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CHAPTER ONE

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INTRODUCTIONS There is no any organization that does not require human resources management for its proper functioning most

especially the public sector. Human resources consist of all employees, both workers and management staff of an organization. The term human resources management covers all activities involving management and the personnel

department that deals with matters affecting employees. These include planning for recruitment, staffing, training and

development, rewarding, utilizing and maintaining human resources in an organization. In all organization, whether public or private, personnel department performs the above functions to some degree and also requires the assistance and advice of staff specialists with highly developed skills in the human resources field. Human resources management today is not the same as it was in 1990s nor will it be the same in the future as long as knowledge and philosophy, values and technology continue to change. Several factors interrelate in the development of human resources management.
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The growth in organizations size and complexity from the early 20th century to the present has changed the environment and importance of personnel work. In the beginning the personnel staff simply processed people for hiring and maintained simple record of each employee, but nowadays, human resources managers participate in strategic planning. The present concept of human resources management is that it plays a role in the organizations manpower policy and planning. The attraction, recruitment and selection of people matched to design jobs, development of human resources, development of appraisal and reward system and negotiating reporting and controlling human resources problems.

Environmental changes continue to affect the scope and role of human resources management in organization today. 1:1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Over the last 60 years or so, the term Personnel Management has be used to describe that function of management that deals with the recruitment, employment, training, redeployment, safety and departure of employees. The former institute of personnel and development described the personnel function as follows.

It s that part of management which is concerned with people at work and with their relationships within an enterprise. Personnel management aims to achieve both efficiency and justice. It seeks to bring together and develop into an effective organization the men and women who make up the enterprise, enabling each to make his own best contribution to its success. It seeks to provide fair terms and conditions of employment and satisfying work for those employed (Institute of Personnel Management London 1963). In the 1970s and 80s personnel managers were much more concerned with the smooth-running of operations than with making proposals for changes. During those same decades the concept of organization development (OD) had emerged. OD is the name given to a collection of techniques aimed at improving organizational effectiveness by stimulating collaborative efforts at both strategic and operational levels, thus minimizing conflict and reducing inflexibility in the labour force. The introduction of OD was aimed at change, albeit as envisaged by the top management sought and planned on a mutual rather than arbitrary basis. However, such theoretical concepts can only work if they are introduced in the right organizational climate. At that time most organizations, whether
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in the public or private sector, had to negotiate change with the Trade Unions, and this had the effect of putting personnel managers on the defensive. The work environment today as change from the confrontational mixture of mid-century employee relations, with its emphasis on highly regulated personnel procedures, to collaborative approaches based on small work-teams dedicated to customer satisfaction, where workplace learning is paramount and the need for centralized procedures less relevant. At the same time the external environment for all of private sector, and parts of the public sector, has became much more competitive. Not only are customers and their requirements important, but so too are the actions of competitors. It is in this new environment that the term Human Resources Management sits more comfortably for many people than Personnel Management. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Historically, the role of human resources management in the performance and productivity of public organizations has not been thought provoking in the past as it is today. This is because many journals on human resources management tend towards finding solutions to human resources management

problems

than

the

causes

of

the

problems

in

most

organizations. These problems can seem in form of the following questions.


i. How do public organizations attract qualified and talented people

into their organization and which selection method do they use in selecting those who applied for job?
ii. Is personnel training in public organizations based on laid down

policies and procedures of human resources management?


iii. Is policies and methods of human resources management on

planning, and performance appraisal being strictly observed in public organization?


iv. How effective do public organizations coordinate, direct and

utilize human resources in order to obtain effective and efficient performance of the various tasks so as to achieve organizational goals and objective? v. How do public organizations provide compensation packages to their employees? 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY Human resources management is the process of

accomplishing organizational objectives by acquiring, retaining, terminating, developing and properly using the human

resources in an organization (Ivan Erich et al 1994).


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The objectives of this study therefore are: i. To examine and come out with the best solution on how public organizations can attract qualified and talented people into their organizations and the best selection method to be used during selecting those who applied for jobs.
ii. To find the best way of training personnel in accordance with the

organizational laid down polices and procedures so as to improve performance of the employees. iii. To come out with the solution as to how human resources management planning, and performance appraisal can be strictly observed in public organizations. iv. To examine and come out with an effective way of coordinating, directing and utilizing human resources so as to obtain effective and efficient performance of the various tasks in order to achieve organizational goals and objectives.
v. To find out how best employees can be compensated. That is

through their salaries and some incentives while still in the service and through their pension schemes when retired from the service.
vi. To attempt in making some recommendations which may assist

in finding solutions to the problems of human resources management.


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RESEARCH QUESTIONS i. How do public organization attract qualified and talented applicant? ii. What method does public organization used for selecting qualified applicant? iii. How does personnel training is conducted in public

organization? iv. To what extend does public organization plan and doordinate human resources for effective and efficient performance? v. Is the compensation package of the organization adequate? vi. What do you think could be done to have an effective and efficient human resources management in the public sector? 1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The problem in Nigeria before now had been the non availability of qualified management personnel but today however emphasis has been shifted from non availability to the question of how well developed and specialized are the managers. In this regards, the study will be of relevance to the management of the study area. It will serve as a source to other researchers who are interested in undertaking similar study. Policy makers will find

the document relevant in the process of formulating policies regarding human resource management in public sector. It will also add to the existing knowledge in the subject matter. 1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY Since this is an exploratory work. We shall limit this study to Maiha local government, being the case study of this research. This work is by no means exhaustive therefore, the researcher worked with some constraints worthy of mention for a proper appreciation of the procedures adopted and the conclusions drawn thereof:
i. The non-availability of relevant data due to workers attitude

towards information disclosure. Due to official secrecy disposition, it was not possible to obtain necessary information from workers to compared with what the researcher got from the ministry. ii. The researchers was also hampered by the lack of enough time to avail oneself to browsing through the rich expanse of materials such as text books, journals, periodicals,

documentaries and literatures existing on the subject. iii. The funds available to the researcher at the time of conducting this study really restricted the researchers movement.
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DEFINITION OF TERMS SELECTION: This is the process of gathering information for the purpose of assessing or evaluating and deciding who should be chosen under legal guide lines. Selection is a matching process and it involves short-listing and screening in order to pick the best candidate. RECRUITMENT: This is an acts attracting, searching for and obtaining potential job candidates in sufficient numbers and quality so that the organization can use the most suitable people to fill its job needs or vacancies. PLACEMENT: Placement is the process that ensure that job demands and organizational needs matched individual skills, knowledge and abilities. TRAINING: Means an attempt to improve employee

performance on a currently held job or one related to it. Training is the process of learning the skills that you need to do a job. DEVELOPMENT: This refers to learning opportunities designed to help employees grow, such opportunities do not have to be limited to improving employees performance on the current jobs. COMPENSATION: Compensation is a broad legal term that denotes the balancing of one thing against another, for example
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payment against services rendered or benefits against loss or damage. In an employer-employee relationship, compensation is salary or wages from the employer for work performed. HUMAN RESOURCES: These consist of all employees both workers and management of an organization.

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CHAPTER TWO

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LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK: This chapter reviews already existing materials as far as human resources management is concerned. These materials include what many authors have written on the subject matter in textbooks, workshops. Specifically, this chapter reviews these already existing materials in the following sub-headings. Human resources, meaning and concept, human resources planning, recruitment, selection and placement of personnel, training and journal, seminars lectures symposium and

development, performance appraisal and compensation. 2.1 HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT: MEANING AND CONCEPT: Human resources consist of all employees, both workers and management of an organization. The term human resources management comprises all the activities involve in planning for recruitment, training, developing, rewarding, utilizing and maintaining human resources in an organization. The evolution of human resources management is historical in that it is intimately intertwined and associated with
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the times and event of history. The social economic, political technological and cultural occurrences that have left their mark on history in general have also influence at least indirectly, the developing nature and scope of human resources management. Secondly, the historical evolution of the human resources management function is evolutionary, not revolutionary. That is change that has been occurred in the personnel field and have been caused mostly by gradual cultural change, not drastic happenings. Modern human resources management emerged from the following phases. i. industrial revolution ii. growth of unionism iii. scientific management era iv. human relation era v. emergency of personnel specialist THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: The industrial revolution described a period that saw the rise of the factory and the substitution of machine for human power at the beginning of the 19th century, where many people are brought to work in one factory. This made it possible to supervise and control

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employees more closely. The industrial revolution features includes:


i. ii.

Division and specialization of labour. Emergence of scientists and engineers. The development of computerized control system. All these features are interrelated however, not all the

iii.

implications and reunifications of the industrial revolution have been positive. Increase industrialization also brought new and increase human problems, materialism, discipline, monotony, boredom job displacement, impersonality, work interdependence and related behavioural phenomena, also resulted from this new industrial era. GROWTH OF UNIONISM: After the advent of the factory, groups of employees began to get together to discuss mutual problems and concerns. These include:
i. ii. iii.

Long hours and working conditions Overtime Wage level to be paid to employees and employee benefits and services. Workers joined together collectively over matters of common interest to improve their lot since they can not confront management individually. The philosophy underlying unionism
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is that there is strength in number. That is if enough people could collectively support a certain position management would more or less be forced to listen to their complaint. The type of force used by employees took a variety of forms which include strikes, showdowns, walkouts, pickets, boycotts, sabotage and actually physical force. Also workers pressurized elected officials and

campaigned for politicians who support their cause as a result of such effort, numerous legislative statute were passed at the federal and state levels to enhance the rights of employees. SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT: The scientific management movement also created a need for effective human resources management. The scientific management movement is usually associated with the works of Frederick W. Taylor who is known as the father of scientific management (1858). Scientific management is the systematic analysis and breakdown of work into their most efficient combination. Taylor also argued that individuals selected to do the work should be perfectly matched physically and mentally, to the demand of the job. Employees should be trained to ensure that they perform the work exactly as specialized by prior scientific analysis and
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to provide incentives for the employee to follow the detailed procedure specified. The employee should be well remunerated whenever the task was done right and within the time specified. The application of the principles of scientific management has resulted in much higher productivity than would otherwise have been possible and even in the area of employee selection and placement. HUMAN RELATIONS ERA: The human relations movement grew out of a reaction against the impersonality of the scientific movement era. As management became more professional, there was a growing realization that human resources were the most valuable asset that any organization possessed. Human relations have acquired a variety of meaning. It commonly refers to interpersonal dealings and groups. The human relations movement peaked between the 1920s and the 1950s. Much of the early basis for this period was due to the research study conducted at the Hawtherne work plant of western electric company in Chicago headed by Elton Mayo in 1962. During the study, physical and technical variables were manipulated to determine their effect on productivity. The variables manipulated include illumination, rest
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pause work period lengths and other corresponding outputs were measured. After the study it was concluded that human and social factors such as team work, participation cohesiveness, loyalty and esprit-de-corps and not only physical variables accounted the productivity phenomenon. EMERGENCE OF PERSONNEL SPECIALIST: The growth in the size of organizations made it mandatory to devote some time and effort towards the accomplishment of certain specialized task. As organizations grow to several hundred employees, many activities which in the past did not take much time, now began to require full time effort. The role of the employment clerk, which was hiring of personnel expanded into recruitment selection as well as placement of personnel. Wage and salary administration also became a full time job. Once an organization reached a certain size, it now required a specialist responsible for developing methods of determination wage rates and fringe benefits usually through the development of job description and job

specialization. Training was another specialty area that became

necessary as organization grew. Some one had to be


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responsible for seeing that workers acquired the skills necessary for the performance of their jobs. Other types of personnel specialists also began to arrive on the scene like safety experts, physicians and behavioral experts, labour relations specialists. Therefore, for

organizational and administrative purpose, these activities were put under the responsibility of personnel manager. The emergence of personnel specialist does not represent a philosophical movement rather than growing size of organizations forced these specialists into existence. Today personnel department are formed in growing organizations in much the same manner as they have always been formed, (Kramer 1978). 2.1.2 HUMAN RESOURCES PLANNING: Human resources or manpower planning has been defined as the process of determining manpower requirements and the means for meeting those requirements in order to carry out the integrated plan of the organization (Coleman|). Human resources planning involves having the right number and right kind of people at the right places, at the right time, doing the right kind of things which result in long-run maximum individual and organizational benefit.
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Human resources planning takes different forms and labels depending on the length of the time span involved. Manpower planning for the coming year or near future is called personnel budget proposal while that of distant future is usually termed manpower forecast. There is problem in trying to distinguish between manpower planning and manpower programming. These two terms are not used consistently within the management literature, some times the phrases are used as interchangeable concept but the former term refers to the manpower plan parse, whereas the latter term refers to the implementation of the manpower plan. IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN RESOURCES PLANNING: Human resources planning is important for the same reason as planning. Maximum utilization of resources does not just happen, optional efficiency can only result after careful planning and after goals, steps and actions have been implemented. The importance of planning has far reaching dimensions, but the basic benefits accrue at the main levels, individual, organizational and national.

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INDIVIDUAL IMPORTANCE: Human resources planning is important to each individual because it can assist him in providing his skills and using his capabilities and potentials to the utmost. Personal satisfaction can be achieved more easily through proper career planning. Less frustration, stress and anxiety also usually accompany the person who has definite job goals, work objectives and career plans. ORGANIZATIONAL IMPORTANCE: Organizations are involve in human resources planning to improve their long-run recruit and hire enough qualitative individuals to provide themselves with the basic productive resources (manpower) of which all organizations are composed. Because most organizations followed the policy of promoting from within, initial human manpower is the source for present and future management talent in all organizations. Only when there are capable employees in the lower levels that these potential managers are promoted. NATIONAL IMPORTANCE: One of the reasons of economic supremacy of countries has been systematic selection and development of employee to staffed its business enterprises and public organizations. It has
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been

discovered

that

economic

backwardness

of

most

countries is as a result of lack of an adequate supply of adequately trained and developed personnel for the rapidly expanding activities associated with technological

advancement. Therefore, for a country to develop and achieve efficiency, increase productivity and enhance social

responsibility, it must plan to perpetuate the supply of managerial, technical and skilled employees.
2.1.3

RECRUITMENT, PERSONNEL:

SELECTION

AND

PLACEMENT

OF

Because the work of government is labour-intensive, the public sector organizations most salient resources are human beings with knowledge, skills and personal attributes that metch with programme requirements. Needed human resources can be obtained through in-house development and on-the-jobtraining. Frequently, though, they must be secured from separate internal/external environment. Recruitment involves the identification of these resources in a sense locating them and signing them upto complete with others or against criteria for placement in public jobs. The competition allows the recruiting organization to make selection decisions that reduce the recruited candidates to a manageable pool from which
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appointments are made. Public services emphasize on merit prescribes that there be competition in all aspects of personnel decision making of which recruitment, selection and placement are the first stages. 2.1.4 TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT: It has been said that an organizations most valuable resources are its employees. It is not surprising then that organizations have developed comprehensive plans for the management and development of their workforce. Although most of these plans take human resource utilization as their central theme, many organizations are expanding their

workforce plan to include the development and retention of employees. Training is a short-term educational process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which non-managerial personnel learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. Development in reference to staffing and personnel matters is a long-term educational process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which managerial personnel learn general purposes (Steinmetz 1969). Traditionally, public sector organizations have defined this role narrowly as that of providing the knowledge and skills
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necessary for successful performance of the organizations current task. The training and development activities of most governmental organizations have become broader and more comprehensive. The extended format offers the employee an opportunity to systematically partake in a wide variety of learning experiences to meet current and future work career and organizational objectives. Whether an organizations approach to human resources development focuses primarily on training or takes a more expensive direction, it must be responsive to the needs and goals of the organization. Training and development needs emerged from a variety of different sources. Changes in technology in public policies or in society at large affect the organization, its goals, programmes, long and short-terms performances. Once training and development goals are identified programme development activity can begin. Strategies for meeting the training and development goals must be

developed, implementation plans established and evaluation process put in place.

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT METHODS: Different training and development methods have been used to improve the performance of an organizations workforce. The first method is informational presentation. This method is among the most traditional of all training and development methods and these include such teaching strategies as lectures, seminars and discussions. Recently, video tapes, teleconferencing and

programme and computer-assisted instruction are included. The second method is based on current principles of adult transmission of information; this method emphasizes the active involvement of the learners in the education process. The third method is the older instructional techniques on-the-job methods apprenticeships and interships are the oldest of all organizational training and development activities. Over time these techniques have taken on a developmental orientation, with job rotation, committee assignment and mentoring being formally adopted by many organizations, both private and public. IMPLEMENTATION OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PLAN: The formulation of training and development plans that can be implemented involves far more than identifying needs and designing learning experiences to meet those needs. It requires a system for planning, management and controlling the training and
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development process. Successful implementation requires the following:


i. That

all levels of management recognize the benefits

associated with training and development activities.


ii. Systematic planning and budgeting or the training and

development effort. iii. That supervisor is rewarded for implementing successful training and development activities. iv. Performance standards that do not penalize supervisors or employees for participating in training and development activities.
v. Training and development effort are consistence with current

or desired practices, behaviours or attitudes. vi. Adequate and timely dissemination of information about current upcoming or proposed training and development activities.
vii. Training

and development staff that provides technical counseling and consulting services to the

assistance

organization at large. One approach to strengthening implementation of the training and development programmes is to design a

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management system that will guide the process from need assessment through post implementation evaluation. 2.1.5 PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL: The success of an organization depends on how it carries out the functions for which it was designed. Considerable attention has been directed towards the development design and uses of systems to appreciate the role of performance appraisal system, four areas need to be touched upon:
i. First is the role that performance appraisal plays in the

management of any organization


ii. The second area is the issue and concerns that many have

about current performance appraisal systems and practices, iii. The appraisal methods themselves iv. The last area is developing an evaluation system for improving organizational effectiveness. METHODS FOR APPRAISING PERFORMANCE: For a long time, organizations have used different appraisal methods to evaluate the performance of their workers. Some methods require the supervisor to make comparison among individuals or how adequate a worker exhibits certain traits and characteristics. These methods have been labeled as judgment oriented. There are two basic types of this method. First, is
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graphic rating scale and the second is ranking method. Other appraisal method stress the manner in which the employee carries out his job. The emphasis is on what the employee does and is called behaviour oriented. There are basically two types of behaviour oriented method. First, is the check list method and the second is essay evaluation method. Some appraisal methods focus on actual result achieved. This is referred to as result oriented method. In this method, emphasis is on what the employee accomplishes instead of the attributes individual possessed. Therefore, these methods are among the most objectives of all appraisal approaches. 2.1.6 COMPENSATION: WAGES AND SALARY ADMINISTRATION: The process of wages and salary administration as it is sometimes called involves the balancing of accounts.

Compensation is anything that is regarded as an equivalent or recompense. Financial rewards are the compensation

resources provided to employees for the return of their services. The term remuneration, wages and salary are used to described this financial arrangement between employers and employees. Remuneration is a reward or reimbursements or financial payment. In general, a wage is anything given as
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recompense, however, wages are money paid for the use of something. The concept of wages is usually hourly workers. A salary is recompense to a person at regular intervals for performed services, for example weekly, monthly, quarterly or yearly. In general term compensation is preferred today as the term most descriptive of organizational pay practices, because it is broader in scope and includes both direct financial payments and indirect non-financial rewards. WAGES AND SALARY CRITERIA: The determination of pay for jobs and people has reached the stage where it is considered as logical, consistent, systematic and explainable process. There are many factors used to help set pay rates in organizations, and are desired to measure pay adequacy, equity, need and contribution. It is partially economic, partially behavioural, and partially ethical in nature. The most commonly used wage and salary criteria are as follows: PREVAILING WAGES: It is believed that the prevailing pay compensation criterion is the most influential of all remuneration factors. Organizations usually decide what to pay by ascertaining what other
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organizations are paying for the same type of work in the same labour market or in the same industry regardless of location, otherwise it will not be able to attract and maintain a sufficient quantity and quality of manpower.
(1) ABILITY TO PAY: The profitability of an organization is

without question, a consideration in wage and salary determination. Almost all unions attempt to estimate an organizations ability to pay before making compensation demands. It is usually agreed that the ability to pay factor has some usefulness in setting wage and salary rates both at the bargaining table and when used unilaterally by employers. Ability to pay seldom determines the precise wage or wage rate instead it sets the range within which the actual pay level is fixed.
(2) UNION BARGAINING POWER: Often the agreed pay rate

depends somewhat on unions bargaining power. Generally, the stronger and more powerful the union, the higher the final pay rate. Union strength can best be measured in terms of the number of workers involved. Strikers have long been the most powerful weapon of unions but accurately the threat of a strike is infact the strongest and most used union strategies.
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(3) COST OF LIVING: The criterion calls for pay adjustment

based on increase or decreases in an acceptable cost of living index. When the cost of living is rising unions demand for adjusted wages to offset reduction in real wages. However, when living costs are stable or declining, management usually does not resort to this agreement as a reason for wage reductions. This factor is never employed as the sole consideration of pay adjustment.
(4) LIVING WAGE: The living wage factor concerns the

question of how much money does it cost a worker and his family to live per year and the living wage represents an ideal standard in the form of minimum budget. Unions may present them as evidence of workers needs. However, this factor is much more used as a guide for broad social policy, instead of as a specific wage level determinant.
(5) PRODUCTIVITY: Productivity is measured in terms of a

debate over whether or not there is actual a close long-run relationship between pay and productivity, nor is there total agreement that productivity standard is the best measure of pay determination. The productivity criterion encounters the problem of definition and measurement. The usual measure is that of physical productivity arrived at by dividing units of
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output by man-hour worked. But this presumes that the increases in productivity result solely from increase in labour productivity actually, physical productivity measures the contribution of all resource-men, machine, management etc. Thus, although theoretical, productivity is a sound

compensation criterion operationally; many problems and complications exist because of definition, measurement and conceptual controversies.
(6) JOB REQUIREMENT: The requirements of a job are crucial

factors in determining the wage and salary level of a person performing certain job responsibilities. Generally, the more difficult the job, the higher is its compensation rate, measures of job difficulty are frequently used when ascertaining the relative value of one job to another within the organization. Jobs are graded according to the relative amount of skill, effort, responsibility and job condition required.
(7) SUPPLY AND DEMAND MARKET FACTORS: Wages and

salaries are affected by demand and supply market conditions. If the supply of a particular labour skill becomes scarce, employees or job applicant may bid up the price in the labour market. If the supply of a labour talent is
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excessive, the price or wage pursuit of labour decreases. The supply and demand criterion is very closely related to the prevailing pay, comparable wage and on-going wage concepts, since in essence, all of these standards are determined by immediate market forces and factors.

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CHAPTER THREE

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter covers the method used in collecting data for this research. The chapter deals with the source of data, that is primary and secondary data. Thus primary and secondary data, method of data analysis and its justified also the population research, sample size and sampling techniques and also deals with research design, validity and reliability in this chapter.

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RESEARCH DESIGN This research work is designed to identify the reason of human resources management in an organization. The study explain the design of the research work in detail. The design adopted in this research is the evaluation study since its cover all objectives is to have improvement in the human resources management and achieve effectively and efficiently on collection and utilization of human resources management which eventually guide in decision making so as to make necessary adjustment at Maiha local government.

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3:2

POPULATION OF THE STUDY According to the Ogunmiyi (1990) a population is the total units under study it is the parent group from which a sample is drawn referred to as a collection, or set of individuals objectives or measurement. The population used is one thousand (100) staffs from the various departments of Maiha local government (Finance, works personnel, agric and natural resource, health care etc).

3.3

SAMPLE SIZE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES According to Ogunmiyi (1981) sample is a part of population which the population characteristics is studied. So the researcher will used sixty (60) staff as a sample size which comprises of top management and low cadre staff of Maiha local government area. The sampling techniques used in this study to arrived at the sample size is simple random sampling which allows the sixty (60) staffs the same probability of being selected for the responses.

3.4

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION The primary and secondary methods of data collections were used. Relevant information needed for this study was gathered through the combination of the two sources of data.
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The primary data were collected through the used of questionnaires which contained mostly interview and closed ended questions. The secondary data were also gathered from the Newspapers, journals, dictionaries, textbooks and finally from the work of other writers on related work or other write up on research works. 3:5 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS In analyzing the data collected, the simple percentage (%) and tabulation method of presentation were used in which the percentage of the Yes responses were compared with percentage of the No responses using the equation below: Number of responses Total Number of Respondents 3:6 VALIDITY AND RELIBILITY In order to ensure the validity of this write up, the instrument was validated by experts from the department of public administration in the school of business and social science in Federal Polytechnic, Mubi. More to that, validity is the characteristics used to describe research which claim to measure in order to ensure the finding of this research work are reliable and dependable for
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100%

any person carrying out a follow up research or used for academic purposes. Although, the validity is informations supply and to make a meaningful discussion and reliability of the information given to the researchers. The method of data analysis have been explained with its data presentation and interpretation, which indicates primary sources, oral interview structure and

questionnaires were used to indicate research work as well as secondary sources Textbooks etc. which deals with Newspapers, Journals,

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CHAPTER FOUR 4:0 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA In this chapter, the research data on human resources management in public organizations are analyzed based on the questionnaires returned completely and properly filled by sixty (60) respondents. The presentation was done using tables and simple percentage in analyzing the responses of the respondents as they respond to the questions in the questionnaire. 4:1 DATA PRESENTATION In the attempt to obtain the vital information required for the study sixty (60) questionnaires were administered to the respondents and the same number were filled and returned based on the available data obtained from responses of the finance and supplied department and other departments in Maiha local government. Table 1: Does your local government put human resource planning procedures into practice? REACTION Yes No I dont know Total FREQUNECY 36 19 5 60 SOURCE: Field Survey, 2011
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PERCENTAGE 66 30 4 100

From the table above, 66% of the respondents responded that human resources planning procedures are put into practice, 30% responded that, they dont put human resources planning procedures into practice, while 4% were ignorant. Table 2. Is there adherence

strictly to human resources management policies and methods? REACTION Yes NO Total FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 21 32 39 68 60 100 SOURCE: Field Survey, 2011

The researcher wanted to find out whether human resources management policies and methods are adhered 32% of the respondents answers were in the affirmative, while 68% responded negative. Table 3: Does your organization conform to general recruitment

procedures? REACTION Yes No Total FREQUENCY 60 60 SOURCE: Field Survey, 2011 From the table above, 100% of the respondents indicted that their organizations donot conform to the general recruitment procedures. This is true because of the fact that, these days adequate publicity regarding recruitment is not given to every job applicant.
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PERCENTAGE 100 100

There is also discrimination with regard to candidates is not based on skills, ability and knowledge exhibited during the selection procedures should be based on merit, adequate publicity or advertisement (job openings and requirements) should be made public so that every interested candidate can have a reasonable opportunity to apply. There should be not discrimination irrespective of religion, tribe or place of origin, ranking of candidate should strictly be based on skills ability and knowledge etc. Table 4: What are the selection procedures used in your organization? REACTOIN FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE Screening of credential Interview Performance test All of the above 60 100 Total 60 100 SOURCE: Field Survey, 2011 From the table above, all respondents agreed to the existence of all the selection methods but indicated that, it is done in exceptional cases because it is not reliable. This is due to the fact that the present and future recruitment needs of an organization in line with the human resource planning and programming activities and the job analysis cannot be determined, the pool of job applicants with minimum cost cannot be increased and it cannot help to increase the

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success rate of the selection process by increasing the number of obviously under qualified or over qualified job applicants. Table 5: Are the personnel in your organization trained based on laid down policies and procedures? REACTION Yes No Total FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 16 40 44 60 60 100 SOURCE: Field Survey, 2011

The table above, response show that there are few policies put in place to motivate the workforce of the organization. 40% of the respondents answer were on the affirmative, while 60% was negative. Table 6: Does your organization put in place policies that motivate its personnel? REACTION Yes No Total FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 20 40 40 60 60 100 SOURCE: Field Survey, 2011

The above table, response show that there are few policies put in place to motivate the workforce of the organization. 40% of the respondents answers were on the affirmative, while 60% were negative. Table 7: How do you rate the system of performance appraisal in your local government?. REACTION FREQUENCY
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PERCENTAGE

Very Good Good Fair Bad Very Bad Total

36 4 20 60 SOURCE: Field Survey, 2011

50 20 30 100

In trying to find out how the respondents rate the system of performance appraisal, the researcher collected the following data in table 7. From the above table, 5% of the respondents rated the system good, 20% rated the system fair, while 30% felt it is bad. Table 8: Are personnel assigned jobs based on qualification, skill, or experience? REACTION Yes No Total FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 45 75 15 25 60 100 SOURCE: Field Survey, 2011

An attempt was made to find out whether personnel are assigned jobs based on qualification, skills or experience. From the table 8 above, 75% of the respondents responded affirmatively, while 25% responded negatively. Table 9: Does you have jobs satisfaction from your assign jobs/duties? EACTION Yes No Total FREQUENCY 21 39 40 SOURCE: Field Survey, 2011
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PERCENTAGE 38 62 100

The researcher wanted to find out whether personnel in the organization derive job satisfaction from their assign duties. 38% of the respondents answers were in the positive, while 62% were negative. Table 10: Is there adequate pension scheme for employees of the organization?. REACTION Very Adequate Adequate Not Adequate Total FREQUENCY 5 20 35 60 SOURCE: Field Survey, 2011 PERCETAGE 20 30 50 100

From table 10 above, it could be seen that, 20% of respondents felt that it is very adequate, 30% of the respondents believed that it is adequate, while 50% of the respondents felt that the pension scheme is not adequate. Table 11: How effective is the pension scheme in your local government?. REACTOIN Very effective Effective Not effective Total FERQUENCY 25 35 60 SOURCE: Field Survey, 2011 PERCETAGE 35 65 100

From table 11 above, 35% of the respondents believed that the pension scheme is effective, while 65% of the respondents was of the view that it is not effective.
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Table 12: Is there any health insurance scheme for personnel in your local government? REACTION Yes No Total FREQUENCY 40 20 60 SOURCE: Field Survey, 2011 PERCENTAGE 65 35 100

Here the researcher wanted to find out whether there is any health insurance scheme in local government for its work fore. To this table 12 above, 65% of the respondents replied affirmatively, while 35% of the respondents replied affirmatively, while 35% of the respondents reply negatively Table 13: Is there industrial harmony between management and personnel in your local government? REACTION Yes No Total FREQUENCY 48 12 60 SOURCE: Field Survey, 2011 PERCETAGE 78 22 100

From the table above, 78% of the respondents responded that, there is industrial harmony, while 22% were of the view that, there is no industrial harmony between the management and the personnel in the local government. Table 14: What kind of relationship do exist between your local government and its environment? REACTION FREQUENCY
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PERCENTAGE

Very cordial Cordial Not cordial Total

60 60 SOURCE: Field Survey, 2011

100 100

From the table above, all the respondents agreed that there is cordial relationship existing between the local government and its environment. 4:2 REASERCH FINDINGS Based on the data presented above, the following are the findings of this research work. For every academic exercise of this nature to be substance, the findings of the research formulated have to be tested to serve as a guide for a researcher to have boldness that, what he is doing is correct. These include.: i. it was found that the case study utilized human resource planning and procedures as can be seen from table one (1) above, where 36 population representing 66 percent of the respondents attested to that.
ii.

In trying to find out how the respondents rate the system of performance appraisal, 50 percent of the population in table 7 above rated the system where good, this bring about encouragement to workers in the organization.

iii.

Assigning jobs to personnel based on qualification, skilled or experience an attempt was made to find out based on
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qualifications,

skills

or

experience.

45

respondents

representing 75 percent in table 8, responded affirmatively that jobs were assigned based on qualification, skills or experience. organizations.
iv.

This

brings

about

improvement

in

the

The availability of any health insurance is very vital, as such 40 respondents representing 65 percent were affirmed that there health insurance scheme in the organization as depicted in table 12 above. Hence the moral of the staffs has increased tremendously.

v.

There was industrial harmony between management and the personnel in the case study area as 48 respondents representing 78 percent has attested to that. Thus, bring about cooperation among staff which lead to higher performance.

vi.

It was also found out that the case study had a cordial relationship with its external environment as can be seen from table 14 above, where all the respondents affirmed to that.

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CHAPTER FIVE

v.0

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION In this chapter the researcher will shade light on the writeup which will include the above heading.

v.1

SUMMARY The overall research work was based on the research questions developed, statement of the problem and objective of the study. This study has examined the basic meaning and concept of human resource management. It is believe that it is necessary for organizations especially those in the public sector to have a proper human resources management policy, based on efficient human resource planning to be able to forecast and determine present and future manpower needs of the organization. Also examined, is the need for proper recruitment, selection and placement of personnel, adequate training and development programmes, effective performance appraisal, good compensation packages. This will motivate staff and maintain good relationship between workers and management so as to have an effective, efficient and highly productive organization.

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5.2

CONCLUSION Based on the analysis carried out on the data collected for the purpose of this study, the researcher arrived at the following conclusion. That it is evident that non adherence to human resource management policies and method adversely affect the

effectiveness and productivity of most public organization. That the importance of human research planning is mostly overlooked, which always leads to either shortage of manpower in the organization or the over establishment of some positions in most public organizations leading to redundancy. That in most public organizations regulations and procedures is not strictly adhering to during recruitment exercises. People are employed indiscriminately without due regards to laid down procedures such as screening of educational qualification, skills and experiences. But rather, recruitment is based on patronage and ethnic sentiment. Also no proper selection method is employed to determine the suitability of an applicant for a post. That training which is very important in staff development is not given the necessary attention it deserved, as laid down procedures are not complied with. In most cases, new entrants
46

are not given the necessary induction training before they are assigned a specific job. Interview with some staff revealed that most of them have not undergone any training programme since they were employed ten years ago. That in most organizations, there are no welfare programme put in place to motivate workers to greater performance. Rather, workers are frustrated due to delays in paying their salaries, delays in conducting promotion exercises as most staff have spent between ten to fifteen years on a particular post. Also there are no financial incentives to induce workers to achieve effectiveness and greater productivity in their duties. That performance appraisal is not given adequate attention in most organizations as its importance in

organizational efficiency is generally overlooked. Performance appraisal is necessary if the deficiencies in the work force are to be detected. 5.3 RECOMMENDATION Having discussed the various causes and effects of problem associated with managing human resources in public organizations, it is pertinent to proffer solutions to the problems. The following recommendations are made.
47

Public organizations should evolve a well articulated human resource management policy, which will improve the effectiveness of human resource management practices, which will subsequently lead to an increased in productivity Human resource planning should be given adequate attention since planning is very important to the success of any human endeavour. Organizations should be able to forecast future human resource need so as to forestall shortages in manpower. The adherence to laid down policies and procedures should be emphasized especially in issues concerning

recruitment, selection and placement of personnel, so as to attract highly qualified applicants into the organizations. Training and staff development should be given priority attention. Organizations should formulate policies, which should state in clear term criteria for eligibility for training; this should encompass all staff of the organization having fulfilled the necessary conductions. Trainees must be placed on jobs in which newly acquired skill and knowledge will be put into use. Public organizations should put in place policies and programmes that will motivate work force. This could be in the form of promotions, cash incentives, letter of encouragement,
48

awards etc. This will give employees a sense of belonging and make them have interest in the job and will not see public office as no mans job. There should be a well-articulated system of performance appraisal in public organizations different from the present system in which the productivity of an employee could not be measured. Since organizations perform different functions, performance appraisal method should be that which suits the needs of each organization. Organizations should not only be interested in their staff when they are in service, but must also be interested in them after leaving the service. Therefore, the present pension scheme should be made more flexible so that those workers could get their pension benefits without much delay after they leave the service of the organization. There should be an insurance scheme for staff of public organizations to cater for disability or other hazards in the work place. This will help to increase the morale of workers and make them to be more productive. Finally, there should be a forum whereby workers grievances with the management will be settled so as to reduce friction and maintain industrial harmony. This will reduce or eliminate the incidence of lock-outs, pickets and strikes in the organization.
49

REFERENCES Andrew F. Sikula (1976) Personnel Administration and Human Resources Management: Johnson Willey and sons Inc. Charles J. Coleman (1979). Personnel. An Open System Approach Winthrop: Publishers Inc. Massachusetts. McCormick E. J. & Tiffen J. (1974) 6th edition, Industrial Psychology: Engle Wood Cliffs, N. J. Prentice-Hall. Nedler Leonard (1970) Developing Human Resources: Houston, Texas Galf Publishing Company Nwachuckwu C. C. (1988) Management Theory and Practice: Published by Africana. FEP publishers Ltd Onitsha. Pattern T. H. J. (1971) Manpower Planning and the Development of Human Resources: New York, Johnson Willey and sons Inc. Thomas K. Connallan (1978). How to improve Performance: New York Harper and Raw. Human

Ubeku A. K. (1975) Personnel Management in Nigeria: Benin City, Ethiope Publication Corporation. JOURNALS Coleman Bruce P. An Integrated System for Manpower Planning. Business Horizon 13(5) 1970, Pp 89 95 Morrissey Charles A. Long Range Planning in Personnel Impact of Computer, Personnel Administrator, 31(2) 1968 Pp 35 38 Rowland Kendreth M. Forecasting Current Practices Personnel Administrators, 13(1) 1968, Pp 85 88 Sawhney P. K. & Hermstadf I. L. Inter Industry Wage Structure Variation in Manufacturing Industrial and Labour Relations Review 24(3) 1971 Pp 407 419 Steinmetz L. L. Age Unrecognized Stigma of Executive Development. Management of Personnel Quarterly, 8(3) 1969, Pp 3 10
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APPENDIX I

The Federal Polytechnic, P. M. B. 35 Mubi, Department of Public Administration School of Business and Social Science. 23rd August, 2011.

Dear Sir/Madam, LETTER OF INTRODUCTION I am a final year student of the above mentioned institution, conducting a research on the topic Human Resources Management in Public Organizations. A case study of Maiha local government area Adamawa state. I will be grateful if you will kindly complete the attached questionnaires. The information supplied will be treated confidential and will be used for this research work only, please. Yours faithfully

Bature Rimamndanyang

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APPENDIX II SECTION A PERSONAL DATA Name: Employer:. Rank:. Date:. SECTION B Dear Respondents, Tick YES or NO where appropriate and fill any blank space provided 1. Does your organization put into practice human resources planning procedure? 2. Yes No

Does your organization adhere strictly to human resources management policies and methods? Yes No recruitment

3.

Does your organization conform to general

procedure? Yes 4. What No are the selection procedure used in your

organization?...........................

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5.

Are the personnel in your organization trained based on laid down policies and procedures? Yes No

6.

Does your organization put in place policies that motivate its personnel? Yes No

7.

How do you rate the system of performance appraisal in your organization?................................................................................

8.

Are personnel assigned jobs based on qualification, skills, or No

experience? Yes 9.

Do you have job satisfaction from your assign jobs/duties? Yes No

10.

Is there adequate pension scheme for employees of the

organization? Yes 11. No

How effective is the pension scheme in your organization?

12.

Is there any health insurance scheme for personnel in your organization? Yes No harmony between No management and

13.

Is

there

industrial

personnel in organization? Yes


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14.

What kind of relationship do exist between your organization and its environment?....................................................................

54