You are on page 1of 21

EFFECT OF STERILIZATION PRACTICES (CHEMICAL, BURNING, SOLARIZATION) FOR CHILLI NURSERY IN AMPARA AREA

BY

R.H.D.B. MAHAGEDARA AMP/HNDT/F/E/2010/35

THE REPORT

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement of HIGHER NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN TECHNOLOGY IN AGRICULTURE 2011 Hardy Advanced Technological Institute Ampara Sri Lanka. -Approved-

.. Mrs.H.M.N.M.Watagodakumbura, The Supervisor, Hardy Advanced Technological Institute, Ampara.

.... Mr.A.B M.Jesfar, The Head, Department of Agriculture, Hardy Advanced Technological Institute Ampara Date :- .

Date :- .

. Mr.N.M.K.K. Nawarathna, The Director, Hardy Advanced Technological Institute, Ampara Date :- .. Marks Obtained :-..

DEDICATION

Stormy sea waves can Disappear lovely foot prints From the innocent sea beach But my blood stream never Vapid my respectable Memories from my deep heart My hearties dedication To shadow of my life My beloved parents And all my great Teachers Specially, Mrs. H.M.N.M. Watagodakumbura They are the bright stars Of my dark life path

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost, I would like to express my deepest and foremost gratitude to my supervisor Mrs.H.M.N.M.Watagodakumbura, Hardy Advanced Technological Institute, Apmara for giving her excellent guidance, contractive criticism and assistance during the period of study. My special sincere thanks go to Mr.N.M.K.K.Nawarathna, The Director, Hardy Advanced Technological Institute, Apmara for giving opportunity to carry out this project. At the same time I wish to extent my thanks to HOD Mr.A.B.M.Jesfar, Hardy Advanced Technological Institute, Ampara for giving me the opportunity to undergo my project program at Hardy Advanced Technological Institute. The extend my sincere thank to Mrs.R.D.S.D.Sampath, Hardy Advanced Technological Institute, Ampara for encouragement in the preparation of this project report. Also my sincere thank appreciation goes to all academic and non academic staff members my batch mates and family members are greatly acknowledged for dedicating their valuable time and energy to complete the project report successfully.

ABSTRACT

Chili is grown successfully under wide range of environment conditions. Mainly chili cultivation is done in dry zone for dry chili production and in the wet zone it is grown for green chili production. Too heavy a rainfall is deteimental as it leads to a poor fruit set and rotting of the fruit. Soil sterilization incldes eradication or control of any major class of soil borne pest such as weeds, weed seed, nematodes, fungi, bacteria and plant disease. There are differant methords of soil sterilization in order to inhibit microbial activity in soil. Most commonly these include fumigation, solarization, steameing and burning.

The study was carried out at the agricultural farm of Hardy Advanced Technological Institute in Yala season of 2011 to effect of sterilization practices for chilli nursery in Ampara area. As methord firstly prepare 16 standed nursery beds according to RCBD dising. Then sterilization methords were apply and used MI-2 chili variety. During nursery periode experiment pest and disease behaviour and investigate the vigour of chili according to this nursery sterilization methords.

As the results in Ampara area, Burning sterilization methord is more suitable for chili nursery. There are resistance to pest and disease attack. Other solarization and controle methords are not suitable and there are more susseptible for pest and disease attact specialy Trips, Mites pests and Damping off disease.

CHAPTER 01
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background and justification Chili (Capsicum annum) is one of the most important cash crops grown in the dry zone in Sri Lanka. Chili is grown successfully under wide range of environmental conditions. Chili pepers require sunny, semi tropic or tropical conditions and annual rainfall of between 600mm and 1,250mm. Too heavy a rainfall is detrimental, as it leads to a poor fruit set and rotting of the fruit. Water logging even for a short time causes leaf shedding. Mainly chili cultivation is done in dry zone for dry chili production and in the wet zone it is grown for green chili production. Although the species name annuum means annual the plant is not an annual and in the absence of winter frosts can survive several seasons and grow into a large perennial shrub. The single flowers are an off-white (sometimes purplish) color whilst the stem is densely branched and up to 60 centimeters (24 in) tall. When ripe, the fruit may be green, yellow or red. The species can tolerate most climates, Capsicum annuum is especially productive in warm and dry climates with temperatures ranging from 210C 260C. Soil sterilization includes eradication or control of any major class of soil borne pests such as weeds, weed seeds, nematodes, fungi, bacteria and plant diseases. There are different methods of soil sterilization in order to inhibit microbial activity in soils. Most commonly, these include autoclaving, gamma irradiation, chloroform fumigation, ethylene or propylene oxide, ultraviolet and microwave irradiation. Since these methods are greatly different in terms of properties and usefulness, the choice of the best sterilization method may significantly vary from one situation to another. It has been reported that soil sterilization methods commonly alter soil physical and chemical properties. For example, ethylene and propylene oxide steriliants react with acidic hydrogen of organic matter to include an increase in soil pH and organic carbon content. These included changes alter sorptive behavior of compounds with functional groups whose reactivity to organic matter is sensitivity to organic matter is sensitive to pH change or organic carbon content (Caspian J. Env. Sci. 2007, Vol. 5 No.2 pp.87-91) However during the past few years the extended of chili cultivation declined mainly due to pest and disease problems. Chili is very much subject to fungal disease, leaf curl complex ect. Therefore the research study is done experiment the effect of sterilization practices for chili nursery.

1.2 Objectives 1. Investigate the vigor of chili with different nursery sterilization methods. 2. Experiment pest and disease behavior with different sterilization methods. 3. Classify pest & disease groups during nursery stage under different sterilization methods.

CHAPTER 02 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 BOTANY 2.1.1 SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION

Kingdom (unranked) (unranked) Order Family Genus Species

Plantae Eudicots Asterids Solanales Solanaceae Capsicum Capsicum annuum

Botanical name Other names Centre of Origin

: Capsicum annuum : Capsicum, Chili peppers, Paprika, Bird, Cayenne : Peru (South America)

2.1.2 SOLANACEAE

About 75 genera and 2,000 spp. of herbs, shrubs and small trees, generally distributed, but most numerous in the tropics. Leaves alternate, simple, stipules absent. Flowers hermaphrodite, mostly actinomorpic; corolla sympetalous, usually 5lobed, aestivation folded, contorted or valvate; stamens inserted on corolla tube, typically as many as corolla lobes and alternating with them; anthers 2-locular, often connivent, dehiscing lengthwise or by apical pores; overy 2-locular, sometimes again divided by false septa; style 1, terminal; ovules numerous, axile. Flowers a berry or capsule. Seed with copious endosperm and curved or annular embryo. 2.2 CAPSICUM Also known as bird, capsicum, cayenne, paprika, red and sweet peppers, depending upon the type. They should not be confused with black or white peper which is the product of piper nigrum (q.v.). The classification of the genus is very confused. Maney species, over 100, and many botanical varieties have been erected from time to time, but most authorities recognize 2 main spp., Capsicum annuum (q.v.) and Capsicum frutescens (q.v.), and with this I concur. (see systematic below.)

USES Sweet peppers have the mildest with little of the pungent principle. They are eaten raw in salads and cooked in various ways; they are often stuffed with meat and are also pickled. Paprikas are European cvs with large mild fruits. Spanish paprikas (pimiento) are lacking in pungency; they are preserved and used in cheese preparations and stuffed olives. Hungarian paprika has long pointed fruits and is more pungent. The dried fruits are ground to produce powdered paprika, wich is used as a condiment and in cooking; it is a constituent of Hungerian goulash. Chillies are the dried ripe fruits of pungent forms of C. Annuum, and sometimes C. Frutescens. In its powdered form it constitutes red or cayenne pepper. Both chilies and cayenne pepper are used for culinary purposes and for seasonings. African chilies are very pungent, Japanese chilies are rather less pungent. Chilies are widly used throughout the tropics, particularly in India. They are the hot ingrediant of curry powder, which is made by grinding roasted dried chilies with turmeric, coriabder, cumin, and other spices. Before the introduction of Capsicum, Piper nigrum was used for this purpose in India. Chilies are extensively used in Central America and are constituents of dishes such as Tabasco, is made by pickling the pulp in strong vinegar or brine. Extracts of chilies are used in the manufacture of ginger beer and other bevareges. Cayenne pepper is incorporated in laying mixtures for poultry. Capsicum from C. Frutescens is used in medicine, internally as a poerful stimulant and carminative, and externally as a counter-irritant. The two species can be distinuished as fallows: A. Plant usually annual, fruits borne singly.........C.annuum AA. Plant perennial, fruits borne in groups............C.frutescens

Capsicum annuum L. (2n = 24)


CHILLIES, RED OR SWEET PEPPERS

There are many cvs, differing from each other in the shape and colour of thir fruits, the way in wich they are borne, wich may be erect or pendent, and in their pungency. Redgrove (1933) and Chittenden(1956) recognize 7 botanical varieties as was worked out by Irish in 1898. These are given below. It is doubtful whether this is justified, as they all intercross and intermediates occur. Var. abbreviatum Fingerh. WRINKLED PEPPERS Fruits generally ovate, wrinkled, 5 cm long or less. Var. acuminatum Fingerh. CHILLIES Fruits linear-oblong, over 9cm long, usually pointed, pungent. Widely grown in India. Var.cerasiforme (Miller) Irish CHERRY PEPPERS Fruits globose with firm flish, 1.2-2.5 cm in diameter, red, yellow or purple, pungent. Var.conoides (Miller) Irish CONE PEPPERS, TABASCO Fruits are erect, conical, about 3 cm long, very pungent. Var.fasciculatum (Sturt.) Irish CLUSTER PEPPERS Fruits clusted, erect, slender, about 7-5 cm long. Very pungent. As the fruits are not borne singly it is probable that these are forms of C.frutescens.

Var.grossum (L.) Sendt. SWEET PEPPERS, PAPRIKA Fruits large with basal depression, inflated, red or yellow, flesh thick and mild. Var.longum (DC) Sendt. LONG PEPPERS Fruits mostly drooping at apex, 20-30 cm long, red, yellow or ivory, often mind. Calyx not embracing fruits. Capsicum frutescens L. (2n =24) Syn. C.minimum Roxb. BIRD CHILLIES Shrubby perennial. Inflorescence of several flowers. Fruits small, clusted, erect, conical, pointed, 2-3 cm long, usually red, extremely pungent. Var.baccatum (L.) Irish CHERRY CAPSICUM Fruits globose about 1 cm diameter. Usually grown as an ornamental plant. Bailey (1948) recognizes are species only, C.frutescens (syn.C.annuum) and 5 varieties, namely, cerasiforme, conoides, fasciculatum, grossum and longum. Heiser and Smith (1953) recognize C.annuum and C.frutescens (syn.C.annuum) and 5 varieties, namely, cerasiforme, conoides, fasciculatum, grossum and longum. Heiser and Smith (1953) recognize C. annuum and C.frutescens as valid spp., as they are difficult to cross and the few F1 hybrids obtained have been highly sterile. They recognize 2 other spp. of cultivated Capsicum: C.pubescens Ruiz & Pav., which is very distinct, is grown in Central and South America, and has pubescent leavers, purple corolla lobes, and black wrinkled seed. C.pendulum Willed., which is grown in South America, has yellow or tanmarkings on the corolla and yellow anthers. Wild species also occur. ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION Prehistoric Capsicum peppers are known from burial sites at Ancon and Huaca Prieta in Peru and were widely spread throughout the New World tropics in pre-Columbian times. It would seem that there was either a diffusion from there to Mexico or an independant origin in the latter centre, where there is a great diversity of cvs. C. annuum is not known in a wild state; C. frutescens doubtfully so, but it has now become naturalized in many parts of the tropics and is spread by birds. Columbus took black fruits to Spain on his first voyage frome the New World. The long viability of the seeds and the ease with which they can be transported assisted in its rapid spread in the tropics and subtropics throughout the world after 1492. Already by 1542 there races were recognized in India. The Spainiards and the Portuguese in their search for pepper were quick to seize this new and much more pungent pepper from the New World and to distribute it widely. ECOLOGY Capsicums are grown from sea level to 6000 ft or more in the tropics. They are killed by frost. They are usualy grown as a rain-fed crop, with a rainfall of 25-50 in. Too heavy a rainfall is detrimental, as it leads to a poor fruit set and rotting of the fruit.

Pests of capsicum 1.Broad mite Species name: Polyphagotarsonemus latus.

Description
Adult The adults are white-yellow, about 0.2 mm long, and the male is extremely active. Immature stages Eggs laid on the underside of leaves are oval, translucent and covered with five or six rows of white bumps (tubercles). Life history The life cycle through egg, two nymphal stages, to adult takes 6-9 days. Host range Broad mite is a serious pest of lemons, Hickson and Ellendale mandarins and occasionally grapefruit. There are a wide range of other food-crop hosts, including capsicum, papaya, babaco and cocoa. Many ornamental and cut flower plants are susceptible, including African violet, azalea, pittosporum, impatiens, begonia, gerbera, chrysanthemum and gloxinia. Management . Damage Broad mite attacks the growing point and the underside of young leaves causing hardening and distortion. Broad mite damage is often confused with injury caused by hormone herbicides because in all both cases the leaves can become claw-like with prominent veins. Grey or bronze scar tissue between the veins on the underside of the leaves distinguishes mite damage from hormone damage. Broad mite infestation can sometimes be confirmed with a 10x hand lens, although they have often disappeared before the damage is noticed. The characteristic egg can be seen near the veins beneath the leaf as a translucent, flat oval with a stippling of white dots. The mite itself is flat, but is less easily identified than its egg. Action level Examine five consecutive plants in the row at six widely spaced locations throughout the crop. Spray if two plants out of 30 plants shows damage symptoms and mites are present. Close inspection of the growing points at fortnightly intervals during September to October and March to April should enable early detection of damage in tree crops. This is necessary if control action is to be taken before serious distortion of terminal growth occurs. Broad mite can be a serious pest of flower crops and ornamental plants, causing flower and leaf distortion. The injuries caused are disproportionate to the mite population levels, making early detection essential. Look for adults and eggs within growing points, on the underside of young apical leaves and within flowers. Biological Broad mites are usually suppressed by natural enemies.

Chemical Apply 2 miticide sprays 10 to 14 days apart. Good coverage is essential. Affected trees usually recover and specific control measures are not normally required in northern districts. Once broad mites are detected on ornamental crops, ongoing vigilance is required.

2. Melon trips
(Thrips palmi) is a pest of fruit and vegetables in South East Asia, Japan, Florida and the Caribbean. It can stunt susceptible plants and deform fruits when its normal biological control is disturbed. Overview Because the melon thrips needs to be properly managed to minimise damage, it is important for DEEDI to identify the pest. The thrips is a very small insect that needs a specialist for identification. If the pest is not correctly identified, incorrect chemicals may be used, which can worsen the problem, leading to crop loss and increasing the chances of melon thrips spreading. Damage The melon thrips damages plants by killing surface cells with its piercing and sucking mouthparts during feeding. At low levels, there may be no visible sign of damage. In high numbers, melon thrips produce silvering, yellowing and bronzing of affected areas. Leaves may crinkle and die; growing tips may become stunted, discoloured and deformed; and fruits may abort or develop scar tissue The overall effect is a loss of plant vigour and a reduction in marketable produce. The melon thrips can affect a variety of fruits, vegetables, ornamental plants and weeds. It is particularly damaging to eggplant, capsicum, chilli, rockmelon, cucumber, squash, zucchini, and French bean. Weed hosts include pigweed, amaranthus, gomphrena and potato weed, as well as a variety of cucurbit and solanum family plants, such as the tall weed shrub, devil's fig (Solanum torvum). Management Although the melon thrips is difficult to control, growers in the Northern Territory and Queensland have successfully managed the pest through a variety of measures including using plastic mulch (preferably silver), controlling weeds that are alternative hosts, breaking production of susceptible crops and using windbreaks. In the past, the overuse of insecticides has increased the problem, probably by killing natural enemies. Quarantine Restrictions However, South Australia, Western Australia, Tasmania and the Northern Territory restrict the introduction of host crops and plants from within 100 km of a detection of the pest. Inspection for pest freedom and methyl bromide fumigation are two procedures available for meeting the restrictions, which now apply to most horticultural production areas

3. Queensland fruit fly Scientific name: Bactrocera tryoni Description of adult The adult is wasp-like, red-brown with yellow marks, and about 8 mm long. Unlike cucumber fruit fly there is no central yellow mark down the length of the dorsal surface of the thorax between the wings. Fruit flies hold their wings outstretched in a horizontal position when walking. They flick them in a characteristic manner. Immature stages The female pierces (stings) the maturing fruit and lays a clutch of white, bananashaped eggs just below the surface. Hatching takes place after two to three days and the resulting larvae are white carrot-shaped maggots (about 7 mm long when mature) that tunnel in the flesh. They carry bacteria that aid in fruit breakdown. The mature larvae can 'jump' by curling into a 'U'-shape and then rapidly straightening. Life history Larvae mature in 7-10 days in summer and emerge from the fruit to pupate in the soil. The pupal stage lasts about 10 days. The life cycle takes about 2.5 weeks during summer. The adult flies congregate on foliage and fruit to feed on bacterial colonies and later to mate. These bacterial colonies are more plentiful under humid conditions. Distribution Queensland fruit fly is a native pest occurring throughout eastern Australia. Host range Queensland fruit fly infests both indigenous and introduced fruits. Commercial varieties affected include abiu, apple, avocado, babaco, capsicum, carambola, casimiroa, cherry, citrus, custard apple, granadilla, grape, guava, kiwifruit, mango, nectarine, papaya, passionfruit, peach, pear, persimmon, plum, pomegranate, prune, quince, loquat, santol, sapodilla, tamarillo, tomato and wax jambu. Damage Major and frequent pest. Activity is greatest in warm humid conditions and is particularly important where tree-ripened fruit are concerned. Adults lay eggs ('sting') in the fruit and the larvae feed in the flesh. Affected fruit are readily recognised since rots develop rapidly and the skin around the sting marks becomes discoloured. Queensland fruit fly damage is more severe during mid and late summer than at other times. Large numbers of flies can be expected after good falls of summer rain; fruit flies become active after periods of rain or high humidity. To monitor fruit fly activity hang male lure traps under the shady canopy, where flies tend to rest. Check the number of flies trapped each week. The recommended trap contains a synthetic attractant combined with a fumigant insecticide. Growers need to seriously consider whether fruit flies are causing sufficient damage to warrant spraying. A number of traps (one per hectare) should be hung in the middle of each large orchard block of 5.0 ha or more according to manufacturer's instructions. Inspect traps at weekly intervals from the end of flowering and until the completion of harvesting. Control maybe necessary as soon as two flies per trap per day are caught.

Control options 1. Cultural Fruit flies become active after periods of rain or high humidity. Sprays for fruit fly control may not be necessary in dry seasons. Do not allow fallen fruit to accumulate under trees. 2. Biological While there are a number of parasitoids, these kill the insect in the pupal stage and are therefore of little use in preventing damage. However, they do help to reduce the next generation of flies, particularly in isolated or marginal fly areas. 3. Chemical Apply cover sprays as needed if approved on the affected crop. A bait concentrate is approved on various tree, fruit, vine and vegetable crops for spot spraying. 4. Spiralling whitefly

General information The spiralling whitefly (Aleurodicus dispersus) is a tropical pest to a variety of horticultural crops, ornamental plants and shade trees. It is believed to have originated in the wet tropics of Central and South America, but after gaining establishment in Hawaii in 1978, it spread rapidly through the Pacific. It is now almost pan tropical in distribution, even occurring in some subtropical and temperate countries. Spiralling whitefly is not actually a fly, but a sap sucking bug, and derives its name from the characteristic egg spirals that the adult whitefly deposits on foliage and fruit. Spiralling whiteflies predominately occur as a winged adult or whitefly stage and a sedentary nymph stage. Without its natural predators, spiralling whitefly can rapidly assume major pest status. It is now established in tropical coastal Queensland from Torres Strait to Gladstone. In addition, it is now known to be in the Darwin region. Whiteflies feed on the undersides of foliage. Heavily infested plants with very high whitefly populations soon develop a black sooty appearance from mould growing on the sugary secretions that the whiteflies and their nymphs produce. This sooty mould, in combination with leaf damage, reduces the plant's ability to photosynthesise. It also weakens, or in some cases kills the plant. When its natural biological agents are not present, spiralling whiteflies multiply at a rapid rate, producing thousands of individuals on a single plant. If you see spiralling whitefly symptoms south of Gladstone, report them to Biosecurity Queensland straight away. Species name: Aleurodicus disperses Spiralling whiteflies are small (0.2 mm long), white, and are moth-like in appearance and in their mode of flight. On plants with heavy infestations, whiteflies and their nymphs occur in dense populations on the undersides of the leaves of the host plant. These populations are generally covered in a heavy coating of white, curly 'wax' and a sugary secretion that is produced by the whitefly nymphs. This secretion often leads to a heavy coating of black sooty mould. Mixed in with the heavy 'wax' are the whitefly eggs that are laid on the silken spirals that the adult

females produce. These spirals are more noticeable in initial infestations, low infestations and on the skin of fruits and vegetables. Spiralling whitefly bears a superficial resemblance to the closely related coconut whitefly that is widely distributed in the Austro-Oriental Region from New Britain to West Malaysia, Solomon Islands and Australia. It occurs in Queensland and is a minor pest of a range of horticultural and ornamental plants including coconut, custard apple, banana and Acacia. It has been recorded in banana plantations in Northern Queensland but is not considered a pest. Coconut whiteflies are indistinguishable by eye from spiralling whiteflies but the nymphs are noticeably different to a trained observer. The waxing on the nymphs of coconut whitefly is coiled and much longer than the waxing on spiralling whitefly, and coconut whitefly nymphs have 12 compound pores, which are larger than the eight compound pores of spiralling whitefly nymphs. Coconut whiteflies lay their eggs on similar flocculent trails as spiralling whitefly but the trails are not in typical spiral patterns. Spiralling whiteflies are generally active during calm, still times of the day (e.g. at dawn and dusk) when they can be seen flying in large circular patterns around host plants. Whiteflies can be induced to fly by shaking the infested plant, after which they quickly resettle. Life cycle Eggs (0.3 mm long) are diamond shaped, microscopic, and embedded in the silken spirals produced by the females. Each egg hatches into a tiny active crawler, roughly the same size as the egg. This crawler moves out over the foliage of the host plant and then transforms into an inert, sedentary (nymph) stage that attaches to the underside of the leaves where it sucks nutrients from the leaves. The nymph stage (0.5 mm - 1 mm long) has no visible legs and grows progressively through a series of moults (instars), each instar producing more 'wax' and sugar secretions. The final instar acts as a pupa, out of which the adult whitefly emerges. The time from egg to adult can be less than three weeks in summer, longer in cooler conditions. The female whitefly (which is identical to the male) can lay large numbers of eggs.

Host range Spiralling whitefly infests a broad range of horticultural plants including banana, citrus, papaya, mango, custard apple, guava, tomato, capsicum, eggplant and many ornamental species, shade trees and weeds. It has been recorded on more than 100 plant species in Torres Strait and Cape York Peninsula. Although citrus and mango have not yet been recorded as major hosts in Australia, heavy infestations have occurred on these two species in some countries, particularly after application of insecticides. Because spiralling whitefly is tropical in origin, but can also breed in subtropical conditions, its host range could be much more extensive than what is currently known. Management A biological control agent (Encarsia dispersa) was originally established in Torres Strait in 1992 by entomologists from the Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation (DEEDI). This agent is a microscopic, orange-coloured wasp that is host-specific to spiralling whitefly nymphs and has already successfully managed pest populations in Torres Strait and mainland Queensland. Controlling the pest using insecticides is not recommended. Overseas experience indicates that spraying with insecticides has little long-term impact on the pest and usually exacerbates the problem by destroying the biological control agents and increasing insecticide resistance in whitefly populations.

Diseases of capsicum
1. Bacterial spot General information Bacterial spot is the most destructive leaf disease of capsicum. Black rot of brassica plants often follows infection by bacterial spot. Cause The bacterium Xanthomonas campestris. The first symptoms are usually small, yellow V-shaped areas developing along the leaf margin. These areas soon turn brown and dry out. Vein blackening may extend down the leaves into the petiole and the stem. When the stem is cut across, a black ring will be seen in the water-conducting tissues just below the bark. Symptoms Soft, rotting organisms often quickly follow the invasion of fleshy leaves and petioles. Black rot bacterium then cause the plants to rot rapidly. Tan, circular spots with yellow halos can also develop between the veins. These coalesce and dry out to give the tattered leaf scald appearance. Infection of young, immature curcubit fruit causes small water-soaked areas of pronounced, light brown ooze. As the fruit enlarge, the ooze dries to form a raised, yellow crust over the spot. The flesh beneath the spots is often water-soaked, extending to the seed cavity and resulting in seed contamination. Spread The bacterium may be introduced in seed or in surviving undecomposed crop residue or other host plants. Bacteria spread in water splash during wet, windy weather or by overhead irrigation. It can also disperse on insects, or on people or equipment moving through the crop. Warm, humid weather favours rapid disease development. Crops affected A serious disease of many crops such as capsicum, tomato, potato, eggplant, Asian vegetables, cabbage, brussel sprout, pumpkin, melon, lettuce, bean, carrot and stone fruit. It is a minor disease of sweet corn. The disease can survive between crops on nearby host crops and on many weeds. Worldwide, there are 11 known races of bacterial spot that affect capsicum. Not all of these have been found in Queensland. No variety has resistance to all races of bacterial spot, but to be effective, the variety used must have resistance to all the races present. Use as many of the following practices as possible in an integrated program to manage bacterial spot. Control options 1. Seed management Buy seed from a reputable dealer. Ask the seed company for seed that has been tested for bacterial spot. Infected seed can be an important source of the disease in capsicum.

Seed can be treated with hot water or calcium hypochlorite to kill the pathogen. Hot water treatment is more thorough than calcium hypochlorite because it can kill bacteria inside the seed as well as those on the surface. Take care when treating seed with hot water as high temperatures can reduce seed germination if proper precautions are not taken. Plant seed as soon as possible after treatment. If you treat the seed after purchase, the seed company's liability and guarantees are null and void. 2. Farm hygiene Destroy old capsicum plants immediately after final harvest. Do not allow volunteer capsicum or tomato plants to grow between seasons or amongst cover crops, because they can harbour the disease. Control solanaceous weeds such as nightshades in and around the crop. If disease becomes widespread decide quickly about ploughing out the crop. 3. Crop management Do not rotate capsicum crops with tomato, potato or eggplant and do not grow these crops together. Physically separate successive plantings. When space is limiting, successive plantings in the same field can be separated by planting several rows of a plant that will form a tall, thick barrier, such as sorghum, sudan grass or sweet corn. Provide appropriate amounts of fertiliser and water. Plants that are stressed or those that are growing too luxuriantly can be more susceptible to disease. Low nitrogen and potassium, and extra high magnesium, calcium or nitrogen levels have been associated with increased susceptibility of crops to bacterial spot. Use drip rather than overhead irrigation. Water splashed during overhead irrigation spreads the pathogen. When overhead irrigation is the only option, water during the day with enough time to ensure that the plants are dry by nightfall. 4. Disease management Monitor crops thoroughly for bacterial spot and other diseases each week. Avoid working fields when plants are wet. As well as movement by splashing water drops, the pathogen can be spread mechanically on workers' hands and on farm machinery when plants are wet. Work in infested areas last if possible. Thoroughly spray crops with copper fungicides at recommended rates. In Queensland, populations of bacterial spot have developed tolerance to copper sprays which means that copper is now less effective than it once was in controlling bacterial spot infections. Disinfect spray rigs and other machinery with a general disinfectant product, such as a quaternary ammonium compound, after the job is completed or before using the equipment in uninfected crops. Report any disease control problems to the Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation so that possible causes can be investigated. 2. Bacterial wilt General information Also known as crown rot in custard apple. Cause The bacterium Ralstonium solanacearum.

Symptoms In vegetables A white ooze appears when pressure is applied to affected tubers or stems. In custard apple Most leaves are pale or yellow. Diagnosed by examining the trunk at ground level for discoloration of wood under the bark. The bark around the crown at or just below ground level decays. If a slice of bark is removed from above the affected area it will show the dark discoloration of the water-conducting tissue. Young trees may rapidly wilt and decline, often with severe defoliation. Leaves that stay on the tree are dull green and hang almost vertically. In older trees, a slow decline occurs over about two years, generally with little or no yellowing of the leaves. Affected trees have a dark discoloration of the water-conducting tissues in the basal trunk and large roots. Often occurs on trees that have just started cropping. Wilting is most common in late summer.

Spread The bacterium is common in soil and is carried over in crop residues and weed hosts. It spreads in irrigation and rain water, particularly downhill, and may spread by root contact. Crops affected Capsicum ,Potato, tomato, eggfruit and custard apple.

Control option In Vegetables Plant resistant or tolerant varieties. Bacterial wilt is worse in hot, wet weather and wilting is very quick. Do not crop infected soil through summer. There is no treatment for the affected crop. In future crops, use certified seed and whole (round) seed. Also develop a crop rotation program that avoids planting potatoes, and other hosts such as tomatoes, in the same site for at least two and preferably five years.

3. Anthracnose One of the most common and serious diseases in horticulture. It requires both pre- and post-harvest treatments. It is also known as pepper spot disease on avocado twigs, degreening burn in citrus and blossom blight in mango.

Cause Most commonly Colletotrichum spp, but also Diplocarpon (affecting roses) and Elsinoe (affecting grapes). Avocado, cashew, passionfruit - Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Mango - Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes and occasionally C. acutatum. Rockmelon and honeydew - Colletotrichum orbiculare. Banana - Colletotrichum musae. Symptoms These fungal diseases cause the development of dark, sunken spots or lesions, often with a raised rim, on affected foliage, stems and fruit of a wide range of horticultural crops. Pink spores are followed by black fruiting bodies. Immature fruit do not show infection until fruit ripens. Disease development after harvest is the result of infection of fruit on trees before harvest. The fungus may remain dormant in green fruit for many months. Leaf spots are large and tan-colored with dark brown margins. Pinkish spore masses may form on the spots under humid conditions. Leaf spots are extremely rare and generally form only after prolonged wet or humid weather. Large circular brown spots may form around puncture marks to the skin of the fruit. The spots darken with age, centres become sunken and, in moist conditions, pinkish spore masses may form on the spots. Small spots less than 5 mm in diameter may develop around the breathing pores (lenticels). The fungus also causes a major postharvest problem in ripe fruit. Internally, the rot penetrates deep into the flesh in a hemispherical pattern. Pepper spot in avocados is seen as myriad small, dark, raised spots on the fruit's surface. It also affects twigs. Blossom blight in mangoes is seen as small, black, irregular spots that spread to cause death and shedding of flowers, resulting in poor fruit set. In passion fruit, small black dots (spore cases) of the fungus appear on the affected area. These areas later take on a dry parchment-like appearance and the skin easily breaks. In banana, the spores produce on dead banana material and spread to young fruit in water droplets. The fungus remains dormant in the tissue until the onset of ripening. Spread This fungus can be seed-borne and carry over on crop residue in the soil. It is spread in water droplets and worse in warm, humid weather. Crops affected Chili, capsicum, rock melon, honeydew, tomato, avocado, citrus, mango, cashew, passion fruit, banana and most other tropical crops.

Control options The critical phases for disease control are during flowering and fruit set, and after harvest. This disease is most severe during wet weather when new growth flushes are particularly susceptible. The leaf spot symptom is generally not serious enough to warrant treatment or preventative measures. However, prevention against the fruit rot symptom requires regular spraying and orchard hygiene.

1 Pre-harvest treatment Follow a recommended fungicide spray program for your crop from flowering to fruit set. Control fruit-damaging pests such as fruits potting bug and fruit fly. Pay attention to orchard hygiene by pruning out dead wood before flowering, and regularly removing infected fruit and dead leaves entangled in the canopy. Keeping the canopy open by judiciously pruning and tree shaping helps to reduce the severity of infection. Use regular leaf and soil analyses to keep nutrient levels, particularly calcium and nitrogen, at adequate levels, as this increases the resistance of the fruit to infection. Avoid planting susceptible varieties. In annual crops, do not plant into soil containing plant residue from a previous susceptible crop. Follow a recommended fungicide spray program and do not save seed from an infected crop. 2 Post-harvest treatment

Treat fruit after harvest with an appropriate chemical. Pre-cool fruit before transport if the time from harvest to delivery at the wholesale market exceeds two days. Store fruit until sale at the temperature recommended for that crop. The longer the period between harvesting and consumption the worse the disease, so minimise delays in marketing wherever possible. Handle fruit carefully to avoid damage that can initiate the onset of the disease. To minimise degreening burn in citrus avoid picking immature fruit and carefully manage the degreening duration, temperature and ethylene concentration. Also avoid over-fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizer and maintain even soil moisture close to harvest. 4.Cercospora leaf spot Cercospora leaf spot is a common disease in beetroot and silver beet but is usually unimportant in well-managed crops. It may be a significant problem in crops grown for baby-leaf production, because the foliage is the saleable product. Cause The fungi Cercospora beticola, C. capsici, C. nasturtii, C. canescens and C. coffeicola. Cercospora spot in avocado is caused by the fungus Pseudocercospora purpurea. Symptoms Small, brown flecks develop with a reddish border, expanding to circular spots about 4 mm wide with an ashy-grey centre. This tissue becomes thin and brittle, and often drops out, leaving a ragged hole. In capsicums small, round water-soaked lesions develop on leaves, petioles and stems. The lesions enlarge and have light brown centres with dark brown-red margins. As lesions expand, an outer water-soaked area and dark ring may form beyond the original lesion margin, so that the lesion centre becomes surrounded by concentric rings. With age, the lesion centres dry out and crack.

In carrots cercospora leaf spot is more severe on the young leaves developing initially as small necrotic flecks that enlarge to form circular, tan or grey spots. Spots may coalesce during humid weather to blight the entire leaf. Sunken, elongated spots may also occur on leafstalks. A sooty to dark olivaceous mould develops on the lower leaf surface of okra plants. As the disease progresses, leaves roll, wilt and fall from the plant. In avocado and coffee crops both leaves and fruit develop dark brown lesions. Spread The fungi survive on undecomposed beet residues in the soil, on weed hosts and on beet seed. Hosts include beetroot, silver beet, sugarbeet, spinach and several Atriplex and Chenopodium weed species. Leaf spot is favoured by warm, wet weather. Severe outbreaks generally require a period of showery weather. Infection from germinating fungal spores occurs via penetration of leaf stomata by fungal hyphae. Spores spread in wind, rain, irrigation or via mechanical means. The fungus is likely to carry over to new crops on infected crop debris. Crops affected Bean, beetroot, capsicum, okra, silver beet, watercress, carrot, avocado and coffee. Control options Apply the recommended fungicides, particularly during warm, wet weather. Rotate beet crops with other non-host vegetables. Control weeds, particularly Chenopodium weeds like fat-hen, in and around beet crops. Specific controls are not usually required for capsicum. Plant only high-quality seed. Do not plant seed potentially infected with Cercospora. Destroy infected crops promptly after the final harvest and before replanting to minimise disease spread to subsequent crops.

4. Powdery mildew Powdery mildew is probably the most common of all plant diseases. The characteristic white, powdery growth occurs on plants as diverse as cereals, trees, turf grass, woody ornamentals and most vegetable and fruit crops. Cause Although the symptoms of powdery mildew are similar on many hosts, several fungal species cause the disease. Many are host specific, often infecting only a few, related species. The main genera of fungi causing powdery mildew diseases include Erysiphe, Leveillula, Oidium, Podosphaera, Sphaerotheca and Uncinula. Races or strains may develop within a species in response to using a host-resistance gene for management. Symptoms Powdery mildew appears as spots or patches of white to greyish, powdery growth (mycelium) on the surface of leaves and other plant parts. The mycelium is most visible on the upper leaf surface, often covering it completely as the disease progresses. Damage from powdery mildew may take some time to develop. Efficiency is reduced in affected leaves and fruit can be scarred and damaged, causing produce to be

downgraded. Severe outbreaks can cause defoliation, exposing fruit to sunburn and predisposing them to secondary rots. Spread Fungi causing powdery mildew grow largely on the surface of plants. They are obligate parasites and obtain nutrients by sending feeding organs (haustoria) into the epidermal cells of plants. The superficial fungal mycelium produces chains of spores (conidia) that are widely dispersed by air currents. The spores do not require free water for germination and germinate freely in relatively low humidity, including moisture from morning dews, fog or condensate. Disease development is favoured by warm, dry and especially, cloudy conditions, which limit damage to the fungus by ultraviolet radiation. Humid, wet weather slows disease progress. Overwintering fruiting bodies, called cleistothecia, may develop late in the season, or, when conditions become unfavourable. These appear as tiny, pin-head size, yellowgold and later brown to black bodies within the mycelium. These fruiting bodies survive in leaf litter and crevices of plants or on alternative host species until spring, when ascospores are released to begin new infections. In warmer areas, the fungi may survive on alternative hosts or as mycelium or conidia in buds and other plant parts. Crops affected Most horticultural crops. Control options Use appropriate cultural management procedures, including removal of diseased twigs and crop debris, to reduce inoculum levels. Apply pre-infection (protectant) and post-infection (eradicant or curative) fungicides. Plant resistant varieties when appropriate, and available.