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1. Introduction The tremendous significance of writing is unavoidably attached to the social and work lives of all people.

In daily life communication, writing serves function as tool for developing relationship with other for it may contain some elements such as language, thoughts, experience, feelings, emotions, mechanical action and different strategies (Dahl & Farnan, 2000; Harris & Hodges, 1995; Hennings, 2000). Besides, the demand for qualified employee with effective writing skills keeps growing year by year, as only by the good writing people can give a good account of themselves, as well the assurance that they are able to handle administrative tasks such as writing e-mail, memoranda, letters, instructions, and reports. With no exception, this necessity also prevails in Non English speakers. It is very challenging then as writing in second or foreign language is not painless by any means, but it needs skillful language command to be able to produce coherent, fluent and extended writing piece. This growing need of writing skill implies school responsibility to provide better writing teaching and learning for school is place where they got education and supervision before entering the real world of society and work field. Furthermore learning to write is a difficult and complex series of processes that require a range of explicit teaching methodologies throughout all stages of learning that teachers are supposed to consider as good teaching technique as possible to deal with the complexity of writing. Until today numerous strategies and teaching techniques have been employed to teach writing to the students effectively. Those strategies and techniques are mainly generated from two major paradigms, they are product-based and process-based approach. The noticeable difference between both is that the first puts great emphasis on the final product of writing be it in the terms of form or correctness, while the latter takes the process which students going through when producing the writing and the content and message of the writing into more consideration. Current development shows that the second approach is most beneficial for students as transfer of focus from teacher to students and from the form and product to the content and process occurs. Even so it is also suggested that teacher should not go for extreme position of this approach because 1

of the importance of final product as the crucial goal of all process of writing (Brown, 2001). Among various techniques of process-based approach, peer collaboration is considered very appropriate by the experts to provide effective teaching and learning writing. In this technique, two or more students are grouped together to provide ideas for constructing topic of the writing to each other, and further they are also supposed to provide feedback or suggest some revision to one another after the first draft has been written (Kinsler, 1990). As the students writing will be read by their friends, this technique also addresses the issue of authenticity in teaching writing which suggests that teaching writing should be meaningful for students in the way that they can understand the purpose of writing by having their writing be read by others. With advancing technology, the advent of blog brings new dimension to language pedagogy, especially teaching writing. As a web page containing running log of commentaries, multimedia and hyperlinks, blog may serves function in this area as learning repository, feedback tool or a spoken language development tool. Besides, this technology innovation has gained huge popularity among youths in students age level just as like as other electronic communication tools. Based on the result of Pew Internet and American Life Project study in 2009, 85 percent of youths in age range of 12 to 17 involve at least occassionally in some form of electronic personal communication, such as text messaging, sending e-mail or posting comments on social networking sites (Pascopella & Richardson, 2009). This makes the use of blog for teaching writing even more potential. Notable research investigating the use of blog in teaching language and writing has been conducted and most of them show the positive and satisfactory results. Blog can evidently lead to the increase of students motivation and literacy engagement (Boling, 2008); students rate of writing production online is ten times higher than some students of the equivalent level, and at least as much as those who write in traditional format. Besides, students feel more comfortable writing in Spanish (their L2) (Armstrong & Retterer, 2008); students feeling of self-confidence to communicate in English (their L2) raise after experiencing doing project through blog (Nadzrah Abu Bakar & Yaacob, 2010). The use of blog is in line with peer collaboration technique in teaching writing as it

allows students to give feedback to each other through blog. By posting comments to their friends writing that they read in the blog, students can help each others to revise and refine the writing until the final satisfactory product will be resulted. Though there are already conducted studies on the use of blog in teaching writing which have yielded positive results, further studies still need to be done especially in the setting of use of blog combined with techniques that mostly used in teaching writing. Thus this study is set to investigate how the peer collaboration through blog in teaching writing affects students writing ability and the strengths and weaknesses of its implementation.

2. Purposes of Research The purposes of the study are as follows: 1. To discover how peer collaboration technique through blog in teaching writing affects students writing ability. 2. To discover strengths and weaknesses of peer collaboration technique through blog in teaching writing.

3. 3. Research Questions This present study is about peer collaboration technique through blog in teaching writing. Thus it is guided by the following specific questions: 1. How does peer collaboration technique through blog in teaching writing affect students writing ability? 2. What are the strengths and weaknesses of peer collaboration technique through blog?

3. 4. Clarification of (Related) Terms To refrain from misinterpretation, several terms are clarified: 1. Peer collaboration, is a techniques that are typical of process-based approach in writing. In this technique, groups which consist of two or more students are made, in which they provide ideas to construct topic of the writing to each other, and later they also provide feedback or suggest some revision to one another after the first draft has been. The aim of this approach is generally to instil the metacognitive processes i.e. mental activities associated with the awareness and control of the cognitive activities that used by successful learners to poor ones (Kinsler, 1990). 2. Blog, is a web page containing running log of commentaries, multimedia and hyperlinks. It was an Internet-based resource which serves function as online journal or web diary, and at the early times it is used as personal diaries or journal by bloggers (blog writers). As a social networking and medium for communication, blogs enable the users not only to interact with the computer, but also with other bloggers.

5. Review of Related Literature 5.1.Writing Until today, writing has been perceived and defined by different authors in various ways. For instance, writing is the way to express ideas in written form using letters, words, art or media, and it requires mental processes managing in order to express ideas (Uusen, 2009), while it is also defined as a particular skill that integrates both knowledge and skill; an action which comprises language, thoughts, experience, feelings, emotions, mechanical action and different strategies, etc. (Dahl & Farnan, 2000; Harris & Hodges, 1995; Hennings, 2000). For long time, writing has been associated with speaking. There is a view that process of learning to speak and learning to write are completely alike (Cambourne, 1988 as cited in Knapp & Watkins, 2005). It said that learning to speak is a process that acquired naturally and easily by all children, and writing also can be acquired through the same process in the written word. However, this view is unconvincing though speaking and writing are both forms of communication which use the medium of language. Inasmuch as the fact that the first exists in sound and time while the latter is in visual forms and less so, there are fundamental differences between both. Also other differences are of organisation in structure, grammar, function and purpose (Halliday, 1985). Another difference, as suggested by Saville-Troike (2006), is that planning and editing the language elements are permissible in writing, while in speaking it is not so as immediate and unplanned production of language is indispensable. 5.2.Teaching Writing Dynamics of teaching writing has been happening for few decades with many issues become center of discussion and also argument, including approach to teaching writing, differences between L1 and L2 writing, authenticity, and the role of teacher (Brown, 2001). In 1950s and early 1960s, teaching writing became a separate issue from teaching language, and at that time product-based approach which focuses on correct form was introduced and it soon spread widely. In language teaching history, this period is referred to as scientific: teacher proceeded in lockstep fashion, 7

teaching bits of language from the gramatically simple to the gramatically more complex (Weiderman, 2000 as cited in King, 2007). Compositions were supposed to meet certain standards of prescribed English rhetorical style, reflect accurate grammar, and be organized conforming to what audience would consider to be conventional. In sum, students are given a topic and the only thing assessed by their writing teacher is the final product which should be accurate according to criteria above. Later in 1960s, the effectiveness of that form-and-correctness oriented approach was questioned, and reinforced by the movement of learner-centred instruction, the major paradigm shifted: from focus on perfect sentence and structure to the students, writers drafting and redrafting their pieces. This led to emergence of the process-based approach which views writer as creator of the language and focuses on process, content and message (Brown, 2001). Even so, it is also suggested that teacher should make effort to establish the balance between both instead of going for extreme position of processbased approach because the final product has also critical importance as it is crucial goal of all process of writing. The process of writing is virtually the same for all writers, and though there is debate among the experts over the number of steps involved in process of writing, all of their propounding includes (1) Pre-writing, (2) Writing, (3) Revising or editing, and (4) Post-writing (Lima Jr., 2010). The first phase whose goal is preparing students for the writing in terms of both content and forms has the students be exposed to the topic of the writing in various ways for activating their depiction so that they will be capitulating to use their background knowledge on the topic to help them develop it. By exposing students to the genre they will write about and by exploring the texts similar to the ones they will produce through strategies such as brainstorming, teachers are also scaffolding the writing that will take place. The second phase starts when students are ready to write their pieces after the topic of the writing and the structure have been explored as well. Next, revising or editing phase is often blent with the process of writing itself, as students may get feedback from teachers and peers concerning the content, the organization of ideas, the element that should be present in the text (such as topic sentence, sentence connector, etc.), and the language. Feedback could be given in various forms, for instance general written comments and proofreading symbol. Keeping accepting the feedback, students rewrite their first draft again and again until they successfully create the satisfactory final product. Finally,

post-writing is the foremost phase where authenticity of writing can be achieved, yet this phase is often neglected by language teacher. In this phase, students should locate their writing amid real audience who will read their writing purely because of their interest in the topic of the writing, not only because it is an assignment that needs to be graded. One of various techniques that usually employed in process-based approach is peer collaboration. According to Kinsler (1990), it is a technique where two or more students are grouped together to provide ideas for constructing topic of the writing to each other, and further they are also supposed to provide feedback or suggest some revision to one another after the first draft has been written. The aim of this approach is generally to instil the metacognitive processes i.e. mental activities associated with the awareness and control of the cognitive activities that used by successful learners to poor ones. In this model, a more knowledgeable student usually models and coaches the other in certain strategies, then he or she gradually fades this cognitive scaffold while simultaneously encouraging the development of self correction and and selfmonitoring skills. 5.3. Blog Blog (or weblog) has been one commendable representation of the latest innovation in web technology, and it refers to a web page containing running log of commentaries, multimedia and hyperlinks. Born of the internet, weblog began rather quietly during the late 1990s. The term weblog itself was 1997s coinage, but in 1998 term was shortened by Peter Merholz as he turned the word weblog into simple phrase: we blog (Armstrong & Retterer, 2008). Current advancement in the information and communication technology (ICT) has made blogging software began to increase in sophistication and be very accessible to many different types of audience as it only require little technological sophistication. Also known as online journal or web diary, blog is an Internet based resource which was initially used by bloggers (blog writers) as personal diaries or journal. As a social networking and medium for communication, blogs enable the users not only to interact with the computer, but also with other bloggers. Lately, blog is gradually being used as a pedagogical tool in the classrooms and it can be assumed that it is a more communicative role than the less interactive CALL aplications (Pinkman, 2005 as 9

cited in Nadzrah Abu Bakar & Yaacob, 2010). 5.31Related Studies The studies of the use of blog in teaching language and teaching writing started to emerge in the beginning of this century. Most of them investigate the effectiveness of blog in teaching language and writing, and most of them have yielded positive results. For example, blog can lead to the increase of students motivation and literacy engagement. This result was yielded by the result of observation to classroom blogging in fourth grade and fifth grade in a New Jersey elementary school. With the teacher acted as blog creator and moderator, after the two year implementation, blog is proven providing students with opportunities to connect with real audiences while learning about different communities and cultures (Boling, 2008). Another study conducted in an intermediate Spanish class also showed that students rate of writing production online is ten times higher than some students of the equivalent level, and at least as much as those who write in traditional format. In addition, all students responded that they feel more comfortable writing in Spanish after going through classroom blogging experience (Armstrong & Retterer, 2008). Also, a study that was done to undergraduate students in Malaysia has raised positive findings for blog was found very advantageous to increase the level of students self confidence to communicate in English (their L2) after doing a project which used blog as the medium for sharing knowledge and opinions (Nadzrah Abu Bakar & Yaacob, 2010).

6. Research Methodology This section provides four main parts of investigation: design of the research, participants of the research, data collection, and procedures to analyze the data. 6.1. Design Descriptive - qualitative method in the forms of action research, particularly practical action research, will be employed in this study. The use of this design, as canvassed by Ferrance (2000), is mainly based on its providing chance for writer as teacher to carefully examine her own teaching in structured manner. 6.2.Participants The participants selected for this study are the twelfth grader of SMA Muhammadiyah Banjarmasin, particularly class XII-4 with total of 36 students, comprising 15 males and 21 females. 6.3.Data collection In this study, data will be collected through several ways, such as Likert scale, interview and analysis of documents i.e. collection of students text which has been posted in the blog for three months of research, either the first work or revised ones. The procedure of this study will likely be consisted of several steps. Hypothetically, the first is organizing the lesson plan and conducting teaching writing with peer collaboration thechnique through blog, second is administering Likert scale and interview during class in week 9 of the semester, and the last is analyzing data. However this remains uncertain because instead of being linear and unchanging, the process in qualitative design is circular and continually adaptive (Ferrance, 2000). 6.4.Data analysis To analyze the data gained, qualitative approach will largely be deployed. Students individual data which derived from the collection of their works posted in the blog during the research will be coded qualitatively to identify the emerging themes and trends. Answers from interview will be transcribed and categorized into analytical categories to conduct the analysis of content from the different points made. Though, 11

data obtained from Likert scale will be analyzed quantitatively by calculating frequency of students who choose given items. Finally the findings of the research will be summed up to unveil how peer collaboration through blog in teaching writing affects students writing ability and its strengths and weaknesses from the perception of the students.

7. References Boling, Erica, et al. (2008). Collaborative Literacy: Blogs and Internet Projects (A Journal). The Reading Teacher, Vol. 61 No. 6. Brown, H. Douglas. (2001). Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. New York: Longman. Dahl, K. L. & Farnan, N. (2000). Childrens Writing: Perspective from Research. Newark, Delaware: IRA. Ferrance, Eileen. (2001). Action Research. Providence: Brown University. Halliday, M. A. K. (1985). An Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Edward Arnold. Harris, T. L., Hodges, R. E. (Eds). (1995). The Literacy Dictionary. The Vocabulary of Reading and Writing. Newark: IRA. Hennings, D. G. (2000). Communication in Action (7th ed.). USA: Houghton Mifflin Company. King, Kevin B. (2007). Writing Template Book. Michigan: The University of Michigan Press. Kinsler, Kimberly. (1990). Structured Peer Collaboration: Teaching Essay Revision to College Students Needing Writing Remediation (A Journal). Cognition and Instruction, Vol. 7 No. 4. Knapp, Peter, & Watkins, Megan. (2005). Genre, Text, Grammar: Technology for Teaching and Assessing Writing. Sydney: University of New South Wales Ltd. Lima Jr., Ronaldo. (2010). Practical Writing An Online Interactive Writing Experience (A Journal). The Electronic Journal for English as a Second Language, Vol. 14 No. 3. Pascopella, Angela and Richardson, Will. 2009. The New Writing Pedagogy. District Administration, Vol. 45 No. 10/11. 13

Uusen, Anne. (2009). Changing Teachers Attitude towards Writing, Teaching Writing and Assessment of Writing (A Journal). Problems of Education in the 21th Century Vol. 10. Saville-Troike, Muriel. (2006). Introducing Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.