# Math 251W: Foundations of Advanced Mathematics, Spring 2011

Portfolio Assignment 10: §5.3, 7.2-3 Name: Sean Fogerty

Problem 5.3.6 proposition: Let A be a non-empty set, and let be an equivalence relation on A. Let x, y ∈ A. Show that if x ∼ y, then [x] = [y] and that if x ∼ y, then [x] = [y]. proof (Direct, Contrapositive) Cases • ⊆ Let a be an arbitrary element of [x] and let x ∼ y. By the deﬁnition of relation class, x ∼ a. By the symmetric deﬁnition of a equivalence relation, we have y ∼ x. By the transitive deﬁnition of equivalence relations, we have y ∼ a. Thus, as a was arbitrarily chosen, [x] ⊆ [y]. ⊇ Let a be an arbitrary element of [y] and let x ∼ y. By the deﬁnition of relation class, y ∼ a. By the transitive deﬁnition of equivalence relations, we have x ∼ a. Thus, as a was arbitrarily chosen, [y] ⊆ [x]. Because [y] ⊆ [x] and [x] ⊆ [y] they must be equal. • Suppose that the intersection of [x] and [y] is not equal to the null set. Therefore, there exists an element a in [x] ∩ [y]. By the deﬁnition of intersection, we have a ∈ [x] and a ∈ [y]. By the deﬁnition of relation class, we have x ∼ a and y ∼ a. By the symmetric property of equivalence relations, we have a ∼ y. By the transitive property of equivalence relations, we have x ∼ y. Thus, by the contrapositive, if x ∼ y, then [x] = [y].

Problem 5.3.14 proposition: Let A be a non-empty set, and let E1 and E2 be equivalence relations on A. Let D1 and D2 denote the partitions of A that correspond to E1 and E2 respectively. Let E = E1 ∩E2 . Then E is an equivalence relation on A by Exercise 5.3.7(i). Let D denote the partition of A that correspond to E. What is the relation between D1 , D2 and D? Prove your result. proof (Direct) Cases Let the relation between D, D1 and D2 be D = D1 ∩ D2 . I will prove this by showing that D and D1 ∩ D2 are equal. ⊆ Let E = E1 ∩ E2 and suppose D = D1 ∩ D2 . Let a be an arbitrary element of D. By the deﬁnition of relation, there exists some b ∈ A such that (a, b) ∈ E. By substitution, we have (a, b) ∈ E1 ∩ E2 . By the deﬁnition of intersection, we have (a, b) ∈ E1 and (a, b) ∈ E2 . By the deﬁnition of relations and because E1 corresponds to D1 and E2 corresponds to D2 , we have a ∈ D1 and a ∈ D2 . Therefore, by the deﬁnition of intersection, a ∈ D1 ∩ D2 . Because a was arbitrarily chosen, it follows that D ⊆ D1 ∩ D2 . ⊇ Let E = E1 ∩E2 and suppose D = D1 ∩D2 . Let a be an arbitrary element of D1 ∩D2 . By the deﬁnition of relations and because E1 corresponds to D1 and E2 corresponds to D2 , there exists some b ∈ A such that (a, b) ∈ E1 ∩ E2 . By substitution, we have (a, b) ∈ E. By the deﬁnition of relations, we have a ∈ D. Because a was arbitrarily chosen, it follows that D ⊇ D1 ∩ D2 . Because D ⊇ D1 ∩ D2 and D ⊆ D1 ∩ D2 , they must be equal. 1

by substitution.
Problem 7. it is commutative and thus Abelian. +) satisﬁes the identity. ∆) is an abelian group.3 proposition: Let A be a set. • [∅] is the additive identity element and is included in Zn . Therefor. commutative. • The inverse is the element itself because (X − X) ∪ (X − X) = ∅ • We assume the operation ∆ is associative. Thus. Show that (Zn . • By the deﬁnition of set addition. +) is a group. on Zn given in section 5. By association and the deﬁnition of inverses. it must be an abelian group. we have x ∗ g = y ∗ g. inverse. because ﬂipping the variables simply ﬂips the set diﬀerences across the union. x = x ∗ e and y = y ∗ e. every element of Zn has an additive element inZn . inverse. • The operation ∆ is trivially commutative.2. Because (Zn . by the associativity of groups.Problem 7. ∗) be a group. Therefore. the identity element is the ∅ because (X − ∅) ∪ (∅ − X) = X. Show that (P(A). Suppose g has two inverses x and y.2. there exists some g ( − 1) ∈ G such that g ∗ g ( − 1) = e(the identity element). which means that x = y and g has only one unique inverse. then g has a unique inverse. it is associative.
Problem 7. By substitution. commutative.
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. and associative laws. Deﬁne the binary operation ∆ on P(A) by X∆Y = (X − Y ) ∪ (Y − X) for all X. (Zn .6 proposition: Let (G. we have x = x ∗ (g ∗ g −1 ) and x = (x ∗ g) ∗ g −1 . proof (Direct) Let g ∈ G and let (G.12. ∗) be a group. it must be an abelian group.1 proposition: Let n ∈ N. Y ∈ P(A). and associative laws. +) is an abelian group. we have x = y ∗ e. If g ∈ G. we have x = (y ∗ g) ∗ g −1 .2. x∗g = e and y ∗g = e. proof (Direct) Cases • By the deﬁnition of relation classes and modular addition. Recall the deﬁnition of the set Zn and the operations + and . By substitution. By the deﬁnition of a group. by the deﬁnition of the identity element. Because (P(A). ∆) satisﬁes the identity. proof (Direct) • Because the power set contains all subsets of A. Additionally. by the deﬁnition of the identity element. • By the deﬁnition of set addition.2.

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. we have j(f (a ∗ b)) = j(f (a))?j(f (b)). (H. and let f : G → H and j : H → K be homomorphisms. ?) be groups. proof (Direct) Let (G. @). we have j(f (a)@f (b)) = j(f (a))?j(f (b)).3. b ∈ G. By the deﬁnition of homomorphism.2. can you ﬁnd any conditions of n that would guarantee that (Zn − {[0]}. Thus f (a) ∈ H and f (b) ∈ H. H and K be groups.Problem 7. j ◦ f is a homomorphism. By the deﬁnition of homomorphism. Is (Zn − {[0]}.12.) a group? If not. and (K. Then j ◦ f is a homomorphism.2.7 proposition: Let G. n would have to be a prime integer. on Zn given in section 5.3 proposition: Recall the deﬁnition of the set Zn and the operations + and . we have f (a ∗ b) = f (a)@f (b). Let a.
Problem 7. Thus. it is not a group. .) is a group? proof (Direct) No. which is a homomorphism. By substitution. ∗). .