc cn thit
Hd = 0.4m + 0.5m + 4m = 4.9m
p lc ca my nn kh

Pm =

(10.33 + H ) = (10.33 + 4.9) = 1.47( atm )


d

10.33

10.33

Theo cng thc 152 gio trnh X l nc thi ca Hong Hu ta


c cng sut ca my nn kh:
N LT =

34400
34400
0.29
0.29
( Pm ) 1 q k =
(1.47 ) 1 0.036 = 1.435 KW
102
102

Cng sut tnh ton ca my nn kh


N tt =

N LT 1.435
=
= 2.05 KW

0 .7
Tnh ton ng knh ng dn

Chn loi khuch tn kh l ng mng khoan l dng li c lu


lng kh q n = 92 l/m3phut.
S ng khuych tn kh

40

q k 22151 .1
=
= 24(ci )
qn
92

n=

Chn tc dng kh trong ng dn chnh l 8m/s. Vy ta c


ng chnh c ng knh trong

d=

qk
0.036
4
v =
8 = 0.0757 m = 75.7mm

Chn loi ng nha HDPE ca nha Bnh Minh dngoi = 80mm, b


dy 2.3 mm
Chn tc dng kh cc ng dn nhnh l 8m/s. Vy ta c
ng nhnh c ng knh trong
qn
0.092 1
4

v =
8
60 = 0.0156 m = 15.6mm

d=

Chn loi ng nha HDPE ca nha Bnh Minh dngoi = 20mm, b


dy

2.3 mm
Trn cc ng nhnh c c l ng knh dl = 5mm.
Chn vn tc thot ra mi l l 10m/s. Lu lng kh thot ra

khi 1 l

d l2
( 5 10 3 )
q = v Sl = v
= 10
=
4
4
= 1.963 10 4 m 3 / s = 11.78 10 3 m 3 / pht
2

l
kh

S l trn mi ng nhnh l:
qn
92.10 3 m 3 / pht
n= l =
= 7.8
qkh 11.78 10 3 m 3 / pht
S l trn mi nhnh l 8 (l)

5.4. B lng 1

Nhim v b lng 1

41

Loi b cc tp cht l lng cn li trong nc thi qua b iu ha. y


cc cht l lng c t trng ln hn t trn ca nc s lng xung y.
Hm lng cht l lng sau khi qua b lng t 1 cn t 150 mg/l.
Hm lng sau khi ra khi b lng 1 phi t:
BOD = 80% x 998 = 789.4 mg/l
COD = 80% x 1425 = 1140 mg/l
SS = 60% x 230 = 138 mg/l 150 mg/l
Chn b lng t 1 dng trn, nc thi i vo t ng trung tm, thu nc
theo chu vi b.

Thng s

Gi tr
Dy
Thi gian lu nc (gi)
1.5-2.5
3
2
Ti trng b mt (m /m ngay) 32-48
Lu lng trung bnh
32-48
Lu lng cao im
80-120
Ti
trng
mng
trn 125-500
(m3/m.ngay)
ng trung tm

d = 15 20% D
h = 55 65% H

ng knh
Chiu cao
Chiu su b lng (m)
ng knh b lng (m)
dc y (mm/m)
Tc thanh gt

c trng
2

H=3-4.8
D=3-6
62-167
bn 0.02-0.05

4
5.64
83
0.03

(vng/pht)
Bng 5.5: Cc thng s thit k c trng cho b lng ly tm
Gi s ti trng b mt thch hp cho loi cn ti ny l
LA = 40 m3/m2.ngy
Din tch b mt b lng l
42

A=

Qtbngay
LA

1000 m 3 / m 2 ngay
=
= 25m 2
3
2
40m / m ngay

ng knh b lng
4 A
4 25
=
= 5.64m

D=

ng knh ng trung tm
d = 20% D = 20% 5.64 = 1.13m
Chn chiu su hu ch ca b lng H=4m
Chiu cao lp bn lng hb = 0.7m
Chiu cao an ton h=0.5m
Vy chiu cao tng cng ca b lng t 1
Htc= H+h+ hb = 4m+ 0.5m+0.7m = 5.2m
Chiu cao ng trung tm
h = 60% H = 60% 4 = 2.4m
Vy kch thc b lng 1: D x H=5.64m x 5.2m

Kim tra li thi gian lu nc ca b lng


Th tch phn lng
W=

( D 2 d 2 ) H = ( 5.64 2 1.132 ) 4 = 96m 3


4
4

Thi gian lu nc
W
96
=
= 2.3h > 1.5h
Qtbh 41.67

t=

Ti trng mng trn


Ls =

Qtbnay

1000
= 56.44m 3 / mngay <500m3/ngy
5.64

Tnh ton lng bn sinh ra

3
2
Gi s hiu sut x l cn l lng t 40% ti trng 35 m / m ngy.

Lng bn ti sinh ra mi ngy

43

M tuoi = 230 gSS / m 3 1000 m 3 / ngy 0.4

1g
= 92 KgSS / ngy
1000 Kg

Gi s bn ti ca nc thi thy sn c hm lng cn 5% (tc l


c m 95%).
T s VSS:TSS=0.75 v khi lng ring bn ti l 1.053kg/lt.
Vy lu lng bn ti cn phi x l l
Qtuoi =

92 Kg / ngay
= 1747.4l / ngy = 1.747 m 3 / ngay
0.05 1.053 Kg / l

Lng bn ti c kh nng phn hy sinh hc


M tuoi (VSS ) = 0.75 92 = 69 KgVSS / ngay

Tnh ton mng trn.

Chiu di mng trn


L=0.85 x D=0.85 x 5.64 = 4.8 m
Ti trng trn mt mp di mng trn
0.0197 m 3 / s 1000l / m 3
q=
= 4.1l / sm
4.8m
Chn tm x khe hnh ch V, gc y 90 o iu chnh cao mp
mng. Chiu cao hnh ch V l 5 cm, y ch V l 10 cm, mi m di c 5
khe ch V, khong cch gia cc nh l 20 cm.
Chiu cao mc nc h trong khe ch V
qo=

q
= 1,4 h5/2
5

h=(

0.0041 2 / 5
) = 0.050m = 50mm
5 1 .4

Ph hp tiu chun cho php 50 mm

5.5. B UASB

Nhim v ca b UASB

44

Lm gim ng k hm lng COD, BOD trong nc thi bng


cch s dng lp cn l lng (c cha rt nhiu vi sinh vt ym kh) trong
dch ln men nh h thng nc thi chy t pha di ln. ng thi lm
tin cho qu trnh x l hiu kh trong b aerotank tip theo.
Hm lng cc cht sau khi qua khi b UASB t:
BOD = 25% x 789.4 = 197 mg/l
COD = 35% x 1140 = 399 mg/l
SS = 138 mg/l

Nng nc
thi,
mgCOD/l

Ti trng th tch 30oC, kg COD/m3.ngy


T l COD
khng tan, %

Bn
Bn bng

(khng
SS)

2000

2000 6000

6000 9000

ht
kh

Bn ht kh
SS

10 30

24

8 12

24

30 60

24

8 14

24

10 30

35

30 60

48

60 100
10 30

48
4 6

30 60

5 7

60 100

6 8

9000 18000 10 30

58

45

12 18
12 24
15 20
15 24
15 24

35
26
26
4 6
3 7
3 8
46

Bng 5.6: Cc thng s thit k cho b UASB


(Ti trng th tch hu c ca b UASB bn ht v bn bng cchm
lng COD vo v t l cht khng tan khc nhau)

Ti trng th tch hu c (kg COD/m3.ngy)


Nhit , oC

Nc thi khng

Nc thi VFA

VFA

C 30% COD-SS

15

24

1.5 3.0

1.5 2

20

4 6

2 4

2 3

25

6 12

4 8

3 6

30

10 18

8 12

6 9

35

15 24

12 18

9 14

40

20 32

15 24

14 18

Bng 5.7: Ti trng th tch hu c ca b UASB bn ht c hm


lng bn trung bnh 25kgVSS/m3 (ph thuc vo nhit vn hnh,
nc thi c VFA ha tan, nc thi khng c VFA v nc thi c
cn l lng chim 30% tng COD
Thc nghim trn m hnh Pilot rt ra c kt qu sau

Bn nui cy ban u ly t bn ca b phn hy k kh t qu

trnh x l nc thi sinh hot b vi hm lng 30KgSS/m3.

T l MLVS/MLSS ca bn trong b UASB=0.75

3
2
Ti trng b mt phn lng L A = 12 m / m ngay

ti trng th tch L 0 =3KgCOD/m 3 .ngy, hiu qu kh COD t

65% v BOD 5 t 75%


46

Lng bn phn hy k kh cho vo ban u c TS=5%

Y=0.04gVSS/gCOD, k d =0.025ngay 1 , =60 ngy

Hm lng COD vo b UASB


C 0 = 80% C bandau =80% x 1140 =912mg/l
Hm lng COD vo b UASB
BOD vo = 80%BOD bandau =80% x 789.4 = 789.4mg/l
Din tch b mt phn lng
A=

Qtbngay
LA

1000
= 83.33m 2
12

Th tch ngn phn ng b UASB


Qtbngay C0 1000 m 3 / ngay 912 g / m 3
Vr =
= 304 m 3
=
3
LCOD
3KgCOD / m ngay 1000
Chn 5 n nguyn hnh vung, vy cnh mi n nguyn c chiu di l
W=

A
83.33
=
= 4.1m
n
5

Chiu cao phn phn ng


H=

Vr
304
=
= 3.65m
A 83.33
Chn chiu cao phu thu kh l h p = 1.5m
Chiu cao bo v hbv =0.5m

Chiu cao tng cng b UASB l


H tc =h b +h bv +H=4.8+0.5+1.5=6.8m
Chn ti mi b gm 2 phu thu kh.
Mi phu c chiu cao 1.5 m.
y phu thu kh c chiu di bng cnh n nguyn: l = W = 4.1
m v chiu rng w = 1.7m
Vy phn din tch b mt khe h gia cc phu thu kh l

47

Akh A Ap
4.1 4.1 2 4.1 1.7
=
100 =
100 = 17%
A
A
4.1 4.1
Trong
A: Din tch b mt b
A kh : Din tch khe h gia cc phu thu kh
A p : Din tch y phu thu kh
Gi tr ny nm trong khong:

Akh
= 15% 20%
A

Gi s mi n nguyn c 8 ng phn phi kh vo, din tch trung bnh


cho mt u phn phi:
an =

4.1m 4.1m
= 2.1m 2 /u. [ 2 5m 2 / au ]
8au

Lng bn nui cy ban u cho vo b (TS = 5%)


Mb =

C ss Vr 30kgSS / m 3 304 m 3
1 tan
=

= 182.4 tan
TS
0.05
1000 kg

Trong
C SS : Hm lng bn trong b, Kg/m 3
V r : Th tch ngn phn ng m3
TS: Hm lng cht rn cho bn nui cy ban u.
Hm lng COD ca nc thi sau khi x l k kh
COD

ra

= (1 ECOD ) CODvao = (1 0.65) 1140 = 399 mgCOD / l

Hm lng BOD 5 ca nc thi sau khi x l k kh:


BOD ra = (1 E BOD ) BODvao = (1 0.65) 789.4 = 197 mgBOD / l
Lng sinh khi hnh thnh mi ngy
Px =

Y [ ( S 0 S ) Q]
1 + kd c

[ (1140 399 ) gCOD / m 1000m / ngay ] = 12.6kg


= 0.04kgVS / kgCOD
[1 + ( 0.015ngay 90) ] 1000 g / kg
3

Px

48

Px = 12.6kgVS / ngay
c : Thi gian lu bn, chn c = 10 ngy
Q : Lu lng trung bnh ngy, Q = 1000 m3/ngym
Y : H s sn lng bn, chn Y = 0.5mgVSS/mgBOD5
La : BOD5 ca nc thi dn vo aeroten, La = 197 mg/L
Lt : BOD5 ha tan ca nc thi ra khi aeroten, Lt = 12.62mg/L
X : Hm lng bn hot tnh trong b aeroten, MLVSS = 3000mg/L
Kd : H s phn hy ni bo, Kd = 0.05 ngy-1
Th tch kh mtan sinh ra mi ngy
VCH = 159 [ ( S 0 S ) Qb 1.42 Px ]
4

VCH = 350.84 (1140 399 ) gCOD / m 3 1000 m 3 / ngay 1


1.42 12.6
1000
4

= 259955 / ngay = 260m 3 / ngay


Trong
VCH : Th tch kh metan sinh ra ktc (t = 0 0 C, p = 1 atm)
4

Q: Lu lng bn vo b k kh, m3/ngy


P x : Sinh khi t bo sinh ra mi ngy, kgVS/ngy
350.84: H s chuyn i l thuyt lng kh metan sn sinh t 1
kg BOD L chuyn hon ton thnh kh metan v CO 2 , lCH 4 /kgBOD L
Lng bn bm ra mi ngy
Qw =

Pw
12.6kgVS / ngay
=
= 0.56m 3 / ngay
3
0.75 C ss 0.75kgVS / kgSS 30 KgSS / m

Lng cht rn t bn d
M ss = Qw C SS = 0.56m 3 / ngay 30kgSS / m 3 = 16.8kgSS / ngay

5.6. B Aerotank.
Nhim v ca b aerotank

49

B aerotank s dng h thng sc kh xo trn hon ton c nhim v ha


tan oxi kt hp vi bn hot tnh gip kh hon ton hm lng BOD,
COD trong nc thi c a t b UASB qua.
Xo trn v khuch tn oxi bng phng php sc kh
Chiu cao lp nc trong b 4.57 7.62m vic khuch tn kh t
hiu qu cao
Chiu cao bo v (t mt nc n nh b) t 0.3 0.6m
Dng chy nt xo trn nh dng chy xon th chiu rng b phi
ph thuc vo chiu cao

H : B = (1.1 2,2):1 (thng chn 1,5 1)

Tm tt cc s liu tnh ton


Hm lng BOD5 trong nc thi cn t sau x l
Lt = 15% x 197 = 29.6 mg/L 30mg/l
Hm lng COD trong nc thi cn t sau x l: 15% x 399 = 59.85
mg/l
Hm lng cht l lng cn t sau x l
Cs = 22% x 138 = 30mg/l < 100mg/

Xc nh t s tun hon

Q,X0

Q+Qth,X
Aeroten

Qra,Xra
Lng
II

Qth,Xth

Qb,Xth

50

Phng trnh cn bng vt cht i vi b aeroten


QX 0 + Qth X th = ( Q + Qth ) X

Vi
Q : Lu lng nc thi
Qth : Lu lng bn hot tnh tun hon
X0 : Nng VSS trong nc thi dn vo Aeroten, mg/L
X : Nng VSS b Aeroten, X = 3000mg/L
Xth : Nng VSS trong bn tun hon, X = 8000mg/L
Do X0 thng rt nh so vi X v Xth, do trong phng trnh cn bng
vt cht trn c th b qua i lng QX0 . Khi phng trnh cn bng
vt cht s c dng :
Qth X th = ( Q + Qth ) X

Chia hai v ca phng trnh ny cho Q v t t s

Qth
= ( : c gi
Q

l t s tun hon), ta c :
X th = X + X
X

3000

Q
Hay = X X = 8000 3000 = 0,6 v = th
Q
th

Thng s tham kho

Cc thng s tnh ton c bn cho aeroten kiu xo trn hon ton c th


tham kho theo trang 144 sch X l nc thi th v cng nghip
tnh ton thit k cng trnh Lm Minh Trit , Nguyn Phc Dn,
Nguyn Thanh Hng)

Thi gian lu bn

T s F/M

c = 5 15 ngy
0.2 0.6 kg/ kg.ngy

Ti trng th tch

0.8 1.92 kgBOD5/m3.ngy

Nng MLSS (Cht rn l lng trong bn lng)


51

2500 4000 mg/L


T s th tch b/lu lng gi W/Q = 3 5h

T s tun hon bn hot tnh

Qth/Q = 0.25 1

iu kin tnh ton qu trnh bn hot tnh xo trn hon ton


MLVSS : MLSS = 0.8

Hm lng bn tun hon Xth = 8000mgVSS/L

Hm lng bn hot tnh trong b aeroten MLVSS = 3000mg/L

Thi gian lu bn trung bnh c = 10ngy

Nc thi ch bin thy sn c cha y lng cht dinh dng


N, P v cc cht vi lng khc
Nc thi sau lng II cha 25mg/L cn sinh hc, trong 65% cn
d phn hy sinh hc

BOD5 : BODL = 0.68

BOD5 : N : P = 100 : 5 : 1

Gi s nguyn t vi lng cng cho sinh trng t bo.


Thng

n v

Dy gi tr

Trung bnh

s
K

gbsCOD/gVSS.ng

2 10

Ks

y
mg/L BOD

25 100

60

mg/L bsCOD
mgVSS/mgBOD

10 60
0,4 0,8

40
0,6

Kd

mgVSS/mgbsCOD
gVSS/gVSS.ngy

0,3 0,6
0,06 0,15

0,4
0,1

(Ngun: Bng 7 9 trang 585 Metcalf & Eddy Wastewater Engineering


Treatment & Reuse McGraw Hill)
Bng 5.8: Thng s ng hc tham kho
52

Chn
Ks = 50mg/L

Y = 0.5mgVSS/mgBOD5Kd = 0.05ngy-1

Kd: H s phn hy ni bo
Y: H s sn lng bn

Cc bc

tnh ton cho aeroten xo trn hon ton

B1) Xc nh BOD5 ca nc thi u vo v u ra aeroten


Lu lng trung bnh ca nc thi trong mt ngy m
Qtbngay = 1000m3/ngym
Hm lng COD trong nc thi dn vo aerotank: 399 mg/l

Hm lng BOD5 trong nc thi dn vo aeroten La = 197mg/L

Hm lng cht l lng trong nc thi dn vo aeroten


C=138 mg/L
Cho rng cht l lng trong nc thi u ra l cht rn sinh hc (bn hot
tnh), trong c 80% l cht d bay hi v 60% l cht c th phn hy
sinh hc.
B2) Tnh BOD5 ha tan trong nc u ra
BOD5 (ra) = BOD5 ha tan trong nc u ra + BOD5 ca cht l lng
trong nc u ra.

Tnh BOD5 ca cht l lng trong nc u ra

+ Phn c kh nng phn hy sinh hc ca cht rn sinh hc u ra l


0.6 x 30mg/L = 18mg/L
+ BODL ca cht rn c kh nng phn hy sinh hc u ra l

53

18mg/L x 1,42 mg O2 tiu th / mg t bo b oxi ha = 25.56mg/L


+ BOD5 ca cht rn l lng u ra = 25.56mg/L x 0.68 = 17.38mg/L
BOD5 ha tan trong nc u ra

BOD5 ht = 30mg/L 17.38mg/L = 12.62mg/L


B3) Xc nh hiu qu x l
Hiu qu x l tnh theo BOD5 ha tan
E ht =

197 mg / l 12.62mg / l
= 96%
197

Hiu qu x l tnh theo tng cng


Etc =

197 mg / l 30mg / l
= 85%
197

B4) Xc nh th tch cng tc ca b aeroten


W=

c Qtbngay Y ( La Lt ) 10 1000 0.5 (197 12.62 )


=
= 204.87 m 3
X (1 + K d c )
3000 (1 + 0.05 10 )

Vi
c : Thi gian lu bn, chn c = 10 ngy
Q : Lu lng trung bnh ngy, Q = 1000 m3/ngym
Y : H s sn lng bn, chn Y = 0.5mgVSS/mgBOD5
La : BOD5 ca nc thi dn vo aeroten, La = 197 mg/L
Lt : BOD5 ha tan ca nc thi ra khi aeroten, Lt = 12.62mg/L
X : Hm lng bn hot tnh trong b aeroten, MLVSS = 3000mg/L
Kd : H s phn hy ni bo, Kd = 0.05 ngy-1
Gi tr c trng cho kch thc b aerotank xo trn hon ton th
hin trong bng sau
Thng s
Chiu cao hu ch (m)
Chiu cao bo v (m)
Khong cch t y n u khuch tn kh
(m)
54

Gi tr
3 - 4.6
0.3 - 0.6
0.45 - 0.75

T s rng:su (W:H)

1:1 - 2.2:1

Bng 5.9: Cc kch thc in hnh cho


b aerotank xo trn hon ton
Chn chiu cao hu ch H = 4.3m
Chn chiu cao bo v hbv = 0.5
Vy chiu cao tng cng l:
Htc = 4.3m + 0.5m = 4.8m
Chn t s B:H = 1.5:1, vy chiu rng b l:
B =1.5 x H = 6.45m.
Chiu di b L:
W
204.87 m 3
L=
=
= 7.4m
B H 6.45m 4.3m
B5) Xc nh lng bn d thi b mi ngy
H s sn lng quan st
Yobs =

Y
0,5
=
= 0.333
1 + K d c 1 + 0,05 10

Lng sinh khi gia tng mi ngy tnh theo MLVSS


PX =

Yobs Qtbngay ( La Lt )
3

10 g / kg

0.333 1000 (197 12.62 )


= 61.4kg / ngay
10 3

Lng sinh khi tng cng tnh theo MLSS


PX ( SS ) =

PX 61.4
=
= 76.75kg / ngay
0 .8 0 .8

Lng bn thi b mi ngy


Lbundu = PX ( SS ) Qtbngay C S = 76.75kg / ngay 1000 m 3 / ngay 30mgSS / l 10 3
= 46.75kg / ngay

Vi
55

PX(SS) : Lng tng sinh khi tng cng tnh theo MLSS
Qngy,TB x CS : Hm lng cht l lng cn li trong dng ra
B6) Xc nh lu lng bn thi
Gi s bn d c x b mi ngy (dn n b cha bn) t ng ng
dn bn tun hon Qra = Q v hm lng cht rn l lng d bay hi VSS
trong bn u ra chim 80% hm lng cht rn l lng VSS. Khi
lng bn d thi b c tnh ton xut pht t cng thc:
WX
Qb X + Qra X ra

c =

Trong :
W: Th tch ca b aerotank, W=204.87 m3
X: Nng VSS trong hn hp bn hot tnh b aerotank,
X=3000mg/l
X ra : Nng VSS trong SS ra khi b lng, X ra =0.8 x 30 =24mg/l
Q b : Lu lng bn thi.
Q = Q tbgay Lu lng nc thi ra khi b lng t 2
T ta tnh c:
Qb =
=

W X c Qra X ra
c X

204.87 3000 10 1000 24


= 12.5m 3 / ngaydem
10 3000

B7) Xc nh lu lng bn tun hon.


T phng trnh cn bng vt cht trong b aerotank, ta xc nh dc t
s tun hon
=

X
3000
Q
=
= 0,6 v = th
X th X 8000 3000
Q

Lu lng bn tun hon


Qth = Q = 0.6 1000 = 600 m 3 / ngay
Vi

56

X : Nng VSS b aeroten, X = 3000mg/L


Xth : Nng VSS trong bn tun hon, Xth = 8000mg/L
B8) Xc nh thi gian lu nc ca b aeroten
W
204.87 m 3
=
=
= 0.20487 ngay = 4.917 h 5h
Q 1000 m 3 / ngay
B9) Xc nh lng khng kh cp cho Aeroten , s lng thit b
khuch tn kh , ng dn kh
Khi lng BODL cn x l mi ngy
tan
G = ( BODL ,vao BODLhoa
) Qngay ,TB
, ra

197 12.62
G =

1000 = 271.14kg / ngay


0.68 0.68
Tnh lng oxi yu cu theo l thuyt
M oxi = G (1.42 PX ) = 271.14 (1.42 61.4 ) = 184 kg / ngay
Cho hiu qu vn chuyn oxi ca thit b thi kh l 8%, h s an
ton khi s dng trong thit k thc t l 2 v khng kh cha 23,2% O 2
theo trng lng v trng lng ring ca khng kh 200C l
0,0118KN/m3 = 1,18kg/m3)
Lng khng kh l thuyt cho qu trnh
M KK =

M oxi
184
=
= 672.12m 3 / ngay
kk %O2 1.18 0.232

Lng khng kh yu cu vi hiu qu vn chuyn E = 8%


M KK 672.12m 3 / ngay
M KK ( E ) =
=
= 8401.5m 3 / ngay = 350.1m 3 / h
E
0.08
= 5835l / phut = 5.835m 3 / phut
Kim tra lng khng kh cn thit cho xo trn hon ton
q=

M KK ( E )
W

5835l / phut
= 28.48l / m 3 / phut
3
204.87 m

Tr s ny nm trong khong cho php q = ( 20 40 ) L / m 3 . ph


Lu lng khng kh thit k chn my thi kh

57

QKK = f M KK ( E ) = 2 5.835m 3 / phut = 11.67 m 3 / phut = 11670l / phut


S lng thit b khuch tn kh

Chn thit b khuch tn kh dng a xp , ng knh 170 mm ,

din tch b mt F=0,0227 m2, cng thi kh 200 L/pht.a = 12


m3/gi.a

su ngp nc ca a phn phi kh ly bng chiu su hu ch

ca b H = 4.3 m (t st y b)
S a cn phn phi trong b
QKK 11670l / phut
=
= 58.35dia
I
200l / ph.dia

n=

thun li cho vic b tr u , ta chn s a n = 54 a m vn

m bo hiu sut x l ca b (t theo chiu di 9 a v chiu rng t 6


a, cc a cch nhau 872mm)
p lc cn thit cho h thng nn kh xc nh theo cng thc
H ct = hd + h c + h f + H = 0.4 + 0.5 + 4.3 = 5.2m

Vi
hd : Tn tht p lc do ma st dc theo chiu di ng dn, m
hc : Tn tht cc b, m
hf : Tn tht qua thit b phn phi, m
H : Chiu su hu ch ca b, chn H = 4.3m
Tn tht hd v hc thng khng vt qu 0,4m ; tn tht hf khng qu 0,5m
Ap lc khng kh
P=

10.33 + H ct
= 1.5034 at
10.33

Theo cng thc 152 gio trnh X l nc thi ca Hong Hu ta


c cng sut ca my nn kh:
Cng sut my nn kh tnh theo cng thc

34400 P 0.29 1 q 34400 1.504 0.29 1 0.528


N=
=
= 27.97 KW
102
102.0.8

58

Vi
q : Lu lng khng kh, q = 0,528m3/s
: Hiu sut my nn kh; = 0,7 0,9 chn = 0,8
Tnh ton ng ng dn kh
ng knh ng phn phi chnh
4 QKK
=
v Khi

D=

4 0.1945
= 0.1285m = 128.5mm
15 3.14

Chn ng st trng km D = 140 mm


Vi
v Khi : Vn tc kh trong ng dn kh chnh , chn v Khi = 15m / s
QKK : Lu lng kh cn cung cp , QKK = 11.67 m 3 / phut = 0.1945 m 3 / s

T ng chnh ta phn lm 9 ng nhnh cung cp kh cho b , mi

nhnh t 6 u phn phi kh


Lu lng kh qua mi ng nhnh ( Khong cch gia cc nhnh 872mm).
Qnhanh =

QKK 11670l / phut


=
= 1297l / phut 0.022 m 3 / s
9
9

ng knh ng nhnh
d=

4 Qnhanh
4 0.022
=
= 0.0432 m = 43.2mm
v Khi
15 3.14

Chn loi ng st trng km d = 45mm


Vi
'
'
v khi
= 15m / s
: Vn tc kh qua mi ng nhnh v khi

Qnhanh : Lu lng kh qua ng nhnh


Qnhanh = 1297l / phut = 1.297 m 3 / phut = 0.022 m 3 / s

Kim tra li vn tc
Vn tc kh trong ng chnh
v Khi =

4 QKK
4 0.1945
=
= 12.67 m / s
D 2 3.14 0.14 2

59

v khi nm trong khong cho php (10 -15 m/s)


Vn tc kh trong ng nhnh
v Khi =

4 Qnhanh
4 0.022
=
= 13.84m / s
2
d
3.14 0.045 2

'
v khi nm trong khong cho php (10 -15 m/s)

Xc nh lng khng kh cp cho Aeroten

Kim tra ti trng th tch LBOD v t s F/M:


Ti trng th tch:
LBOD =

Q * La 1000 m 3 / ngay * 197 g / m 3


=
= 0.962 kgBOD / m 3 .ngay
W
204.87 m 3 * 1000 g / kg

T s F/M:
F /M =

La
=
*X

197 mg / l
= 0.3125 ngay 1 ( 0.2 0.6 ) ngay 1
1
5h *
* 3000 mg / l
24h / ngay

Xc nh kch thc aeroten

Din tch ca aeroten trn mt bng


W 204.87 m 3
F=
=
= 47.64 m 2
H
4.3m

Vi

H : Chiu cao cng tc aeroten, H = 4.3m


Thng s
Chiu cao hu ch, m
Chiu cao bo v, m
Khong cch t y n u khuch tn

Gi tr
3.0 4.6
0.3 0.6
0.45 0.75

kh, m
T s rng : su

1.0 : 1 2.2 : 1

60

(trang 433 - sch X l nc thi th v cng nghip tnh ton thit


k cng trnh Lm Minh Trit , Nguyn Phc Dn, Nguyn Thanh
Hng)
Bng 5.10: Cc kch thc in hnh cho aeroten xo trn hon ton
Chiu di ca aeroten
F 47.64m 2
L= =
= 7.94m
B
6

Vi B : Chiu rng aeroten, chn B = 6m (B : H = 6 : 4.3 = 1.39 : 1)


Chiu cao xy dng ca aeroten
H xd = H + hbv = 4.3 + 0.4 = 4.7 m

Vi

hbv : Chiu cao bo v, chn hbv = 0.4m

Vy kch thc aerotank: Hxd x L x B = 4.7m x 7.94m x 6m


B10) Tnh ton ng dn nc thi , ng dn bn vo b
ng dn nc thi
ng knh ng
4Q
=
v

D=

4 0.0116
= 0.122 m
1 3.14

Chn ng dn nc thi l ng PVC c ng knh 125 mm


Vi
v : Vn tc nc thi chy trong ng , chn v = 1m / s
Q : Lu lng nc thi , Q = 1000 m 3 / ngay 0.0116 m 3 / s

Kim tra li vn tc nc chy trong ng


v=

4Q
4 0.0116
=
= 0.95m / s
D 2 3.14 0.125 2

Tnh ton ng ng dn bn tun hon


ng knh ng dn bn
D' =

4 Qth
=
v'

4 0.0069
= 0.133m
0.5 3.14

Vi

61

Qth : Lu lng bn tun hon ,


Qth = 600 m 3 / ngay 0.0069 m 3 / s
v ' : Vn tc bn trong ng , v ' = 0.5m / s

Chn D ' = 140 mm


Kim tra vn tc bn:

, =

4 Qth 4 0.0069
=
= 0.448m / s
D , 2 0.14 2

Thng s

Gi tr

Chiu di, L

7.94m

Chiu rng, B

6m

Chiu cao cng tc, H

4.3m

Chiu cao bo v, hbv

0.4m

Chiu cao xy dng, Hxd

4.7m

S a phn phi kh

54 a

ng dn kh
ng knh ng chnh

140mm

ng knh ng nhnh
45mm
Thi gian lu nc,

5h

Lu lng bn tun hon, Qth

600m3/ngy

ng dn nc thi , ng knh D

125mm

ng dn bn tun hon, ng knh D

140mm

Bng 5.11: Bng tm tt chi tit aeroten thit k

62

5.7. B lng 2
Nhim v ca b lng 2

Lng ton b lng bn sinh ra trong b lng aerotank, ng thi tun hon
lng bn hot tnh cn thit lng quay tr v b aerotank tip tc
qu trnh phn gii cc hp cht hu c. Sau khi qua b lng 2, nc thi
t tiu chun cho php thi vo ngun thi sau khi qua kh trng.
Hm lng BOD sau khi ra khi b lng t 2
70% x 29.6 = 20.72mg/l < 50mg/l.
Hm lng COD sau khi ra khi b lng t 2
70% x 58.85 = 41.895mg/l < 100mg/l.
Hm lng SS sau khi ra khi b lng 2
50% x 96.6 = 48.3 mg/l < 100mg/l.
Cc thng s thit k c trng cho b lng t 2 th hin trong
bng:
Loi x l

Ti

trng

mt Ti trng bn

(m3/m2ngy)
Trung bnh Ln nht

Chiu su

Bn hot tnh 16-32


Bn hot tnh 16-32

40-48
40-48

(kg/m2ngy)
tng cng
Trung
Ln nht
(m)
bnh
3.9-5.8
9.7
3.7-6
4.9-6.8
9.7
3.7-6

oxygen
Aerotank tng 8-16

24-32

0.98-4.9

6.8

3.7-6

cng
Lc sinh hc
X l BOD
Nitrat ha

40-48
40-48
32-40

2.9-4.9
3.9-5.8
2.9-4.9

7.8
9.7
7.8

3-4.5
3-4.5
3-4.5

16-24
16-32
16-24

Bng 5.11: Thng s thit k b lng t 2


Din tch mt thong ca b lng t 2 trn mt bng ng vi lu lng
trung bnh tnh theo cng thc

63

Chn ti trng b mt thch hp cho bn hot tnh ny l 25m3/m2.ngy


A1 =

Q tbngay
LA

1000
= 40(m 2 )
25

Din tch mt thong ca b trn b mt ng vi lu lng ln nht tnh


theo cng thc
A2 =

Q max ngay
LA

1700
= 45(m 2 )
38

Trong :
Qmax ngay lu lng trung bnh ngy (m3/ngy)
LA : ti trng b mt ln nht (m3/m2.ngy)
Vy din tch b mt b lng tnh theo ti trng bn l

A3 =

(Q max ngay +Qthr ) S


LS

(70.8 + 25) 3000


= 30( m 2 )
9.7 1000

Trong
Qmax ngay lu lng trung bnh ngy (m3/ngy)
LS: ti trng bn (kgSS/m2.ngy)
Vy din tch b mt theo ti trng bn l din tch tnh ton.
Din tch b mt ng trung tm:

d tt2 0.2 2 D 2
f =
=
= 0.04 A1 = 0.04 45 1.8(m 2 )
4
4
ng knh b lng
D=

4
4
( A1 + f ) =
(45 + 1.8) = 7.72(m)

ng knh ng trung tm
d = 16% D = 0.16 7.72 = 1.24(m)

Chn chiu su hu ch b lng H = 3.5m


Chiu cao lp bn lng hb =1.5m
Chiu cao an ton hbv = 0.3m

64

Vy chiu cao tng cng b lng t2


Htc = hL + hb + hbv = 3.5m + 1.5m + 0.3m = 5.3m
Chiu cao ng trung tm
h = 60% H = 0.6 * 3.5m = 2.1m

Vy kch thc b lng 2: DxH = 7.72 x 5.3 (m)

Kim tra li thi gian lu nc b lng 2


Th tch phn lng
VL =

2
( D d 2 ) * H = ( 7.72 2 1.32 ) m 2 * 3.5m = 160m 3
4
4

Thi gian lu nc
V
160 m 3
t=
=
= 2.4h
Qr + Q ( 25 + 41.6 ) m 3 / h
Th tch phn cha bn
Vb = AS hb = 45m 2 1.5m = 67.5m 3
Thi gian lu tr bn trong b
tb =

Vb
79.93m 3
=
2.64h
Qb + Qth 12.5m 3 / ngay
+ 25
24h / ngay

Tnh ton mng trn


Chiu di mng trn: L = 0.8 x 7.72m = 6.2 m
Ti trng trn mt mp di mng trn
(1000 m 3 / ngay + 600 m 3 / ngay ) (1ngay / 86400 s ) 1000l / m 3
q=
6.51
3
= 2.986l / s.m = 0.002986 m / s.m

65

Chn tm x khe hnh ch V, gc y 90o iu chnh cao mp mng.


Chiu cao hnh ch V l 5 cm, y ch V l 10 cm, khong cch gia cc
nh l 20 cm.
Chiu cao mc nc h trong khe ch V
qo=

q
= 1,4 h5/2
5

0.002986
h=

5 1.4

2/5

= 0.0448m = 44.8mm

Gi tr ny nh hn tiu chun gii hn cho php (h = 5cm).


Ti b lng 2 c t 2 bm bm bn tun hon v b Aerotank
v v b nn bn
Cng sut ca my bm
N=

.g .H .Q
1000

Trong

Q:lu lng nc thi trung bnh trong ngy,


m3/ngym

H:ct p ca bm, mH2O

: khi lng ring ca cht lng

o Nc:
o Bn:

= 1000kg/m3

= 1006 kg/m3

g: gia tc trng trng, g = 9,81 m/s2


: hiu sut ca bm, = 0,730,9
chn = 0,8

Ct p ton phn ca my bm bn tun hon v b Aerotank

H = 1.8m +4.7m = 6.5m


66

Cng sut ca my bm bn tun hon:


N=

HQg 6.5 600 1006 9.81


=
= 0.557 Kw
1000
1000 0.8 86400

Cng sut thc t ca bm


N = 1.5 0.557 = 0.84kw
Ct p ton phn ca my bm bn d v b nn bn

H = 1.8m + 3.3m = 5.1m


Cng sut ca my bm bn d
N=

HQg 6.5 12.5 1006 9.81


=
= 0.0091Kw
1000
1000 0.8 86400

Cng sut thc t ca bm


N = 1.5 0.0091 = 0.0136 kw

5.8. B kh trng.

Nhim v ca b kh trng

Nc thi sau khi qua qua trnh x l sinh hc, cn mang theo mt lng
vi khun theo nc thi ra ngoi. Do b kh trng c nhim v tiu dit
lng vi khun trc khi a nc ra ngun tip nhn.
Nc thi
Liu lng, mg/l
Nc thi sinh hot lng s 5 10
b
Nc thi kt ta bng ho cht 3 10
Nc sau x l b lc sinh hc

3 10

Nc sau x l bn hot tnh

28

Nc thi sau lc ct

15

(Ngun: trang 467, X l nc thi cng nghip v th,


Lm Minh Trit)
Bng 5.12: Liu lng chlorine cho kh trng
Thng s

Gi tr
67

Tc dng chy, m/pht

2 4,5

Thi gian tip xc, pht

15 30

T s di / rng, L/W

10 : 1

(Ngun: trang 468, X l nc thi cng nghip v th,


Lm Minh Trit)
Bng 5.13: Cc thng s cho b tip xc chlorine
Chn thi gian lu nc = 15 pht
3
Liu lng clo dng l c = 3 g m

Th tch b l :
TB
V = Qngy
= 41.6

15
= 10.4( m 3 )
60

Chn vn tc chy trong b l v = 2,5( m pht )


Tit din ngang ca b tip xc l :
A=

Q
41.6
=
= 0,28( m 2 )
v 2,5 60

Gi s chiu su tip xc ca b l H = 0,6m , th chiu rng ca b l


W=

A 0,28
=
= 0,47( m )
H
0,6

Chiu di tng cng ca b


L=

V
10.4
=
= 36,88( m )
HW 0,6 0,47

Vy ta chn W x L = 0,47 m x 36,88 m


Kim tra t s L/W: L/W = 36,88 : 0,47 = 78,46 > 10, do chn kch
thc ca b t yu cu.
gim chiu di xy dng, chia b lm 5 ngn chy theo hng ziczac,
mi ngn 0,3m vy chiu di b c tnh
L=

V
10,4
=
= 7,4( m )
H ( 5W ) 0,6 5 0,47
68

Vy kch thc b tip xc L W H = 7,4 0,47 0,6


Lng chlorine tiu th trong mt ngy m l
M = Q c = 1000 3 = 3000( g / ngay.dem ) = 3kg / ngay.dem

5.9 B nn bn trng lc
Nhim v ca b nn bn trng lc
Bn hot tnh d ngn lng c m cao, cn phi t n d m
thch hp xy dng trc khi cho qua cc cng trnh s l tip theo hoc
thi ra mi trng lm phn bn (nu lng cn ti t).
Dng cha lng bn d t b lng 1, b UASB, v b lng 2.
3
Lu lng bn thu t b lng 1: Qtuoi = 1.747 m / ngay

Lng bn ti l: M tuoi = 92kgSS / ngay


Lu lng bn thi ra b UASB c bm vo b cha bn

l: QW = 0.56m 3 / ngay
Lng bn thi ra khi b UASB
M ss = 12.6 KgSS / ngay
Lu lng bn thi b b lng 2 c a vo b cha bn
3
vi Qb = 12.5m / ngy

Lng bn thi b trong b lng 2


M b = Qb X th = 12.5 8 = 100kgSS / ngay
Vi X th =8000mg/l:Nng VSS trong bn thi.
Tng lng bn
M = 92+12.6+100 = 204.6 kgSS/m3
Vy tng lu lng bn vo trong b cha bn l
Qnen = 1.747 + 0.56 + 12.5 = 14.807m3/ngy.
69

Din tch b nn bn
A=

M 204.6
=
= 3.41m 2
a
60

Vi a: ti trng ring ca hn hp bn b lng 1 v bn hot tnh


a = (50-70)kgSS/m2.ngy. Chn a = 60kgSS/m2.ngy
Din tch b mt ng trung tm

d tt2 0.2 2 D 2
f =
=
= 0.04 A = 0.04 3.14 = 0.1364 m 2
4
4
ng knh ca b nn bn
D=

4 (A + f )
=

4 (3.41 + 0.1364)
= 2.125m

ng knh ng trung tm
d = 16%D=0.16 x 2.125 = 0.34 m
Chn chiu cao vng nc trong v vng vo l h= 2m
Chn chiu cao vng nn bn l hnn= 1m
Chn chiu cao bo v l hbv= 0.3m
Vy chiu cao b nn bn: H= 3.3m
Chiu cao ng trung tm
h = 60%H = 0.6 x 3.3 = 2 m
Kch thc b nn bn: DxH= 2.125 x 3.3 m
Thi gian lu nc
t=

V A H 3.41 3.3
=
=
= 0.7ngay
Q
Q
14.807

Ti b nn bn c t 1 bm bm bn v sn phi ct
H = 4.3 + 0.3 = 4.6 m
Cng sut ca my bm bn
N=

HQg 4.6 14.807 1006 9.81


=
= 0.0097 Kw
1000
1000 0.8 86400

Cng sut thc t ca bm

70

N tt = N 1.5 = 0.0097 1.5 = 0.015kw


= 0.2 HP

5.10 My p bn dy ai
Nhim v ca my p bn dy ai
Gim m, th tch ti a ca bn cn trc khi thi ra mi trng. Cn
thi b c th c s dng lm phn bn hoc thi b hp v sinh.
Lng bn cn p mi ngy
M = 96% x 204.6 = 196.42 kgSS/ngay
Nng bn sau khi p : 18%
Khi lng bn sau p
196.42 18
= 35.36( Kg / ngay )
100
S gi hot ng : 8h/ngy
Ti trng bn tnh trn 1m chiu rng bng p l 90kg/m.h
Chiu rng bng p
196.42
= 0.273( m )
8 90
Chn 1 thit b lc p dy ai b rng bng l 0,5m

71

PHN 6: TNH KINH T


6.1. Chi ph u t xy dng
STT

Tn
trnh

S
Lng
(ci)

n
gi(ng
VN)

Thnh
tin(ng
VN)

2.5
3.8
52
38.3
20.12

1
2
1
1
1
5

8,000,000
1,500,000
1,500,000
1,500,000
1,500,000
1,500,000

8,000,000
7,500,000
5,700,000
78,000,000
57,450,000
150,900,000

35.65
56.3
12.3
3.68
1

1
1
1
1
1

1,500,000
1,500,000
1,500,000
1,500,000
444 000 000

53,475,000
84,450,000
18,450,000
5,520,000
444 000 000

50 000 000

50 000 000
962 445 000

cng Th
Tch(m3)

Song Chn
1
rc
2
B lng ct
3
Sn phi ct
4
B iu ha
5
B lng 1
6
B UASB
B
7
AEROTANK
8
B lng 2
9
B nn bn
10
B kh trng
11
My p bn
Cc
cng
trnh
km
theo(ng
12
lng)
Tng cng

Bng 6.1: Gi vt liu xy dng

72

Tn vt t

Chi tit

S lng

n gi

Thnh tin

12 000 000

24 000 000

9 000 000

18 000 000

8 000 000

16 000 000

8 000 000

16 000 000

11 000 000

22 000 000

200 000 000

200 000 000

50 000 000

50 000 000

50 000 000

100 000 000

54

880 000

47 520 000

Bm
H = 4.8m
Bm Nc t Q

41.16

b iu ha m3/h
sang lng 1

N = 1.02 kw

Bm bn

= 1.37 HP
H = 6.5 m

Tun hon v Q = 25m3/h


aerotank

ti N = 0.84kw

b lng 2

=1.13 HP
H =5.1m

Bm bn v Q=0.52m3/h
b nn bn

Bm bn ti
b nn bn
Bm

inh

lng
ng

N=0.0136kw
=0.02HP
H = 4.6m
Q=0,62m3
N=0.02HP

ng(ng dn
bn, ng dn
nc

thi,

ng dn kh)
H
thng
in ng lc
v chiu sng
My thi kh
a thi kh

73

Tn vt t

Chi tit

S lng

n gi

Tng cng

Thnh tin
493 520 000

Bng 6.2: Gi trang thit b ph


Tng tin u t
(962 445 000+ 493 520 000) x 1.3 = 1 892 754 500 (VN ng)

6.2. Chi ph vn hnh trm


6.2.1. Lng ho cht s dng
Tn

ho Liu

Nng

cht

lng

NaOCl

10 mg/l

10%

S dng

n gi

Thnh tin

4kg/ngy

2.300 /kg 9.200

Bng 6.3: Lng ha cht cn dng


Chi ph ho cht cho 1m3 nc: 9.200 1000 m3 = 9 ng/m3

6.2.2. Chi ph in
c tnh : 600kW/ngy
in nng tiu th tnh cho 1m3 nc
600 kw/ngy 1000 m3 = 0,60 kw/m3
Gi cung cp in cng nghip: 980 ng/kw
Chi ph in tnh cho 1 m3 :
980 ng/kw 0,6 kw/m3 = 588 ng/m3.

6.2.3. Chi ph nhn cng


S lng nhn vin : 4 ngi
Mc lng thng: 2.500.000 ng/ngi.thng
Chi ph tng cng : 4 ngi 2.500.000 ng/thng = 10.000.000
ng/thng
Chi ph nhn cng tnh cho 1m3 nc
74

10.000.000 / 30 x 1000 = 333 ng/m3

6.2.4. Chi ph vn hnh trm x l


Phn loi chi ph

Chi ph n v, ng/m3

Chi ph ho cht

Chi ph in

588

Chi ph lng

333

Cng

930
Bng 6.4. Bng phn tch chi ph

6.3.

Gi thnh x l mt m3 nc thi

Tng chi ph u t: S = 1 892 754 500 (VNng)


Gi thnh mt m3 nc thi
930 ng/m3 + 1 892 754 500 /(Q x 365 x 10) = 1 500 000 (VN ng)
vi nin hn s dng : 10 nm
Vy chi ph 1m3 nc thi l 1.500 ng /m3

75

PHN 7: KT LUN

Tm li vic x l nhim l v cng cp bch v c ngha quan


trng trong s pht trin bn vng ca cc ngnh sn xut ni chung, v
ca ngnh ch bin thy hi sn ni ring. Trn c s nghin cu v thnh
phn v tnh cht ca nc thi thy hi sn nhm chng ti ting hnh
a ra quy trnh cng ngh x l nh trn. V hiu qu x l t c l
sau khi x l nc thi t tiu chun loi B ca nc thi cng nghip
(TCVN 5945-2005) v iu kin thi ra ngoi mi trng.
Chi ph cho vic x l 1m3 nc thi l 1.500 ng. V vy, vic xy
dng trm x l nc thi l kh thi v chp nhn c.

76

TI LIU THAM KHO


1. Lm Minh Trit, X l nc thi th v cng nghip tnh ton
thit k cng trnh, NXB HQG, 2006.
2. Trnh Xun Lai, Nguyn Trng Dng, X l nc thi cng

nghip, NXB Xy Dng H Ni, 2005.


3. Trnh Xun Lai, Tnh ton thit k cc cng trnh x l nc thi,

NXB Xy Dng.
4. Nguyn Xun Hon, L Th Ngc Diu, Ti liu x l nc cp

5. Tiu Chun xy dng TCXD 51 84.


6. Mt s n x l nc thi ca Nguyn Thi Anh, Trn Thanh T,
L Hng Qun.

77