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A Look On Ancient History Language and Architecture Forgotten Past

Dr.HalukBerkmen http://www.astroset.com/bireysel_gelisim/ancient/a1.htm

http://www.halukberkmen.net/about.php

Table of Contents
The Ancient Uighur (Uygur) Empire.............................................................................................................................. 3 Diversification of Languages......................................................................................................................................... 5 The Hidden Meaning of Petroglyphs............................................................................................................................. 7 The Asiatic Scythians.................................................................................................................................................. 10 Climatic Changes........................................................................................................................................................ 12 Universal Symbols...................................................................................................................................................... 14 The Minoan Culture..................................................................................................................................................... 15 The Double-Edged Ax................................................................................................................................................. 17 The Etruscan Dice....................................................................................................................................................... 19 Etruscan Inscriptions................................................................................................................................................... 20 The Eastern Expansion............................................................................................................................................... 22 The Anatolian Expansion............................................................................................................................................ 24 Evolution of Writing Systems...................................................................................................................................... 26 Hittite Symbolism........................................................................................................................................................ 28 The Sacred Horn......................................................................................................................................................... 30 The South-West Expansion......................................................................................................................................... 32 The Indus Valley script................................................................................................................................................ 34 Towards Smer and Elam........................................................................................................................................... 36 The Bull and the Letter B............................................................................................................................................ 37 The Ugaritic Script....................................................................................................................................................... 39 The Orhun Valley Script.............................................................................................................................................. 41 Egyptian Deities.......................................................................................................................................................... 43 The Issk Kurgan......................................................................................................................................................... 44 Horses for Eternity...................................................................................................................................................... 46 From Kurgans to Pyramids......................................................................................................................................... 48 African Expansion....................................................................................................................................................... 50 Olmec, Toltec and Maya.............................................................................................................................................. 51 Maya Cities and Pyramids.......................................................................................................................................... 53 The Bird Symbolism.................................................................................................................................................... 55 Celts, Gaul and Galatians........................................................................................................................................... 57 Hittite and Sumerian.................................................................................................................................................... 58 From Orhun to Canaan............................................................................................................................................... 60 Western Anatolia......................................................................................................................................................... 62 The Tangut Empire...................................................................................................................................................... 64 Kushan Empire............................................................................................................................................................ 65 Dunghuang Manuscripts............................................................................................................................................. 66 Stone Ancestors.......................................................................................................................................................... 68 The Khazar Empire..................................................................................................................................................... 69 Tattooing Habits.......................................................................................................................................................... 70 Mummified Bodies....................................................................................................................................................... 72 Megaliths and Spirals.................................................................................................................................................. 74

TheAncientUighur(Uygur)Empire
Thepresentworkisaninvestigationintotheforgottenpast.Itsgoalistobringintolighttheancientcivilizationthat existedmanythousandyearsagoandwhichisnotmentionedinanyhistorybook. Whereandwhendidthatcivilizationexist?Whatlanguagediditspeak?Howandwhydiditspreadallaroundthe world?Whatproofandindicationsofitsexistencedowestillhavetoday? Allthesefascinatingquestionswillbeaddressedfromaglobalpointofviewhere.Thepresentworkisbasedonthree maintopics:Culturalhistory,languageandarchitecture. Thereisnoclearevidenceaboutthewhereaboutsoftheoriginalrootculture.Ithasbeenaccepted,ingeneral,that Mesopotamiahasbeenthecradleofcivilization,wherethefirstorganizedreligion,thefirstscripturesandmanyother "firsts"started.Itismorelikelythatpeoplecametotheseregionsfromsomewhereelseandhadalreadyadeveloped languageandarudimentarywritingsystem. RecentresearchonthecultureofMesopotamiaandespeciallyontheSumerlanguagegivesstrongevidencethatthe languageofSumerbelongedtotheUralAltaiclanguagegroupofAsia.Onecannot,anymore,claimthatisolated languagesevolvedwithinisolatedgeographicalpockets.Linguistsworldwidearenowmoreinclinedtoacceptthat CentralAsiahasbeenthecradleofcivilizationforaverylongspanoftime. ItisthereforeimportanttostartfromAsiaandtoinvestigatetheprotolanguagespokenmanythousandyearsago. TheresultoftheforthcominginvestigationgivesstrongsupporttothetheorythatCentralAsiaticpeoplelaythe foundationsofthepresentdayworldcivilization.Thistheoryissupportedbylinguisticandarchitecturalevidences. Theseevidenceswillbeelaboratedwiththehelpofmanypictures,tablesandgraphs.

Introduction

TheAncientUighur(Uygur)Empire
TheregiondefinedasthecentralAsiaticplateauincludesavastcontinentwhosewesternbordersincludethewhole ofEurope,easternbordersincludeeasternAsiaandJapan.Thesouthernboundaryofthisvastregioncutthrough whatisnowNorthernPersia,India,MesopotamiaandpresentdayNorthVietnam.Wenowdefinethisvastcontinent asEurasia.AndthelanguagegroupofthisregionasEurasiatic. ThelargeEurasiaticlanguagefamilyincludestheAltaic,Uralic,Dravidian,IndoEuropeanandeventheAfroAsiatic languages. TheancientpopulationofEurasiaspeakingtheprotolanguagewasthepeopleknownasTheUygur(Uighur)whom weknowareofTurkicancestry.TheUighurpopulationformedchainsofsettlementsacrosscentralAsiaandCentral Europemanythousandyearsago.AlthoughthehistoricalrecordsclaimthattheUighurpeoplearetheoffspringofthe Hunsandstartsfrom300BCE,theexactbeginningdateofthiscultureismuchmoreancientandverymuchunclear. Oneshouldbeverycarefulinnamingancientcultures.Thisisbecauseanameisimmediatelylinkedtoacertaintime periodandsubjectivefeelingsofpossessiontriggerunendingcontroversies.Theapproximatestartingdateofthe AncientUighurEmpire,ormorecorrectlyloosefederationofindependenttribes,couldtentativelybelocatedaround 20,000yearsBP. ItwasfirstJamesChurchwald(18521936),aBritishofficerwhoservedinIndiaduringthe1880ieswhobroughtthe AncientUighurEmpiretotheattentionoftheworld.HeclaimedthatalostcontinentnamedMuexistedonceupona time.AsthecontinentlocatedinthemiddleofthePacificOceandisappearedundertheseaduetosomecataclysmic disaster,peopleofthisculturemigratedtodistantlocationsoftheworld.Theirlargestandmostimportantcolonial empirewastheAncientUygurEmpire,theEmpireoftheSun.Churchwaldclaims: NexttoMuherself,theUighurEmpirewas 1 thelargestempiretheworldhaseverknown .
ChurchwaldwroteseveralbooksonMu2, but as of today (2009) the sunken Mu continent has not been discovered. Nevertheless, the Ancient Uighur federation of tribes is a fact and can be demonstrated to have existed for a rather long period of time. This culture did not totally disappear from the face of the world, but has mutated and evolved into several different nations speaking several interrelated languages.
1UnderstandingMu,HansStefanSantesson,PaperbackLibraryEdition,1970

LostContinenofMuandTheChilderenofMubyJamesChurchwald.

Let us ponder on the main climatic changes which forced these tribes to move out of Central Asia and spread all over the world.

PresentdaycentralAsiaisinhospitableandpatchedwithvastdeserts.Ithasbeendemonstratedthatamajor climaticchangehasoccurredintheseregions.AgreatfloodsweptupovereasternandnortheasternAsiaand destroyedseveralUighurcitiesandsettlements,drowningmostoftheinhabitants,andburyingordestroyingalmostall architecturalstructures.Themainreasonofthatfloodwasthemeltingoftheglaciers,extendingoveralmostallof northernregionsofAsiaandEurope. ThefloodbroughtsomealkalinedepositsthatresultedintransformingtheGobiandTaklamakanofcentralAsiaintoa sandy,rocky,inhospitabledesert.TherehavebeenextensivestudiesonthegeologicalstructureofCentralAsia.In suchajointpublicationofPhilipL.Kohlet.al.3itissaid: AstrikingexampleofchangesinCentralAsiantopographyisprovidedbythe`Takyr`formationsoftheCentralAsiansdeserts.Takyrsare alkalinesoilformations,generallycontainingonlyalgaeandlichens,whichareformedbytheaccumulationofdryalluviuminnaturaldepressions. Physicallytheyformsmooth,bare,thinandhardparquetlikeorcrackedstructures,whicharetheresultofrapiddryingofstiltsuspensionsand thecementingofsurfacelayersbycarbonatecrustsofCalcium.TheyaredistributedoverlargewaterlesstractsthroughoutCentralAsia,providing convincingevidenceoftheretractionorshiftinwatercourses. ThesewordstellusthatatacertainperiodoftimeCentralAsiawasaregioncontainingmanywaterways,riversand largelakes.Thementionedfloodcamenotonlyfromthemeltingofthenorthernglaciers,butalsofromthewestas claimedbyW.RyanandW.Pitman4.

TheabovemapwasdrawnbyJ.Churchwaldin1925.HeclearlyindicatedthevastregionsofAsiaoccupiedbythe AncientUighurEmpire.ThehypotheticalMucontinentisshownonthelowerrightsideofthemap.Although,not indicatedonthismapavastinternallakeorevenseaexistedatthecentralwesternregionofAsia,extendingfrom theArallakeuptoandincludingtheBalkhashlake.Manycitieswerelocatedattheedgeofthishugeinternalsea, whichgavetheopportunitytolearnandpracticeseafaringtothepeoplelivingaroundthisarea. PresentdayUighursofinteriorAsialiveforthemostpartinwesternChina;intheSinkiang(Sinjan)Uighur AutonomousRegion.ThispeopleissaidtobedescendedfromtheancientUighurnationthatwassovereignfromthe 10thtothe12thcenturyAD.Butinfacttheiroriginistotallyforgotten.Theyhavebeenknownundermanynames throughouttheages,suchas:Turani,Kashgari,Turki,Tangut,Tarkhut,KhitanLiao,Jurchen,Xia(Hsia),HuiHo,Minyag,Topa,HsiungNu,


Tuerke,ChangDi,TouKiou,Mi,Mu,Hu,andHun.
3CentralAsia,P.L.Kohl,ISBN:2865380718,Page26.
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4NoahsFlood:NewScientificDiscoveriesabouttheEventThatChangedHistory, byWilliamRyanandWalterPitman,Simon&Schuster,2000.
5ImperialNomads,LucKwanten,UniversityofPennsylvaniaPress,1979.

Itwouldbeanerrortoconsiderthesenationsasbeingalldifferentfromeachother.Theyallbelongedtothesame TurkicstockandallspokeapproximatelythesameAltaiclanguage,whichdevelopedfromtheprotolanguage.Note thattheTurkswerealsoknownunderthenameMu.Therefore,thelostMuEmpireclaimedby JamesChurchwaldwas anothernamegiventotheimperialnomadsofAsia.Someoftheabovenamesaredifferentpronunciationsor adaptationsbelongingtodifferentneighboringnations.Itisawellknownfactthatmostofourpresentknowledgeabout theCentralAsiaticancienthistorycomesfromtheChinesechronicles.Theforeignwordswerealwaysadaptedtosuit theChinesemonosyllabicpronunciation.Therefore,theoriginalpronunciations,inmanycases,weretwistedalmost beyondrecognition.InhisbookLucKwanten says: TheHsiungnuwasnotthefirstorganizedstateonthesteppe,foritappearstohavebuiltuponapreexisting,butunknown,tradition.Only archeologicalevidenceatteststothehistoricalexistenceofearliersteppecivilizations,buttherewereatleastthreesuchcentersofcivilization,
andtheevidencesuggestsapresenceonthesteppeseveralcenturiesbeforetheHsiungnu.(5)

RecognizingthissituationwewilladoptthenameUighurasagenericnameforthesegenetically,culturallyand linguisticallyconnectedpeople.Thehistoryofthesepeopleisthehistoryofhumanity,thehistoryofthe ForgottenPast.

DiversificationofLanguages
TheAsiaticprotolanguagehasbeennamedasNostraticbyRussianlinguists.Thisnameimmediatelylinksthe protolanguagetoIndoEuropeanandespeciallytoLatin,sinceNostraticmeansourstratum,ourgroupinLatin.Iam oftheopinionthattheprotolanguagefirstbecamethecommonlanguageofthelargeEurasiancontinentandthen diversifiedintoseveralsubgroups.ThisdiversificationintosubgroupsisshownintheTablebelow.

AtthetopoftheTableweplacetheProtolanguageofCentralAsiawhichwasoncethesinglelanguageofthewhole Eurasiancontinent.Duringthisperiod,groupsofpeople(tribes)weremostlynomadsandmovedtheirherdsfrom pasturestopasturesdependingontheweatherconditions.TheProtolanguageofCentralAsiaevolvedintoEurasian astimewentbyandaspeoplestartedtoformindependentruralstablesettlements.Eurasianshouldnotbeconsidered asaspecificlanguagespokenbyrealpeople,butratherasadefinitionlinkedtoaneweraoffixedsettlements.One canlooselydefineEurasianasthecommonlanguageoftheNeolithicperiod. OntheleftsideoftheTableweseethelanguagegroupswhichevolvedonthecentral,eastern,westernandsouth westernpartsofEurasia.OntherightsideoftheTablewefindlanguagegroupswhichevolvedonthenortheastern andsoutheasternpartsofEurasia.Thesegroupseventuallyleftthemainlandandspreadovernewcontinents.The languagegroupswhichstillhaveaclearlinktotheoriginalProtolanguageareplacedatthetopofthelist.Asthelink weakensandbecomesmurkythelanguagegroupsmovetothebottomofthelist. ThevisionsupportedbythisTableisthatpresentlytherearetwolanguagegroupsthatstillhavethestrongestlinkto

theoriginalProtolanguage.ThesearetheAltaicgrouponthemainAsiaticcontinentandtheEskimoAleutgroup extendingfromthenortheasternpartsofAsiatothenorthernregionsofAmerica,uptotheislandofGreenland.Itwill be,therefore,mostlogicaltostartconsideringtheAltaiclanguagegroupinsomewhatmoredetail.

TheaboveTableshowsthethreemainbranchesoftheAltaiclanguages.Inthecenterwehavetheextinct languages.Thesewere,mostprobably,languagesthatsplitfromEurasianbeforethecleardistinctionofUralicfrom Altaic.Therefore,onecanstillfindmanylinguisticcluesconnectingtheseextinctlanguagestobothAltaicaswellasto Uraliclanguages.ResearchhasbeendoneonthelinguisticconnectionofSumeriantobothTurkishaswellasto modernHungarian.Thevalidityoftheselinkscanbedemonstratedbyshowingtheiroriginstemmingfromthe forgottenrealmoftheProtolanguage.

TheProtolanguageofCentralAsia
ThewordsoftheProtolanguagewereallmonosyllabic.Thesemonosyllabicwordsweremadeoutofstrongvelarand dentalconsonantsjoinedto8differentvowels.Thevowelsweregroupedintotwogroupsof4,accordingtoaninternal soundharmony.The4thickvowelsarea(asainabut),ugh(asastrongvelariory),o(asoingo)andu(asuinyou). The4thinvowelsaree(aseinbet),i(asiniinhit),/eu(asuinburn)and(asuinburette). Thevowelsinonegroupwereinterchangeableandanainamonosyllabicwordcouldverywellbereplacedbyau astimewentby.Thesamereplacementcouldalsotakeplacewithinthevowelsofthethingroup.Butnovowel belongingtoonegroupcouldreplaceanothervowelfromadifferentgroup. Regardingtheconsonants,thelabials(producedwiththelips)suchasp,b,m,fandvaswellaspairofvelars (producedwiththetongue)suchastwithd,kwithg,khwithq,lwithrandzcouldalsoreplaceeachotherasaresult ofnormallinguistictransformation.Aclearexampleofsuchatransformationhappenedwithinthegenericname Uighur.ThisgenerictribalnamewaspronouncedinamuchstrongerversionasOkhuzintheancientProto language.AsaresultoflabializationthethickObecameUi,thethickkbecamegandthezbecamer.Afurther changehappenedwiththesofteningoftheghintoag,endingupasUgor,Ungar,Hungar,andHungarian.This transformationtellsusthattheUrallanguagegroupincludingHungarian,FinnishandSamoyedareoffspringofthe ancientProtolanguage,closelyrelatedtotheAltaiclanguages. AsimilarchangehappenedwithinTurkishwhichhasazandanrversion.Themorearchaiczversionisstillalive intheAnatolianOghuzTurkish.WhiletherversionisfoundintheChuvashTurkish.Chuvashiaisanautonomous republicwithinpresentdayRussia.InthatTurkishdialectOguzispronouncedasOgur.Kyz(girl)ispronouncedas hyr.TheChuvashlanguagecontainsseveralsimilarcases. OkhuzisformedofarootOkhandasuffixuz,whichisaclearindicationthattheProtolanguagewas

agglutinative.Wordscouldbeformedbyconcatenatingrootwordsandsuffixes.TherootwordOkhlostitsstrongh andbecameOktomeanarrowinmodernTurkish.WiththesuffixuzOkhuzmeanswearethearrow.Inthis wordwefindseveralhiddenmeanings.First:wearethearrowpeopleandmoveasfastasanarrow,second:weare thewarriorscarryingarrowsandthird:wearetheluckysuperiorones,sinceOgurandUgurmeanbothluckyand alsosuperior.ThewordugurchangedabitandbecameaugureinFrenchandauguryinEnglishtomeangood omen. ThenameOkhorOghdidnotrepresentasingletribe,butratherwasthecommongenericnameusedduringthe earlyperiodoftheRootlanguage.Beingahuntercarryingabowandanarrowwastheprerogativeofanyadultmale. ThisiswhythewordforboyinTurkishisOghlan,meaningacquireanarroworequivalentlybecomeanadult. Similarly,OksuzorOeksuezmeansayoungpersonwholosthisparent.Inotherwords,havingnoadultpersonfor protection.Inthiscasetheadultpersonisgenerallythemother,sincethefatherismostofthetimeawayfromhome. AfurthertransformationofOkhisfoundintheancienttribalnameAkh.TherewasanationlivinginMesopotamia namedasAcadiansandanotheronenexttotheHelensknownastheAkhapeople.AnotherAkhatribeisfoundin southernChinaextendingintoThailand. ThegenericnameOkhchangedintoOcalloverthesoutherncostofEurope.Thereisaratherlargeterritoryknown asOccitaniawhichisnotanymorealegalorpoliticalentity.Thisculturalarea,inwhichalanguagecalledLenga DOc(OclanguageorOccitan)wasspoken,islocatedbetweenSpainandnorthernItaly,comprisingthetotalityof southernFrance. TheworldwideacceptedOK(Okay)asanaffirmationmeaningyeshasitsrootsintheOclanguage.Itwasusedto affirmthesuperiorityoftheOcleadercarryingabowandanarrowandlateronaspear.ThelargeOcterritoryis showninthemapbelow.

TheHiddenMeaningofPetroglyphs
Petroglyphsareimagescreatedbyremovingpartofarockbycarvingorengraving.ThistermismadeouttwoGreek words,petros(stone)andgliphein(tocarve).Theoldestpetroglyphsarebelievedtobeatleast10,000yearsoldbut astheyarecarvedonrockstheexactdatecannotbedeterminedbycarbon14dating.Petroglyphsarealsodefinedas rockartbutthemessagethattheyconveyistotallydisregarded.Thisisbecausethemeaninginthesecarvingsis closelyrelatedtothebeliefsofthatforgottenperiod.Withoutknowingthebeliefsystemoftheseancientpeopleitis quiteimpossibletodecipherthehiddenmeaningofthepetroglyphs.InthischapterIwilltrytounravelthehidden meaningofpetroglyphs. Petroglyphsarefoundworldwide,butthemaximumconcentrationofthesecarvingsstillexistsinthehighregionsof theAltaiMountainsofCentralAsia.ThenumberofthesecarvingssurvivinginCentralAsiaisestimatedtobearound 50,000.Thishugenumberofcarvingscannotbesimplyexplainedasbeingloveofartoraddictiontocarving. Theremustbeanotherimportantreasonforsuchacontinuousandconsistenteffort. Themostcommonfigurefoundworldwideisthewildgoat(ibex)withlongcurvedhorns.Whyweretheycarvedon

rocksbyancientpeople?Wasitbecausetheywerethemainpreyofthesepeople?Werethepetroglyphsrelatedto somemagicwishforanabundanthunt?Idonotthinkso.Thisisbecausewecanfindthesamefigureoftheibexin regionswheretheywereveryscarce,suchasthehotplateauofArizona,NevadaandNewMexicointhesouthand centralpartsofNorthAmerica.ThepicturesbelowshowanibexoftheAltaiMountains. Theibexwasveneratedasbeingthesymbolofagilityandpower.Itsagilityand capacitytoclimbthehighestpeakswasconsideredtoberelatedtosomesuper powernotexistinginhumans.Becauseasoneclimbsthehighmountainous regionstheairbecomesthinnerandoxygenconcentrationreduces.Itbecomes moreandmoredifficulttobreatheonthesehighmountains.Buttheibexhasno suchproblem.Itcanjumpfromrocktorockwithoutanydifficultyandclimbthe highestpeaks.Thisspecialpowerwasprobablyonemainreasonforvenerating theibexasasacredanimal.Anotherimportantreasonforveneratingtheibexwas itscapacitytoapproachthesun. Ancientpeopleconsideredthesunastheirmaindeity.Thesunwastheholypowerresidingbeyondthehorizon.It gaveheatandlightduringthedaytimeandwasthesymbolofthelifegivingcreatordeity.Whenitmovedbeyondthe horizondarknesssettledandwildanimalcameoutforhunting.Therefore,thesunwasthesymboloflife,protection andgoodness.Itspresencegavecomfortanditslackgavefeartotheearlyhumans.Anycreaturethatcouldapproach thesunwasveneratedashavingmysticalpowers.Theibexandmostbirds,especiallytheeagle,weresuchsacred animals.Alsomountainswereacceptedasbeingspecialplaces.Thisisbecausemountainswerenaturalformations risingtowardsthesun. Earlypeoplebelievedthatthepoweroftheibexresidedinitshorns.Thehornsofanibexaremuchlongerthanan ordinarygoatandthereforecontainmorepower.Themaleibexhadlongerhornscomparedtoitsfemale.Thiswas alsoconsideredasasignofforceandspecialenergy.So,notonlytheibexbutalsoallhornedanimalswere consideredtobesacredandtheirhornwasthesitewheretheirpowerresided.Sincethehorn,byitself,wasaccepted tobethesitewherethatmysticalpowerresided,leadersoftheancienttribesstartedtowearhornedhelmetsand hornedheadornamentsinordertoshowthattheytoowerespecialandpowerful.Theleaderswereincarnationsofthe sundeityonearthandthereforecouldrisetowardsthesunandperformmysticalflights.Thisishowshamanismand mysticaldancesandritualsstartedamongearlyhumansspeakingtheprotolanguage.Duringthesesacredgathering songswerechantedaroundbonfires.Firebecameholybecauseithadthesamepowerandcharacteristicasthesun. IhavementionedinChapter1thattheTurkicMu(Uighur)Empirewasnamedas EmpireoftheSun.Theirsymbolswere representationsofthesunandtheirleaderwastheshaman.Thepicturesbelowareclearindicationsofthis connection.Ontheleftsideweseeapersonwearinghornsandholdingaspiral . There are several animals turned towards that person. The person on that petroglyph is the shaman incarnating the sun deity. He is the leader of the tribe. This is why all horned animals are looking in his direction. The same situation can be seen in the petroglyph at the center.
6

6Geister,GtterundSymbole,FelixR.Paturi,Frederking&Thaler,page121

ThecentralimageisapetrogylphfromahighpeakintheAltairegionofCentralAsia 7. A long horned ibex and a horned deer are the main figures of this image. The length of the horn of the ibex is exaggerated on purpose to tell that this is not a regular ibex, but a special sacred one. The petroglyph on the right hand side is again an ibex from eastern Turkey, from the Tirishin plateau near the city of Van 8. If we find the same symbols in such distant regions of the world, we can conclude that these cultures were once connected and their source was common. Theearlycultureoftheprotoworldveneratedacommon Sungod.Sincethesunresidesinthesky,allcreaturesas wellasnaturalformationsrisingtowardsthesunhadalsotobevenerated.ThisculturalbeliefstartedinEurasiaand spreadintotheworldasthesepeoplemovedtowardsnew,unexploredregionsandterritories. Inthepicturesbelowweseepetroglyghsfromthenewworld.Concentriccirclesarerepresentationofthesundeity.A ropeladderandahandisrisingtowardthesun.Thereareibexesandapersonwearinghornsinthelowerleftside.

Thesepetroglyhsaretheprecursorsoftheearlyideograms.Ideogramsaresymbolicsignsthatconveyanideaina moresophisticated,rationalizedandrefinedmanner.Theyaretheearlyformsofsymbolicwriting.Theywerenotdrawn bychanceorbypurposelessimagination.Theiroriginwasrootedintheearlyformsandpicturesexistinginpetroglyphs drawnbytheirancestors.Letusnotforgetthatseveralthousandyearselapsedbetweenthepictographicrockcarvings andthesymbolicideograms. ThereisaspecialtermusedtodefinetheideogramsinTurkish.Thiswordis Tamga,whichmeansanideogram containingacompletemessage.Therefore,theearlyideogramswerenotphoneticlettersbutvisualimagesconveyinga sacredmessage.Earlyideogramswerenotcarvedonrockorontheinteriorofcavesjustforfunorforcountingherd animals,asmanybelieve.Theywerecarvedforsendingmessagestothesungod.Theyweretheearlyformsof writtenprayers.Iwillponderandconveymoredetailonearlyideogramsinthefuturechapters.

Inthepictureaboveweseethreedifferentbutsimilarcarvingsofthesundeity.TheoneontheleftisfromCentral Asia.TheoneinthecenterisfromthesouthernsideoftheAlp,inthemountainousregionofnorthItaly.Theoneinthe
7 8
SibiryannBilinalt, ServetSomuncuolu,Atlasmagazine178,page95 AnadoludaKayastresimleri.ErsinAlok,1988,stanbul,page40

rightisapetroglyphfromCanada.Oneinterestingcommonfeatureisthatthesunandthehumanaremergedina singleimage.Thisisbecausetheshamanwhoisalsotheleaderofthetribeincarnatesthepowerofthesundeity.

TheAsiaticScythians
OneoftheCentralAsiaticancientculturalcentersislocatedintheAltaiautonomousrepublicwithinRussia.TheAltai republicistheterritoryofhighlandssituatedintheverycenterofAsiaatthejunctionofSiberiantaiga,steppesof KazakhstanandsemidesertsofMongolia.Thisregionispopulatedpresentlybyseveralgroupsofpeopleknown underthenames,theTubalars,theTeleuts,theShors,theTelengits,theUryanhaitsandtheOirots.Theyallspeaka Turkishdialectwhichstemsfromtheearlyprotolanguage. Itisclaimed,ingeneral,thattheSaka(Scythian)tribesinhabitedtheseregionsthroughoutClassicalAntiquity (1),but itisalmostnevermentionedthattheSakapeoplebelongedtotheancientUighurfederation.Thename Sakacomes fromtheprotolanguageandisformedoutoftwomonosyllabicwords;AsandOk.Wecanguessthatthereweretwo neighboringgroupoftribesnamedastheAsandtheOkwhomergedintoaloosefederation,toformtheAsOk;which intimebecametobeknownastheSakapeople.InearlyAltaicvowelsbelongingtothesamegroup,suchasaand ocouldreplaceeachotherandevenchangeplacewithinaword.Thisfacthasbeenmentionedin TheProtolanguageof CentralAsia. TheAspeoplewere,mostprobably,oneoftheprominenttribesintheregionsincethecontinentofAsiaisnamedafter them.EventodaywehaveacountrynamedAzerbaijan,whosenameismadeout4monosyllabicTurkishwords. Azor Asisthetribename,Erstandsformaleorhuman,BayisatitlemeaningleaderandJanmeaningspirit.Sothename standsforThespiritualleadershipoftheAspeople. HerodotusdescribedtheSakaaspeoplewearingtrousersandpointedhats.Theycarriedbows,arrowsanddaggers. Theirbattleaxwascalledthesagar .Theyworshipedthesungodandburiedtheirdeadatthetopofhighpeaks,as mentionedbyA.Siliotti :
9 10

ArcheologicalresearchhasshownthattheplainsinthesouthernandwesternregionsofKazakhstanweredenselypopulatedfromtheeight centuryBC;itwasherethatconcentrationsofimmensetumulustypenecropolisescontainedgravegoodsofsuchsplendorthatarcheologistscall thetumuliroyalkurgan.

(page203)

ThewordkurganismadeoutofOkUrgan,whichmeansThelocationwheretheOkresides.UrisaTurkicword meaningtoresideortosettle.ThereweretwoancientSumercitiesinMesopotamiannamedUrandUruk.Whenthe suffixganisaddedtoanyverb,thenewwordbecomesanoun;thereforekurganistheplaceoffinalresidenceforthe Okleaders.Theartobjectsfoundinthesekurgansaregenerallymadeoutofgoldandconveysymbolsoftheearly Altaicculture. Aboveweseeanelkwithhugehornsjoinedtogetherwith agryphon.Thespecialsymbolismofjoiningseveral animalsinonepeaceofartwasacommonpractice employedamongancientAsiaticcultures.Theartifact aboveismadeoutofpuregoldandwasfoundinakurgan nearIsskgl,alakeinKazakhstan.Theexaggerated hornsaretypicalandsymbolizepower,asmentionedin TheHiddenMeaningofPetroglyphs.

9DwellingsofEternity,AlbertoSiliotti,BarnesandNoblebooks,2000,(page202)

10

Histories,Book4,TranslatedbyRawlingson,WordsworthEditions,1996

Thesymbolismhiddenintheseartifactsandimagescan beconsideredasbeingpartofasemioticwritingsystem. Thissemioticsystemofconveyingideashasbeenthe precursorofseveralwritingsystemsemployedtodayall overtheworld.Belowweseeibexescarvedinrockwith excessivelyexaggeratedlonghorns.Comparingthese carvingstotherefinedartoftheScythiansonecan concludethattheScythiansweretheoffspringofthe ancientCentralAsiaticpeople. Afurtherproofofthisconnectionisfoundinanarticle publishedbyNatalyaPolosmak.Shestartsherarticlewith thefollowingwords :
11

UndercapriciousskiesinsouthernSiberiaarareunlootedtombliesreadytoilluminatethecultureoftheancientPazyrykpeople.Thesesemi nomadicherderslaidtheirwellappointeddeadhereinthehighsteppes,thePasturesofHeaven,ascloseastheirworldcametothegreatbeyond.

Pazyrykisaspecialsitewheremorethan150kurganshavebeenfoundandinvestigatedbyRussianarcheologists.It islocatedontopofthehighUkokplateauwhichisatthejunctionofRussia,Kazakhstan,ChinaandMongolia(map above).Frozendeepinsideakurganthewellpreservedbodyofalady,probablyashamanwoman,wasdiscovered. Shehadthetattooofanelkonhershoulder(centralimageabove).Ontherightsideweseeanotherelkstatuefrom thesamePazyryksite.Thecommonfeatureoftheseelkswastheovergrownhorns,clearindicationofmysticaloreven physicalpower. Thenameofthisplateauisformedoutoftwomonosyllabicwords;UkandOk.Uk(spelledasook).Ukisanancient protowordmeaningup.ActuallyupcomeintoEnglishfromtheVikinglanguagewhichisaUralAltaiclanguage.Up ispronouncedasoopinSwedish.TheU,whichispronouncedasyoohasacquiredayinEnglish.Thesame additionhappenedalsoinTurkish.UpisyukaryinTurkishwherethefirstsyllableispronouncedasyoo.Thereis alsoanotherclueinthenameUkraine,whichisthenameofthecountryabovetheBlacksea.Thesimilaritybetween UkaryinTurkishandthecountrynameUkraineisworthnoticing.Thesuffixru/ry/gystandsfortowardsinTurkish. SoUkrainemeanstowardsthenorth. AfurtherindicationisfoundinthecommontribalnameofindigenouspeoplelivingintheNorthEasternpartsofAsia. ThesearetheYukagirwhooccupiedahugeterritoryfromLakeBaikaltotheArcticOcean.Ifwesplitthename YukagirasYukagirthemeaningenterupappears,whereyukaisupandgirmeansenterinTurkish.Thisname fitsperfectlytothetribesthatmovedupnorthofCentralAsia. WiththesecorrelationswecandeducethattheUkokregionwasthehighplateauoftheOkpeople.

11

PasturesofHeaven,NationalGeographic,Vol.186,No.4,page80.

ClimaticChanges
SeveraltribesoftheancientUighurpeople,livinginCentralAsia,hadtoleavetheregionduetodrasticclimatic changes.Theclimateofthenorthernhemispherehasbeenalternatingperiodicallyduringthelast20,000years.The graphbelowshowsthisperiodicalalteration .
12

Weseethattheaveragefluctuationof6degreesCentigradecanresultinmajorclimaticchanges.Theredline indicatestheendoftheiceage,whichcanbeestimatedtobearound16,000yearsBP.Anothercoldperiodhappened about11,000yearsago.Nowadaysweareintheglobalwarmingperiod.Thepresentmeltingofthepolaricesheet maybepartlyrelatedtothisraiseinglobaltemperature. Therehasbeenawarmingperiodbetween16,000to14,000yearsBP.Duringthisperiodlargelakesandinternal seesformedinthecentralwestpartsofAsia.Butanothercoldspellswepttheseregionsaround11,000yearsBP.Asa resultofsuchclimaticchanges,riversandlakesretreatedtoleavetheirplacetosemideserttaiga,swampandtundra. Thissituationwasmentionedinthefirstchapter, TheUighurEmpire.Asaresultofthesedrasticclimaticchangesseveral wavesofmigrationshappenedoutofCentralAsia.Thenewgeologicalepoch,whichstartedabout10,000yearsBP,is definedasTheHolocene.

TheancienttopographyofwestcentralAsiaisshownintheleftsideofthemapabove . There were many lakes and even huge internal sees in this region. The Black Sea had a connection to these internal lakes. This map is also supporting William Ryan and Walter Pitman (Chapter 1, Ref: 4) who claim that a flood came from the west into these regions.
13

MostoftheinternallakesandriversaredriedupnowadaysandonlytheAralandtheBalkashlakesaswellassome
12 13
ForaminiferalEvidenceofYoungerDryasAgeCoolingontheBritishColombiaShelf.GeographieetQuaternaire, Pattersonetal.1995,Volume49,No:3,page409 ThemapofancientOkrukisdrawnbyKzmMiran,anindependentresearcheroftheancientprotolanguage.(CourtesyofTurgayTfekiolu).

largeriversareleftbehind.Thenameofthisregionwas OqUruq(shownonthemap)intheearlytimesandtodayitis Okruk.PresentdayOkrukregionisshowninredinthesmallmapofRussia.Theadjacentregionisshowninyellow, wheretheObRiverflows.TheAralLakeisshownonthelowerleftsideofthemapontherighthandside. Oquruq(Okhurugu)meanstheOksettlement(see TheAsiaticScythians)andtheObRiverwasprobablycalledOk. ThepresentnameObistheresultofalinguisticshiftfromavelarktoalabialb.Thepeoplelivingintheseregions speaktheObUgriclanguages,whichbelongtotheFinnoUgricandUralAltaiclanguagegroups.ThenameUral stemsfromtheUralMountains,whichareconsideredtoformthenaturalboundarybetweenAsiaandEurope.Wesee thatthenameofthesemountainsisformedofUr,beingtheancientwordforsettleandAl,meaningtakeinTurkish. TheancientvastOkUrukregionissplitintosmallautonomousOblastsandOkrugs.OblastistheRussianword standingforarea,districtorregion.ThepeopleintheOkrukregioncallthemselvestheKhantandtheMans.The nameKhantisprobablyrelatedtoKhang,whichisthetitlegiventoallEurasianrulers.Wefindthefollowingtitlesin Eurasian:
KHANG: KAM: KAGAN: HAKAN: HUANG: WANG:

Earlytitleforrulerintheprotolanguage. CentralAsiaticspiritualleaderandShamanperson. AncientTurkishandMongolruler. TurkishruleroftheOttomanEmpire. TitleoftheChineseemperor. KingoftheChinesekingdom. KinginSwedish. KinginGerman

TARKAN: CentralAsiaticandancientBulgarianruler.AlsofoundinHittite. KUNG: KNG:

AndfinallyKNGinEnglish. OtherformsareKaiser,fromprehistoricGermanicandCaesarinLatin,bothcomingfrom OkAsErintheproto language.WealsofindthewordKamiinJapanesemeaninggod.Thiswordis,mostprobably,relatedtoKam,since theKamcouldperformspiritualflightsandtalktothegods.AfurtherindicationexistsintheJapanesewordookami meaningwolfbutalsosacreddeity,sinceoomeanssacredandthewolfwasalsoconsideredtobesacredby CentralAsiaticpeople. Itisinterestingtonotethatoo,whichisanexclamationsoundofvenerationutteredinfrontofsuperiorand importantpersonsorsituations,founditswayasaweinEnglish,hautinFrench(meaninghigh)andhauptin German.ThehinFrenchisaspiratedandisnotpronounced.Theremayormaynotbeadirectlinkbetweenthe JapaneseooandtheFrenchhaut,butthesimilarityinthesoundandinthemeaninghasitsoriginsintheproto language(seeChapter2,DiversificationofLanguages). ThewolfwasaholysymbolnotonlyfortheJapanesepeoplebutalsofortheTurkicandGermanicpeopletoo.Some Turkicnationsadoptedthewolfastheirholytotemanimalbecauseofitsindependentcharacterrefusingtobetamed anditsabilitytohuntinpacks.OnastoneinscriptionfoundincentralAsiathefollowingsentencecanbereadin ancientTurkish :
14

BecauseGodgavepowertomyfathertheKaganhisarmywaslikehuntingwolves Thereishereaclearrespectforthewolfasbeingananimalofpowerbutalsoasananimalhavingasocial organizationandknowinghowtohuntasagroup.Thisaspectofthewolfwassomuchveneratedthatthewolfhead symbolhasbeenselectedtoappearoncertainTurkicflags.WeseetheGktrkflagbelow. 14InscribedontheeastsideoftheBilgeKaganstelefoundintheOrhunvalley.Theseinscriptions,writteninanancientTurkishalphabetwerefirstreadbyWilhelmThomsen,


aDanishscholar.

AccordingtoancientTeutonicbeliefstheGermanicpeoplewereledbyawolf namedWolfgang,whichinGermanmeans"Thewalkingwolf"."gang"stands for"going",anindicationfortheShamanshowingthewayandleadingthetribe. ThesamefigureisfoundintheTurkishmythologywhereafemalewolfnamed Asena(AsanameaningmotheroftheAspeople)leadsthetribeoutofa mountainousregionnamedOetueken.Suchculturalcorrelationsareindications ofcommonancestrallinks.

UniversalSymbols
WehaveseeninChapter2,DiversificationofLanguages,howthepeoplespeakingtheprotolanguagediversifiedand becamethesourceofamultitudeofcultures.Inspiteofthesechangestheoriginalrootculturekeptitssymbolsinthe formofanesoteric,semiotichiddenknowledge.Thesesymbolswererepresentationsofmonosyllabicrootwords. Eachsymbolicsigncanbeconsideredasabeingaseal( atamga)conveyingaculturalmessage15. TheCentralAsiaticUighurwhoveneratedtheSundeity,selectedthe+signtorepresenttheirtriballeader.Thecross hasbeenasacredsymbol,adoptedworldwide,longbeforetheChristianera.Thewordcross,whichwaskrossin OldNorseandcruxinLatin,hasitsoriginintheprotolanguage.Krosscanbeseparatedintothreepartsas OkOrOs.I discussedthemeaningofOkinthepreviouschapters.Thesecondsyllablestandsforvenerable,importantand universal.ThisrootwordhasbeenpronouncedasOo,OrandOn,dependingontheculture.Thelastsuffixosmeans us/weandhastransformedintoiz(Turkish),is(English),ist(German)andest(French).So,OkOrOs(Kross) meanswearethevenerable(universal)Okleader.Theconceptofuniversalityhasbeenrepresentedasacircle, whichisthesymbolofboththesunandalsothewholeregion,sincethewholesurroundingregioncanbedescribed withacircularmovementofthehand.Below(left)weseehowthecrossOkhandthecircleOnjoinedtoformnew symbols,pronouncedasOnkh,Khno,OnkandAnkh.Thesamesymbolsevolvedintomoreartisticandcomplicatedforms, mostlyinAsia,drawnbytheUighurpeopleasseenontherighthandside.

Thecrossinsideacircledoesnotonlymean wearethevenerableOk,butalsowearetheonesthatworshipthesunortheOk leaderhasthepowersoftheSungod.So,theabovesignsarealsotellingusthatthepeoplespeakingtheprotolanguage worshippedthesun.Thesuncultwasthemainreligionofancientpeopleandthepersonperformingspiritualrituals towardthesunduringthedayandaroundafireduringthenightwastheshaman,themedicinemanandthewitch doctor.

15

Geister,GtterundSymbole,FelixR.Paturi,Frederking&Thaler,1992,Germany. ATLASMagazine,January2000,ShamanTurks,Istanbul,Turkey. AJourneyintoChinasAntiquity,MorningGloryPublishers,1997,Beijing,China. HititGunesi,SedatAlp,TUBITAKpublishing,2002,Ankara,Turkey

AboveleftweseepictographsfromValcamonicaengravedonthesouthsideoftheAlpMountains.Theperson extendinghis/herarms(left)underthesunistheOkhleaderandtheoneholdingabowandanarrow(right)istheOk/ Oc/Oscleader.Thispictographisthetypicalsealorsignatureofthesepeople(inthiscasetheEtruscans)whocame toItalyfromthenorth,(SeeChapter1,TheProtolanguageofCentralAsia).

OnthelefttsideaboveweseetheOnkorKnofoundindifferentpartsoftheworld;fromCornwallinsouthwest EnglandtoPeruinSouthAmerica.InancientEgyptitbecametheAnkh,asthesymbolofpowerandlonglife.Onthe rightweseedifferentversionsoftheOnkh. Atfirstglanceonemaythinkthatthepicturesabovedonotrepresentthesameconcept.But,infacttheyarethe semioticsymbolsofaforgottenculture;aculturethatspreadfromAsiaandformedthebaseofcivilization.

TheMinoanCulture
TheislandsontheMediterraneanSea,suchasCyprus,CreteandMalta,havebeensettledfromtheveryearlytimes bytheOkhtribes,expandingfromCentralAsia(seeChapter2, TheProtolanguageofCentralAsia). Wecanattestthisfactfromthesealsandearlyideograms foundinseverallocations.TheOnkorKnoseal mentionedinthepreviousChapterisanimportant indicatorofthisrootculture. BelowweseeseveralOnk/Knosealsfoundindifferent placesoftheworld. ThecoinsfoundontheislandofCretearetheonlyones havinginscriptions.Onecanreadthisthreeletterword fromlefttorightasKNOorfromrighttoleftasONK.

SincethemostimportantancientcityinCretewasKnossos,itisveryprobablethatKNOstandsforKnossos(see mapbelow). IfKNOistheconcatenationofOKON,theoriginal formofKnossoscouldverywellbeOKONASUS.This4 monosyllabicwordmeansWearetheuniversalOCand AS,whichisaclearindicationthattheOk(Oc)people originatingfromAsia.ThenameCrete(Krit/Girit)itself canbeexpandedasOKURETmakeitanOc settlement,whereURmeanssettleandETmeans dointheAltaiclanguages. CreteaboundswithMinoanremains,mostlyfound aroundKnossos,ArkanesandPhaistos.Several differentinscriptionsonclaydocumentshavebeen unearthedbyArthurEvans .Someoftheearlyseals areintheformofarrow,sunanddoubleedgedax.
16

All three symbols (seals) are important indicators of the early Central-Asiatic culture. A. Evans found also a script which he named Linear-A. As of today Linear-A is still not deciphered . Below we see some examples of the Linear-A ideograms. The ONK seal can clearly be seen on the first line of the third box.
17

ThenameMinoanisnottheoriginalnameoftheearlyCretanculture.It hasbeencoinedbyArthurEvans,fromthenameMinos;therulerof Knossos.AccordingtoArthurBernardCook , Minos and Minotaur are only different forms of the same personage, representing the sun-god of the Cretans, who depicted the sun as a bull. As mentioned before, the bull and some horned animals such as the ibex and the elk were all representations of the Okh shaman leader, having the power of the bull, the wings of an eagle and worshipping the sun-god. He was accepted as being the incarnation of the sun-god on earth.
18

WeseethissymbolisminMesopotamia,inAnatoliaandontheMediterraneanislands.Below,(ontheleft)thegolden bullheadandthedoubleedgedaxofMinosareshown . On the right side a winged Sumerian deity having a human head with triple horns and a bull body is shown. Similar statues called Lamassu are found at the entrance gates of palaces in Hattusas (Turkey), in Babylon and Nimrud (Irak) and in Persopolis (Iran). They tell the visitor that the palace they are about to enter belongs to a powerful Okh king who is strong as a bull and has supernatural powers. The double-edged ax will be discussed in a further chapter.
19

16 17 18 19

ArthurEvans(18511941)traveledtoCreteintheearly1890sandinformedtheworldaboutanAegeanwritingsystemwithunfamiliarcharactersofahieroglyphic appearance. Decipherment,MauricePope,ThamesandHudson,1975,London,England. A.B.Cook(18681952)wasscholarofarcheologywhoalsowroteonhistoryofreligions. WondersoftheAncientWorlds,NationalGeographicAtlasofArcheology,page79.

TheDoubleEdgedAx
Thedoubleedgedax,mentionedinthepreviouschapter,hadaveryspecialmeaningfortheOkhpeopleoriginating fromCentralAsia.Itwasthesymboloftheleaderandrepresentedstrengthandpower.Thesymbolismembeddedin thedoubleedgedaxisnotfoundonlyinCrete,butinseveralculturesallaroundtheworld.Thesimilarsymbolsfound intheseremoteareascanbeinterpretedasthecommondenominatorofthesecultures. Belowweseesomeexamplesofthesetransformedforms.Ontheleft,certainTurkishrugdesignscanbeconsidered asstylizedrepresentationsofthedoubleedgedax . These symbols are very similar to the symbols of the Ainu people presently living in northern Japan . The Ainu tribes formerly inhabited the Kuril Islands, southern Sakhalin and the Kamchatka peninsula. Today Hokkaido remains the only homeland of these people. The Ainu symbols drawn on wood and textiles are clear indications of their Uighur origin.
20 21

Atthecenter,thestylizedcrossdesignbelongstotheKhirgizpeopleofCentralAsia.Nextarethesymbolsknownas theOdinCrossoftheVikingsandtheCelticcrossfromIreland?Thereisastrikingsimilaritybetweenthesesymbols andtheUighursealsshowninUniversalSymbols.OdinwasthemaindeityoftheVikingMythologyandThorwashisson . The double-edged hammer of Thor seen below is another version of the double-edged ax (see Chapter 7), making part of the Okh symbolism.
22

20 21 22

AnadoluKilimlerindenrnekler,YusufDurul,Akbankkltr,Istanbul,1987. AINU,W.W.FitzhughandC.O.Dubreuil,UniversityofWashingtonPress,1999. AnIntroductiontoVikingMythology,JohnGrant,GrangeBooks,London,1995.

OdinknownalsoasWotanwastheprimordialdeityoftheNorseMythology.Heresidedinacelestialregioncalled Asgrd(AsgordorgardenoftheAstribes).InAsgardwefindtheconnectiontotheAspeoplewhowerebelongingto theearlyAsiaticUighurEmpire(seeChapter1).ItisveryprobablethattheVikings,whowereveneratingtheir ancestors,promotedsomeoftheirancientleaderstothelevelofsacreddeity.ThisishowacomplicatedNorse pantheoncameintobeing.ThemeaningofOdin cameprobablyfromOtin,asaconcatenationoftwomonosyllabicroot wordsoftheProtolanguage.OtmeantfireandinmeansdescendinTurkish.Therefore,OtinorOdinmeans descendingfire.ThisetymologyagreeswellwiththebeliefthatthespearofOdinalwaysfounditstarget.SinceOdin residedintheunseencelestialrealm,thelightning(fire)descendingfromtheskywasacceptedtobenootherthanhis punishingspear. OdinhadmanysonsbutthemostveneratedonewasThor,thegodofthunder.Sincethunderalwaysfollows lightning,thelogicalconclusionrequiresthatThoristhesonofOdin.Butthename Thor mayalsohaveancient connectionstotheTur(pronouncedasToor)tribesofAsia.TheTurtribesunitedwiththeOkhtribestoformaloose federationoftribescalledtheTurOkhortheTurok,whichweretheancestorsofthepresentTurkishpeople.Noticethat TurksareknownastheTrkinHungarianandalsoastheTuraniandTrki(Ref.5ofChapter1)inmanyhistorical sources. ThemapinChapter1showsavastterritorynamedOccitaniawhichcovers,amongotherregions,northItaly.The ancientsettlersofthisregionareknowntobetheEtruscans.Thisnameistheconcatenatedformof ETurOscan, meaningtheTurandtheOscfederationoftribes.TheEinEtruscanstandsforEstmeaningis/areinLatin.One canfindmanylinguisticandculturalsimilaritiesbetweentheUralAltaiclanguagesandEtruscan.Thereisaregionin ItalycalledToscana,whoseoriginismostprobably TurOscAna,meaningmotheroftheTurandOsc.Thereisalsothe citycalledTarquinia,intheprovinceofLazio,Italy.TarquiniawasanimportantcityinancientEtruria,homeoftwo Etruscankings,TarquiniusPriscusandTarquiniusSuperbus.ThesimilaritybetweenTarquinandTarkan(seeChapter5) pointstothetitleoftheEurasianrulerTurKhan.Consideringtheclearcorrelationbetweenthesetitles,itisdifficultto acceptthesesimilaritiesasbeingpurecoincidence. TheancientlanguagesspokenduringtheironageofItalycanbe approximatelydistributedasshowninthemap.Buttheseregionswere notseparatedbyclearcutcountryborders,asweknowbordersare today.Theywereratherlocationswherewritteninscriptionsofcertain localdialectshavebeendenselyfound.TheOscanlanguagehadmuch incommonwithLatinbutcontainedmanystrikingdifferences.Many commonwordgroupsinLatinwereabsentandwererepresentedby entirelydifferentformsinOscan.DialectsofOscaninclude Samnite, Marrucine,Paelignan,Vestnian,SabineandMarsian.Thesetribesall belongedtotheTurOscconfederacy.TheOscanspeakersadoptedthe Etruscanalphabettowriteintheirowndialect.SinceEtruscanisstill notdeciphered,theoriginalmeaningsofthelettersintheEtruscan alphabetneeddetailedexplanations. Thiswillbedoneinfurtherchapters.Belowweseethe21lettersoftheOscanalphabet.Theredlettersinbracketare theacceptedpronunciations,whichisdebatable,oftheOscanalphabet.

TheEtruscanDice
The origin of the Etruscan population is still unclear and is being constantly investigated by scholars on cultural, linguistic and genetic grounds. Several majorauthorsoftheRomanEmpire,such asLivy,CiceroandHoracecalledthemasTusci orTursci . Thesenamesareingoodagreementwith TurOsc,discussed inthepreviouschapter.ThereareseveralindicatorspointingtotheAsiaticoriginoftheEtruscanpopulation.Their languageisknowntobenonIndoEuropeanandmanysimilaritieshavebeenfoundwithboththeAltaicespecially withTurkishaswellastheUraliclanguages .
23 24

RecentlyaseriousgeneticresearchhasbeenpublishedbyagroupofItalianscientists.Theyhaveinvestigated severalbonesamplesfromtheEtruscanremainsandcameupwiththefollowingconclusions :
25

Etruscan sites appear to have rather homogeneous genetic characteristics. Their mitochondrial haplotypes are very similar, but rarely identical, to those commonly observed in contemporary Italy and suggest that the links between the Etruscans and eastern Mediterranean region were in part associated with genetic, and not only cultural, exchanges. The Etruscans show closer relationships both to North Africans and to Turks than any contemporary population. In particular, the Turkish component in their gene pool appears three times as large as in the other populations.

SincetheTurkishpopulationoriginatedtoalargeextentfromCentralAsia,itcanbeclaimedthattheEtruscanstoo cametoItalyfromAsia,throughtheAlpMountainsinthenorthofItaly.Theirearlysettlementswereonahighplateau namedValcamonica,wheretheyleftmanymarksintheformofpetroglyphs(seeChapter6and7).Afurthersignfor theirUighuroriginisthenameoftheAlpMountains.AlpmeanstallandformidableinTurkish.Thereareseveral propernamesstartingwithAlp;suchasAlpaslan,Alpagut,Alperen,AlperandAlpErTunga. TherearealsosomeinterestingEtruscanartifactswhichhavebeenthefocusofinterest andhavecreatedalotofcontroversyamongscholars (4). One of them is the Etruscan dice (left) found in Tuscany. There are no numbers on the dice but short inscriptions in Etruscan letters. Scholars have tried to decipher these inscriptions and came up with different names for the numbers from 1 to 6. J. Friedrich says .
26

Theinscriptionsonthedicebeingwithoutanydoubtnumbersfromonetosixgaverisetoalarge literatureonthisissue.Buttheorderofthesenumbersisstillunclear.

BelowweseethreedifferentinterpretationsoftheEtruscandice.Theoneattheleftis theinterpretationofL.Bonfante . The central one is the interpretation of Selahi Diker and the one on the right is my interpretation.
27 28

Ididnotinterpretthelettersaswordsstandingfornumbers,butinsteadwordsstandingforactionstobeperformed. Thisisbecausecarvinglettersismuchmoretediousanddifficultthancarvingnumbers,logically.Onewouldnot
23 24 25 26 27 28
DictionnaireIllustrLatinFranais,FlixGaffiot,LibrairieHachette,1934. LestrusquestaientilsdesTurcs?,AdileAyda,Paris,1971. TheEtruscans:APopulationGeneticStudy,Am.JournalofGeneticStudies,March,2004. ExtinctLanguages,JohannesFriedrich,Barnes&Noble,USA,1993. Etruscan,LarissaBonfante,UniversityofCaliforniaPress ,1990. TheWholeEarthWasOfOneLanguage,SelahiDiker,page209,Izmir,1996

choosetocarvethenameofanumberinplaceofthenumberitself.Theassumptionthatthesewordsstandfor numbersisamodernpreconceptionbasedonmoderndices. ThefirstobservationwhichImadewastoidentifytheword Giwrittenfromrighttoleft.Thismonosyllabicwordisthe ancientformofGiy,whichmeansdressupinTurkish.Thesecondtwoletterwordisreadfromrighttoleftasa byL.BonfanteandS.Diker.IreaditfromlefttorightasAmeaningopenorundress.ThereareEtruscan inscriptionswhichhavebeenwritteninbothdirections.Suchasystemofwritingiscalled boustrophedon,meaningasthe oxploughs.Inthissystemthehandofthewritergoesbackandforthlikeanoxdrawingaplowacrossafieldand turningattheendofeachrowtoreturnintheoppositedirection. OncethesecommendshavebeendecipheredtheremainingmonosyllabicwordscouldbeeasilyidentifiedasKal, Ka,HltandAlt.ThesewordsareallwordsusedstillinmodernTurkish,withtheexceptionofHlt.Kalmeans stay,Kameansrunaway,escapeandAltmeansunder,below.Sincewefindoppositemeaningsonopposite facesofthedice,itisobviousthatHltstandsforover,above,whichisstinmodernTurkish.

TheHwasprobablyaspiratedanddisappearedinmodernTurkish.Wecanseeonthelefthowthesixwordsare inscribedonthedice.Sincethesewordsarecertaincommandstobeperformed,itisquitepossiblethattheyhadtobe performedduringawrestlingcontest.Myguessisthatatthestartorduringthecontestthedicewascastbyone wrestlerandhehadtoperformthecommandappearingatthetopsideofthedice.Theseare:Kal: stayerect,Ka:run away,Alt:staybelow,Hltstayabove,A:undressandGi:dress. TheEtruscanwrestlerscouldalsowrestletotallyundressedastheEtruscanwallpaintingshows .


29

EtruscanInscriptions
Itwasmentionedbefore,inChaper6UniversalSymbols,thatagroupoftribesenterednorthItalyasearlyas4,000BP andsettledintheregionofValcamonica.TheseweretheearlyAsiatic(Uighur) TurOktribesthatcametobelater knownastheEtruscans.Thewholeregionhasbeenoccupiedbythesepeopleandmanyartifacts,somecontaining inscriptions,havebeenfoundandidentifiedasbeingEtruscan.Onesuchinterestingarticle,whichgaverisetomany speculations,isthePiacenzainscribedpieceofbronze.

29

Ref.22ofChapter4,Page45.

ThePiacenzabronzeartifact(below)hastheformofaliverandbecauseofthisshapeithasbeendefinedasa divinatoryarticle.Buttheprotuberancesonthebronzeartifactweredoneonpurposeandthereisnosheepliverthat hassuchprotuberances.DivinationwasthemainactivityperformedbytheEtruscanshamaninancienttimes.But,in myopinion,theartifactisamapoftheregionwiththenamesofdifferenttribeswrittenintheEtruscanalphabet .


30

Theprotuberances,doneonpurpose,arethemountainsandhillsoftheregion.Thisisquitelogicalwhenwe considerthatPiacenzaisacitylocatedonthesouthsideoftheAlpMountains,surroundedbyhills.Atthecenter aboveweseetheEtruscaninscriptionswhicharestillnotdeciphered.Thereisaborderlineattheedgeofthebronze artifactandseveralwordsarecarvedaroundasmallcircle.Eachwordisclearlyseparatedbyborderlines,clear indicationsoflocalregionswheredifferentOktribeshavesettled.Ihaveselectedthreeshortwordsasexamplesto substantiatemyclaim.ThesewordsarereadfromrighttoleftaccordingtoaspellingmethoddevelopedbyKazim Miran .


31

K.MiranclaimedthateachletterintheEtruscanalphabetisamonosyllabicrootword,originatingfromtheProto language(seeChapter1).Therefore,anEtruscanwordismadeoutofseveralconcatenatedmonosyllabic meaningfulrootsyllables/words.Theyarewritten(carved)fromrighttoleft,asontheancientTurkishstone inscriptionsofCentralAsia.Thetopwordabovecanbereadas OkUtchOnUsandmeansWearetheuniversalleader Oktribe.Thefirstsignontherightofthewordisanarrowonthetopwordandacrossonthemiddleword.Thisis becausetheOktribesrepresentedtheirnamesasbotharrowsanddaggers. UtchisaTurkishwordmeaningtipandis pronouncedasudj.TheancientformofthisrootwordisaninvertedE.Noticetheformofthiswordhavingthree extensionsandthewordforthenumberthreeinTurkish,whichis tch.Thethreeprotuberancesonthebronzeartifact mayalsobeasymbolicindicationoftheseleadertribes.AfurthercluetosupportthisclaimisthenameoftheTurkish tribesknownasOuz orUokuz,meaningwearethethreeOktribesorequivalentlywearetheleaderOktribes. ThesecondwordaboveOkUlUsUncanbereadeitherasOkulusun,whichmeans(region)belongingtotheOknation orequivalentlyasOkUlusunyouarethesacredOkinTurkish.Therearetwowordsonthethirdline.Thesecanbe readasUUsSaKa,meaningwearetheleaderSaka(Scythian)tribe(seeChapter4, TheAsiaticScythians). Thisearlyformofwritinghaslateronevolvedtorepresentwordsasweunderstandtoday.But,whenthismethodof readingisnotapplieditisquiteimpossibletodeciphertheEtruscanlanguage.Beinganagglutinativelanguage, EtruscanwiththesespecialcharacteristicsshouldbecomparedtotheUralAltaiclanguagesandespeciallytoTurkish. AnotherEtruscaninscribedartifactistherearsideofamirrorshownontheleft.Weseeawingedmanexaminingthe internalorgansofasacrificedanimal .HisnameisreadfromlefttorightasChalcas,butalmostallEtruscan inscriptionsandnamesarewrittenfromrighttoleft.So,thisnamealsoshouldbereadfromrighttoleft.Inthatcasewe findameaningfulAltaicword,whichis:Saclach.InTurkish saklmeanshiddenanda(ach)meansopen.When thesetwowordscometogetherwefindsaklachorsaklachmeaningopenwhatishidden.Thewingedpersoninthat casebecomesasoothsayerorashamanperformingdivinations.Hiswingsindicatethathecanperformmystical flightsintotheunknown.
32

30 31 32

VoicesinStone,ErnstDoblhofer,GranadaPublishing,1973,London. KzmMiranisanindependentinvestigatoroftheancientProtolanguage. LesEtrusques,JeanPaulThuillier,Gallimard,1990,Paris.

IfChalkasisapropernameitshouldhaveameaningbecause nameswithoutanymeaningwereneverused.Nobodyknows themeaningofChalkasbutthemeaningofSaklachisperfectly fittedtothevisualpicture.Belowweseeintheboxestheword readineitherdirection.Weseethatthephonemetchewas writteninthreedifferentformsinbothEtruscanaswellasinthe ancientTurkishinscriptionsoftheOrhunvalley.Theinteresting pointtonoteisthatallformscontainthreeextremities.These characterscouldbereadasutch,itch,eutchorytch accordingtovowelharmony.

ThecorrelationbetweentheOrhuncharactersandtheEtruscanalphabetgoesfarbeyondthissingleexample.Every letterbeingasealcontainsaconceptthatneedstobeexplainedindetail.Thiswillbedoneinthefuturechapters.

TheEasternExpansion
TheexpansionofAsiatictribesthroughNorthEasternAsiaintoNorthAmericaisawellattestedfact,supportedboth linguisticallyandgenetically.WesawthattheSakapeoplewereandarestillknownastheScythians(seeChapter4, TheAsiaticScythians).ThesepeoplearealsoknownunderthenameofYakut.AlthoughtheoriginofYakutisnotclear, mostprobablyYakuisatranspositionofYuka,whereaanduhavechangedplace.Thesuffixtisfoundinmany Turkishwords.Forexample:kant,boyut,soyut,gmt,.etc.AnothergroupofpeoplenexttotheYukagirarethe Koryak.Thisnameismadeofthekorrootwordandthesuffixyak. Kormeansemberandyakmeansburnin Turkish,sothenameKoryakcanbeunderstoodasglowingember.

ArecentresearchdoneontheAinupeopleshowedthatthey migratedtotheeasternpartsofAsiafromtheCentralAsianregionof LakeBaikal,followingthebanksoftheAmurRiver . When the toponymy of the region is investigated, one can find many clues to the ancient proto-language. On the above map we find Sakhalin, which can be split as Saka-ilin: the land of the Saka, Kurile as Kuru-il The dry territory, where kuru means dry and il means location or territory. So, Kuril becomes a meaningful description for an island in Turkish.
33

TheSeaofOkhotskcanbesplitintoitsconstituentphonemesas: OkhOtsk,fromwhichthemeaningBelongingtothefieryOkh emerges.InthatnameOtrepresentsthefireorratherthefiery humanspiritaswellasthesun(seeChapter6, UniversalSymbols).A similarformofOkhisfoundinthenameHokkaido,where Hokkcould verywellbeatransformedformofOkhandAidocouldbea transformedformofAinu. Othermonosyllabicrootwordmeaningshamanorspiritualleaderis Kam,whichisfoundinthefirstsyllableof Kamchatka. Alltheseinterestingrelationshipscouldntbepurecoincidence.Moreover,thelanguagesofthewholeregion, includingJapanese,haveclearconnectionstotheAltaiclanguagegroupandespeciallytoTurkish.OntheTablebelow 4rootwordsbelongingtotheEasternandNortheasternAsianlanguageshavebeencomparedtoTurkish.

Ata,meaninggrandfatherorancestorisfoundinalmostallAltaiclanguages.Itisarootwordoriginatingfromthe Protolanguage.Ataisfoundinatavism,whoseoriginalmeaningisconnectiontoandrespectfortheancestors.Its presentetymologyisacceptedtobelinkedtoatavusfromLatinandatavismefromFrench.But,fromtheaboveTable weclearlyseeitsEurasianorigin.AlthoughOkastandsaloneamongseveralAna,itclearlyindicatesthatthe shamanOkleaderwasafemaleinancienttimes.Thereareseveralcluessupportingthisclaim.TheaboveTable supportsthetaxonomyoflanguagessubmittedinChapter1;inwhichtheEskimoAleutlanguagegrouphasbeen classifiedasbeingatthesamelevelandincloserelationshipwiththeAltaicgroupoflanguages. Thelastword,whichisisontheaboveTable,isworthconsideringinsomewhatmoredetail. Isstandsforhereit isoritexistsandrepresentsafundamentalconceptwithoutwhichonecannottalkaboutthephysicalworld.Ialready discussedtheoriginofisinChapter6,UniversalSymbols.TherootwordvarisfoundinSwedishasvarandeexisting andvaretmatter.InbothGermanandEnglish warestandsforarticlesofmerchandise.Otherformsarewarehouse, stoneware,glasswareetc..,buttheoriginalformis var,whichhasoriginatedfromtheAsiaticProtolanguage.

33

AINUSpiritofaNorthernPeople,UniversityofWashingtonPress,1999,page56.

Recentlyaresearchhasshownthatadistinctive sequenceintheDNAofEastAsiaticpeopleis widespreadamongthesocalledNativeAmericans . The study examined 1500 people in total and lends strong support to the idea that Native Americans can trace their ancestry to a common founding population in Asia. The map above shows these correlations.
34

AmajorNativeAmericangroupoflanguagesisknownunderthenameofAtapascanormorepreferred Atabaskan(see mapatthetopofthepage).Nowadaysthisnamehasbeenreplacedby NaDenetoincludesomenonAtabascan languages.ButthetermNaDeneisarecentcreationbylinguistswhileAtabaskanistheoriginalname.Atabaskancan besplitintoAtaBashkantomeanAncestorLeaderorThelanguageofourleaderancestors.

TheAnatolianExpansion
Anatolia(presentTurkey)hasbeenacenterofcivilizationthroughouttheages.RecentlyanimportantNeolithicsite hasbeendiscoveredatGbeklitepe(seemapbelow).ThisistheoldestsitediscoveredsofarinAnatolia.Untilrecent timesJericoinPalestineandatalhykinTurkeywerethoughttobetheplaceswherecivilizationflourished.Butat Gbeklitepe,whichhasbeendatedtoabout11,000yearsBP,severalcircularandconcentricwallswithinwhichT shapedmonolithicpillarsthatareupto3metershighhavebeenunearthed.

BelowleftweseetheexcavationgoingonatGbeklitepe.ThecentraldrawinghasbeenexecutedbytheGerman archeologistKlausSchmidtwhoispresentlyconductingthedigs.Wefindastrikingsimilaritybetweenthesecult templesandtheOnkh/Khnosignfoundallovertheworld(seeChapter6,UniversalSymbols).Thedrawingisatopviewof theculttemple.OnsomeoftheTshapedpillarstherearecarvingsofsacredanimalsinrelief.

AnotherimportantantiqueregioninthecenterofTurkeyisknownasCappadocia,wheremanydwellingshavebeen
34
NativeAmericanpopulationssharegenesignature,RoxanneKhamsi,NewScientistMagazine,14February2007.

carvedintothesoftnaturalformations(picturebelowleft).Thesheltershavenotonlybeencarvedabovetheearthbut alsoseveralundergroundcities,madeoutofseveralstagesandmanyrooms,havebeendiscoveredintheregion.One importantundergroundcityisfoundatDerinkuyu,whoseverticalcutdrawingcanbeseenatthecenterimagebelow. OntherightweseetheOnOkhsymbolspaintedonthewallsoftherockcutsheltersofCappadocia.Theyareassumed tobedrawnbytheearlyChristiansettlers.ButinfacttheyweretherelongbeforethearrivaloftheChristians.Wenow canseethecorrelationandsimilarityofthesewallpaintingstothesymbolsofthesunworshippers. WhenChristiansarrivedatCappadociathedwellingswerenotempty.Theywereoccupiedbypeopleworshipingthe sungod.TheearlyChristianspaintedfrescoesandiconsonthewallsofrockcutroomswhichbecametobeusedas primitivechurches.Thisapproachtoreligiondidnosuitthesunworshippersandaclashamongtheseopposingbeliefs influencedtheiconoclastperiod,whichwasaperiodwheretheiconswereerasedfromthewallsoftheearlychurches. InspiteoftheiconoclastperiodmanyfrescoesstillremaintobeseenonthewallsofCappadocia.

ThesimilaritybetweentheOnOkhsymbolsofCappadocia(right)andtheremainsofthetempleatGbeklitepeis worthpondering.Weseethatbotharecircularasasymbolofthesunwithanopeningtobeusedasanentrance insidewhicha+signoraTshapedpillarrepresenttheshamanleaderOkhperson(seeChapter6, Universalsymbols). Thenameoftheregionisalsoworthinvestigating.Cappadociacanbedissectedas Cappadocia.Cappa,writtenas kapa,meanscloseinTurkish.TheEtruscansnamedtheirdwellingscapuaandcabannemeansasmallhut,in French.ThereisanancientEtruscancityinItalywhosenameisCapua.ThewordstandingforheadcoveringinLatin wascappaanditchangedtocapelliinItalian,chapeauinFrenchandcapinEnglish.Thesamewordisfoundas kap(container),kap(door),kapak(cover)andkalpak(hat)inTurkish.Fromthesecorrelationswecannow elucidateCappadociameaning:Thecovered(closed)dwellingsoftheOcpeople.Thisexplanationisingoodaccordancewith theundergroundcitiesfoundintheregion. AnotherinterestingregionofAnatoliaisthesettlementsoftheearlyHattiansfollowedbytheHittites.These civilizationsflourishedinthevicinityofAlacahyk(seemapatthetop).TheHatticivilizationlastedfrom2500BCto 1700BCandtheHittiteslastedfrom1700BCto1190BC.RegardingtheHattianlanguageEkremAkurgalsays:
IthasbeenestablishedthatHattianwasalanguagepeculiartoitself,completelydifferentfromIndoEuropeanandSemiticlanguages.
35

TheHittitesweregreatlyinfluencedbytheHattiansinreligion,mythology,ceremoniesandcustoms.OfHattianorigin wastheSunGoddessoftheHittites.Manyartifactsrepresentingthesunhavebeenfoundintheregion.Therearecult symbolsbelongingtotheHattiansthatstronglysupporttheirAsiaticorigin.Thebronzestagseenbelowisabouthalfa meterhighandwasfoundinAlacahyk.ItispresentlyexhibitedattheMuseumofAnatolianCivilizationsinAnkara. TheHattianstaghasbeendatedtobeminimum4,000yearsold.Theovergrownlonghornsofthestagareanother indicationoftheirAsiaticorigin(seeChapter4, TheAsiaticScythians). NexttothestagweseeareligiousstandardoftheHattians,againdatedfrom21002000BC 36.Regardingthis artifactE.Akurgalgivesthefollowingexplanation:
Thecircleshereandinmanyotherexamplessymbolizetheheavens.Thepairofhornssymbolizesthoseoftheoxwhocarriestheworldupon hishorns.

Infact,thehornsaresymbolsoftheOkhpersonandthecirclerepresentsthesun.ThreeOnkhsymbolscanclearly beseenhangingonthecultstandard.Thestrikingsimilaritybetween OkhandOxbeingnootherthanOchscannotbe purecoincidence.ThecorrespondingwordinTurkishforoxis:Oekuez,wheretheO,kandzarerelicsstillremaining


35 36
TheHattianandHittiteCivilizations,ISBN0751727561,page5,2001,Ankara. dem,page20and21.

fromtherootwordOkhs.WefindUkhsainSanskritandOhsoinOldHighGerman,bothwordsmeaning Ox.Theoriginof allthesewordsismostprobablytheProtolanguageofAsia. ThereisalsoariverincentralAsiaoriginatingfromthePamirMountainsandendingattheAralLake,whoseancient namewasOxus.ItspresentnameisAmuDerya.WiththeinterchangeofustosuweobtainameaningfulTurkish wordintheformofOksu,whichmeanstheOkwaterway.TherearesimilarnamedriversinTurkey,AksuandGksu beingtwosuchexamples.

FromtheseculturalandlinguisticrelationswecandeducethattheOctribescomingfromCentralAsiaweretheearly settlersofAnatolia.

EvolutionofWritingSystems
Thereisalotofresearchdoneontheevolutionofwritingsystems.ItisingeneralacceptedthattheChineseand Sumerianscriptsdevelopedindependentlyasthefirstwritingsystems.Butthesesystemsareonlytheendproductof thousandsofyearsofhumanevolution.Byevolution,Idonotmeanthephysical,Darwiniantypeevolution,butrather theevolutionofthesociallifeasaresultofthediversificationofgoodsandtools.Belowtheinterrelationshipofwriting systemscanbeseen.Thefirstsyntheticwritingsystemwastheearlycavepaintingsandpetroglyphsseenalloverthe world.Themessagesinthesefigurescanbeunderstoodonlyifthebeliefsandexpectationsoftheseculturesare known.Severalexamplesofpetroglyphshavebeengiveninthepreviouschapters. Earlywritingsystemsweresemioticandsynthetic.Astimewentbyanalyticwritingstarted.ByanalyticImeanthata wordorpartofaword(asyllable)isrepresentedbyawelldefinedsign. Syntheticwritingdevelopedintoanalyticwritingwhenthepicturestransformedintosimplifiedseals.TheaboveTable cannotbefoundinanystandardtextbook.Thisisbecausethesealbasedformofexpressionandcommunication, specifictonomadicUighurtribes,hasnotbeenconsideredasawritingsystembylinguisticscholars.Thepicture basedwritingsystemisknownasPictographic,butnonameexistsforthesealbasedwritingsystem.Thesealbased systemstartedinAsia,withtheneedtomarktheherdanimalsofnomadictribes.Thiswasawayforidentifying animalswhentwoherdsoccupiedacommonpasture.Thesealswerestylizedandsimplifiedformsofthepetroglyphs andintimestartedtorepresentmonosyllabicrootwords.ThisishowtheUighur(Turkic)runicsyllabarycameinto being.

TheSumerianpeople,whocametoMesopotamiafromAsia,startedtomakemarksonsoftclay,whichcametobe knownastheCuneiformwritingsystem.Theearlycuneiformswererepresentationsofrootwords.Sinceeachform wasafullwordthescriptwasrecognizedasbeinglogographic.Belowsomeexamplesareshown.Wecanseehow thesimpleSumerianpictographicwritingsystemtransformedintothecomplicatedsystemofAssyriansand Babylonians.OntherightweseeanoriginalSumerianclaytablet.

ThesametransformationfromsimpletocomplicatedformshappenedwithintheChinesescript.Threeexamplescan beseenbelow.

Itcanhappenthatseveraldifferentstylesofwritinghaveorevenarestillbeingusedbysomecultures.Intheancient timestheHittitesusedboththecuneiformSumeriansystemandalsotheirownpictographic(hieroglyphic)systemin parallel.ThecuneiforminfluencecamethroughtheUgariticscript.Thepictographicscriptsystemisknownas theHittite hieroglyphs.Anexamplewillbediscussedinthenextchapter. TodaytheJapanesepeoplewriteinfourdifferentscripts.TheseareKanji,Hiragana,Katakana,andRomanji.Kanji isthelogographicChinesescriptwhichhasmorethan50,000characters.Thereare46Hiraganaand46Katakana characterswhicharephoneticinnature.Theyaresymbolsrepresentingsyllables.TheKatakanascriptisusedtowrite loanwordsthatcannotberepresentedinKanji.TheRomanjiscriptiswhatJapanesecalltheLatinalphabet.Inmodern Japanesetextsonecanfindamixtureofallthesefourwritingsystems. IntheTableatthetopwecanseethattheEgyptianhieroglyphicsystembecamesimplifiedtofirstHieraticandthen toDemoticwritingsystem.Thesescriptshadtheirinfluenceonseveralalphabeticalscripts,suchasArabicand Hebrew.TheLatinalphabetistheoffspringofbothGreekandEtruscanbutitisalsoinfluenced,throughPhoenician, bytheSumeriancuneiforms.Alltheseinterrelationshipswillbediscussedandexplainedinthefuturechapters.

HittiteSymbolism
DuringthesecondmillenniumB.C.Anatoliahasbeenthefocalpointofculturaltransformation.Duringthisperiod severalcitystateswerefoundedanddifferentwritingsystemswereusedsimultaneously.InAlacahykandinthe centralregionsofAnatoliatheHittitesraisedseveralcities(seemapatChapter12, TheAnatolianexpansion).Many statues,wallrelief,amulets,writtentabletsandsealshavebeenfounddatedfromthisperiod.Theyarepresently displayedinmanydifferentmuseumsoftheworld.HittitelanguageisclaimedtobelongtotheIndoEuropeanlanguage group.ThisisbecauseBedrichF.Hrozny,aCzechlinguistwholivedfrom1879to1952,foundtwowordsinHittite; wadarmeaningwaterandezzanmeaningtoeat,similartoGerman wasserandessen,thatthelanguagehasbeen classifiedasthefirstIndoEuropeanlanguage.ButinfactHittiteisanintermediatelanguageintransition.Wefind severalformsandfeaturesfrombothAltaicaswellasGermaniclanguages.Thischaracteristicwillbeexplainedin futurechapters. Thewallreliefbelowleftisasyntheticmessage,comparabletoawrittentextwhenproperlyinterpreted.Thepointed hatwithcurvedhornsandthetrouserswornbythepersonontopofanelkaretypicalScythiansymbolsmentionedby Herodotus(seeChapter4,TheAsiaticScythians).Heholdsaneagleonhisglovedrighthand.Huntingwitheaglesand hawksisatraditionthatisstillbeingusedbyAsiaticpeople.Heholdsacurvedstaffinhislefthand(akalmushor lituus),aninstrumentusedbyshepherdforcatchingrunawaysheep.Theelkisthesymbolrepresentingtheleaderof Asiaticpeople.Thissymbolismhasbeenmentionedandexplainedindetailinthepreviouschapters.Hispositionon theelkisasignofsuperiorityandleadership.Therefore,themessageembeddedonthissteleis Iamtheshepherdandthe hunterleadingthepeople.

Aboverightweseeasealwhoseoriginalsizeisabouthalfanorange.Archibald.H.Sayce(18461933)whoworked onthedeciphermentofHittiteHieroglyphsreadtheseinscriptionsas: TarriktimmeSarmatErmee,whichheinterpreted asTarkondimos,KingofthelandofErme . This is how the seal became known as the Tarkondimos seal.
37

Iamoftheopinionthattheinscriptiononthesealcanbedifferentlyinterpreted. HerodotusofHalicarnassus (484BC 425BC)wasthefirsthistorianwhowroteacomprehensiveaccountofantiqueAnatolianandsurroundingcultures.He saidthattheScythians,theAmazonsandtheSarmatiansspokeacommonlanguage . The Sarmatians occupied the regions above the Black Sea and in my opinion the second word of the seal Sarmat stand for Sarmat, the people mentioned by Heredotus.
38

ThefirstwordTarriktimmecanbereadas:Turruktumma,whichcanbetransliteratedasIwasaTurfromthenorthbut. ThefirstrootwordisnootherthantheAsiaticTurandthesecondrootwordrukmeansfromthenorth(seeChapter 4).Rukcanbereadasuruk,whichmeansthenorthsettlement.ThereisaSumeriancitycalledUrukwhichis situatedatthenorthofUr.ThesuffixtummeansIwasandmastandsforbut( amabeingbut)inTurkish. ThelastwordonthesealErmeeisatransposedformofEriem,whichmeans Iamtheman,thesoldier.Therefore, thethreewordscannowbeunderstoodas:IwasaTurfromthenorthbutIbelongtotheSarmat.Weseethatthisinterpretation doesnotleadtoTarkondemosbutrathertoameaningfulsentence.Butevenifmyinterpretationiswrong, Tarkan,Tur KhanorTarkonistobefoundinthefirstpartofTarkondimos(seeChapter5, ClimaticChanges).

AfurthercluefortheAsiaticoriginoftheHittitecanbefoundinthepictureabove . This picture is part of a Hittite silver rython (a drinking vessel used only on special occasions).
39

The rhyton shown on left (dated from 14th century BC) is 18cm high and is exhibited at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. In the detail above we see a seated god holding a hawk on his left hand and a small cup on his right hand. The small cup is extended as a sign of celebration. We can assume that the seated figure is a god since the sitting position has always been considered as being superior to standing. The seated god is behind the person standing on the stag who is the Hittite king. The seated god looks in the same direction as the Hittite king as a sign of support and ownership. The other person pouring water to the feet of the stag is the visiting king. He lifts his left hand as a sign of salutation and goodwill. He is pouring water to the ground, which has always been considered as a sign of wish for growth among Asiatic cultures.

37 38 39

Decipherment,MauricePope,Ref.2ofChapter7,page139. HistoriesBookIV,Herodotus,TheinhabitantsofScythia:Sauromatae,Budini,Thyssagetae. TheHattianandHittiteCivilizations,EkremAkurgal,Ref.1Chap.12,page161.

Therearetwosymbolsbetweentheheadofthekings,whichhavebeenenlargedontherighthandsideoftheabove picture.Thetoponecanbeinterpretedas UTCHmeaningtop,leaderandalsothenumberthree(seeChapter10, Etruscaninscriptions).Thesignundertheutchcanbeinterpretedasbeinga Rho ()whichisthearchaicformofR.These twoseals(characters)arerootwordsoriginatingfromtheAsiaticProtolanguage.Togethertheycanbeinterpretedas: Thekingsortheonesatthetop,wherethesecondsignstandsforthepluralsuffixarinEtruscanandlarin Turkish.ThereisasimilarRsignonthetopleftpartofpictureabove.TheRsignstandsunderthenameofthegod. Thismaybeanindicationforrespect,sincerespectfulpeoplehavealwaysbeenaddressedinplural.

TheSacredHorn
TheAsiaticUighurtribeswhospreadtothefourcornersoftheworldconsideredtheibexastheirsacredtotemanimal (seeChapter3).Thecultureoftheseancientnomadictribeswasbasedonoraltraditionsandtheirmethodof communicationwasessentiallysyntheticandpictographic.Theyprayedandmadeofferingstothesungod,whichwas theirmostimportantdeity.Duringtheseritualsthehollowhornoftheibexwasusedasacupforsolemnpromises.It wasalsousedtomakeanoath.Theetymologyofoathisknowntobe th inoldEnglishbut,mostprobably,its originalformwasOcth,apromiseofsolidaritytotheOkhleader.

Thenakedwomanaboveisholdingacurvedibexhorninherrighthand.Thewallreliefisinthesouthwestpartof France,knownasAquitaine.ThisregionwaspartoftheOccitaniaandisknownas AquitaniainOccitanandAkitaniain Basque(seeChapter2,TheProtolanguageofCentralAsia).Theinitialphonemesofthesenames( AqandAk)arepossible relicsoftheancientOcnation.OntherightweseeabronzerhytonintheformofanibexfromPersia .


40

Aninterestingpointtonoteisthattherearenofacialdetailsonthewallreliefabove.Thiswasdoneonpurpose,the reasonbeingthatshewasthehumanrepresentationofthesundeity.Thesunrayswereimaginedtocomeoutfrom smallholesonthesurfaceofthesun.Thisiswhyancientculturesmadesmallholesontheheadofsungoddess figurineswithoutshowingthefacialdetails.Someexamplesareshownbelow. Allofthemareabout10cmtallorless,anindicationthattheyaresacredamuletsofthesungoddess.Asmentioned abovenoneofthemhavefacialdetails.Theexactdateoftheseamuletsisnotpreciselydeterminedbuttheyare estimatedtobeminimum5,000yearsormoreancient.Sincemostofthesemothergoddesseswerefoundinthenorth oftheBlackSea(withinpresentRussiaandUkraine)andCentralEurope,wecansafelyguessthatthesuncult originatedfromcentralAsiawhereibexesandshamanwomanwereconsideredasrepresentationofthesundeity .


41

407000JahrepersischeKunst,KunsthistorishesMuseum,page206,Vienna,Austria. 41 TheLanguageoftheGoddess,MarijaGimbutas,ISBN139780500282496.

1.Gagarino(Ukraine),2. Lespuges(France),3. Kostenki(Russia),4. Willendorf(Austria),5. Kostenki(Russia) Anotherstrongindicationabouttheoriginofthesacredhornisobtainedwhentheancientrhytonsareinvestigated. Someexamplesofrhytonsareshownbelow.Weseethatnotonlythehornedanimalsbutalsolionsandhorseswere consideredtobesacred.


42

HorseshadaspecialplaceinthecultureofAsiaticnomadictribes.Horseswerethemainvehicleoftransportanda personwithoutahorsewasnotconsideredtobeimportant.AnancientTurkishsayingcanbetranslatedas:Theone withoutahorsecannothaveaname.Theoriginalformofthissentencehastherhymingwords at(horse)andad (name).IhavealreadymentionedthatatameansancestorinTurkish(seechapter11, TheEasternexpansion).Itisdueto thehorsethatduringtheNeolithicperiod(about10,000yearsBP)peoplemigratedveryrapidlytowardsthewestand southwestofCentralAsia,spreadingtheircultureandlanguage,whichisthecommonmothertonguefromwhichall Europeanlanguagesderived.


42 MIHOMuseumpublication,1997Japan.

TheSouthWestExpansion
ArcheologistslongassumedthatthecradleofcivilizationwassouthernMesopotamiawhere5,000yearsold Sumeriantextsandobjectswerefound.ButtheoriginoftheSumeriancivilizationistoalargeextentunknown.Weare nowinthepositiontodemonstratethattheSumerianscriptowesitsorigintotheCentralAsiaticpictographicseals. AScienceMagazinearticleentitled MiddleAsiaTakesCenterStage claimsthefollowing:
43

Longdismissedasabackwater,thevastareabetweenMesopotamiaandtheIndusValleyisnowrevealingatapestryofwealthyurbancenters thatshapedhumanitysfirstconcertedattemptatcitylife.

ThearticleclaimsthatinsteadofretellingthetraditionalstorythatcivilizationsproutedinMesopotamia,archeologists begantoassembleafarmorecomplexpictureinwhichdozensofurbancentersthrivedbetweenMesopotamiaand theIndusValley,adoptingeachothersarchitectureandideas.Thiswaspossiblebecausealltheseurbancenterscould communicateinacommonlanguagewhichcanbedefinedastheProtolanguage. BelowweseeamapoftheregiondefinedasMiddleAsia.Thecommoncultureofthisregionstartsfrom Turkmenistan,UzbekistanandKazakhstaninthenorthandincludesAfghanistan,IranandPakistanendinginsouthern Mesopotamia.Thearrowsindicatetheexpansionroutealongriversandseacoastsadoptedbytheearlysettlerssome 6,000yearsB.P.

Inanarticleentitled:NeglectedCivilisationGrabsLimelight,AndrewLawlersays :
44

FourthousandyearsagoalongthebanksoftheancientOxusRiver,whichnowseparatesAfghanistanfromUzbekistan,therewerepeoplewho livedinvastcompoundsprotectedbyhighwall,producedtheirownbronzes,andstoneseals,andtradedtheirwaresasfarasthePersianGulfand Palestine.AlthoughthesepeoplewouldhavebeenkeyplayersinBronzeAgeCentralAsia,theircivilizationremainsanenigmabecauseof20 th centurypolitics.

43 44

ScienceMagazine,Volume317,page586,3August2007. ScienceMagazine,Volume302,page979,7November2003.

ThevastterritoriesinwhichthisCentralAsiancivilization flourishedhavebeendefinedastheBactrianMargiana ArcheologicalComplex(BMAC)byFredrikHiebertand VictorSarianidiwholeadexcavationsintheregion.We areredefiningtheboundaryofCentralAsiasaysHiebert andclaimsthatasingleculturethrivedintheseregions. TheoriginalnameofBactriaisBelhandtheoriginalname ofMargianaisMerv.Bothcitiesareancientcultural centersofTurkicaswellasPersianpeople.Thecorrect definitionofthisvastregionshouldbeBelhMerv ArcheologicalComplex,butasA.Lawlersays;politicswas andisstillinfluencingArcheology.Belowweseethe extentoftheregiondefinedasBMAC. OneoftheimportantculturalsitesdiscoveredinBMACis AltynDepe,whichmeansgoldenhillinTurkish(seemapat thetopofthepage).Whenarcheologistsexcavatedthissitetheyfoundamudbrickaltar,built3,200yearsagoasa templeforworshipoffire .Thefirealtarandseveralgoldenartifactsfoundinthissitegivestrongsupporttotheclaim thatthesunworshipingpeoplecametotheseregionsfromthenorth.ThegoldenibexfoundinAltynDepe(below)is morethanasimplepieceofornament,butisratheranimportantcluefortheCentralAsiaticoriginsofthisculture(see Chapter3,TheHiddenMeaningofPertoglyphs).
45

TheUighurpeopleoftheancienttimesfollowedtheshallowriverbanksandpushedforwardintothesouthern regionsofBMACinordertobuildnewsettlements.OnesuchimportantculturalcenteristhecityofJiroftlocatedinthe southofpresentIran.InthepicturebelowweseeapotexcavatedinJiroftonwhichahornedmanwiththefeetofa bulliscarved.Wewillfindthissamesymbolismindifferentpartsoftheworld,formingastrongsupportforacommon Asiaticorigin. BelowweseeaninscribedbrickfromJiroft.Thisscriptistotallyunknowntothescholarsandiswaiting decipherment.TheinscriptionsonthreemudbricksfounduntilnowcouldwellbetheAsiaticsealbasedwritingsystem predatingtheSumeriancuneiformsaswellasLinearElamite,anotherscriptfromSusa(seemapaboveandalso Chapter13,EvolutionofWritingSystems).

45

NationalGeographicMagazine,Volume177,page58,March1990.

TheIndusValleyscript
Datingancientcultureshasbeenoneofthemostdemandingtasksofthearcheologists.TheIndusValleycultureis estimatedtohaveflourishedbetween2500to1500BC but its origin is unknown. The two most important cities of the Indus Valley are Harappa and Mahenjo-Daro shown on the map of Chapter 16, The South-West Expansion. This region is presently within Pakistan but was once part of India. The root word in forming both India and Indus means descend in Turkish, an appropriate selection for the name of a region where central Asiatic Uighur tribes descended. In Latin, Old German and in English in implies a similar meaning indicating location or position within limits. Such root words have their origin in the Proto-language of Central Asia and should not be labeled as resulting from pure coincidence.
46

TheInduscivilizationleftbehindamultitudeofsealmoldsandtokensmadechieflyofsteatitewhosesizeareoneto twoinchessquare.Morethan60siteshaveyieldedsealsandtokensofstone,copper,silver,bone,terracotta,orivory .Theinscriptionsonthetokenscontainabout400differentsymbols,butscholarshavefewcluestotheirmeaning. Thescriptonthetokensisstillnotdeciphered,inspiteofclaimeddecipherments.Thetokenscontainseveralsigns similartotheonesfoundontheJiroftbrick.IfthesettlersoftheIndusValleycamefromthenorththelogicalconclusion wouldbethattheJiroftscriptpredatestheIndusValleyscript,henceJiroftscriptshouldbeolderandlesscomplicated thantheIndusValleyscriptaswellastheSumeriancuneiformscript.ArcheologistshavefoundInduscarnelian cylindersinMesopotamiantombs.TheearliesttextualevidencefordirectcontactbetweentheIndusValleyandthe SumeriancultureofMesopotamiadatesfrom2100BCandcontinuesdownto1700BC .


47 48

BelowleftahandfulofIndusValleytokensandtwointerestingmoldexamplesareshown.Thepersononthecentral moldisseatedcrossleggedinatypicalorientalpose.Hishornedheaddressstandsamongsomeunknownsigns.On therightweseeamythicalthreeheadedbullorzebu,aclearindicationthattheIndusValleycultureworshipedhorned animals(seeChapter15,TheSacredHorn).EventodaythecowisconsideredtobeholyinIndia.

46 47 48

WondersoftheAncientWorld,Nat.Geo.AtlasofArcheology,page156,1994. IndusCivilization,NationalGeographic,Vol.197,No.6,page113,1990. IndusCivilization,PublicationofTokyoArtMuseum,Tokyo,Japan,2000.

ThelargenumberofsymbolsonthetokensimpliesthattheIndusValleyscriptismostprobablylogographic.Inorder tocertifythatthesignsonthetokensdisplayalinguisticstructureastatisticalanalysishasbeenrecentlycarriedouton thefrequencyofoccurrenceofthesesigns . The result clearly demonstrated that the Indus Valley script is in good correlation with several existing human languages. But the script is not only seal based and logographic, but is also pictographic. It can be considered to follow the same logic as the Egyptian hieroglyphs. On the left token below we see a zebu, above which a stylish human form and an arrow are carved. The message of this seal can be interpreted as being the Okh leader since both horned animals and arrows are symbols of the Okh leader (see Chapter 12, The Anatolian Expansion).
49

ThesecondandthirdsealmoldsbelowaresimilarsymbolicrepresentationsoftheAsiaticUighurleadership,as discussedinChapter6,Universalsymbols.Thefourdotsaroundthe+signstandforthefourcornersoftheworld, implyingthattheleadercontrolsavastregion.Itisinterestingtonoticethatasimilarsymbolism(fourdotsarounda centraldot)ismarkedinbrownonthethighofthebullmanoftheJiroftvase(seeChapter16the SouthWestexpansion).

TheinteractionbetweentheIndusValleyandSouthernMesopotamiacanbenoticedfromdifferentperspectives.An unexploredperspectiveisthesimilaritybetweendressingstyles.Below,ontheleftweseethestatueofanIndusValley kingandonrighttheSumeriankingGudea(21412080BC).Bothrulershavetheirrightarmuncoveredandthe mannertheyweartheirgarmentisquitesimilar.Thesamestyleofleavingtherightarmuncoveredhasbeenadopted bymanyCentralAsiaticreligiousleaders.EventodaythespiritualleaderofTibetisdressinginasimilarmanner.

AfurtheraspecttobenoticedonthegarmentoftheIndusValleyShamanKingisthetrefoilsdesign.Asmentioned inthepreviousChapters10and14,thereisacloserelationshipbetween (thenumberthree)anduc(leader)aswell asu(fly)inmostAltaiclanguages.ThesculptureoftheIndusValleyKingmayalsohaveoriginallywornahorned headdress(nowmissing)judgingfromtheshapeofthebackofthehead.Whensuchcorrelationsarecomplemented bytheformoftheeyesoftheIndusValleyking,theAsiaticoriginofthesepeoplebecomesmostprobable.

49

EntropicEvidenceforLinguisticStructureintheIndusScript,RajechP.N.Raoetal.ScienceMagazine,page2,23April2009.

TowardsSmerandElam
ThesouthwestexpansionoftheUighurpeopledidnotstopatHarrapaandMahenjoDaro.Fromthisregionthey wentfurtherwesttoMesopotamiaandEgypt.AnotherwavecamefromthenorththroughtheCaucasustoEastern AnatoliaandcontinuedfurthersouthtomeetthesouthernpeopleontheeastcoastoftheMediterraneanSea.Inthis regionwheretwogroupsmetanewvisiondeveloped.Thisnewvision,basedmainlyontrade,requiredanewsystem ofwriting.Thereasonbeing,thattheBabylonianandAssyriancuneiformsweretoocumbersometobeusedbythe averagetrader.ThisishowtheUgariticalphabetdeveloped(seeChapter13,Evolutionofwritingsystems).Theeastern AnatolianbranchdispersedfurtherwesttobuildnewcitiesalongtheAegeancoastandalsoonthenearbyAegean andMediterraneanislands.

Thesymbolismofthesacredibexcanbefollowedinalmostalloftheseregions,asaculturalindicatortotheCentral Asiaticorigins.OnseveralpotsandbrokenpotterypiecesfromtheIndusValleyandsurroundingregionstypicalmotifs ofibexes,gazellesandantelopesarefound .


50

Abarrelshapedpotdecoratedwitharowofibexespaintedinbrown. 2.Potteryfragmentfromtheearlyperiod (circa3,000BC)withagazelleamongbirds. 3. Astylishibexisfoundonapotteryfragmentdatedtotheearlysecond millenniumBC.4. AnantelopeisseenonapolishedplatefromburialsitethatdevelopedinandaroundPunjab followingthepeakoftheIndusCivilization.


1.

ThesacredibexhasalsofounditsplaceonthestelesofHakkari(seemapofChapter12, TheAnatolianexpansion). Thesestonecarvings,datedseveralthousandyearsold,suggestaveryearlyconnectionbetweenupperMesopotamia andCentralAsia(2). Two of the 12 carved steles found in Hakkari are shown below. The male figures hold drinking vessels and carry weapons, such as spears and daggers. The ibex figures (one of them enlarged) can clearly be seen above the left shoulder.
50
GreatStoneFaces,NationalGeographic,October2000

BelowweseeacylindricalstampfoundinSusa,themain cityoftheElamiteculture.Therearetwointertwined ibexesnexttoanarrow(Ok).Thescriptoneachsideis ElamiteandhasaprecursorknownasProtoElamite,still notdeciphered .H.C.Rawlinson,whoworkedonthe Elamitescriptthoughtthatitbelongedunquestionablyto theUralAltaiclanguagegroup.MauricePopesaysinthis regard :


51 52

TheElamitelanguagehadalonghistorybehindit.ItsexistenceisattestedincuneiforminscriptionsofthesecondmillenniumBC,thesocalled MiddleElamite,andprobablyextendedbackatleastafurtherthousandyears;foritisprobablythelanguageofinscriptionsfoundatSusaina quitedifferentscript,whicharesometimesaccompaniedbyatext,presumablyatranslation,inAkkadiancuneiform.

Onthepictureabove(right)weseeAnu,themainSumeriandeity.Anuistheskygod,fatherandkingofthe Mesopotamiangods.HisfirstconsortwasAntu;fromthemweretheAnunnakicreatedtheunderworldgods.Whenthe nameAnunnakiissplitasAnunnkiweobtainaTurkishwordmeaning belongingtoAnuwhichisanappropriatename forthechildrenofAnu.Anuwears,asalmostallSumeriangods,aheaddressformedoutofseveralsuperimposed horns(seeChapter15,Thesacredhorn).

TheBullandtheLetterB
TherehavebeenseveralwavesofmigrationfromCentralAsiatowardsthenorthwestofEurope.Duringthelast2 millenniaAltaicandUralictribeswerethefirstinhabitantsoftheBalticregion.LateronIndoEuropeantribesmovedin tonorthernEurope,buttheiroriginalhomelandwasthewestcentralAsiaticterritories.TheFinnoUgriclanguage group,whichbelongstotheUraliclanguages,includesFinnish,Hungarian,EstonianandSamoyedic.Thereareclaims linkingFinnishtoaProtoFinniclanguageofAsia,whichisnootherthentheCentralAsiaticProtolanguage(see Chapter2,DiversificationofLanguages). UraliclanguagessharemanycommonfeatureswithAltaiclanguages.Forexample,bothlanguagegroupare agglutinativeandformnewwordswiththehelpofsuffixes.Furthermore,bothlanguagegrouplackgrammaticalgender anduseonepronounforbothheandshe.Examplesare:InFinnish haen,inEstoniantema,inHungarianooandin
51 52
Ref.3ofChapter17,TheIndusValleyscript. Ref.1ofChapter14,TheHittitesymbolism,page117

Turkisho.IntheIndoEuropeanSwedishlanguagetheFinnish haenhaschangedtohan formaleandhonforfemale (pronouncedashoon).ThegrammaticalgenderdifferentiationdidnotexistintheProtolanguagebutstartedmuch later,withtheIndoEuropeanlanguages.Wecansubstantiatethisclaimfromthefactthatbothmanaswellaswomen couldbetheleadersofancientsocieties. IthasbeenmentionedinChapter5,ClimaticchangesthattheearlytitleoftheEurasianrulerwas Khang.Ontheother handwesawinChapter15,Thesacredhorn,thatmostancientsocietieswerematriarchal.Theancient Khangtitlebecame vulgarizedintimeandchangedgraduallytohaeninFinnishandhaninSwedish.

Astheleadershippassedfromwomentomen,thebullsymbolismreplacedtheibexsymbolismtoaverylargeextent (seeChapter7,TheMinoanCulture).Althoughtheibexfiguredidnotdisappearaltogether,weseethatthebullhasbeen thefavoritesymbolofthemaledominatedsocieties.Ontheleftabove,abullheadisonaSumerianharpfoundatUr. Onthenextpictureweseetwobullmenliftingawinged Onkhsymbol (see Chapter 6, Universal Symbols). The winged disk is clearly the symbol of the sun-god and the + sign in the center of the disk is the central Asiatic Okh. The tree between the two bull-men is the symbol of longevity, known as the tree of life. The standard on the right with a deer and two bulls is the symbol of the Hittite nation. We have already seen that the symbolism hidden in the number three is an indication of leadership (see Chapters 12 and 17).
53

TheVikingsandtheCeltsonthenorthwestaswellas theJapaneseontheeastofAsiausedhelmetswithbull hornsasasignofpowerandstrength.Belowwesee threesuchhelmetssymbolizingthepowerfulbull.The Japanesehelmetiscalledkabuto,andremindsusofkab/ kap,mentionedinChapter12.

ItisgenerallyacceptedthatTaurusliterallymeaningbull,hasitsorigininLatin.Generallylinguistsstopinvestigating theetymologyofawordoncetheyreachtheLatinorigin.InmyopiniontheoriginalformofTauruswas Turuz,which changedintimetoTurusandTaurus,meaning wearetheTurpeopleasmentionedinChapter8,Thedoubleedgedax. Taurusentered,mostprobably,intoLatinfromEtruscanwhichisaUralAltaiclanguage.Butevenifitcamefrom AnatoliawiththeGreekinfluence,itsoriginisstillconnectedtotheAsiaticTurpeople.Notonly taurusbutalsotheorigin ofthewordbullcanbetracedbacktotheAsiaticrootculture.Wefind bufalusinLatin,buffaloinItalian,buffleinFrench, bucca(stag,hegoat)inOldEnglish,bukkinOldGerman,bockinSwedish,boucandbouqetininFrenchandbuckin modernEnglish.But,wehavealsoboa(adultbull),buza(youngbull)andbura(malecamel)inTurkish,whichdidnot originatefromLatin.Arabicbukra,bakaraandMongolianbuhaalsocannotbetracedbacktoLatin.Furthermore,inthe AsiaticKirghizlanguagewhichisaTurkishdialect bukameansbullandbukacharmeanscalf.
53
HititGnei,SedatAlp,TUBITAKpublication179,page27,2002,AnkaraTurkey.

Therefore,wehavetoconcludethatallthesewordsoriginatedfromthemonosyllabicrootword bu(pronouncedas boo).Buwasthenameofthemountaingoat,theibex,intheancientAsiaticProtolanguage.Thiswordhasbeenone oftheearliestpictographicsealsdrawnbytheCentralAsiaticUighurculture.Belowleftweseesomeversionsofthe earlybuseal.OntherightsidethetwoformsofBintheTurkishOrhunscriptareshown.TheOrhunscriptisasyllabery andthereforeeachsignstandsforcertainsyllablescontainingphoneticharmony.Theb1signcanbereadas: bu,ba,bo, b orub,ab,ob,yb.Thesesyllableshavethethicksoundsharmony,whiletheb2signhasthethinsoundsharmonyand canbereadas:b,be,b,biorb,eb,b,ib.

TheancientBUsealsshownabovearefoundcarvedonrocks,nexttopetroglyphsintheYeniseiandOrhunvalleys ofCentralAsia.Thefirstandsecondsealsarestylizedfrontviewappearancesofthemountaingoatandthebull. SeveraldifferentbutsimilarformsoftheBusealhasbeenfoundinAsia.Thisisbecauseduringtheearlyperiodin theevolutionofwritingtheideogramswerenotstandardizedanddifferentversionsofthesamesealcouldexist simultaneously . We will see that the Orhun alphabet is not borrowed or transformed from the Phoenician script, as many believe, but followed its own development within the early Central Asiatic Turkic culture. This claim needs further proof and therefore will be elaborated extensively in the future chapters.
54

WhenthenomadictribesfromthenorthmetthesoutherntribesfromtheIndusValleyontheeasterncoastsofthe MediterraneanSea,thebusealbecamemoreorlessastandardconsonantintheOldSemiticsyllabicwritingsystem (seethemapinChapter18,TowardsSumerandElam).TheBUsealunderwentfurthertransformationsastheseafaring Phoenicianscarrieditfarnorth.Thethirdsignlookinglikean8(below)isacceptedbymostscholarstorepresenttheF sound.ThisisbecauseitstandsfortheFsoundintheLydianalphabet . But since Etruscan is still unintelligible and cannot be read correctly, the sound connected to the figure 8 is debatable. It seems that the two legs of the b2 seal were joined to form the rounded Etruscan as well as the early Greek B. This is how the capital B came into being, while the miniscule b in the Latin alphabet evolved from the b1 seal of the Orhun script.
55

TheUgariticScript
ThekingdomofUgarit,onthenortherncoastofpresentSyriahasbeenanimportantcenterofcultureandtrade some4,000yearsago.LocatedbetweennorthernAnatolianandsouthernMesopotamianculturesnolessthanten languagesandfivedifferentscriptswereinuseatUgarit.Itisherethatthefirstalphabeticalscriptbasedonsimplified cuneiformswasinvented.The30cuneiformsigns(below)borenoresemblancetothesignsofAkkadianorBabylonian cuneiform.Over1,000tabletsoftheUgariticscripthasbeendiscoveredconsistingofbothcommercialaccountsas wellasreligioustextsbearingstrikingsimilaritiestothestorieswrittenmanycenturieslaterintheOldTestament.The reasonbeingthatthepeoplecomingfromthenorthstillhadthememory,throughverbalaccountspassedfrom generationtogeneration,ofthefloodthatdevastatedtheirancientcountryinCentralAsia(seethemapsinChapter5, ClimaticChangesandinChapter18,TowardsSmerandElam).
54
Ref.1ofChapter10,page287. 55TheStoryofWriting,AndrewRobinson,Thames&Hudson,page170,1995,London.

Thesememoriesaboutanancientfloodhavealsofoundtheirplacein theepicofGilgamish,aSumerianhalfgodhalfhumanpersonality.But, theflooddidnothappeninMesopotamia,asmanybelieve,ithappened inCentralAsia.AfurthercluefortheAnatolianinfluenceonUgaritisthe tabletsfoundinUgaritwritteninHurrian,alanguagewhichprecedes HittiteandisofnonSemiticorigin . The Ugaritic alphabet was first deciphered in 1930 by Hans Bauer and Edouard Dhorme. The 30 cuneiform sings of this alphabet are shown below. E.DhormedecipheredthenameoftheUgariticmaindeityasBL. ThisformcametobeknownerroneouslyasBaal . This is because the velar g -shown as g-dot in the last row (second from left) of the above table- does not exist in Indo-European languages, but does exist in Turkish () as well as in most Semitic languages.
56 57

Therefore, one way of pronouncing B--L could be BUULU or BOULU. Since the A exists in the alphabet but does not take part in the name, one can insert the U or the O which are not part of the consonantal alphabet. In that case we obtain a meaningful name as: Bu-Ulu or Bo-Ulu meaning the holy bull in the Proto-language as well as in the actual Turkish (see Chapter 19, The Bull and the Letter B). A further understanding could arise if we read BL as Bu-Oulu, meaning the son of the bull, a distinctive way of defining the Ugaritic leader shown in the picture below. HereisanextractfromthemythofMotandAlijan,thetwosonsofBaal(Buulu),asashortexampleofUgariticliterature58:
Thedaysspedby, TheloveofAnatoverwhelmedher,astheheartofanantelopeforherfawn, Astheheartofaneweforherlamb, SowastheheartofAnatforBoulu.

ThereasonforselectingthisextractisbecauseAnatfeelsamotherlyloveforher brotherBuulu.AnatcouldalsobereadasAnaOt,meaningthefiremotheror equivalentlythesunmother(seeChapter8, TheDoubleedgedax).Thiswayof readingAnatisacceptablesincetheletterodoesnottakepartintheUgaritic alphabet.NoticethatlettersinAnat(above)areallhorizontalandconstitutethe simplestcuneiformsoftheUgariticalphabet.Fromthesesimplecuneiformswe canguessthatthewordsAnaandOtwerethemostfrequentlyusedwordsin theUgariticlanguage.WeseeherethesteleofBuulu(Baal)discoveredin1929, identifiedasthestormgodofUgarit.Onecanseethehornsonhishelmetanda spearthatheplantstotheearth.Thespearhastakenrootsinceleaveshave emergedfromitstopend.Healsoliftsaspecterasasignofpowerandthreat. Thesymbolisminthisimagetellsusthefollowing: Iamheretostayandamreadyto defendthisterritory.Thespear,thehornsonhishelmettellusthatheisan Okh leaderandthewavesunderhisfeetindicatethatheisorhasastormingpower.I amoftheopinionthatBuuluwasarulingkingwhowaselevatedtolevelofgod heightbyhisentourage. ThePhoenicianalphabetisgenerallyacceptedasbeingavariantoftheSemitic alphabet,buttheiroriginisdifferent.TheSemiticalphabetisavariantofthe EgyptianHieraticandDemoticscripts,whilethePhoenicianalphabetisbasedon Asiaticseals(seeChapter13,Evolutionofwritingsystems)
56 57 58
Ref.55ofChapter10,page217. Ref.55ofChapter7,page120. Ref.55ofChapter10,page218.

TheOrhunValleyScript
TheOrhunValleyscriptisfoundonseveralinscribedstelesofCentralAsia.BelowweseethesteleofBilgeKagan (Thewiseruler)inscribedwithTurkishruniccharacters.Itisclaimedthatthissyllabarydatesfromthe8 thcenturyAD. Butsuchasophisticatedscript,fullyadaptedtotransmittheancient Turkishlanguage,cannotstartonthe8 thcenturyAD.Thereareseveral otherexamplesfoundintheregionbelongingtoearlierdates.Aswe examinethisscriptindetailweseethatitcontainsmanycluesindicating itscloserelationshiptotheancientProtolanguageofCentralAsia. ItwasVilhelmThomsen(18421927)aDanishlinguist,whofirst identifiedthisscriptasbeingancientTurkish .Hepublishedhis deciphermentin1896underthetitleInscriptionsofOrchonDeciphered.Iamof theopinionthatthecorrectnameofthevalleyinwhichtheseinscriptions werefoundisOrhunandnotOrchonorOrhon.ThisisbecauseOrmeans highandHunisawellknownCentralAsiaticnationthatmigrated towardsthewest.
59

TheOrhunsyllabary(below)hassomespecialfeatureswhicharenot foundinanyotherscript.Scholarscallitthe Turkishrunicscriptbecauseof itssimilaritytotheScandinavianrunes. Thisrelationship,whichistheconsequenceoftheHunexpansion,willbediscussedinthefuturechapters.Forthe momentletusconcentrateontheOrhunsyllabary .


60

Thisscriptcontains8vowelsseparatedintwogroups,indicatedwith1and2intheTablebelow(seeprevious Chapters20and2).ThesegroupswereformedaccordingtothesoundharmonyinherentintheTurkishlanguage. Becauseofthe38charactersofthescriptwecallitasyllabaryandnotanalphabet.Thesyllabarycontainsspecial characters,suchas(tchea),(shea),yng,ynchandyndthatarespecifictoTurkish.Thesecharactersarenotlater additionstothescript,assomescholarsbelieve,butmakepartofthesyllabaryfromtheveryearlystart,whichmaybe severalmillenniaBP. ThecharactersofthissyllabaryarespecificallydesignedtotransmitthemonosyllabicwordsoftheCentralAsiatic Protolanguage.Therefore,eachcharacterisawordandmostofthesecharactershaveavisualcorrespondencewith themeaningitrepresents,asshownbelow. WhentheT1sealisreadasat(horse)asymbolicrepresentationofarideronahorseappears.Wehavealreadyseen thattheOkhleaderisanadultpersoncarryinganarrowandridingahorse.Thissymbolismofunitingriderandhorse hasalsoaspecialmeaning.Itconveysthemessagethattheriderandhishorsearefusedtogetherandshouldnotbe separatedatanycost,evenafterdeath.

59 60

Ref.OfChapter10,page285. OrhonYaztlar,TalatTekin,ISBN9751600650,Ankara,1988.

ThewordstandingforarrowinTurkishisok,asmentionedonseveraloccasionsbefore.Assoonashumans startedhuntingtheydevelopedfirstthespearandthenthebowandarrow.Consideringthisfactwecansafelyassume thattheT1andtheOKHcharacterwereamongtheearliestsignsofthepictographicwritingsystem.Theyappearedfirst onthesealsoftheProtolanguageandlaterontransgressedintoseveralscripts,fromtheCentralAsiaticearlyUighur scripttoseveralalphabets,tofinallyendupintheLatinalphabet.


ThemodernKaswellastheOandtheTaretransformed formsoftheT1seal.Belowweseehowthearrowsealgave risetotheLatinK.TheT1sealcanbepronouncednotonlyas AtbutalsoasOt(sunorfire)andOn(venerable, important).WehaveseeninChapter6severalexamplesof theOnkhseal.Consideringthatthewordsforhorse(at)and ancestor(ata)stemfromthesameorigin,itisnotdifficultto seethatthefusionofatawithongiveAtaOnorAton thesun godoftheEgyptiansduringthereignofAkhenaton 61.

ThispharaohnameseemstobemadeoutofsyllablesoriginatingfromtheCentralAsiaticProtolanguage: OkhHanAta OnTheuniversalOkhancestorandleader. More details on this name will be elaborated in the next chapter. Below we see that there were two versions of the T1 seal in the ancient script. These forms have a close relationship to the Onkh / Ankh seal which eventually gave rise to the letters O and T (see Chapter 6, The universal symbols).

61

Ancient EgypitianMythsandLegends,LewisSpence,page329,GeneralPublishingCompany,1990,Toronto,Canada.

EgyptianDeities
WhentheancientEgyptianreligionisconsidered,onecanseethattheentirebeliefsystemrevolvedaroundthecult ofsunworshipping.SeveraldifferentnamesweregiventotheearlysungodsofancientEgypt.Hornedanimalsaswell asbirdswerephysicalrepresentationsofthesedeitiesonearth.Belowleftweseeamythicalbullbirdcarvedonthe wallofatemple.ThecentralimageisthewellknownApisbullorox.Thediscwithacobrainthemiddleisatypical representationofthesun.Ontherightarowoframlionsareprotectingdifferentpharaohs.

ThesymbolisminmixinganimalsisalsofoundintheSumeriancultureandcanbetracedbacktotheCentralAsiatic rootculture.Wecanfollowthissymbolismthroughouttheagesasconsecutivehistoricalperiods.InancientEgyptthis symbolismisveryclearandhasbeentransmittedintheformofstatuesandwallpaintings.Belowweseesomesuch examples.

ThefemaleSumeriandeityIshtarissteppingontwomountaingoats.Shehaswingsandaheaddresswithhorns similartotheoneAnuwears(seeChapter19,TheBullandtheLetterB).ThesamesymbolismisfoundintheEgyptian goddessIsiswhohaswings,bullhornsandthesolardiscaboveherhead.ThewallpaintingisdepictingHorusholding theAnkhinhisrighthandandthesolardiscencircledbythecobranamedKhutstandsabovehishead.Ontheright weseethehalfmanhalfgoatdeitynamedPtah. InChapter6,UniversalSymbols,theconnectionoftheAnkhtothesolardiscandtothe+signwasdiscussed.The hawkheadedHorusaswellasRa,AmunandAtunarealldifferentnamesandrepresentationsofthesamesungod. LewisSpencesays :


62

Ra,thegreatgodofthesun,appearstohaveoccupiedaprominentpositionintheEgyptianpantheonataveryearlyperiod.TheEgyptiansof laterdaysappeartohavethoughtthatthenamewasinsomewayassociatedwithcreation.SunworshipinEgyptwasveryancient,anditis probablethatanumberofsuncultsbecamefusedinthatofRa.

AlthoughalmostalloftheEgyptiandeitieshadahalfhumanhalfanimalform,only Rawasanexceptionandwas representedbythesolardiscacirclewithapointinthecenter.ThisrepresentationhasitsrootsintheearlyON symboloftheProtolanguage(seeChapter7, TheMinoanculture).IamoftheopinionthatRawasimportedfromthe SumeriancultureandhisnamecamefromDingir,themainSumeriandeity.

62Ref.3ofChapter21,page130.

IntheSumerianpictographicwritingsystemtheskywasrepresentedbyasix pointedstarandthesunbyacirclewithadotatthecenter.Whenthe Sumerianswantedtowritedingirtheydrewthetwosymbolsnexttoeach other,asshownbelow.Dingirwasthesungodresidinginthesky.Thiswayof writingDingirwaslogicalbecausetheSumerianlanguagewasagglutinative andwordscouldbecreatedbyaddingsuffixes.Infact Dingircomesfromthe CentralAsiaticTingriorTengri,stillexistingasTanrinTurkish.Wordssimilarto Tengri(meaningGod)canbefoundinmanyremotepartsoftheworld. Examplesare:TengerifortheCentralAsiaticBuryatTurks,TngrfortheTartars ofCrimea,TankafortheNorthAmericanIndians,TangaroaforthePacific islanders,TianfortheChineseandTinfortheEtruscans. TheancientEgyptiansadoptedthesolardiscstandingforthesuffix riasthenameofthesungodandcalledit Ra, asshownbelow.Actually,notonlyRabutalsoHorus isknowntoberelatedtothesun.Horus(Horis)wasadoptedas thesungodbytheRomansduringthePtolemaicera.Intime HorbecamepartoftheLatinlanguageandfoundits placeinwordssuchashorizon,horizontal,horoscopeandevenhourinEnglishandheureinFrench. AnotherdeityrelatedtothesunisPtah.Hepersonifiedtherisingsun,or,rathertheearlymorningsun,immediately afterithasrisen . Aton,oneofthemostprominentsungodsofAncientEgyptcameintimetosignifyboththesungod andtheactualsolardisk.ItwasduringthereignofAkhanatonAkHanAtaOnwhichlastedonly17yearsfrom1379 BCto1362BCthatAtonAtaonbecamethemaindeityoftheentireEgyptiankingdom.Atonwasregardedasthe creatoroftheearth,selfexistentandmeasurerofthelivesofmen.
63

HereweseeAkhanataonmakingofferingstothesunwithhiswivesNefertiti andKiyastandingbehind . They are receiving ankhs form the sun, the symbol of power and longevity. During his reign artists routinely portrayed the pharaoh in informal situations being affectionate with Nefertiti or playing with his children. Akhanaton unleashed a creative furor that gave rise to perhaps the finest era of Egyptian art. He even founded a new city Akhataton near the present city of Amarna. AfterthedeathofAkhanaton,hisson TutankhamonTutanOkhAmaOn(theoneprotectingAmon)assumedpower. HewasundertheinfluenceoftheAmonpriestsandreinstatedAmonasthe maingodofEgypt.Withintwoyearsthereligiouscapitalwasmovedfrom AkhatatontoThebes.SoonthetemplesweredemolishedandAkhetatonwas turnedintorubbles.TheancientreligionoftheAmonpriestscamebackto power,evenstrongerthanbefore.
64

TheIsskKurgan
CentralAsiawasinhabitedbymanySakatribeswhospokeacommonlanguagecloselyrelatedtotheProto Language(seeChapter4,TheAsiaticScythians).ThesepeopleofUighuroriginburiedtheirleadersinspeciallydesigned woodenchamberssome8to10msundertheearth.Sucha kurganwasexcavatedinKazakhstan,notfarfromthecity ofAlmaty.Thedigrevealedayoungmanburiedinfullclothingdecoratedwithgoldplaquesandgoldenornaments.On hispointedhatacoupleofgoldenibexes,severalgoldenarrowsandagolden Okhsymbolcouldbeseen.Hewas wearingagoldenringshownbelow.Aswordandadaggerwereintheirsheathdecoratedwithgold.Twosilvervases wereplacedalongthewalloftheroom,oneofwhichhad26incisedsigns,whosemeaningisstilldebated .
65

63 64 65

Idem,page144. NationalGeographic,April2001,PharaohsoftheSun,RickGore,page47,54. Ref.1ofChapter4,page204.

AccordingtoCarbon14datingdoneontheremains,the GoldenManlivedduring5thor6thcenturiesBC.Sincethe charactersofthescriptureonthevaseareverysimilartotheonesbelongingtothe Orhunsyllabary,showninChapter21, itisquitelogicaltotrydecipheringtheshorttextwiththehelpoftheancientTurkiclanguage.Thistaskhasbeen carriedoutbyKazmMiranwhodecipheredthescriptureasfollows :


66

WerequestthattheancestorstakeintherisingsoulofthishornedOkhleader.

ThesewordstellusthattheSakapeopleveneratedtheirancestorsandconsideredtheirleaderasanincarnationof thesolardeity.Wereachsuchaconclusionfromthefigureonhisring,whichisrepresentingthesun,thecoupleof ibexesaswellasthearrowsonhishat.Thereasonforthesesymbolicobjectsbeingmadeoutofgoldisthatgold,with itsyellowcolorhasbeenthepreferredmetalofsunworshipingcultures. ItwasbelievedbytheancientAsiaticculturesthattheirancestorsaswellastheskygodTengriresidedinamystical ormythicalrealmofthesky.ThisbeliefisfoundinmanyculturesthatspreadfromAsia(seeChapter8, Thedoubleedged ax).Theshamanwasresponsibleformakingamysticcontactwiththeskygodandinordertoperformaspiritualflight towardstheskyhecladinbirdlikeclothesandwearaheaddressmadeoutofbirdfeathers.PicturesofCentralAsiatic shamansaswellasashamandresscanbeseenbelow.Thestringsandropeshangingfromthedressrepresentthe feathersofthebird. Thedrumisthemaininstrumentoftheshamanwhosevibratingsoundhelpstheshamantoenterastateof heightenedawareness,whichisakindofecstatictrance.Ashamanisabletoperceivespiritsandgainspecial knowledgeofthesupernaturalrealm.NevillDrurywhowroteabookonShamanismsays :
67

66 67

Ref.2ofChapter5. Shamanism,NevillDrury,Elementbooks,page11,1996,USA.

Ashamaniseveralerttotheintrinsicperilsofhumanexistence,ofthemagicalforceswhichliewaitingtotraptheunwary,orwhichgiveriseto disease,famineormisfortune.Buttheshamanalsotakestheroleofanactiveintermediaryanegotiatorinbothdirections.

Shamanismwastheancientreligionofthe Okhpeople.Theirsymbolscanstillbefoundondifferentobjects.Onthe thirdpicturefromtheleftaboveweseetheOkhsymbolwhichornatethecushionsonthefloor(seeChapter8). AsiatictribeswhomigratedtoNorth,CentralandSouthAmericacarriedtheirshamanisticcultureanduseditfor venturingamongspiritsandobtaininginformationnecessarytothebenefitoftheirsociety.Thisiswhytheleaderofthe tribe,whoisresponsibleforthefutureexistenceandwellbeingofthetribe,wearsashamanicheaddressmadeoutof birdfeathers.Observetheclearsimilaritybetweenthedressoftheshaman(above)andthedrawingmadesome500 yearsagobyaNorthAmericansocalledIndianontheobjectshownbelow .Washakie(18081900)theShoshone tribeleaderinhisofficialattireisontheright.
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Thecircularobjectwithadotatitscenterseenonthebreastofbothfigures(above)symbolizesthesun.This symbolismunitingtheOkhleaderandthesunhasbeendiscussedinseveralpreviouschapters.Examplesofthe Onkh seals(below)foundinnorthern,centralandsouthernAmericanculturesareclearindicationsoftheirAsiaticorigin.

HorsesforEternity
Horsesplayedanimportantroleinthelifeofthenomadicancienttribes.Groupsofpeoplecouldtraveleasilytolong distancesandcarrytheirgoodswiththehelpoftheirhorses.Thehorsewasoneoftheearliestdomesticatedanimals byhumans.Thereareseveralobservationsmadetosupporttheclaimthatthemodernhorse Equuscaballusoriginated fromCentralAsiaandspreadtotheworld.EntirehorseremainshavebeenfoundnexttotheburialchamberofAsiatic rulers.Thereisfirsthandinformationthatancientshamanswereleadingtheceremonycalled TheSacrificeoftheHorse. Thepersonholdingtheheadofthehorsetobesacrificedwascalled BatutkankiimeaningThepersonholdingthe headinTurkic. ItwasmentionedinChapter21,TheOrhunScriptthatthewordforhorseinTurkishisAtandhasasemantic relationshiptoAtameaningancestor.ThewordAtcanalsobeusedasaverbmeaningtothrow.Thereasonfor suchaseconduseisnotcoincidentalandcanbeunderstoodwhentheforgottenancientbeliefsarestirredbacktothe
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GeheimnisvolleIndianerKulturen,ISBN393451975X,1993,Germany.

surface. TheancientCentralAsiaticpeoplebelievedthatthesoulofapersoncontinuedtoexistafterdeathandhadto traverseadangerousunderworldregionpopulatedbydemonsandgriffinsbeforereachingitsfinaldestinationinthe sky.Thesemythicalanimals(griffinsandchimera)hadlionclaws,eaglewingsandbeaksandwerereadytotearapart anysoulthatjourneyedthroughtheunderworld.Inordertosecureasafejourneyfortheirdeadleaderthroughthe underworldtheAsiaticnomadictribessacrificedhorsesasalureforthegryphon.Whilethegryphonattackedand devouredthesoulofthehorse,thesoulofthedeadleadercouldescapeandflytowardsthesky.Thenumberof horsessacrificeddependedontheimportanceofthedeadperson.Themorepowerfulthepersonwasthemore horsesfollowedhiminthegrave.Thisiswhythehorseandtheridercouldnotbeseparatedevenafterdeath(see Chapter21). ThehorseisthrowntothegryphonasanofferingandthisiswhyAtisbothanounandaverb.Recentarcheological researchhasbroughtnewinsightinthisdirection.InakurganatKostromskaya(northwesternRussia),22horses werefoundnexttothechieftain . At another kurgan in the Caucasus, remains of 360 horses were found.
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Goldpectoralfoundatakurgan(inUkraine)illustratesinextraordinarydetailtheAsiaticlifestyleandafterlifebeliefs ofthenomads.Thetoprowofthepectoraldepictsscenesfromthedailylife,whilethebottomrowillustratesthe underworldwherewildanimalsreside.Severalgriffinsareseenattackingthesoulofsacrificedhorses. 2. Ona superbcarvedwoodenstandard,agriffinslaysastag.Stagsaswellashorseswereacceptedtobedistinguished enoughtofollowthedeadleaderinhisjourneythroughtheunderworld. 3. Remainsofhorses,foundinakurgan,are beingexaminedbyanarcheologist.Onehasdifficultyinunderstandingwhysomanyhorsesweresacrificedaftera deadperson.ButthefollowingwordsofLucKwantenhelpusunderstandthisancienttradition :


1.
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Thestrengthofthenomadlaynotinnumbersbutinhisunsurpassedskillsasahorsemanandawarrior.Horses,thesteppesstapleproduct, wereavailabletothenomadinnearlyunlimitednumbers,whereasforthesedentarystatestheywerefrequentlyinshortsupply.Thenomadthus possessedtheadvantageofmobility.

ItwasduetothismobilitythatnomadictribesofAsiacouldcrosslargedistancesandformnewsettlements.Thisis whywefindthesymbolismoftheflyinghorseinmanycultures.IntheGreekMythologyPegasusisthewingedwhite horsethatflewtoMt.Olympus,wherehetookplaceinthestableofZeus/Jupiter.Oneofhiswingfeathersfellto earthclosetoTarsusgivingthecityitsname.ItissaidthatPegasusbearsforJupiterthelightningandthunder.

69 70

Ref.4ofChapter7,page202. Ref.5ofChapter1,page11.

Thismythcontainsseveralcluesrelatedtoourpresentsubject.Thewingedhorse flieshighuptowardthemythicalMt. Olympuswerethemaindeity(Zeus/Jupiter)resides.ThemeaningofPegasusisnotknownbutwhenwespiltitinto itsconstituentsyllableswefindPekAsuswearethestrongAs,wherepekmeansstrong/solid.ThecityofTarsus, locatedontheMediterraneancoastofAnatoliacouldalsobeunfoldedas TurAsusmeaningweareTurandAs.Not farfromTarsusaretheTaurusMountains.BothTarsusandTauruscontaintherootwordTurdiscussedalreadyin Chapter14.Hereweseesomeexamplesofflyinghorsesfoundindifferentpartsoftheworld. AdrawingofPegasus,theflyinghorseofGeekMythology. 2. Acoupleofterracotta wingedhorsesperchedontheroofofanEtruscantombhouse. 3. Thestatueofawinged horsefoundattheentranceofaburialmoundinChina. 4. AnancientChinesedishwiththe figureoftheflyinghorse.BelowweseeanEtruscanChimera.
1.

Wecanconcludethatthetraditionofmixinganimalsandcreatingmythicalcreaturessuch asgriffinsorchimeraisofAsiaticorigin.Therefore,cultureswheresuchsymbolismisfound areclearlyofAsiaticorigin.

FromKurganstoPyramids
ThecultofsacrificinghorsesafteradeadleaderisofAsiaticoriginpracticedbytheearlyUighurtribes,asdiscussed inseveralpreviouschapters.Inordertodifferentiatearegularlivehorsefromasacrificedone,theAsiaticcultures depictedthehindpartofthesacrificedanimalbeingcontortedupsidedown.Thissymbolismmeantthatthehorseor anysacrificedanimallostitsphysicalnormalshapeandbecameaspirit,readytorunintheunderworld.Actuallythe sacrificedanimalswerekilledwithasingleblowontheforehead,whichresultedinsuddenpainlessdeath.Figuresof contortedhorsesandelkshavebeenfoundinseveralAltaickurgans.TheelktattooshowninChapter4exhibitsthis symbolismofcontortinghindlegs.Thegoldenplaque(Picture1below)showsacontortedhorsethatadornedthe knobofthedaggeroftheGoldenmandiscussedinChapter22, TheIsskkurgan.Itisclearthatsuchzoomorphic contortedfigureswerenotintendedforsimpledecorativeeffect,butweretosymbolizethesoulofsacrificedanimals, senttotheunderworldforallowingasafepassagetothesoulofthedeadperson. Picture2belowisadrawingoftheUkokkurganmentionedinRef.3ofChapter4.Horseremainswerefoundonthe topaswellasontheexternalsidesofthewoodenburialroom.Protectingthesoulfrombeingdevouredbygriffins wassuchastrongbeliefinCentralAsiathatthefirstemperorwhounitedChina, QinShiHuangDi(259210BC)ordered aspecialmausoleumtobebuiltandhorsestobesacrificedafterhisdeath.ThetitleHuangisatransformedformof theTurkicKhangasmentionedinChapter5,Climaticchanges,aclearindicationoftheAsiaticinfluenceonChinese culture.

QintroopsoverrantheHan(Khan)statein236BCandthenproceededtodefeattheao(ay),Wei(Uy),u(U),Yan (Yan)andQi(Ky)states,allofthembelongingtotheearlyUighurconfederationoflooseindependenttribes.The namesoftheseneighboringstatesareallofTurkicorigin,astranscribedinbrackets. ConstructionofthemausoleumofQinShiHuangDistartedin247BCandlasteduntilhisdeath.Asmanyas720,000 workersfromacrossthecountryhelpedconstructthetomb.Asacrificialstablewasunearthedsome20msfromthe QinMausoleum.Thisstablecontained99sacrificedhorses . Picture 3 above shows a row of terracotta horses from the Qin Mausoleum. Three trenches, which cover over 20,000 square ms, hold about 7,000 life-size terracotta horses and armored warriors.
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Theoriginalburialsitewas115mshighandwascoveredwithearth,formingamediumsizepyramidalmound.There arestillmanyuntouchedpyramidsinChina.Thesepyramidalstructuresaremanmadehillsreplacingormimicking thekurganslocatedatthehighregionsoftheAltaiMountains.TheyareallbuiltontheflatplainsofChinaandare burialsitesofpreviouslocalUighurKingsorearlyChineseEmperors,anotherindicationoftheCentralAsiatic influenceonChina.BelowweseesomeexamplesofUighurand/orChinesepyramids.

ThetraditionofknottingthetailofhorsesisanothertypicalCentralAsiaticinfluenceontheChineseculture.This traditionofknottingthetailofhorses,keptintheChinesearmy,canbeseeninthepicturebelow,showingterracotta soldiersandhorses .


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Thetraditionofburyingkingsandimportantleadersofthesocietyinman madepyramidalstructures,togetherwithsacrificedhorses,went wherevertheAsiaticUighurtribesmigrated. WhenancientEgyptianspressedsouth,some2500yearsBC,they foundaculturedevotedtothesuncultwhichwascalledKush (birdin Turkish).ThemaincitiesofthisculturewereJebelBarkal,Napataand Mere,allofthemlocatedbetweenpresentEgyptandSudanonthe banksoftheupperNileriver.InJebelBarkalandMerethetombsoffive Kushitekingsandtheir70successorswerediscovered.

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Terra Cotta Warriors, PRC Publishing, page 11, Beijing, China. Idem, page 42.

InanarticleonKush,TimothyKendallsays :
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Nearbytheburialsite,theexcavatorsdiscoveredanamazinghorsecemetery.Twentyfivesteeds,drapedwithnetsdecoratedwithcowrieshells andfaienceandbronzebeadshadbeeninterredstanding.HorseswereintroducedtoEgyptfromtheeastandtheKushitesraisedfineanimals covetedevenbythedistantAssyrians.

ThesewordsgiveussomehintsontheextentofthesoutheastexpansionoftheUighurtribesdiscussedinChapter 18,TowardsSmerandElam(seethemapinChapter18).

AfricanExpansion
InthepreviousChapter25,FromKurganstoPyramids,ImentionedthatKushmeantbirdinTurkishandthatthisancient nationwaslocatedinthesouthofEgypt(seemapbelow).IamoftheopinionthattheKushitesdidnotoriginatefrom Africa,butcametotheseregionsfromthenorth.Herearesomeindicationssupportingthisopinion. Birds,asmentionedinChapter3,TheHiddenMeaningof Petroglyphs,wereacceptedtobesacredanimalsdueto theircapacityofbeingabletoflyinthesky;theregion wherethesunresides.TheKushitesalsoveneratedthe sunandcreatedanthropomorphicimagesofwingedgods andgoddesses,asshownabove. OneofthemostrenownedkingoftheKushiteempire wasTaharka,buthisoriginalnamewasTrHakaorTurHakan meaningthekingoftheTurpeople(seeChapters8and 24).ThewordTur(pronouncedastoor)hasbeen modifiedtoMoorbytheRomanswhocametoNorth AfricaaroundsecondcenturyAD.Moorbecameageneric nameforbrownpeopleofNorthAfricaandlateronof IberianArabsaswellasoftheBerberandTuareg(Toor Oc)peopleofNorthWestAfrica.

ThecountriesMauritaniaandMoroccobothcontaintherootwordToor/Moor.Howdidthecountryname Moroccoappear?Itismostprobablethatitsufferedthefollowingtransformations:ToorOk=>MoorOc=>Morocco,aclear relationtotheOcpeople.WealsohaveMaurusinLatin,MavroinGreek,MauveinFrench,MohrinGerman, MorinTurkish,allmeaningpurple,identifyingtheNorthAfricans(moor)withtheirsuntannedskincolor.


Mere,themaincityoftheKushitesandtheplainsof Moab,wheretheMoabitesoncelivedarealsonamesrelatedto Moor.TheplainsofMoabareinthelowvalleysoftheJordanRiverneighboringUgarit(seemapabove).

ThesenamesareallconnectedtotheAsiaticToorandOcpeoplewhomigratedtowardsthesouthwest.Afurther clueinthisdirectionisthesimilarityofthefacialappearancesshownabove.OlmecpeoplelivedinCentralAmerica andcarvedhugestoneheadsoftheirleader.ThesphinxheadinfrontoftheKhafrapyramidinEgypthasthesame


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National Geographic, Vol. 178, No. 5, November 1990, page 114.

featuresastheonesoftheMongolianrulerChengizHanandtheKushiteleaderTaharka(Turhakan).Addingthese cluestothedetailedelaborationsofthepreviouschapterswecanconcludethatancientNorthAfricantribescameto theseregionsfromCentralAsia. ThisAfricanexpansionhappenedmaybe7,000yearsBPandits remainingtracesareratherfuzzy,thereforenotclearlystatedinany historybook.Thepurposeofthepresentinvestigationis,as mentionedintheintroduction,toremembertheforgottenpast.The languagesspokenbyNorthAfricanandEasternMediterranean peoplehasbeendesignatedbylinguistsasbeingAfroAsiatic;aclear indicationoftheirAsiaticconnection.ThebranchesofAfroAsiaticare Berber(Tuareg),Chadic,Kuschitic,Egyptian,OmoticandSemitic.The mapbelowshowsthelanguagegroupsofAfricaandtheextentofthe AfroAsiaticlanguages . The Afro-Asiatic language group extends up to Sudan and Ethiopia, supporting the view that the Kushites did not originate from Central or Southern Africa.
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RegardingtheOlmecfacesshownabove,weknowthatthesepeoplelivedalongtheGulfCoastinwhatisnowsouthernMexicoand Guatemala.TogetherwiththeToltecstheyweretheearlysettlersoftheregionandhadadistinctiveculturalstyleincludingaspecial pictographicscript.Theircultureflourishedfrom1800BCto400BCandduringthisperiodtheycarvedmanystonemonuments,including colossalcarvedbasaltheadsthathavecharacteristicAsiaticfeatures.Untilnow16basaltheadsmeasuringuptothreeandahalfmetershave beenfound75.AnothercluefortheirAsiaticoriginisthepyramidlikemoundsbuiltbytheOlmecinLaVenta,animportantceremonialcenterof thisculture.Moredetailswillbegiveninthenextchapter.

Olmec,ToltecandMaya
FewyearsagoinCascajal,aSouthernMexicanarcheologicalsite,aserpentineblochasbeenfoundwithahitherto unknownpictographicscript . The article reports:
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Previously,noscripthasbeenassociatedunambiguouslywiththeOlmeccivilization,inmanyrespectstheprogenitorofalllatercomplex societiesinadjacentCentralAmerica
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ThelocationoftheancientOlmec,ToltecandMayacivilizationsisshowninthemapbelow.TheCascajalsite consistedoftwoparallelmounds,datingfromlatefirstmillenniumBC.Theinscribedblockweighsabout12kgand measures36X21X13cm.Ontheflatsideascriptconsistingof62signshasbeencarved.Thepicturebelowright showsthephotographofthesteleandontheleftweseesignsthatappearedfourtimes,threetimes,twotimesand onceontheblock.Wecanthereforeconcludethatthescriptcontainsatleast28charactersandcanbeclassifiedas analphabetwhoselettersarebothpicturesandseals.

74 75 76 77

TheOriginofLanguage,MerrittRuhlen,JohnWiley&Sons,1994,USA. NationalGeographic,Vol.184,No.5,November1993,page88. TheOlmecs:AmericasFirstCivilization,R.A.Diehl,Thames&Hudson,London,2005. OldestWritingintheNewWorld,ScienceMagazine,15September2006,page1610.

ThisalphabetisasoldasthecuneiformUgariticalphabet (seeChapter20,TheUgariticScript).Thiscanbe ascertainedfromseveralartifactsfoundintheCascajal sitedatedfrom1200BCupto900BC.Thescripthad certainlyapriorperiodofdevelopmentanddidnotpopup suddenly.TheOlmecalphabetcontainssomevegetal signsaswellassomesignsremindingtheCentralAsiatic seals,suchastheonesnumbered10and26.Thetextis horizontalandcontainsgroupingsoflongandshort glyphsconformingtoallexpectationsofwriting.Withsuch characteristicsitcantakeitsplaceamongtheworldsfirst alphabets.Butmorespecimensareneededforits decipherment .
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ThenearbycityTulaisacceptedastheancientsiteoftheToltecculture(seemapabove).Statueswithfeather headdressesfoundinTularemindustheCentralAsiaticshamansofTuva.ThesimilarityofTulawithTuvaandthe pyramidsbuiltbytheToltecsareindicationsoftheirAsiaticorigin .


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NowrittentablethasbeenfoundintheToltecland,buttheMayapeoplelivinginYucatandevelopedacomplicated pictographicwritingsystem.ItismostprobablethattheMayaglyphsoriginatedfromthesimplerOlmecwritingsystem. TheMayawritingsystemismuchmorecomplexandgavealotofheadachetotheMayanscholars.This transformationfromsimpletocomplicatedsignsremindsuswhathappenedtotheSumerianscriptandtotheearly Chinesescript(seeChapter13,EvolutionofWritingSystems). TheMayasystemcontainsseveralglyphsthatstandforsyllablesandalsomanyglyphsrepresentingwords. Therefore,thissystemisbothsyllabicaswellaslogographic.Therearemorethan1000differentglyphsintheMaya writingsystem. TheMayaalsomasteredastronomy,mathematics,artandarchitecture,andhadarathercomplicated calendar.Theywroteonstone,ceramics,andbarkpaper. UnfortunatelymostoftheMayabooksweredestroyedbythe SpanishBishopDiegodeLanda. ItisbelievedthattheMayalanguagedevelopedfromProtoMayandatingfromminimum2,000BC.Itthendiffused intoseveralbranchesknownasYucatecan,Huastecan,Cholan,Qhanjobalan,MameanandQuechuan.Allthese MayandialectsareagglutinativelanguagesandcanbeshowntopertaintotheAsiatic,Altaiclanguagegroup.Here aresomeMayawordswhichareverysimilartoTurkish.TheMayawordisgiveninboldandthecorrespondingTurkish wordisinredwithinbrackets .
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78 79 80

NationalGeographicNews,MasonInman,14September2006. Ref.4ofChapter7,page268. Geolinguistics(inTurkish),SaimAliDilemre

Leader:Ahau(Agha),Ax:Baat(Balta),Servant,Low:Ashac(Uak,Aa),Alot,Strong:Tchac(ok),Pine tree:Tcha(am),Difficult:Tchetun(etin),Augment,Climb:Tchich(k),Lefthanded:Tchol(olak,Solak), Boulder:Kaa(Kaya),Bird:Kutz(Ku),Inside:il(inde),Female:(Dii),Belt:Kanak(Kasnak),Day:Kin (Gn),Sun:Kini(Gne),Person:Kie(Kii),Oldman:Koa(Koca),Slave:Kul(Kul),Mother:Naa(Ana),Be: Ol(Ol),Stayclean:Tamazkal(Temizkal),Inundation:Tosh(Takn),Hill:Tepek(Tepe),Stone:Tetl(Ta), Gather:Top(Topla),Dust:Toz(Toz),Full:Tul(Tolu,Dolu),Filled:Tulan(Dolgun),Deep:Tup(Dip),Pebble: Tzekel(akl),Scabies:Ueez(Uyuz),Urinate:Ui(e),Reach:Ul(Ula),Bore:Uy(Oy),Humid:Yash(Ya), Green:Yashil(Yeil).Summer:Yashkin(Yazgn). These37wordsformasmallsampleindicatingtherelationshipofthemainMayaYucateclanguagewithTurkish. SincetherehavebeennophysicalinteractioninthelasttwomillenniabetweenAsiaticTurksandCentralAmerican Maya,thesewordscannotbeloanwords.Theyhavetostemfromacommonrootlanguage,whichIhavelabeledas theProtolanguage.

MayaCitiesandPyramids
SeveralwavesofmigrationscrossedthelandbridgebetweenAsiaandAmericamanythousandyearsagoand populatedgraduallythenewcontinent.AnarticlepublishedinNatureclaimsthatthisfacthasnowbeenscientifically proven.Calculationsofsealevelsbetween18,000to9,000yearsagoattestthepossibilityofsuchalandcrossing.The articlestartswiththefollowingwords :
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AmericasfirstinhabitantswerepeoplefromAsiawhomigratedoveranowsubmergedlandbridgebetweenthetwocontinents.

AnotherrecentarcheologicalresearchhasestablishedthatagroupofpeoplewerelivingatasitecalledMonteVerde insouthernChile12,500yearsBP . The article in Nature Magazine states:


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IfpeoplehadmigratedalmosttothetipofSouthAmericaby12,500yearsago,expertsagreetheymusthavebeguntrekkingsouthfromAlaska beforetheglaciersretreatedfromtheAmericaninterior.

Theperiodictemperaturevariationsinthenorthhemisphereduringthelast20,000yearshavebeendiscussedin Chapter5,ClimaticChanges.Fromthegraph(below)wecantellthataround18,000yearsBPthenorthernregionswere coldenoughtoallowsuchacrossing.Evenafterhavingcrossedthelandbridgepeoplehadtomovefurthersouth, becauseicesheetsdidnotretreatuntiltheendoftheiceage.TheyenteredfrompointAshownonthemapbelow leftandreachedMonteVerde(bluepointB)withinthenext6,000years.Butnotallofthemwentallthewaytothe south.By4,600BPtheOlmecpeopleofMesoamericaattainedanadvancedlevelofcivilizationexhibitingcitylife, refinedartandarchitecturaldesign,andevendevelopedawritingsystem(seepreviousChapter27).

ThelanguagesoftheAmericashavebeenclassifiedinthreemaingroups.JosephGreenbergandcolleagueshave proposedthatthethreeNativeAmericanlanguagefamiliesAmerind,NaDeneandEskimoAleutderivefromthree separatemigrationsfromAsia . The earliest migrants spoke many different, but interrelated Asiatic (Altaic)
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81 82 83

NatureMagazine,Vol.422,6March2003,page10. MonteVerde,T.D.Dillehey,ScientificAmerican,No.251,page106,1984. Ref.1ofChapter26,page100.

languages, which have been labeled as Amerind a name derived from American-Indian shown in yellow on the map. The green region has been the area where tribes speaking Na-Dene or equivalently Atapascan settled and the light blue region extending from Alaska to Greenland is the area of EskimoAleut speakers (see Chapter 2, Diversification of Languages).

InsteadoftryingtoreadthecomplexMayascriptures,whichneedsaspecialexpertise,asimplerapproachwouldbe totrytodecipherthetoponymyoftheYucatancitiesandsites.Citynamescertainlydohaveameaning,butnobody untiltodayevertriedtogiveanetymologicalexplanationofthecitynames,oratleastIhavenotcomeacrossofsuch anapproach.OnthemapbelowrightweseethenamesandlocationsofthemajorMayacitiesandsites.

HereismyownunderstandingofsomeMayacitynames:
ChichenItza:Inthepreviouschapter:TheMayawordTchichwasfoundtobeequivalentinmeaningandsoundtothe

Turkishwordk(pronouncedastchyck)meaningAugment,Climb.TheequivalentofckichenischykaninTurkish, thereforeChichenItzameansTheelevatedorsuperiorItza.
Tikal:TikisoneoftheearliestrootwordsoriginatingfromtheProtolanguage,meaning single,uniquewhichevolved

tomeanfingerandhand . In all Altaic languages (Turkish, Uighur, Chuvash, Chagatai) tek means single. In the Eskimo-Aleut languages tik means the index finger. In Chinese tiek means one. In Atapascan languages tek and tikhi mean again one. In Amerind languages the Mixe say tuk and the Quiche Maya say tik for one. Therefore, Tikal means The single one, or Be unique since the suffix al exists in Turkish in the form of il. Thus Tikal is the equivalent of tekil and means singular or one of a kind.
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Copan:InTurkishthesamewordexistsasKopan,meaning thebreakawayone.Thisisavalidnameforthiscity,which

isfarfromthemainMayacitiesasshownonthemapabove.
Tulum:Thewordtul,alreadymentionedinthelastchapter,meansfullandisfoundasdoluortoluinTurkish.

Therefore,Tulummeansfilleduporcrowded,aperfectnameforacitylocatedbytheseashore.Afurthermeaning fortulumisafilledupanimalskin,whichisalsousedforbagpipe,ananimalskinfilledupwithair.
Uxmal:ThisnamepronouncedasUshmalorUchmalcontainstherootworduchmeaningbothtipandalso

leader,alreadymentionedinChapter10,EtruscanInscriptions.Uchmakmeantheavenorhighaboveinancient Turkish.ForsureUxmalwasoneofthemostimportantMayacities.Thesocalledgovernorspalaceortheresidence oftheMayakingisdescribedinthefollowingwordsbyLewisSpence .


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Thepalaceoccupiesthreesuccessivecolossalterraces,anditsfriezerunsinalineof100ms,andisdividedintopanels,eachofwhichframesa giganticheadofpriestordeity.

Therefore,Uxmal meanstheleadercityorthecapitalcity.
84 85
Idem,page115. TheMythsofMexicoandPeru,LewisSpence,page191,DoverPublications,USA.

WithoutgoingintomoredetailonthecitynamesletusturnourattentiontotheMayaarchitecture.Theinhabitantsof YucatanbuiltsteppedpyramidsineveryMayacityandusedthemforburyingtheirking,worshipingthesungodand makingbloodritualsandsacrifices. TheMayahadalsoaveryintricatecalendarsystem.TheMayatimekeepinginvolvedseveralinterlockingcycles, someofwhichtrackedastronomicaleventswhileothersseeminglyfollowedabstracttimeintervals.Mayapriests,who conductedthesacredrituals,werealsoferventstargazersanddecidedonthetimingofimportanteventsbasing themselvesonboththeircomplicatedcalendaraswellasonthepositionofthestars.AsolardayinMayanis kinand isgninTurkish,whilethesuninMayaniskinishandisgneshinTurkish.Suchsimilaritiescancertainlynotbe coincidental. BelowweseesomeMayapyramids.Theyareallbuiltonflatlandandarefulfillingtheroleofmountains,lackingin theregion.InthenewworldaswellasinChinaandEgypttheneedforpyramidbuildingstemmedfromthesame desireofapproachingthesun.Thiswishforworshipingthesungodevolvedfromsimpleearthmoundstoadvanced architecturalstonestructuresandisfoundalsointheBiblicalstoryTowerofBabel.

TheMayacultureandhistoryispartofourforgottenpastandneedstoberediscovered.

TheBirdSymbolism
WesawinChapter26,AfricanExpansionandinChapter27Olmec,ToltecandMaya,thatthesunworshippingcultures consideredthebirdsingeneralasbeingspecialanimalsbecauseoftheircapacitytoflytowardsthesky,therealmof thesun.Suchacapacitywasalsoacceptedtobeafeatbelongingtotheshamans.Therefore,thebirdsymbolismhas beenextensivelyusedinallshamaniccultures.TheoriginalcradleofshamanismhasbeenCentralAsiaandhas spreadtotheancientworldfromthisregion. BelowweseesometotempolesoftheNorthAmericansocallednativepeople.Birdfiguresstandingatthetopof thetotempolesrepresentthespiritoftheancestorsaswellasthesundeity.ForthenortherntribesofAmericatotem poleswerethesymbolsofshamanicguardianspiritexperiences.Theshamanorthemedicinemanwoulddressuplike abirdandperformecstatic,spiritualflightstowardstheskyinordertocommunicatewiththedeitiesandancestors (seeChapter23,TheIsskKurgan).TrudyGriffinPiercesays :
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Thefiguresonthepolewerenotactuallytotemsbecausetherewasnosenseofavoidanceofthedepictedanimalsorprohibitionsagainstkilling oreatingthem.Instead,theywerespecialhelpingspiritsfromtheanimalworldwhichhadbecomeheraldiccrests.

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NativeAmericans,TrudyGriffinPierce,MetroBooks,page111,1996,NYUSA.

Thepictureshereareexamplesofthebirdssymbolism foundallovertheworld.

1.SmallamuletsexcavatedfromakurganinCentralAsia87.

These are symbolic figures of female shamans and were carried on the body or hanged from the neck in order to be protected from harmful spirits. They also indicate that shamanism was essentially a female activity.
2.ThewingedSumeriansungodUtuisclearlydepicting

theconnectionbetweenthebirdandthesun.Hishelmet hasramhornsandheisholdingatorqueinhislefthand. Thetorquehadaspecialmeaningforancientsun worshipingsocieties.Thewordtorqueisbelievedto haveoriginatedfromtheLatinwordtorquere,butwhat wasitsoriginalform? ItisquitepossiblethattorquewasoriginallyasolarsymboloftheEtruscans.Itsufferedthefollowing transformations:TurOsc(Etrusc)=>Torosc=>Torque.WefindheretheconnectiontotheTur(Toor)andOscpeoplethat cametotheItalianpeninsulabeforetheRomans.Thetorque,whichhastheformofacirclealsomeansthe surroundingorthecircleandstandsforthelandorregionundercontrolbytheTur(seeChapter8, Thedoubleedged ax).ThetorquewaseitherheldinthehandorsurroundedtheneckoftheOchleaderandisfoundinmanydifferent culturesthatoriginatedfromAsia.Moredetailwillbegiveninthefollowingchapters.
3.AHittitedeityfromKaratepeAnatolia88.

The winged deity takes its place among a series of wall relief at the entrance wall of a late Hittite castle. The anthropomorphic figure has a bird beak and is holding a winged solar disk above its head, indicating the clear connection between the bird and the sun.
4.WingedfemaleamuletsfromIkiztepeAnatolia.ThesesmallidolsarefromtheBronzeAgethatlastedfrom3300

BCuntil1200BC.Theinterestingpointtonoticeistheslimbodiesandflatshapesoftheseidols.Thereasonforsuch flatshapesismostprobablyrelatedtotheneedofcarryingtheseamuletsonthebreast,attachedbystringsand hangingfromtheneck.Thesmallholesoneachsideofthefacewereprobablymadeforthepurposeofpassinga stringthroughthem .


89

5.Thewingedsundiskonachainisapectoralmadeoutofgold,carnelianagate,turquoiseandmetaphoricstone 90.It

wasmadebyPhrygianorLydianartistsofwesternAnatoliaaboutthe8 thcenturyBC.Alinkhasbeenclaimedby HerodotusbetweenthewesternAnatolianLydiansandtheEtruscansofItaly.TheoriginalnameofLydiawasLuddu, whichbecameLudiainancientGreek.Thisnamewasmostprobably ULUODY(thelandofthesacredfire) transformingintoUluudia=>Luddu=>Ludia=>Lydia,indicatingasunworshippingculturewhoselanguageoriginatedfrom theAsiaticProtolanguage.Bythe8thcenturyBCthewholeregionofwesternAnatoliacameunderHellenistic influenceandthelanguagesofmostcitystatesbecamepartoftheIndoEuropeanlanguagegroup.

87 88 89 90

Ref.3ofChapter1. Nationalgeographic,Turkishedition,January2009,page52. MysteriousWomenoftheBronzeAge,YapKrediCulturalActivities,page31,2006,Istanbul. TheLydianTreasure,RepublicofTurkeyMinistryofCulturepublication,page174,1996,Istanbul.

TheoriginofthePhrygiansandthedateoftheir appearanceinAnatoliaisanissuestilldebatedamong scholars.Thetechniqueofthesundiskisfoundtobe similartotheobjectsfoundinthegravesofSusa,the capitaloftheancientElamiteculture(seeChapter18, TowardsSumerandElam).Therefore,similarsungodsymbols sharedamongeasternMediterranean,Mesopotamian andAnatolianculturesareclearindicatorsoftheir commonAsiaticorigin.

Celts,GaulandGalatians
OnMay1891,peatcuttersfoundasilvercauldronnearthehamletofGundestrupNorthernDenmark.Thecauldronis presentlyexhibitedintheNationalMuseumofCopenhagen . There are two scenes on the cauldron which are
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of special interest to the subject discussed in the previous chapter, The bird symbolism. One of them is the second picture from the left (below) in which a man is holding a torque (torc) in his right hand and a snake in his left. A stag is standing on his right side, a lion and a wild boar on his left. He is sitting crosslegged and is wearing a torc around his neck, stag antlers on his head. All these small but important details are pointing to the Asiatic Scythian (Saka) culture (see Chapter 4, The Asiatic Scythians). ThereisaclearsimilaritybetweentheIndusValleysealshownon therightpictureandthemanoftheGundestrupcauldron.Bothare sittingcrossleggedandbothwearhorns.Thehornsymbolismis typicalforCentralAsiaticancientculturesandwastransportedto thewestandtothesouthbytheAsandOktribes(seemap below). ThesymbolismoftheGundestrupcauldrondivulgesanother hiddensuperstitionoftheseancientpeople.Thisisthebeliefthat therightsiderepresentsthegoodandthepositiveandtheleft siderepresentstheevilandthenegative.Wereachtosucha conclusionbynoticingthepositionofthestagandthetorcbeing onhisrightsideandthesnake,theboarandthelionbeingonhis leftside.Therefore,thetorcwasapositivebindingsymbol.

Thewomanonthethirdpicturefromtheleftisalsowearingatorc.Sheisholdingabirdinherrighthandandthere arebirdsoneachsideofherhead,remindingthebirdsymbolismmentionedinthepreviouschapter.Thestag,the hornsandthebirdsaresymbolsusedextensivelybytheAsiaticshamancultures.

ThetorcheldintherighthandofthemanontheGundestrupcauldronmusthavearatherspecialandimportant
91
ScientificAmerican,TimothyTaylor,March1992,page66.

meaning.Althoughwecannottellforsure,wecanguessthatitrepresentsaconnectiontotheloosefederationofthe AsiaticTurOctribes(seepreviouschapter29).Acollarhasalwaysbeenandstillisanobjectsymbolizingownership. Below,weseesomeinterestingobjectssuchascollars,torques,pectoralsandbraceletsfromdifferentpartsofthe world,pointingtoacommonbutforgottenshamanicculture.

1.SilvertorcfromTrichtingenSouthGermany.2.TorcfromNorfolkEngland,midfirstcenturyBC. 3.

ACeltictorc.The nameCeltorKelt,istransformedfromKalat/Galat.Thisnamebelongedtoanancienttriberesidingin Galatia (Kalaty),aregioninCentralAnatolia.Kalatisformedfromtheroot kal,meaningstayinTurkish.Therefore,the KalatwerepeoplewhocametoCentralAnatoliaanddecidedtostay.PresentIstanbulhasstillawardnamedGalata. TheGalatiansmigratedtowardsthewestandfoundthemselvesspeakingthesamelanguagewiththenorthwestern tribesofEurope92. Wefindasimilarcommentinref.90,strengtheningtheaboveclaim:


FerdinandDrexeloftheUniversityofFrankfurtarguedin1915thatthecauldronhadoriginatedinsoutheastEurope,thenearestsourceofthe requisitesilverworkskills.ThistechnologicalconstraintwasthemainstayofDrexelscontentionthatthecauldronwasThracianinorigin.

Thracia,bytheway,isanametransformedfromTurOcy=>Turocya=>ThrakiaandfinallyThracia.TheTurkish nameofthisregionisstillTrakya.4.Avulturepectoralfoundontheheadofamummyandwronglyinterpretedasa crown .ItisarareexampleofthecollarofthevultureknownfromthecoffinpicturesoftheMiddleKingdom(1565 BCto1310BC).ThebirdsymbolismhadanimportantplaceinthebeliefsystemofancientEgyptrepresentingthesoul flyingtowardstherealmofthesungod(seeChapter26, TheAfricanExpansion).Gold,withitsyellowcolorhasbeenthe preferredmaterialofsunworshipingcultures.5. GoldbraceletfromwesternIrandated8thcenturyBC.6. Goldbracelet fromwesternBlackSearegion(presentBulgaria).7.Apairofantelopebraceletswithturquoiseearsandhoofsfrom AltynTepe .8. ThestatuecommissionedbyAttalosaround230BCtocelebratehisvictoryovertheKalat(Celtic Galatians)ofAnatolia.ThestatueisknownasthedyingGaulwithamustacheandatorcaroundhisneck , indicating that the Kalats (Galatians), the Kelts (Celts) and the Kol (Gaul, ) were all of Asiatic (Uighur) origin and were speaking approximately the same language.
93 94 95 96

HittiteandSumerian
TheHittiteswholivedincentralAnatoliaduringthesecondmillenniumBCspokealanguagewhichisacceptedas thefirstIndoEuropeanlanguage.However,thegreaterpartoftheHittitevocabularyisofnonIndoEuropeanorigin .
97

92 93 94 95 96 97

ComentariiinEpistolamadGalatos(EpistletotheGalatians),St.Jerome(347420AD).ItismentionedthattheGalatiansofAnatoliaandtheCeltsofnorthwestern Europespokethesamelanguage. EgyptianCivilization,MinistryofForeignAffairspublication,page156,2001.Japan. Ref.3ofChapter16,page72. ThestatueispresentlyinCapitolineMuseum,RomeItaly. Kol meansarminTurkishanddefinesagroupofpeopledescendingfromacommonancestor,similartothearmextendingfromthemainbody. TheHittites,O.R.Gurney,PinguinBooks,page119,1976,England.

InHittitethelaryngeal(guttural)soundsoriginatedfromtheAsiaticProtolanguage.Forexample,thekhsoundis foundinmanywordsandshouldbepronouncedasOkh.Thename Hittitewasgiventothislanguagebymodern scholarsasbeingtheofficiallanguageofthe LandofHatti;butitshouldbepronouncedasOkhAtili.SincetheHittite languagewasamonosyllabiclanguageconnectedtotheProtolanguageandtoallAltaiclanguages,oneshouldsplit thewordsintoitsconstituentphonemes.Okhmeansarrow,Atmeanshorse and il means The Land, while illi means from the land or belonging to the land, therefore Okh-At-illi or Okh-At-ly became Khattili => Hattili and finally Hittite. The suffix -ly is still existing in Turkish meaning mixed together, giving a further meaning to Okhatly a mixture of Okh and At people. It is most probable that At and As were names given to the same people originating from western Asia. We find At and the suffix -illi in the name of the Hun leader Atilla or Atilli.
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TheHittitesusedtwodifferentscriptssimultaneously.Thesewerethehieroglyphicandthecuneiformscripts.The cuneiformscriptwasadoptedbytheHittitesfromtheAccadians.Thismeansthattherewasacloserelationshipinboth languageandculturebetweentheHittitesandtheAccadians.Thename Accad becomesmeaningfulwhensplitintoits constituentsAcc(Okh)andAdmeaningname.WegetfromOchAt=OkhAd=>Akhad=>Accadthemeaningful wordOkhnameaclearindicationtotheOchpeople.Thelaryngealkhchangedintimeandsoftenedtoadoublec. ThehieroglyphicscriptwasmostlyusedtowriteintheLuwilanguageandwasthepreferredscriptonmonuments andseals.TheLuwilanguageiscloselyrelatedtoHittiteandismentionedasLuwiliinHittitetexts.Luwililateron transformedintoLycian,whichbecamethelanguageusedbythesouthAnatolianLyciansoftheclassicalepoch. BelowleftweseeasteleinscribedwiththeHittitecuneiformscriptandontherightaportionofawallinscribedwith hieroglyphicscriptfromHattusas,CentralTurkey .
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InordertoshowtheconnectionbetweenHittiteandtheAltaiclanguagesweneedconcreteexamplesobtainedfrom writtenoriginaltexts.Thereisabookpublishedin1980byAhmetUnaldiscussingsomeHittitephrases . We find many Sumerian words in these sentences, which could either be borrowed from the ancient Sumerian language of Mesopotamia or could also be independently related to the Asiatic Protolanguage. Here is one example:
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:MyGod.DingirmeaningGodinSumerian,alreadydiscussedinchapter22, EgyptianDeities.limisasuffix stillusedinTurkishasapossessivepronoun.


Dingirlim

:WreathorHeaddress.KylmeanshairorratherasinglethreadofhairinTurkish.Butkyllymeans mixedwiththreadsofhair(lyisalreadymentionedabove)andthereforetheHittitewordKililuorGilimisan appropriatedefinitionforawreathwornonthehead.


Kililu=Gilim LuSanga:Totheholypriest.ThefirstsyllablestandsforholyandisfoundinTurkishas ulu,alreadymentionedin

Chapter29,Thebirdsymbolism.Sangmeansrespectful,importantpersonandisfoundinJapaneseas sanandin
98 99 100
SeeChapter12,TheAnatolianexpansion. AtlasMagazine(inTurkish),JurgenSeeher,May1999,page88. HititSarayindakiEntrikalarHakkindaBirFalMetni,A.Unal,AnkaraUniversityPublication,No:343,page82,1983,Ankara,Turkey.

Turkishassayn.Thesamemeaningisfoundinsaint.ThesuffixameaningtotheisstillusedinTurkish. Therefore,Lusangameanstothesaint. WeseethatHittiteisanagglutinantlanguagesimilartoAltaiclanguagescontainingseveralsuffixesstillexistingin modernTurkish.SuchasentenceformationisnotfoundinmostIndoEuropeanlanguages.Thesethreewordsabove areenoughtoexplainanoriginalsentenceobtainedfromaHittitetext:


DINGIRLIMGILIManziLUSANGAyaGILIManzi,whichcanbetranslatedas:Theyadornthegodwithawreathandalsothe priest(saint)withawreath.Thezisuffixmakestheworddefinite,similartotheEnglishisortheGermanist.In Turkishizstandsforthedefinitepluralsimilartoweare.

WithoutgoingintofurtherdetailwecanconcludethattheHittitelanguageformsabridgebetweenAltaicandwestern IndoEuropeanlanguages.TheoriginalconnectionbetweenHittiteandSumeriancanbetracedbacktotheProto languageofAsiafromwhichTurkishistheclosestdescendent.Inordertobeconvincedofsuchanancientconnection betweenTurkishandSumerianhereisashortlistofSumerianwords.TheTurkishequivalentisgiveninredandin brackets. Father:Adda(ata,baba),Mother:Ama(anne,ana),Lord:Aga(agha),Horizon:An(tan),Male:Ar(er),First:As (as),God:Dingir(Tengri),House:E(ev),Shore:Kya(ky),Blow:Es(es),Fat:Gisko(shishko),Upright:Dim (dik),Arm:Kol(kol),Sleep:Uiku(Uyku),Bird:Kus(kush),Rightside:Sag(sa),Oak:Mesu(meshe), Sheepfold:Ag(agl),Large:En(en,engin),Come:Ge(gel),Blood:Ka(kan),Canal/Bloodvessel:Kanal(kan damar),Say:De(de,demek),Stop:Duru(dur),Settle:Kur(kur,kurgan),Run:Kusu(kosh),Smile:Gles (glech),Bore:Bur(burgu),Ax:Bal(balta),Shine:Bar(barla/parla),String/Rope:b(ip),Pretty:Alm(alml), Holy:Ulu(ulu),Separate:Kup(kop),Who:Gim(kim),Soldier:Ir(er),Wood:Odun(odun/otun) These37wordsformasmallbutimportantsampleshowingthatevenafteralmost5,000yearswecanstillfind commonwordsbetweenTurkishandSumerian,containingthesamesoundandthesamemeaning .
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TurningourattentiontotheSumerianarchitecture,weseethatpeoplelivingontheflatprairiesofMesopotamiabuilt steppedpyramidscalledziggurats.Theybuiltthesehighstructuresassymbolsreplacingthemountainswhichlacked intheirregion.WesawthatthiswishforhighrisearchitectureexistedalsoamongtheMayaandtheEgyptians.The commonarchitecturaldesignsareanothersignoftheircommonorigin.NotonlytheSumerians,butalsotheElamites wholivedinsouthwesternIranbuiltziggurats(seeChapter18,TowardsSumerandElam). BelowleftweseetheSumerianzigguratnearUrandtheElamitezigguratpresentlyinKhuzestan,Choghazanbil WesternIran.KhuzestanistheregionofIranborderingMesopotamia.Thisnameisclearly Ghuzistanoriginallybeing OghuzistanorOghuzland,clearlyindicatingthatthezigguratstructureswerebuiltbytheOchpeople.Oguzmeans we aretheOch(seeChapter2,Diversificationoflanguages).

FromOrhuntoCanaan
AfterthedisappearanceoftheHittiteempireby1,000BCtheCentralAnatoliancitystateslosttheirimportant position.InsteadthecitiesbytheseashoresofwesternandsouthernAnatoliabecameimportantanddominant.The twomainreasonsforthischangeweretheflourishingseatradeandthemilderclimaticconditionsoftheMediterranean andAegeancosts. Thereisaperiodof500years,from1,000BCto500BC,whichisomittedinthehistoryofAnatolia.Thisperiodof halfamillenniumispartoftheforgottenpast.ItisaperiodoftransitionduringwhichtheIndoEuropeanlanguages replacedalmostallAltaiclanguagesoftheregion.By500BCtheGreeklanguagewasthedominantlanguageof westernandsouthernAnatolia,butfewtracesoftheancientcultureandlanguagecontinuedtoexistaspropercity namesandlocations. Ihavealreadymentionedinthepreviouschapter( HittiteandSumerian),thattheLuwililanguageofCentralAnatolia transformedintimetoLycianofthesoutherncoast.TheancientEgyptiansrefertotheLyciansasthe Lukkaand
101
SumerveTurkDillerininTarihiIlgisi,OsmanNedimTuna,TDKYayinlari,No:561,1990,Ankara,Turkey.

mentionthemamongtheSeaPeople.
LuwiliisanamereferringtoUluillimeaningbelongingtotheholycityinAltaicand Lukkaissimilarlythenameofthe UluOktheholyOkpeople.Lukkia,canthereforebeunderstoodasmeaning UluOky(theregionoftheholyOk),

whichbecameLyciaorLikiaastimewentby.OnthemapofChapter12, TheAnatolianexpansion,wecanseetheregion calledLikia,locatedonthesoutherncostofpresentTurkey.TheLycianalphabetisacceptedtobeamodifiedformof theGreekalphabet,butitisquitetheoppositethatactuallyhappened.TheLycians,whowereseafarersweretrading withthePhoeniciansandbroughtthePheonicianalphabettosouthernAnatolia.ThePhoenicianalphabetwasadapted forwritinganAfroAsiaticlanguageanddidnotfitGreek,whichisanIndioEuropeanlanguage.Itwastherefore modifiedfirstbyLyciansandthenbytheGreekspeakers.ButPoenicianwasprecededbyascriptknownasProto Phoenician. HereweseeaninscriptioninProtoPhoenician,whichisstillalanguage notyetdeciphered . Therearecertainlettersinthisscript(encircledin blue)thatarealmostidenticaltosomeofthecharactersoftheOrhun Valleyscript(aboveright).TheOrhunsyllabaryhasbeendiscussedin Chapter21,TheOrhunValleyScript.ThegeneralbeliefexiststhattheOrhun scriptisanoffshootofthePhoenicianalphabet.But,asmentioned before,theOrhunscriptisnotanalphabetitisasyllabary,furthermore, theevolutionofwritingsystemsstartedfromsymbolicsealsandafter manytrialsfinallyreachedthelevelofphoneticletters.Wealreadysaw thattheoriginallocationofsymbolicsealshasbeenCentralAsia,from whichtheconceptofrecordingthoughtsdissipatedinalldirections. SinceallAfroAsiaticlanguagesarewellknownandthoroughly investigated,howcomethattheProtoPhoenicianscriptstillremainsas anondecipheredenigma?Thereasonbeingthat,mostprobably,the ProtoPhoenicianscriptwasdesignedforrecordinganAltaiclanguage thatcametotheregionfromthenorth(seeChapter18,TowardsSmerand Elam).
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TryingtodeciphertheProtoPhoenicianwiththehelpoftheSemiticlanguageswillbe,toalargeextent, unsuccessful.ThePhoenicianletterswereoriginallyProtoSinaiticpictographicsigns.Theybecamelettersafterthe conceptofsealwritingcametotheregion.BelowweseethetransformationoftheletterA.Itwasinitiallythepictureof anoxhead . We already saw that the ox was a symbol representing the Ok leader (see chapter 7, The Minoan Culture). The bull symbolism came to the Eastern Mediterranean region from both the south-east and also from the north. This is why the first letter of the Phoenician alphabet became aleph, meaning ox, which is a stylized form of an ox head.
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TheancientHungarianshadalsoascriptverysimilartotheOrhunValleyscript.Thisscriptwasnotborrowedfrom theGreekscript,asmanystillbelieve,butoriginatedfromtheUralregion.TheUraliclanguagesdevelopedfromthe borderingAltaiclanguagesasmentionedinChapter2, DiversificationofLanguages.


EarlyGreekletterAwassimilartoboththeHungarianaswell astothePhoenicianaleph.Thisisbecausetheancientnorth westernAnatolianregion,whereAsiaticThracianssettled,was ameltingpotofnorthernandsouthernculturesspeaking languagesthatoriginatedfromacommonsource.TheSemitic peoplewhoremainedinthevicinityofCanaandidnotadopt thePhoenicianalephbutselectedtokeeptheOrhuncharacter foraande,changingitasshownbelow.
102 103
Ref.3ofChapter19,page164. Idem,page161.

CanaanwasknownasKananormoreunderstandably KhanynmeaningbelongingtotheKhaninAltaic. LanguagesspokeninCanaanbecameextinctaroundthe firstmillenniumBC.TheyincludedPhoenician,Punic, Ammonite,Moabite,EdomiteandHebrew.Hebrewhas beenrevivedduringthelastcenturyandispresentlythe officiallanguageofIsrael. AlthoughtheresidentsofancientUgariticdidnotconsiderthemselvesasCanaanites,theywerethefirsttodevelop analphabeticalscriptandhadastronginfluenceonCanaanites,andespeciallyonPhoenicians(seeChapter20, The Ugariticscript).ThereasonforthedisappearanceofallCanaanitelanguages,exceptHebrew,needstobeinvestigated; becausetheymakepartofourforgottenpast.

WesternAnatolia
ThecitiesonthecoastoftheAegeanSeahavebeenimportantculturalcentersduringtheBronzeAgewhichstarted around3300BCandlasteduntilthefallofTroia.ThereisabigmisunderstandingaboutTroia.Letmiimmediately mentionthatthisnameisofTurkicoriginandmeans TurytheregionoftheTurpeople.TurybecameTroia becausethesoundudidnotexistintheGreeklanguage.HelmutUhligsays :
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IntheregionofwesternAnatolia,oranywhereelse,acitycalledTroianeverexisted.ThiscitywasknownasIlionorIliasinGreekandtherefore theepicwasnamedIliadabyHomeros.TroiawasthenameoftheregiongivenbytheinhabitantswhodefinedthemselvesaslivinginTroia. HeroeslikeHektorandPriamosweretheleadersofthiscity.

ItwasmentionedbeforeinChapter31,HittiteandSumerian,thatilmeanscity/landinmodernTurkishandisaroot wordintheProtolanguage.Therefore,Iliasbecomesmeaningfulwhensplitas IliAs thecityoftheAs.TheTurkish versionwouldratherbeAsiliinsteadofIliAsbutthistranspositiondoesnotaffectitsmeaning.Wealreadysawthat AsreferstotheAsiatictribesandonmeanstheuniverse(region)intheProtolanguage . The two hero names are
105

also meaningful when split into their constituent phonemes. Hektor is no other than Okh-Tur, the Okh-Tur; again we find a transposition from Tuk-Okh (turk) and Priamos becomes meaningful when split as Bir-im-iz one of us, where the original b sound changed to p and the suffix iz became os. Bir became Pri and Pro in the Greek pronunciation. It is interesting to note that these names have no meaning in the Greek language. But ancient original names were always meaningful. If we find a name without any meaning we can immediately conclude that it is a borrowed name whose real meaning is forgotten. Troia (Ilion) was conquered on 1180 BC but archeological research has uncovered several underlying layers of settlement dating back to 3,000 BC. The city was known as Willion by the Hittites. The initial W is no other than an extended U (double-u), which comes from ulu (holy or sacred)106. Therefore, Ulu-ili-on the sacred universal city became Willion and later on changed to Filion and Ilion. ThenorthwesternAnatolianTroiaregionwithitsmainancient citiesisshownonthemapabove.NotfarfromIlias/Ilionisthe ancientcityofAssos,meaningAsisbelongstotheAs. Aristotle(384BC322BC)livedinAssosforacertaintime, butAssosexistedlongbeforethe4thcenturyBC.Ontheisland ofLemnos(aboveright)aninscriptionwasfoundwhichisstill notdeciphereduntiltoday107. This is because scholars tried to decipher it with the help of Greek and Latin without any success.

104 105 106 107

DieMutterEuropas,Translatedas:AvrupannAnasAnadolu,HelmutUhlig,Telospublication,page123. SeeChapter6,UniversalSymbolsandChapter12,TheAnatolianExpansion. SeeChapter10,EtruscanInscriptionsandChapter20,TheUgariticscript. Theinscribedstelewasfoundinawarriorstombwithweaponsandpottery,whicharesimilartoearlyEtruscandesigns.

As they could not find any meaning using these languages they decided that it must be Etruscan; a language still not deciphered. We saw that Etruscan can be understood with the help Turkish (see Chapters 9 and 10). TheLemnosscriptdoesnotfollowagivendirectionbutiswrittenintheBoustrophedonstyle,wherethefirstlineis writtenfromrighttoleft,thenextlinefromlefttorightgoingintheoppositedirection,crisscrossingthepage.Belowis myowninterpretationwhichstartsfromtheupperrightwordandmovesdownwardsintheoppositedirection,fromleft toright.ThefirstthreewordsareshownbelowandtheirdeciphermenthasbeencarriedoutusingtheOrhun characters(seeChapter21,TheOrhunscript).Startingfromthetoprightendwecanreadthefirstword AsAtasthe ancestoroftheAs.WewouldsayAsnatasintodaysmodernTurkish.Thiswordstandsbyitsownasaheading, addressingthepersonwhosefigureisengraved. NextlineshouldbereadfromlefttorightasKamAsAbamTheshamanfatheroftheAs.Thewordformyfatheris babaminTurkish,butcouldalsobepronouncedasabaorapadependingondifferentcultures.Itbecamepapa orpaterinGreekandLatin.Wecoulddecipherthewholetextinthismannerbutwithoutgoinginfurtherdetail,we concludethatthisinscriptionfromtheLemnosIslandbecomesmeaningfulwhentackledwiththehelpoftheancient OrhunalphabetandtheTurkishlanguage. AnotherancientcityofTroiaisasettlementknownas Lysimakheia,shownwiththeletterUonthemapabove . This name can be expanded as Ulu-As-im-Okh-y, meaning the region of my holy As and Och. A coin found in this site shows a man wearing ram horns on the recto and a shaman woman on the verso.
108

ThewomanismostprobablyAthena,AsenaorAsAnatheAsmother.Thewingedfigurineinherrighthandisaclear indicationofhershamanicpowers.Thereisalsoanarrowpointingupwardsindicatingmysticalflightstowardsthesky (enlargedpicture).ThewordBasileosseenonthecoinmeansourrulerorourfather/ancestorsinceGios BasilismeansfatherChristmasinGreek. BasiliisalsomeaningfulinTurkishwhensplitas Basilithecontroller(ruler) oftheregion(ilibasan).ThiswordchangedtoVassal,asubordinateleaderindicatingthattheruleroftheregionwas undertheprotectionofapowerfulking. TheLesbosisland(Mitilini)wasthelocationoftheAmazonfemale warriors.Herodotusclaimedthattheywerespeakingthesamelanguage astheScythians.TheetymologyofAmazonisclearly AmaAsOnthe universalAsmother.Itisknownthattheyfoundedmanytownsonthe coastsofAnatolia.AmongstthemareSmyrna,Ephesus,Sinopeand Paphos.TheoriginalnameofSmyrnawasHrAnameaningvirgin mother.HristheChuvashformofkzmeaningvirgingirl.This namesufferedthefollowingtransformations:HrAna=>Zmrana=>Smyrna=>
zmir.

Inordertopreventtheirracefromdyingout,theAmazonsraidedtheneighboring tribesonceayearinordertohavesexualrelationshipwithmen.Therestofthe timetheyremainedonLesbosandenjoyedeachotherscompany.Thisishowthe femalehomosexualitybecametobeknownaslesbianism.Amazonsweregreat fightersandexperthorseriders.BelowweseeavasewithanAmazonriderin Scythiancostume.

108

ToplumsalTarihdergisi(inTurkish),August2007,No:164,page22.

TheTangutEmpire
ThewesternandnorthwesternregionsofwhatisnowChinawasinhabitedasearlyasthethirdmillenniumBC.Thesepeople wereknownunderthenameofQiang109, a name clearly related to Khang meaning emperor or ruler (see Chapter 5, Climatic changes). The Central Asiatic region where the ancient Qiang or equivalently the ancient Uighur empire once resided became the source of several subsequent states, such as the Tanguts, the Tartars, the Tibetans, the Tuguhuns, the Xia, the Kushan, the Huns, the Gkturks and many other names already mentioned in Chapter 1. These names are not listed chronologically because our main interest is geared on cultural relationships than on historical events based on linear time. They all belonged to a common Uighur ancestry and spoke different but connected Altaic languages.

HereweseethisvastregionlocatedinthecenterofAsiaandKara Khoto,thecapitalcityoftheTangutempire,ispresentlysurroundedby deserts.TheTangut,beforeadoptingBuddhismwereworshippersofthe skygodTengriandshamanismwasthemainspiritualbeliefsystemwhich servedallranksoftheirsociety,fromthecourttothecommonpeople. Tangutisanameformedoutoftwosyllableswhichcanbesplitaseither Tangkutmeaningsacredsunrise,whichbecameintimeTangutorOt tangutmeaningoriginatingfromthefire.Bothformshavethesame meaningandpointtoasunworshippingculture.TheTangutcapitalKara KhotoisalsoameaningfulAltaicnamesince Karameanslandbutis actuallyformedwithOkArameaningamongtheOk,while KhotoorKhutu meansthesacred,thereforeKaraKhotobecomesthesacredOkland. EventodaywefindcitiescalledKaraSu,KaraVartak,KaraTeke,Kara ahrandKaraHoca.ThereisalsoamountaincalledKaraTaghinthe region. TheregionwhereKaraKhotopresentlyresideswasoncesurroundedbyriversandlakes.Itwaslocatedatthemouth oftheriverHeishuiandtheLakeJuyan(seemapbelow).TheancientneighboringtownswereonthewestShazhou, Guazhou,Suzhou,onthesouthGanzhouandGinghahuiLake,onthewesttheyellowriver.Allthesecitynames containthephonemezhouorsuwhichmeanswaterinTurkish.Theyareclearindicationsofafertileregionwith manywaterwaysandlakes.Furthermore,thesedrieduplakesandriversarevestigesofanancientinlandsee mentionedinChapter5,Climaticchanges. BelowweseethedrieduplakesoftheregionsurroundingKaraKhoto(underlined)ontheleftandthepresent situationofKaraKhotoontheright.

TheTangutstateoccupiedavastregioninCentralAsia,fromwesternChinauptoandincludingTibet.Scholarsin generalbelievethatthecultureoftheTangutwasundertheinfluenceoftheChineseandTibetianBuddhism.Butthe Tangut,besidesbelievinginBuddhismdidnotforgettheirancientskyandsunshamanicreligion.TheKaraKhoto collectionofwallpaintings(tankas)containsnolessthan26imagesofthegodsofplanetsandconstellations.Ifwe


109
LostEmpireoftheSilkRoad,ThyssenBornemiszaFoundationpublication,EditedbyM.Piotrovsky,page49,1993,Milano,Italy.

considerthattheUighurtribesduetoclimaticchangeswereforcedtodisperseinalldirectionsmanythousandyears ago,wecansafelyconcludethattheculturalinfluencesoriginatedfromCentralAsiaandaffectedneighboringnations. InChapter17,TheIndusValleyscript,ithasbeenshownthatthereisaclearcorrelationinthedressingstyleofthe ancientSumeriankings,theIndusValleykingsandthespiritualleaderofpresentTibet,wheretherightarmisleft uncovered.ThesamedressingstyleisfoundamongBuddhistmonksofKaraKhotoasshowninthetwoexamples below .


110

KushanEmpire
InChapter25,FromKurganstoPyramidstheKushiteEmpirewasmentionedanditsnamemeaningbirdinTurkishwas questioned.Thereasonbeingthat,thiswordisfoundinlanguagesthathavebeenseparatedforverylongperiodsof time.ThiswordmeaningbirdisfoundaskusintheSumerianlanguageandaskutzintheMayalanguage .Asno wordscouldhavebeenborrowedfromSumeriantoMayanorviceversa,theonlylogicalexplanationisthatSumerian, MayanandTurkishstemfromacommonrootlanguage,whichistheAsiaticProtolanguage.
111

ButthereisonemorecluesupportingtheCentralAsiaticoriginofthis word.ThisclueisfoundinthenameofanEmpireknownasthe Kushan Empire,whichlastedfromthefirsttothethirdcenturiesAD,buthasa muchancientbeginning.TheKushannameisclearlymadeouttwowords KushandHanmeaningbirdandking,whereHanisalateversionof theKhantitleusedalsoforOttomanemperors. Thebirdhasbeenanimportantanimalforancientcultures,symbolizing thesolardeity(seeChapter29,Thebirdsymbolism).Belowweseethe territoriescontrolledbytheKushanEmpire.ItextendedfromwesternChina ontheeast,toBactriaonthewestandincludedtheIndusValleyaswellas mostofnorthernIndia.Inthenameofthe HinduKushMountains(shownon themap)wecanstillfindtheconnectionbetweenHind(ancientIndia)and Kush(theKushanEmpire).TheKushanEmpireincludedimportantcultural centerssuchasBelh(Bactra),Kashgar,Kucha,Turfanandthecapitalcity Ghandara.ThenorthernregionoftheancientKushanEmpireisdefined nowadaysasBMAC(seeChapter16,Thesouthwestexpansion).
110 111
Idem,pages107and117. ForSumerianseeChapter31,HittiteandSumerian,andforMayanseeChapter27,Olmec,ToltecandMaya.

ThisvastregionhasbeenthelandoftheSaka(AsOkh/Scythians),theSarmatians,theKushansandtheAlans. ThepeopleformingtheKushanEmpireweredescendentsoftheCentralAsiatic YuehchiorYuezhitribeswhowere nomadstravelinglongdistances.TheyevenwentuptothenortheasternregionsofAsiaforfurtrading.Thereare numeroustheoriesaboutthederivationofthenameYuezhi.MyowninterpretationisthattheseAsiaticpeopledefined themselvesassuperior,awordpronouncedasYuedjeinTurkish.Thismeaningisquitepossibleconsideringthatthe difficultphonemedjenotfoundinChinesehasbeenreplaced,mostprobably,bythezhisound,whichisquite commoninChinese. ThereareseveralstatuesfoundinGhandaraindicating thedressingstyleoftheKushanrulers.Inthepictures belowweseetwosuchexampleswheretherightarmhas beenleftuncovered.LucKwantensaysthefollowing aboutthisdressinghabit :
112

UighurrepresentationsofBuddhistsaints,liketheChinese,are alwaysclothed,whereasintheGandharastyle,atleastoneofthe shouldersisnaked.

Thisdressingstylehasalreadybeenidentifiedamong theSumerian,theIndusValleykingsandthespiritual leaderofpresentTibet(seeChapter17,TheIndusValley script). AnimportantKushanrulerisknownunderthenameMahasenaHuvishka(circa155to187AD).Thecoinshown belowbelongstothisking,butthelettersstampedonthecoindonotagreewitheitherMahasenaorHuvishka.Itried toreadthestampednamewiththehelpoftheancientTurkish(Orhun)letters,asshownbelowright. ExceptthetwofirstlettersHanda,whichalsoareof Asiaticorigin , the remaining letters on the coin perfectly agree with the Orhun letters shown in red. The transcription then becomes Hakantekin, where Tekin or Tigin is a Turkish title given to minor regional kings or princes.
113

AttheOrhunValleyinCentralAsiawehavetheKlTigin stele,whichis3.35mhighandcontainsseverallinesof TurkishinscriptionswrittenwiththeOrhuncharacters.The scribehasaddedhisnameattheendoftheinscriptions as:YollughTigin .


114

Thecoinabovehastwomoreinterestingclueswhichareworthmentioning.Thefirstoneisthebirdheldintheright handoftheking,apossibleindicationtoKushHan(birdking)andthenextclueisthepelerineworebytheking.We findasimilarpelerineontheyoungSaka(Scythian)prince(seeChapter23, TheIsskkurgan).

DunghuangManuscripts
PaulPelliot(18781945)wasaFrenchSinologistwhotraveledtotheInnerAsiansideofChinaduringtheearly yearsof1900.HisexpeditionstartedfromKuchawherehefounddocumentswrittenintheKushanlanguage(see Chapter35,KushanEmpire).AfterKucha,PelliotwenttoUrumqi(Urumchi),thepresentcapitaloftheUighurAutonomous region.HefinallyreachedDunhuangonthe12ofFebruary1908.ThenorthwesternpartofChinashownonthemap
112 113 114
Chapter1,Ref5,page57. SeeChapter32,FromOrhuntoCanaan. Chapter21,Ref.2,pageXII.

belowistheUighurAutonomousRegion,writtenasXinjiangbutpronouncedasSincan.TheancientcityofDunhuang, DunghuangorTungHanshownbelowrightstandsonthewestofKaraKhotoandiswithinSincan.

ThenameofDunhuangismadeoutofTungandHan,whereTungis,mostprobably,atwistedformofTurung meaningbelongingtotheTurandHanisfoundinChineseasHuang(seeChapter5, ClimaticChanges).Thereisalso anethnicgroupinnorthwesternAsiaknownastheTunguz.TheChinesecallthesepeopletheDongHu.The transformationfromTunguztoDongHustrengthenstheregularrelationbetween TungHanandDunhuang. InDunhuang,PelliotconvincedtheabbotWangYuanlutolethimexaminearoomfullofancientmanuscripts.The roomcontainedsome50,000rollswritteninalanguagewhichwasunknowntotheChinese.Theabbot,whowantedto renovatethemonasterysold6,000oftheserollstoPelliotwhocarriedthemtoFrance.Presentlythesemanuscripts canbefoundin29differentmuseumsoftheworld.BelowweseePaulPelliotexaminingsomemanuscriptintheroom wheretherollswerestoredontheleftandaportionofanoriginalmanuscriptontheright. Thecharactersofthesemanuscriptsare almostidenticaltotheOrhunsyllabary mentionedinChapter21,TheOrhunScript. Belowweseeashorttexttranscribedfrom anoriginalmanuscriptknownasIrkBitigon theleftandaportionoftheBilgeKaganstele ontheright.Notonlydothelettersmatch eachother,butalsothewordsareseparated bytwosuperimposeddotsinbothscripts, pointingtoacommonstyleofwriting .We canthereforeconcludethatthemanuscripts werewrittenbyaTurkicspeakingculture.
115

IrkBitigisasmallbookwhosedimensions are13X8cm.Itcontains104pagesand65 paragraphs.Thebookisanarrativeofthe epicsofAsiaticpeopleandalsocontains portionsoffablesandsoothsaying.Itis presentlyexhibitedintheBritishMuseum.

Thisportionofthebookistellingaboutagathering,celebratingtheleadershipofAtaUtuk.Suchcelebrationswerealways followedbyaroundofmaredrinkknownasKimiz.Eachpersondrankasipfromthesamecontainerspeciallydesignedforsuch occasions(seeChapter15,TheSacredhorn)andpromisedsolidaritytotheirleader. Drinkinginancienttimes,whenwrittendocumentswerenotsowidespreadastoday,wasawayofsealingapromise.Itmeant:


115
Left:EskiTrkYaztlar,HseyinNamkOrkun,page289,TrktarihKurumu,No:529,1986,Ankara,Turkey.Right:Ref.2ofChapter21,TheOrhunscript.

Iinternalizeandunitewiththesewordsagreeingtoneverbreakmypromise.WefindmanystatuesinCentralAsiaofaperson holdingadrinkingvessel.Similarstatuesandreliefhavebeenfoundinremoteplaces,whereverthesepeoplemigrated.Several suchexampleswillbediscussedinthenextchapter.

StoneAncestors
ThestonestatuesinhumanformwerehighlyrespectedbytheTurkictribes.Theywereerectedontopofkurgansandwere representationsoftheshamanicbeliefthatanofferingtothegodswasnecessary.IthasalreadybeenmentionedinChapter24 Horsesforeternitythatmanyhorsesweresacrificedandburiednexttotheburialchamberofaleader.Similarly,statuesabove thegroundwerereminderstotheremainingpeoplethatanofferingtothesoulofthedeadpersonortothedeitywouldbe appropriate.Thisbeliefhaditsorigininthecultofancestorworshiping. Archeologicalstudiesofkurgansrevealthatfoodanddrinkwereleftwithintheburialchamber,indicatingthatofferingstothe godsorancestorsweremadebeforethegravewasclosed.GuillaumedeRubrouck (12151295),aFranciscanpriesttraveling toCentralAsiaforconvertingpeopletoChristianityinformsthefollowingabouttheburialhabitsoftheAsiaticpeople116:
Theyputintothegravesomekimiz(fermentedmaremilk)todrinkandsomemeattoeat

ThishabitisaclearindicationthatofferingsintheformoffoodanddrinkwereanimportanttraditionamongtheancientTurkic societies.Thehumanstatuesholdingcupsorcontainerswerethereforeremindingthepasserbythatanoffering,physicalor spiritual,wouldbeappropriatetothesoulofthepersonburiedunderthatlocation.Thecuporcontainerheldclosetothebody wasthereforeasymbolicrequestforanoffering.Someexamplesareshowninthepicturesbelow.

1.StonestatuestandingaboveaburialsiteinCentralAsia.2. AstatuepresentlystandinginthegardenoftheBishkek museum,Kyrgyzstan.3. ScythianstatueholdingacylindricalvesselfromKiev,Ukraine.4. StatuefromtheAutonomousRepublic ofTuva,Russia.5. FromthecityofTarazJambulOblastofKazakhstan117. Allofthemhaveasimilarappearanceandareobviouslythe workofacommonculture.Wefindsimilarstatuesinremote placeswherevertheTurkictribesmigrated.Herewecansee thesimilarityamongsomeexemplarsfromdifferentand seeminglyunrelatedcultures. 1.PresentlyinthemuseumofNovocherkassk,RostovOblast, Russia.Novocherkassk wasthecapitaloftheDonCossacks. 2. StatuefromSarkel,theancientcapitaloftheKhazars.3. A wallrelieffromtheOskculture,Italy(seeChapter8,The DoubleEdgedAx).4. Awarriorholdingadrinkingvessel, fromHakkari,Turkey(seeChapter18,TowardsSumerand Elam).5. FemalestatuesholdingcupsfromtheOdessa ArcheologicalMuseum,Ukraine.6. AstatuefromCorsica, France.Thestatueisseveralthousandyearsoldandthe detailsarenomorerecognizable.
116 117
VoyageDansl'EmpireMongol,GuillaumedeRubrouck,Payot,1985. ThesepicturesarefromTrkDilKurumuYaynlar,No:736andNo:798,IsmailDogan,2000,Ankara,Turkey.

Fromthepicture5aboveweseethatstatueswereerectednotonlyformaleleaders,butalsoforimportantfemales.Most probably,thesewereshamanwomenrespectedbytheirsociety.EventodaysomeTurkictribesstillholdthemsacredandcall themtashnine(stonegrandmother)andtashbaba(stonefather) 118. ThefactthatthesestatuesarerequestingsomeofferingisattestedbyawanderingminstrelwhosenameisNizami.Hetellsthe following119:


StonestatueswereerectedonthesteppesoftheKipchaksastalismans.Allofthesetalismansarestillstandingthere.WheneveraKipchak comesclosertooneofthem,heworshipshimandputsanarrowinhisquiver.Ifitisashepherdwhocomesclosetohim,hesacrificesasheepfor him.

WilhelmRadloff(18371918)quotesinhisbookentitledAusSiberien

seeref.118:

ThefemalestatuenamedasKurtuyakTashismadeofgraysandstoneanderectedcrookedly.Thepinchofhairdroppingfromitsbackheadis hardlyseensinceitiseroded.TodaywomenoftheKamliksandtheKumanswearthesamedresses.ThebypassingTatarslivingintheIsBeltir areapaymuchrespecttoher.Everybodyturnsthreetoursaroundherandoffersomeoftheirfood.

Peopleknewthatthefoodtheyofferedwaseatenbybirdsandfoxes,buttheirofferingwasforpayingrespecttohersaintly memory.

TheKhazarEmpire
TheKhazarEmpirecameintobeingduringthe5thcenturyADandlasteduntilthe13thcenturyAD.Itwasdestroyed bytheunforgivingonslaughtandexpansionofCengizKhantowardsthewest.TheterritoriesoftheKhazarEmpire shownbelowextendedfromthenorthwesternregionsoftheBlackSeauptoandincludingthenorthernbanksofthe CaspianSea.ThenameoftheCaspianSeaisatransformedformoftheharshlaryngealKhazar,tothesmoothlabial Caspianform.KhazarisclearlymadeoutofOKHASERmeaningtheOkhandAspeople(seeChapter4, TheAsiatic Scythians).TodayacountrynamedAzerbaijanstillexistsonthewesternsideoftheCaspianSeawhosenamehasbeen dissectedasASERBAYJANmeaningThespiritualleadershipoftheAspeopleinChapter4.Therefore,Khazaria meansthecountryoftheOkhandAs. TheKhazarpeoplebelongedtoagroupingofTurkswho spokeaTurkicdialectandusedtherunicalphabetofthe OrhunsyllabarybelongingtotheGkturksofcentralAsia. TheancientTurksdefinedthefourdirections,north, south,eastandwestwiththehelpofcolors.Westwas blue,eastwasyellow,northwasblackandsouthwas white.ConsideringtheirlocationinAsiaonecaneasily realizethereasonofsuchcolorselections.Gkwasa wordmeaningskyorheavenaswellasblueand west.So,inthenameGkturkwefindseveralmeanings suchaswesternTurks,blueTurksandheavenly Turks.TheroyaltyoftheKhazarswasdescendedfrom theAshina(Asena)orASANATurks,whichwasmost probablyamatriarchalsociety.SinceAsAnameansAs Motherwecansafelyguessthattheywereculturallyand mostprobablygeneticallyrelatedtotheScythiansand Amazonswholivedinthesameregionsomecenturies ago(seeChapter33,WesternAnatolia). Kiev,whichisthecapitalcityofUkrainewasestablishedbytheKhazars.Kievisanameconcatenatedfromtwo TurkishwordsKiyiandEvmeaningshorehouse;anamequiteappropriatefortheancientsettlementwhichislocated ontheshoresoftheDniproRiver.AstheChristianRussiansfromthewestandtheIslamicArabsfromthesouth
118 119
KrgzistandaTaBalbalveInsanBiimliHeykeller,OktayBelli,ArkeolojiveSanatYaynlar,page133,2003,IstanbulTurkey. Idem,page134.

increasedtheirattackstowardsKhazaria,theroyaltywhobelievedinTengri,decidedtoadoptthemonotheisticreligion ofJudaism.Inthisselectiontheyhopedtoremainfreeofthephysicalaswellasthespiritualpressureofthe surroundingpowers.TheKhazarswereruledbyasuccessionofJewishkingsuntiltheMongolscamefromtheeast anddestroyedtheircities.AstheKhazarEmpirecametoitsendtheKhazarsdispersedinalldirectionsandformed localcommunitiesinHungary,Germany,Lithuania,UkraineandOssetia.SinceKhazarmaleswereexpertridersa culturaltraithandedoverfromtheirancestralTurkicorigintheyformedtheelitelightcavalryofmostwesternarmies. TheseriderscametobeknownastheHuszarinHungaryandtheHussardinFrance.ThereisacitycalledKhusar KintsaginnorthernCaucasus,whichwasprobablyfoundedbytheancientKhasars.Belowweseearepresentationof aHussard.ThetallhatisatransformedformoftheAsiatickalpak.


Thewordshownherehasbeengiven asanexamplefortheKhazarscript andhasbeeninterpretedas OKURUM,meaningIreaditin modernTurkish120. Thescripthasto bereadfromrighttoleft,similartoall Orhuntextswhichhavebeenwrittenin thatorder.Theblacklettersatthetop aretheKhazarlettersandtheredones underthembelongtotheOrhun syllabary.Thefirstletterontheright, whichisnotfoundamongtheOrhun letters,mightbeconsideredasbeing influencedfromorrelatedtothe RomanK.

HerearethreeexamplesentencesintheKhazarlanguage.TheyclearlydemonstratetheirTurkicorigin,sincetheir meaningisstillunderstandablewiththehelpofmodernTurkish.
Kaytmamenartkarisezimden. Daalgshladiallarnitangri

(Inevercomebackfrommyword)sezimdenisszmdeninmodernTurkish. (andGodsupported/praisedthem) ItisinterestingtonotethatthewordalgshoralkshmeanshandclappinginmodernTurkish,anactofjoyand supportforpraisingacompletedperformance.ThewordtangriisTanrinTurkish,meaningGod.


Sendirotnusuvba,yamanliknidostlukba.

(Extinguishthefirewithwaterandtheadversitywithfriendship)sendirissndr,suvbaissuylatoday.

TattooingHabits
ThesevereclimaticchangeswhichtransformedCentralAsiaintoaninhospitablelandmasscreatedseveralwavesof migrationsineveryconceivabledirection.TheNorthEastexpansionofthesetribesguidedthemtowardstheBering StraightandfromthereintothevastprairiesofNorthAmerica(seeChapter28, MayaCitiesandPyramids).Geneticand LinguisticcorrelationsamongAsiaticpeopleandNorthAmericansocallednativepeoplehavealreadybeen discussedinChapter11,TheEasternExpansion. Theculturalrelationshipsamongthesepeoplegofarbeyondlanguagesimilarities,extendingtocommonspiritual beliefs,burialritesandevenbodytattoos.Onthemapbelow,indicatedas(1),weseetheapproximateregionfrom wheretheNorthEasternexpansionstarted.

120

AnIntroductiontotheHistoryofKhazaria,1999andTheJewsofKhazariabyKevinAlanBrook,RowmanandLittlefield2006.

CrossingtheBeringstraightwhichwasalandbridgeduringtheseearlytimestheyreachedthenewcontinentand evencrossedovertothecoastalregionsofGreenland. Atypicalcommonculturaltraitisthetattooinghabitsfoundamongthesepeople.Onthepicturebelowleftweseethe tattoofoundontheshoulderofthefrozenbodyofawomanburieddeepinsideaPazyrykkurgan(seeChapter4, The AsiaticScythians).OntherightsideweseeaHaidamanwithbodytattoos.TheHaidaisatribefromtheNorthwestern coastoftheAmericancontinent.TrudyGriffinPiercesays :


121

TattooingwaswidelypracticedontheNorthwestCoast.Menandwomenhadcrestdesignstattooedontheirchests,armsandlegs.Thetattoos onthebodyofthisHaidamanrepresenteventsandcrestfiguresfromhisfamilyhistory.

ThetattoosontheshoulderoftheAsiaticwomanaswell asonthebodytheHaidamanwerenotdonefor decorationpurposesbutmostprobablyforconnecting thesepeopletothespiritsoftheirancestors.Wefinda similarexampleinEurope.In1991thebodyofa5000 yearoldmummifiedman,knowas"Oetzi,"wasfoundon theAlpMountainsoftheItalianAustrianborder.This interestingEuropeandiscoverypuzzledresearchers becauseofthetattoosfoundonseveralpartsofhisbody. Somescientistsbelievethatthesetattoosweredonefor medicalpurposes .
122

Sjvold,professorofHistoricalOsteologyattheUniversityofStockholmsaysthattheoldestmedicaltattooshave beenseenonpeoplefromtheScythianculturewhichlivedlongagoontheAltaiMountainsinSiberia.Belowwesee OetzifoundnearOetztalAustriaandthemarkingonhisrightankle.

Severalculturalhabits,suchasbodytattooing,connectthe5000yearoldEuropeanpeopletotheAsiaticonesand indicatethatcommonpracticesexistedacrosscontinents.Similarbodytattooscouldeitherbeshamanicmarkingsfor healingpurposesthereforespiritualorsealsindicatingworldlytribalconnections(seeChapter3, TheHiddenMeaningof Petroglyphs).


121 122
Ref.1ofChapter29,page111. ScienceMagazine,Vol.268,7April1995.

Suchtattooscouldbedoneondifferentpartsofthebody,includingthefaceandtheforehead.Forwomenthey representedmarriagestatusasstillfoundintheformofacoloredmarkontheforeheadofmostmarriedwomenof India.Formentheyrepresentedspiritualmarkingsconnectingthemtotheirancestor,fromwhichtheycouldassemble warringpower.BelowweseeonthelefttheskullofanInuikwomanfoundinthetownofQilakitsoqofGreenland . Eight frozen bodies were discovered, some of them marked with facial tattoos. In the article reporting this find it is said:
123

Thetattoosweremadebydrawinganeedleandstainedthreadthroughtheskin.Tattoosalsohelpedtoidentifythevariouscommunitiesof GreenlandsearlyEskimoswho,thoughfarflungalongavastcoastline,wereonepeoplesharingonelanguage.

Thesewordssupporttheclaimthatsometattooswereseals(tamga)indicatingthatthepersoncarryingthempertaintoagiven tribeandsomeotheroneswerespiritualpowersymbols.Aboveleftweseethe500yearoldskullofanInuikwomanfoundina graveofGreenlad.Themarkingonherforeheadcouldonlybeidentifiedwiththehelpofinfraredlight.Ontherightsideweseea paintingofaNorthAmericanwarriorwhohaspartlycoloredhisfaceinred124.Paintingthefacebeforegoingtowarwasa commonculturalpracticeamongNorthAmericanchieftains.Theycoloredtheirfacetemporarilyforgatheringpowerandscaring theirenemies.Tattoos,ontheotherhand,werepermanentsymbolsthatremainedduringtheirentirelife.

Mummified Bodies
PeoplehaveheardalotaboutancientEgyptianmummies,butfewknowthatmummificationhasbeenpracticedinotherparts oftheworld.Somebodiesweretreatedforpreservationandburiedwithgreatcare,butothersbecamemummifiedbecauseof naturalconditionswheretheywereburied.WesawinChapter49,TattooingHabits;casesofnaturalmummification.Mummified peoplefoundinKurgans,locatedonhighregionsoftheAltaiMountains,didnotdieonthesehighplacesbutwerecarriedupand buriedforpreservation.Kurgansweredugdeepinthesoilandaspecialwoodenchamberwasbuiltforthedeadleader.Food meatingeneralanddrinkwasleftwithintheburialchambernexttothecoffinandevenaknifeforcuttingthemeatloafwas placedonasmalltable.SuchprecautionstellusthattheancientAsiaticpeoplebelievedinanafterlifeandtookgreatcarefor preparingthenecessaryconditionsforthepersonmaleorfemaletoexistafterdeathhasoccurred.Embalmingandpreserving thebodywasatreatmentappliedonlytospecialpeoplesuchastribeleadersandshamans.Suchspecialcaremeantthatdeath wasdeniedandthatthepersonwouldcontinuetoexistbeyondthismaterialworld.TheXinjiang(Sinjan)Uighurregionof northwestChinaisaregionwheremanymummifiedbodieshavebeenfound.Archeologistsclaimthatthedryweatherconditions wereresponsibleforthemummificationofburiedbodies. Butconsideringthattherewasacloseculturallinkbetweenthe KurganbuildingtribesofthemountainousregionsofCentral AsiaandtheUighurpeopleofthearidlowlands,wecan concludethatsimilarcarewastakenintheburialritesof importantpeopleoftheSinjanregion.Oneexampleistheso calledLoulanBeauty.Loulanisapresentlydesertedancient cityofSinjanwhichwasonceanimportantculturalcenter. Belowleftweseethe3,800yearoldmummyofthewoman nicknamedtheLoulanBeauty.Thefeatherrecognizableontop ofherheadtellsusthatshewasmostprobablyashaman woman.Ontherightsideweseeareconstructedpictureofthis Loulanlady.
123 124
NationalGeographic,Vol.167,No.2,page207,February1985. GeoEpoche,No:4,frontpage,October200(inGerman).

VictorMair,aspecialistintheancientcorpsesandcoauthorofMummiesoftheTarimBasin, said:
125

ModernDNAandancientDNAshowthatTurks,Uighurs,Kazaks,Krygyzs,allpeopleofCentralAsiaareallmixedCaucasianandEastAsian.The modernandancientDNAtellsthesamestory.

ThefacialfeaturesoftheLoulanBeautyareclearlyCaucasoid,aclearindicationthattheEurasiaticpeople,whocall themselvesEuropeans,haveCentralAsiaticancestry.BelowweseethemummifiedsocalledCherchenmanonthe leftandhisbootsatthecenter.ThesebootsarestillusedbyCentralAsiaticridersasshownontherightside. ThebodyoftheCherchenmanfoundin1978,ataburial siteinEastTurkistan,wasimmaculatelypreserved.This manwholivedabout3,000yearsagowasmostprobably ashaman,guessingfromthesunmarking(tattoo)onthe leftsideofhishead.Mostinterestingly,theCherchenMan wasburiedwithnolessthantenhats,evenaconical witchhatwhichisfoundasacommonfeatureon severalofthesemummies.WesawthattheSaka (Scythians)alsowearpointedhats(seeChapter23, TheIsskKurgan). ThoughitwascommonlybelievedthatthefirstcontactbetweenEastTurkistanwhosecapitalisUrumqi(Urumchi) andtheWestoccurredrelativelylateinworldhistoryaroundthemiddleofthesecondcenturyB.C.carbondating hasshownthattheCherchenmandied900yearsearlier,indicatingamuchearlyexpansiontowardsthewest.The Uighurpeoplewhowereexpertriderscouldpopulateremoteregionsoftheworldduetotheirseminomadiclifestyle (seeChapter24,HorsesforEternity).
The culture of mummification did not die out as these Asiatic people spread in different directions. Today, one can still observe 22 mummies displayed in the museum of Amasya Turkey 126. Here we see one the eight mummies belonging to the ruling family of Amasya during the 14th century AD. There is also a mummy found in Konya Karaman, which has been dated to belong to a 17 year old girl who lived some 1,400 years ago.

Mummification is also found among the Inca culture. All along the Andean Mountains of Peru and Chile human mummies have been discovered. Archaeologists discovered not long ago 26 burial bundles 127, each containing one or more adult and child mummies dating from 1472 to 1532. Here we see the drawing of a young mummified woman found in such a location. The headdress is a clear representation of the sun, indicating that the Inca people were sun-worshipers and the young woman was a sacrificial offering to the sun-god.

125 126 127

TheTarimMummies,J.P.MalloryandVictorH.Mair,Thames&Hudson,2000,LondonEngland. TheArtofMummifyingandAnatolianMummies,MuzafferDoganbash,ISBN:9759344904. TheNewYorkTimes,March7,2004.

MegalithsandSpirals
ThewesternexpansionofAsiaticpeoplehasbeendiscussedinseveralpreviouschapters.In1967thefirstcalibrated radiocarbondatesshowedthatourknowledgeofearlycivilizationsshouldberevisedtowardsamuchearliertime period.InanarticleentitledAncientEuropeisMuchOlderThanWeThoughtitissaid :
128

WenowknowthroughradiocarbondatingthattempleswereunderconstructioninMaltabefore3000BC,beforethePyramidsofEgypt.

Wefindaclearcorrelationbetweenthemegalithsof AnatoliaandtheonesofWesternEurope.Dolmensand MenhirsfoundineasternAnatoliaaresimilartotheones foundinwesternFranceandnorthernEngland.Atotalof 110dolmenshavebeeninvestigatedinalargeregion coveringfromAnkaratoKars,inTurkey . Below we see such a dolmen which dates from several thousand years BC. It is difficult to give an exact date for these structures, because no organic remains were found within the dolmens, but the article claims that they are older than the Egyptian pyramids. From the size and weight of these granite slabs we can guess that a lot of energy was spent to build these structures, which were important and special for these ancient people.
129

Theymayalsobetombsitesbuiltforimportanttribeleaders.Theirpyramidalformisaclearsymbolrepresentingthe memoryofAsiaticmountainsonwhichkurganswerebuilt,asmentionedinChapter25, FromKurganstoPyramids.This cultureofbuildingcirculargravesandcultcentershasbeenrecentlydiscoveredinGbeklitepeSouthernTurkeyas discussedinChapter12,TheAnatolianExpansion. ThepeoplefromtheAsiatickurgancultureweresunworshippersand theyquitenaturallyfollowedthetrajectoryofthesuninthesky movingtowardsthewest.Wherevertheywenttheykeptthehabitof buildingcircularcultcentersandspiralssymbolizingthecircularform ofthesun.WefindsuchcircularformsandcultcentersinMalta, Spain,France,Denmark,England,ScotlandandIreland.Belowwe seeadolmenfromLocmariaquer,BrittanyFrance.Thedolmenhas astrikingsimilaritytotheAnatoliandolmensshownabove.Theyall havethesamearchitecturalstructureoffewuprightstoppedbya largecoveringslab. Wealsofindlargecircularstructureswhichshowthatintimethedolmenswerereplacedbylargecultcenters.Itis stillbelievedthatthesecultcenterswerespecialplacesforsunworshiping.Stonehenge,forexample,isalocation wherethousandsofpeoplegathereachyearforcelebratingtherisingsunduringthesummersolstice .
130

SimilarcultcentersarealsofoundonMediterraneanislands.TheBrochtorffcircleontheGozoIslandofMaltaisa typicalexampleofthisancientculture.TheworshipcentersharesclearsimilaritieswiththerecentfindatGbeklitepe Turkey.ThiscultcenterofGozoisboundedbyastonecircle45metersindiameter,similartotheonessurroundingthe kurgansfoundonthehighpeaksoftheAltaiMountains(seeChapter23,TheIssykKurgan).


128 129 130
NationalGeographic,Nov.1977,Vol.152,No:5,page615. TheMegalithsofAnatolia,BakiyeYkmen,ArkeolojiveSanat,2003,Istanbul,Turkey. DieGrossenRatselundMythenderMenschheit,FriedrichNaab,WeltbildVerlag,page55,Augsburg,1995,Germany.

Furtherproofthatthesecircularstructureswerecultcentersbuiltbyasunworshipingcultureisthecircularand spiralformsfoundallovertheworld.Aboveweseesomeexamplesofsuchspiralforms,remindingusthe OnkhorKhno symbolismdiscussedinChapter6,UniversalSymbols.