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# INDUSTRIAL INSTRUMENTATION

## TWO MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS for INDUSTRIAL INSTRUMENTATION(EI 1301)

Prepared by D.Jackson 1. What is air core inductance ? The inductance that would be measured if the core had unity permeability and the flux distribution remained unaltered. (A measure of the inductance of a coil without a core). 2. What do you mean by Balance? A weighing machine. The terms scale and balance are often used interchangeably. a balance was a device that determined mass by balancing an unknown mass against a known mass as with a 2 pan assay balance. 3. Define Viscosity. It is a measure of fluidity of the system. Many fluids undergo continuous deformation with the application of shearing stress. 4. Define Newtonian fluids If the force flow relation is linear then the fluid is Newtonian . 5. Define Non Newtonian fluids If the force flow relation is non linear then the fluid is Newtonian . 6. Define Kinematic Viscosity. Ratio of absolute viscosity to the density of the fluid. V= cm2 / sec 7. Define Specific Viscosity. Ratio of absolute viscosity of the fluid to the absolute viscosity of a standard fluid at the same temperature. s = / h 8. Define Relative Viscosity. Ratio of absolute viscosity of the fluid at a given temperature to the absolute viscosity of a standard fluid at 20c. 9. Define Viscosity index It is an empirical number that indicates the effect of change of temperature on viscosity if a fluid. 10.Define fluidity. It is the reciprocal of viscosity. It is unit is 1/ poise. 11.Define Humidity. It is basically moisture content in air or it is the quantity of water vapour retained by gas. 12.Define Absolute Humidity. Weight of water vapour in unit wait of gas. 1. H=Wr / Wg 13.Define Specific Humidity. It is weight of vapors in unit weight of mixture.
D.JACKSON ,LECT,NICE,KUMARACOIL

INDUSTRIAL INSTRUMENTATION

14.Define Relative Humidity. This is the ratio of moisture content of gas to maximum moisture content of the gas at that temperature. 15.Define various units of Humidity. Vppm = parts per million / volume. G/ kg = weight concentration Relative humidity = in % Dew point in C. 16.Define Hygrometer. Used to measure the moisture content in air. It also used to measure humidity. 17.What is the basic principle of Hygrometer. It consist of mechanical device measuring the dimension change of humidity sensitive materials like animal hair, animal membrane , paper etc. 18.Define Moisture. Defined as the amount of water absorbed by solids or liquids. 19. What are the different types of viscometer? Say bolt viscometer Rotameter type Consistency meters. 20. What is Psychrometer? Psychrometer is a device that uses the bulb thermometers to measure humidity. It is also used in air conditioning systems for maintaining humidity. 21. What are the different types of hygrometer? Hair hygrometers Wire electrode hygrometers Electrolysis type hygrometers Resistive type Capacitive type Microwave reflector 22. Explain the principle of saybolt viscometer. As the viscosity of the fluid varies , the flow rate and hence time taken to drain the fluid through the capillary tube varies. The time indicates the viscosity and is denoted by say bolt number. 23.What is meant by consistency? General term for viscosity and more often used in connection with Non-Newtonian fluids. 24.What is Celsius or Centigrade? A temperature scale defined by 0C at the ice point and 100C at the boiling point of water at sea level. 25.Define Absolute Zero Temperature at which thermal energy is at a minimum. Defined as 0 Kelvin, calculated to be 273.15C or 459.67F.
D.JACKSON ,LECT,NICE,KUMARACOIL

INDUSTRIAL INSTRUMENTATION

26.What is Ambient Temperature? The average or mean temperature of the surrounding air which comes in contact with the equipment and instruments under test. 27.Define Boiling Point The temperature at which a substance in the liquid phase transforms to the gaseous phase; commonly refers to the boiling point of water which is 100C . 28.What is Calorie? The quantity of thermal energy required to raise one gram of water 1C at 15C. 29.Define Exothermic process? A process is said to be exothermic process when it releases heat. 30.What is Dissipation Constant? The ratio for a thermistor which relates a change in internal power dissipation to a resultant change of body temperature. 31.What is Fahrenheit? A temperature scale defined by 32 at the ice point and 212 at the boiling point of water at sea level. 32.Define Freezing Point The temperature at which a substance goes from the liquid phase to the solid phase. 33.What is Kelvin? Kelvin is the unit of absolute or thermodynamic temperature scale based upon the Celsius scale with 100 units between the ice point and boiling point of water. 0C = 273.15K. Symbol K. 34.What is Joule? The basic unit of thermal energy. 35.Define Heat Heat is thermal energy. Heat is expressed in units of calories or BTUs. 36.What is Heat Sink? A body which can absorb thermal energy.Practicaly, A finned piece of metal used to dissipate the heat of solid state components mounted on it. 37.What is Heat Transfer The process of thermal energy flowing from a body of high energy to a body of low energy. Transfer by Means of :conduction; the two bodies contact. Convection; a form of conduction where the two bodies in contact are of different phases, i.e. solid and gas. Radiation: all bodies emit infrared radiation. 38.What is Latent Heat? The amount of heat needed to convert a pound of boiling water to a pound of steam. 39.State Limits of Error A tolerance band for the thermal electric response of thermocouple wire expressed in degrees or percentage defined by ANSI specification MC-96.1 (1975). 40.What is Loop Resistance? The total resistance of a thermocouple circuit caused by the resistance of thermocouple wire.Usually used in reference to analog pyrometers which have typical loop resistance requirements of 10 ohms.
D.JACKSON ,LECT,NICE,KUMARACOIL

INDUSTRIAL INSTRUMENTATION

41.What is Maximum Operating Temperature? The maximum temperature at which an instrument can be safely operated. 42.What is Mean Temperature? The average of the maximum and minimum temperature of a process equilibrium. 43.Define Melting Point The temperature at which a substance transforms from a solid phase to a liquid phase. 44.What is Negative Temperature Coefficient? A decrease in resistance with an increase in temperature. 45.Define Resistance Temperature Characteristic A relationship between a thermistors resistance and the temperature. 46.What is Specific Heat? The ratio of thermal energy required to raise the temperature of a body 1 to the thermal energy required to raise an equal mass of water 1. 47.What is RTD? Resistance temperature detector. 48.What is Thermal Coefficient of Resistance? The change in resistance of a semiconductor per unit change in temperature over a specific range of temperature. 49.What is Thermal Conductivity? The ability of a material to conduct heat in the form of thermal energy. 50.What is a Thermistor? A temperature-sensing element composed of sintered semiconductor material which exhibits a large change in resistance proportional to a small change in temperature. Thermistors usually have negative temperature coefficients. 51.What is a Thermocouple? The junction of two dissimilar metals which has a voltage output proportional to the difference in temperature between the hot junction and the lead wires (cold junction) 52.What is Zero Power Resistance? The resistance of a thermistor or RTD element with no power being dissipated. 53.what is Pressure? Pressure is the amount of force applied to a unit area; Force divided by Area = Pressure; the SI unit for pressure is the Pascal (Pa) which is derived from Kilogram per Metre Squared (kg/m2). 54.what isAbsolute Pressure? Absolute Pressure is one which is measured relative to a perfect vacuum. 55.define Barometric Pressure Barometric Pressure or Atmospheric Pressure is the total outside air pressure measured with reference to absolute vacuum. The pressure varies depending on geographical location, altitude and local weather conditions.

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INDUSTRIAL INSTRUMENTATION

56.what is Bar? Bar is a widely used metric unit of measure for pressure and 1 bar converts precisely to 100000 Pascals. 57.what is Bonded Foil Strain Gauges ? Bonded Foil Strain Gauges are metal based foil elements that are incorporated into a flexible electrically insulating material which can then be bonded to a diaphragm with adhesives. As pressure is applied to the diaphragm the strain gauge will deform and its resistance will change. 58.what is Burst Pressure is a design safety limit which should not be exceeded. If this pressure is exceeded it may lead to mechanical breach and permanent loss of pressure containment. 59.what is Ceramic Pressure Sensors typically use diaphragms made from Alumina (Al2O3) with a screen printed thick film strain gauge circuit. Ceramic diaphragms are very inert and provide a high level of protection from aggressive chemicals. 60.Compound Pressure Ranges are ones that combine positive and negative pressure ranges into one pressure measurement device. 61.what is Differential Pressure is the difference between two separate pressure points. 62.Digital Compensation is the process of collecting many measured points at different pressures and temperatures and using this data to correct the output of a pressure transducer so that the pressure accuracy and thermal errors can be improved beyond what is practically achieved with analogue compensation. 63.Full Range Output or FRO is the maximum electrical output signal for an analogue output pressure sensor. 64.Full Scale Output or FSO is the maximum electrical output signal for an analogue output pressure sensor. 65.Gauge Reference Pressure is a pressure measured relative to atmospheric or barometric pressure. 66.Hydrostatic Pressure is what is exerted by a liquid when it is at rest. The height of a liquid column of uniform density is directly proportional to the hydrostatic pressure. 67.what is Inch of Water Gauge or Inches of Water Column is an english and american unit for measuring liquid level. 1 inch of water column at 4 degrees celsius equals 249.089 Pascals.

D.JACKSON ,LECT,NICE,KUMARACOIL

INDUSTRIAL INSTRUMENTATION

68.what is Long Term Stability or Long Term Drift is the amount of change of a measured reading at exactly the same pressure and ambient conditions over a given period of time which is typically quoted as an annual figure. 69.Measurement Precision is used to describe how close together a set of results are and it means the same as non-linearity. 70.what is Negative Gauge Pressure or Suction Pressure is the difference in pressure between any vacuum pressure and atmospheric pressure. 71.what is Non-Linearity is how much a set of recorded pressures deviate from the best straight line and it is expressed as a percentage of full scale. 72.what is Overpressure or Proof Pressure is the maximum pressure that can be applied to a pressure instrument without significantly affecting its reading accuracy. Some manufacturers will state a maximum calibration shift following an over-pressure condition where others will state that the specification is unaffected. 73.what is Pressure Accuracy defines the limit that any pressure measurement reading will deviate from the ideal point. 74.what is Pressure Transducer is any device that can convert a change in pressure into a varying electrical signal. 75.Pressure Transmitter is a pressure transducer which has been combined with an amplification circuit to allow the electrical signal to be sent over longer distances without degradation. 76.Primary Pressure Standard are instruments that can measure pressure very accurately by deriving a pressure reading from the fundamental components of mass, acceleration and area. 77.what is PSI, Pounds per Square Inch or Pound Force per Square Inch is a widely used British and American unit of measure for pressure.1psi converts to 6,894.76 Pascals. 78.what is Reference Pressure is the pressure present on the reverse or negative side of a sensing diaphragm. For example the pressure reading will be zero when the total pressure measured on the positive side of the diaphragm equals the reference pressure. 79.what is Secondary Pressure Standards are instruments that cannot be used to measure Force and Area directly to derive a measurement of pressure but are still used as a traceable standard for calibrating other pressure instruments, e.g. an Electronic Pressure Calibrator that uses a Pressure Transducer inside would be classed as a Secondary Pressure Standard.

D.JACKSON ,LECT,NICE,KUMARACOIL

INDUSTRIAL INSTRUMENTATION

80.what is Semiconductor Strain Gauges? These are typically made from Silicon and have very high gauge factors compared to metal foil strain gauges. Ions are implanted into the n type Silicon substrate to create p type regions which are significantly more conductive than the surrounding n type Silicon. A p-n junction,created which provides electrical isolation for p-type region when reverse voltage is applied, thus creating isolated resistive region that will change with applied stress. 81. Sealed Gauge Reference Pressure is a pressure measured relative to an atmospheric or barometric pressure which has been sealed in a fixed closed volume.

82.Span Output is the difference between the minimum and maximum output signals of a pressure sensor. 83.Span Offset is the amount of deviation in maximum span output signal of a pressure sensor from the ideal value at full scale pressure. The span offset is normally expressed as percentage of full scale pressure or electrical units, e.g. 0.5% FS or 3mV. 84.what is Standard Atmosphere is a universally adopted standardized pressure reading for barometric pressure at sea level and equals precisely 1013.25mb absolute. Standard atmosphere is a particularly useful datum point in altitude measurement since all altimeters are calibrated to this pressure. 85.Static Line Pressure is the total pressure present at a particular point along a pressurized pipe. It is often quoted on the specifications for differential pressure sensors as an indicator of the maximum pressure that can be applied to both the high and the low side pressure ports at the same time. This should not be confused with the over-pressure limit which is related to the differential pressure range rather than the static line pressure. 86.what is Suction Pressure or Negative Gauge Pressure is the difference in pressure between any vacuum pressure and atmospheric pressure. 87.Traceable Pressure Calibration means that the equipment which was used to calibrate a pressure measuring device has been regularly calibrated by another more accurate instrument for which its own calibration can be traced back either indirectly or directly to a National Standards Laboratory e.g. National Physical Laboratory in the UK. 88.Transducer is a device that converts a non-electrical change into an electrical change. 89.Vented Gauge Reference Pressure or VG is a pressure measured relative to "actual" atmospheric or barometric pressure.

D.JACKSON ,LECT,NICE,KUMARACOIL

INDUSTRIAL INSTRUMENTATION

90.Wheatstone Bridge Strain Gauge circuits are used extensively inside pressure transducers to convert mechanical stress into an electrical output signal. 91.Zero Offset is the deviation in output or reading from the ideal point at zero pressure. 92.Zero Tare is the operation of removing any Zero Offset to obtain the optimum measurement at zero pressure. 93.Factory calibration: The tuning or altering of a control device by the manufacturer to bring it into specification 94.Range: The limits within which a device or circuit operates or the distance over which a transmitter operates reliably. 95.pH: An indication of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. Units range from 0 (most acidic), to 7 (neutral), to 14 (most alkaline). 96.Linearity: The degree to which performance or response approaches the condition of being linear. Expressed in percent. 97.Impedance: The opposition in an electric circuit to the flow of an alternating current. It consists of ohmic resistance, inductive reactance, and capacitive reactance. 98.what is Inch of Mercury? It is a British and American unit of measure for pressure. 1 inch of Mercury at 0 degrees Celsius (32 deg F) equals 3386.39 Pascals.

D.JACKSON ,LECT,NICE,KUMARACOIL