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Original Title: Definitions to Learn

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Definitions to Learn

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Displacement the distance moved in a stated direction (the distance and direction from the starting point). Speed is the rate of change of distance (the change of distance per unit time). Velocity is the rate of change of displacement. Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity. Instantaneous speed/velocity is the change in distance/displacement divided by time at one particular

time.

Average speed/velocity is change in distance/displacement divided by time taken over a period of time. Newtons 1st Law An object continues in uniform motion in a straight line or at rest unless a resultant

external force acts

Newtons 2nd law - Force = Mass x acceleration = the rate of change of momentum (p/t) Newtons 3rd law - If body A exerts a force on body B, then body B exerts an equal but opposite force on body

A.

Equilibrium is no resultant force in any direction (translational equilibrium) and no resultant moment at any

point (rotational equilibrium).

Linear momentum is the mass of an object multiplied by its velocity. Impulse is force multiplied by time or change of momentum. The law of conservation of linear momentum In an isolated system, momentum remains

constant.

Work = force x distance moved in the direction of the force. Kinetic energy is the energy a body possess by virtue of its motion. The principle of the conservation of energy says that energy cannot be made or destroyed, only

changed (transformed) from one form to another.

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Elastic collision is when there is no change of kinetic energy Power is the rate at which energy is transferred (or the rate at which work is done). Efficiency is the ratio of useful energy to the energy transferred (useful energy out/energy put in). Centripetal acceleration = (speed)2/radius.

Temperature is a property that determines the direction of heat flow between two bodies in thermal contact. It

is also a measure of the average random kinetic energy of the molecules of an ideal gas.

Temperature in Kelvin = Temperature in Celsius + 273 Internal energy is the total potential energy and random kinetic energy of the particles in a substance. Thermal capacity is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of a substance by 1K. Specific heat capacity is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of unit mass of a substance

by 1K

Specific latent heat is the amount of thermal energy needed to change the state of a unit mass of a substance

at constant temperature.

A mole is the amount of a substance that contains the same number of atoms as 0.012 kg of carbon-12. Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a substance.

The Avogadro

Pressure is defined as the normal force to an area per unit area. Ideal gas assumptions:

1. A gas consists of a large number of molecules 2. Molecules move with a range of speeds 3. The volume of the molecules is negligible compared with the volume of the gas itself 4. The collisions of the molecules with each other and the container walls are elastic. 5. Molecules exert no forces on each other or the container except when in contact 6. The duration of collisions is very small compared with the time between collisions 7. The molecules obey Newtons laws of mechanics Sporter011

Topic 4 Waves

Displacement of a wave is the distance any point on a wave has moved from its undisturbed (mean) position. Amplitude is the maximum displacement from the mean position. Period is the time taken for one complete oscillation (time for one complete wave to pass a point). Frequency is the number of oscillations that take place per unit time. Wavelength is the shortest distance along a wave between two points that are in phase. Phase difference is the time difference or phase angle by which one wave leads or lags another. Wave speed is the speed at which wavefronts pass a stationary observer. Intensity - The average amount of energy transported by a wave in the direction of wave propagation, per unit

area per unit time.

First law of football states that Nottingham is the home of good football and that Brian Clough is a God. Principle of superposition when two or more waves meet, the resultant displacement is the sum of the

individual displacements.

Simple harmonic motion - periodic motion in which the restoring force is proportional to the displacement Damping - the loss of energy with each cycle of a simple harmonic oscillator Natural frequency of vibration - the natural frequency of a system in the absence of external influences. Forced oscillations oscillations forced on a system by external influences Resonance - the increase in amplitude of oscillation of an electric or mechanical system exposed to a periodic

force whose frequency is equal or very close to the natural undamped frequency of the system.

Longitudinal wave the oscillations are parallel to the direction of energy transfer Transverse wave the oscillations are perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer.

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Electric potential difference between two points is the work done per unit charge to move a small

positive charge between two points.

Electric current is the rate of flow of electrical charge (charge flowed/time taken) Electromotive force is the total energy difference per unit charge around the circuit (it is the potential

difference when no current flows in a circuit).

Electronvolt the energy gained by an electron when it moves through a potential difference of one volt. Resistance of a component is the ratio between the potential difference across the component/circuit and the

current through it.

Ohms law When the temperature is kept constant, the current through a metallic conductor is proportional to

the potential difference across it.

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