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Lecturer, Department of Education, Bhavnagar University, BHAVNAGAR 364002 (Gujarat)
This paper is an attempt to study the impact of visual aids in teaching English as a second language to secondary school students. Despite the fact that the advantages of using visual aids are established and in teacher training programs prospective teachers are trained since decades in the field, they are not practiced actually. The present investigator would like to quote what Peter Drucker (cited in Spotts, and Bowman, 1995) said in 1969 :
The first teacher ever, that priest in preliterate Mesopotamia who sat down outside the temple with the kids and began to draw figures with a twig in the sand, would be perfectly at home in most classrooms in the world today. Of course, there is a blackboard, but otherwise there has been little change in tools and none in respect to methods. The one new teaching tool in the intervening 8,000 years has been the printed book. And that few teachers really know how to use - or else they would not continue to lecture on what is already in the book.
Visual aids are used to increase the effectiveness of classroom teachinglearning process (Joshi, 1995). Three reports by George; Sheth; and Sonar (all cited in Vissa, 1994) reported that the use of audio-visual aids enhances learning. From the survey of Bharadwaj (cited in Vissa, 1994), it was clear that
cited in Spotts. it reflected the present situation of teaching English in schools. Becker. The survey enveloped the views about and amount of using visual aids. and Bowman. It was found that most of the schools possessed various visual aids like: slide-projectors. and textbooks continue to dominate instruction almost everywhere. had a high degree of experience with. TVs. 1995) revealed that teachers rarely used technology in their classroom routine. Though the teachers were in favor of using visual aids in teaching English. A sample of 92 boys and girls studying in two classes of standard 8 was selected randomly from a Gujarati medium secondary school at Bhavnagar . the survey very strikingly revealed that the aids were hardly used. pictures. METHOD Sample. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY To study the impact of visual aids in teaching English as a second language to secondary school students. 1995) noted. and used in teaching on regular bases. VCRs. lectures. "Chalkboards. Some of the schools possessed overhead-projectors. Before a year the present investigator informally surveyed the use of visual aids in teaching English to secondary school students at Bhavnagar city. too. The results of their survey suggested that word processing is the single technology that a wide majority of faculty knew about. and a variety of teaching aids brought about stimulus variation that is essential to sustain students' attention. Spotts. etc. They argued that students' examination oriented learning tendency prevented them to use visual aids." Several descriptive studies of technology use in schools (for example. Though the survey was limited to 30 schools of the city.the availability of teaching aids is a pre-requisite for their use in teaching. As Mecklenburger (cited in Spotts. The teachers were not "motivated" even to use pictures and charts in the class. The brief review of literature and the situation in schools motivated the investigator to undertake the present study. and Bowman. charts. In a study by Vissa (1994). and filmstrip-projectors. and Bowman (1995) surveyed the use of instructional technologies in higher education. it was found that the use of visual aids helped better teaching.
a five-step lesson plan was drawn to teach the topic "prepositions: in. Data collection. and 1 for incorrect and correct responses. slides. respectively. While teaching the experimental group. and t-ratio for Both the Groups ======================================= Group N Mean SD t-ratio --------------------------------------------------------------------- . The ttest was applied for checking the significance of the mean difference. though the mother tongue was used judiciously to instruct the students in the beginning of the lessons. and t-ratio for both the groups are presented in Table 1. on. These 92 students were randomly stratified into experimental and control groups of 46 each. Each session of the teaching took 45 minutes. on.city. Each item of the test scored 0. only the blackboard and match-stick drawings were used with lecture method. and under ". Experimental design. near. standard deviations. TABLE 1 Mean. The mean and standard deviations were calculated for each group. The same test was used for both the groups. A test. near. RESULTS The means. charts. and match-stick drawings on blackboard were used. Students noted their responses in a normal classroom situation. SD. In the present study control group only post-test experimental design was applied. consisting of 24 objective type items. pictures. Tool. Data analysis. The maximum possible score for each exminee was 24. and under" to assess the achievements of both the groups of the students for experimental and control teaching. The lesson plans were executed using direct method. Following each type of the teaching experimental and control. was constructed on the topic "prepositions: in. At the end of the each teaching session the post-test was administrated. In the teaching of control group.
93 and 3. 266-268. it can be interpreted that there was a significant difference in teaching with and without visual aids. Spotts. (1995). 35(3). The observation of Table 1 reveals that the means and standard deviations for the experimental and control groups were 21. The Progress of Education.98 3. T. The role of visual communication in teaching English. U. DISCUSSION The findings of the present study indicated that there was a significant difference between the achievement of students in experimental and control groups. Educational Technology. Teaching a unit of educational psychology to B.38 3.01 level.98. REFERENCES Joshi. .62 4. It was significant at 0.30. 9.62. students. From this. (1994). larger scale studies are required in the field. The use of visual aids in teaching English grammar resulted better learning. The results of the present study can be interpreted as one source of evidence supporting the conclusion that the use of visual aids in teaching English is significantly advantageous.38 and 17. S. and 3. (1995). The t-ratio for the difference between two means was 4. Therefore it can be concluded that the use of visual aids in teaching resulted better acquisition of English grammar. 56-64. 68.01 level.Ed. & Bowman. H.30* -------------------------------------------------------------------* significant at 0. These results were consistent with the results obtained in the previous studies reviewed in this paper. As this study had a limited scope and resources. B. A national survey of technology use in indian schools is also badly required. The difference between the means was in favor of experimental groups. Faculty use of instructional technologies in higher education. respectively. The Progress of Education.Experimental 46 21. 215-219 & 222. M.93 Control 46 17. Vissa.. A.
com/paper4.Thursday. 2012 from http://bharatjoshi.htm .150m. April 19.