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Introduction Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use

of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy. Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, and has a considerably lower output level of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) than fossil fuel powered energy plants. Worldwide, an installed capacity of 1,010 GW supplied hydroelectricity in 2010. Approximately 16% of the world's electricity is renewable, with hydroelectricity account for 21% of renewable sources and 3.4% of total energy sources . Nepal is located on the lap of the Himalayas between India and China. It has a population of around 25 million and an area of 147,181 sq. km. Due to mountainous and rugged terrain, accessibility is poor in most parts of the country. Nepal is rich in hydropower resources with an estimated potential of 83,000 MW and economically exploitable potential of 44,000 MW. In terms of the potential, its the second largest in the world. There are six thousand rivers and rivulets within four big river systems fed with snow melt and monsoon water in Nepal with enormous hydropower potential. But as we have not developed our power potential, the supply is not able to meet our demands. ADVANTAGE 1.Once a dam is constructed, electricity can be produced at a constant rate 2. If electricity is not needed, the sluice gates can be shut, stopping electricity generation. The water can be saved for use another time when electricity demand is high. 3.Dams are designed to last many decades and so can contribute to the generation of electricity for many years decades. 4. The lake that forms behind the dam can be used for water sports and leisure pleasure activities. 5.Often large dams become tourist attractions in their own right. The lake's water can be used for irrigation purposes. 6.When in use, electricity produced by dam systems do not produce green house gases. They do not pollute the atmosphere. DISADVANATGES:

1.Dams are extremely expensive to build and must be built to a very high standard. 2.The high cost of dam construction means that they must operate for many decades to become profitable. 3.The flooding of large areas of land means that the natural environment is destroyed. 4.People living in villages and towns that are in the valley to be flooded, must move out. This means that they lose their farms and businesses. In some countries, people are forcibly removed so that hydro-power schemes can go ahead. 5. The building of large dams can cause serious geological damage. For example, the building of the Hoover Dam in the USA triggered a number of earth quakes and has depressed the earths surface at its location.

Background and History Hydropower has been used since ancient times to grind flour and perform other tasks. In the mid-1770s, French engineer Bernard Forest de Blidor published Architecture Hydraulique which described vertical- and horizontal-axis hydraulic machines. By the late 19th century, the electrical generator was developed and could now be coupled with hydraulics. In 1878 the world's first hydroelectric power scheme was developed at Cragside in Northumberland, England by William George Armstrong. It was used to power a single arc lamp in his art gallery. The old Schoelkopf Power Station No. 1 near Niagara Falls in the U.S. side began to produce electricity in 1881. The first Edison hydroelectric power plant, the Vulcan

Street Plant, began operating September 30, 1882, in Appleton, Wisconsin, with an output of about 12.5 kilowatts. Hydroelectric power plants continued to become larger throughout the 20th century. Hydropower was referred to as white coal for its power and plenty.[8] Hoover Dam's initial 1,345 MW power plant was the world's largest hydroelectric power plant in 1936; it was eclipsed by the 6809 MW Grand Coulee Dam in 1942.The Itaipu Dam opened in 1984 in South America as the largest, producing 14,000 MW but was surpassed in 2008 by the Three Gorges Dam in China at 22,500 MW. Hydroelectricity would eventually supply some countries, including Norway, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Paraguay and Brazil, with over 85% of their electricity. The United States currently has over 2,000 hydroelectric power plants which supply 49% of its renewable electricity. The history of electricity development of Nepal has crossed 100 years since the start of construction of Pharping Hydroelectric Plant (500 KW) in 1911. Today, Nepal has an electric power of total installed capacity 689 MW (in 2009) in Integrated Nepal Power System (INPS). Out of total electric power, about 91 % is contributed from hydroelectric plants and rest of 9 % is supported from diesel plants. The existing largest hydroelectric plant in the country is Kaligandaki-A (144 MW). The generated electric power has been transmitted through 132 KV single and double circuit transmission line of 1562.9km, 66 KV single circuit, double circuit of 354.72km ( includes single core underground transmission Teku-k3). The country has a total sub station capacity of 1415.10 MVA to date. In 1966, i.e. 44 years ago, Dr. Hari Man Shrestha assessed the total hydropower potential in Nepal as 83,500 MW. He did so during the research work for his Ph.D. Thesis (1966) from Moscow Power Institute, USSR on Cadastre of potential water power resources of less studied high mountainous regions, with special reference to Nepal. Dr. Shrestha is known as the pioneer Hydropower Engineer of Nepal. Since then, no further study has, so far, been done in this field. And, that finding seems to have been accepted as full and final to date. Not much initiative has been taken to carry out further investigations and research works to justify the findings of Dr. Shrestha. Current estimates are that Nepal has approximately 40,000 MW of economically feasible hydropower potential. Hydropower Potential of Nepal

Average annual flow Theoretical generation capacity Economically feasible capacity Existing, under construction and committed capacity Number of feasible sites

: 225 Billion m3 : 83,000 MW : 44,000 MW

: 666 MW : 66

The total annual average run-off from the nation's 600 perennial rivers is over 200 billion m3 Current estimates are that Nepal has approximately 40,000 MW of economically feasible hydropower potential. However, the present situation is that Nepal has developed only approximately 689 MW of hydropower. Therefore, bulk of the economically feasible generation has not been realized yet. At present, the Integrated Nepal Power System (INPS) has a total installed capacity of some 706 MW of which 652 MW (92%) is generated from hydro resources. The annual electricity generation on the grid system in 20092010 was about 3,690 GWh, of which about 57% was generated by power plants owned by the Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA), 26% by IPPs, and the remaining 17% was imported from the Indian grid. The power system has about 1,854,275 customers, which is an increase of 10.6% from the previous year The peak load in Nepal occurs during the winter when the run-of-river power plants generate at a lower capacity (compared to the installed capacity) due to low river flows. According to the NEA, the peak demand in 2010 was 885 MW, which was an increase of 9% over the previous year.The peak demand met by NEA rose steadily from 603 MW in 2006 to 946 MW in

2011 (with the excess over installed capacity supplemented by purchases from India), indicating a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 9.4%.

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OBJECTIVES

The general objectives of preparing this report on the topic: HYDROPOWER IN NEPAL are mentioned below: 1. To know about the history of hydro power in world and Nepal. 2. To know about the actual hydel capacity of Nepal and its current status. 3. To know about the major hydel projects (also small and micro hydel) under operation, under construction and feasible projects. 4. To know about legal policies for private sector participation on different hydel projects. 5. To learn about basic technical aspects behind the hydel generation. 6. To know about the major challenges behind the under development of hydel in Nepal. Policy 3. Objectives: Hydropower shall be developed to achieve the following objectives: 3.1 To generate electricity at low cost by utilizing the water resources available in the country. 3.2 To extend reliable and qualitative electric service throughout the Kingdom of Nepal at a reasonable price. 3.3 To tie-up electrification with the economic activities. 3.4 To render support to the development of rural economy by extending the rural electrification. 3.5 To develop hydropower as an exportable commodity.