Abstract Violence against women and girls, in all its forms, is truly a scourge.

Available data indicate that this is a worldwide, institutionalised phenomenon. The forms and manifestations of such violence are many, interrelated and different according to the social, economic, cultural and political context of a society. Violence against women and girls includes, but is not restricted to, forms of physical, sexual and psychological violence (a) occurring within the family (including prenatal selection based on the sex of the foetus (except where medically necessary) and systematic neglect of infant girls; forced marriage; early marriage; violence perpetrated by partners and ex-spouses; acid attacks; dowry violence and "honour" killings, violence and forced suicides; battering; sexual abuse inflicted on female children in the home, including incest; rape by habitual or cohabiting partners; female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women; (b) occurring within the general community (including rape; sexual abuse; sexual harassment and all forms of gender-related harassment; intimidation at work, in educational institutes and elsewhere; trafficking in women and forced prostitution; modern forms of slavery; femicide; violence against women and girls in conflict and post-conflict situations; trafficking in women for the purposes of sexual exploitation and of all other forms of exploitation); (c) violence against women and girls covers all the acts listed above whether or not perpetrated or condoned by the State. It should be pointed out here that, while, as the UN Secretary-General acknowledges in his in-depth study, much violence against women is committed by private actors and includes a broad range of individuals and entities, this factor in no way exonerates States from acting with due diligence, as set out in Recommendation No 19 of the Committee on the Elimination of All

Forms of Discrimination against Women. Certain factors render victims more vulnerable as a result of the multiple discrimination they endure, related both to their gender and the fact that they belong to distinct minority or ethnic groups, to their religion or language, their status of native women, migrant women, displaced or refugee women, women living in underdeveloped environments or in remote rural communities, institutionalised or incarcerated women, women with disabilities, HIV-positive women, lesbian, bisexual or transgender women, young girls, old or widowed women, and female victims of all other forms of discrimination. Lastly, in situations of crisis or armed conflict, the use of rape, slavery, sexual abuse and exploitation are the most systematic and widespread manifestations of violence against women. Apart from the serious consequences for the physical health (particularly substantially increased risk of HIV infection) and mental health of victims, violence against women also has significant social consequences and major economic costs, to which should be added the cost of political and social instability resulting from the intergenerational transmission of violence. Violence against women thus contributes to their impoverishment and that of their families, communities, societies and countries. Violence against women is therefore an obstacle to development. Violence against women and girls has certain structural causes, including the historically unequal balance of power between men and women as well as girls and boys, found in many societies. Furthermore, customs, traditions and religious values are used to justify violence against women. Economic inequalities suffered by women and their lack of independence are decisive factors for violence in that they reduce women's capacity to act and take decisions, and increase their vulnerability to violence.

sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women. racism. that abuse of women and girls. coercion or arbitrary deprivations of liberty.Political instability and armed conflicts are additional sources of violence against women and girls. trafficking in women. acts of physical. or is likely to result in. sexual abuse of female children. If we turn on the dailies in the morning. whether occurring in public or private life. forced prostitution. These acts include spousal battering. such as rape in war. . such as female genital mutilation (FGM). In 1993 the United Nations offered the first official definition of such violence when the General Assembly adopted the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women. but not be limited to. the climate of violence persists for a long time and in many countries which have experienced armed conflict. and traditional practices harmful to women. They also include nonspousal violence. is best understood within a “gender” framework because it stems in part from women's and girls' subordinate status in society. violence and poverty' to women representing the 'masculine mystique belief in the inevitability of violence against women. Article 2 of the UN Declaration clarifies that the definition of violence against women should encompass. violence against women includes: Any act of gender-based violence that results in. regardless of where and how it occurs. the increased acceptance of violence and the massive proliferation of weapons leads to increased violence outside the conflict. thanks to the club-and-drag cave-man attitude of the traditionally male-dominated society. There is increasing consensus. Violence against women Women once venerated as the mother and the perpetuating angel of mankind has come to be looked upon as 'the unblessed creature of God' in India. According to Article 1 of the declaration. Even post conflict. we shudder to read hair-raising instances of male chauvinism travelling in 'sexism. physical. rape including marital rape. and violence perpetrated or condoned by the state. as reflected in this declaration. including threats of such acts. and psychological violence in the family and the community. What Is Violence Against Women? The term “violence against women” refers to many types of harmful behavior directed at women and girls because of their sex. sexual harassment and intimidation at work and in school. sexual. In order to combat this scourge effectively it is essential that all these aspects be taken into account. dowry-related violence.

Drunk with eroticism. at fairs and festivals. she is blackmailed into a life of vice and forced to spend her life as a call-girl or a whore in a brothel. It reduces a young girl into a saleable commodity and lowers her dignity. It is a complex phenomenon and there are several dimensions to it. the Indian 'man' is unable to distinguish between woman and woman. It is indeed a slur on the modern Indian society that the cult of violence has grown to such proportions in free India. If the way lies through a deserted place. No less an evil is the physical outrage on women. Thousands of girls immolate themselves at the altar of this evil every year. As to our legislation. political. lout. we have only to know the experience of working girls. Greed is not the only motive force behind the crimes against women. Violence against women in India is becoming more frequent and is alarmingly on the increase. Dowry deaths are the culminating point of violence. all because they had some yellow metal with them? The race of eve-teasers. husbands and sons at different stages of their life. these lynx-eyed brutes abound and carry on their depredation even where police officers arc on duty. economic and cultural progress made by us is nullified by the simultaneous increase in violence against women. Sakal taran ke adhikari' (Drum. untouchable. they are exposed to the vulture eyes of males of all ages and all classes. Young girls are decoyed on promises of a decent job or marriage. there is always the danger of facing a potential molester. If we want to get a feel of the rottenness of our social milieu. for all the anti-dowry measures in its armory. the government has not been able to contain the menace. And once a girl has fallen. From standing at the bus stop to the place of their work. A heavy responsibility falls on the shoulders of our social workers. In temples. Sex-hunger is another. One of the most hideous aspects of our society is the dowry system. in crowded public places and in the buses. With the advance of material prosperity and easy money. sex and violence have become the order of the day. 'Dhol. they all deserve to be beaten). Rapes and brutal murders have become common news. How often does one hear of ladies living in busy localities murdered. chain-snatchers is increasing. Readers have a vivid memory of gruesome suicide of three hapless sisters in Kanpur. harassments and chain-snatchings no longer alarm us. We persist in our wretched belief that women are weak. helpless creatures who need constant watching by their fathers.The votaries of the cult of violence draw their inspiration from a grossly twisted and misfounded interpretation of saint Tulsidas's lines. The journey from home to office is nothing short of travail. beast and woman. some of them before marriage because they cannot afford dowry and some after marriage because the dowry is insufficient to quench the rapacity of the in-laws. even in broad daylight. it exposes her to the risk of mal-treatment after marriage. In case she brings an inadequate dowry. But the biggest responsibility will be . Assaults. Ganwar Shudra Pashu Nari. All the social. brothers.

They have borne the tyranny of man far too long. and peer groups. They must organise themselves. There is also a sexual division of labor in India that results in female exploitation– physically. At the community level women's isolation and lack of social support. Factors Contributing to Increased Violence against Women In recent years the incidents of women violence have increased significantly . social networks. in which relationships are embedded.frequently the family or other intimate or acquaintance relationship. together with male peer groups that condone and legitimize men's violence. At the societal level studies around the world have found that violence against women is most common where gender roles are rigidly defined and enforced and where the concept of masculinity is linked to toughness. workplace.By combining individual-level risk factors with findings ofcross-cultural studies. researchers are using an “ecological framework” to understand the interplay of personal. including cultural norms.are so consistently the victims of abuse. situational. The time has come for a crusade. predict higher rates of violence. outermost circle is the economic and social environment. A wide range of studies agrees on several factors at each of these levels that increase the likelihood that a man will abuse his partner: At the individual level these include being abused as a child or witnessing marital violence in the home. Other cultural norms associated with abuse include tolerance of physical punishment of women and children. or dominance. crosscultural studies have cited male control of wealth and decision-making within the family and marital conflict as strong predictors of abuse. Causes and consequences A Framework for Understanding Partner Violence What causes violence against women? Increasingly.neighborhood. The innermost circle represents the biological and personal history that each individual brings to his or her behavior in relationships. The second circle represents the immediate context in which abuse takes place. the ecological model contributes to understanding why some societies and some individuals are more violent than others and why women. In India. male honor. and frequent use of alcohol. violence against women results from the interaction of factors at different levels of the social environment. At the level of the family and relationship. The model can best be visualized as four concentric circles. and sociocultural factors that combine to cause abuse.that of the women themselves. the problem of violence against women is a result of a long standing power imbalance between men and women. having an absent or rejecting father . Men have control over access to property and resources. and commercially .especially wives. and the perception that men have “ownership” of women. The fourth. The third circle represents the institutions and social structures. In this model. both formal and informal. mentally. acceptance of violence as a means to settle interpersonal disputes.

use of communal lands. and low nutritional and health status etc. the society’s basic reluctance to drastically change patriarchal policies and practices. are some of the factors responsible for holding low social and economic status. Besides. 127). from time immemorial the male members consider women as an object of enjoyment. brother. husband and lastly their sons. Socio-Economic Factors: The disruption in the traditional rural economic pattern brought about by changing socio-economic processes has adverse effects on women. which perpetuate male dominance over women (Islam.Male Dominated Society: As a male dominated society men in all sphere of their life dominate the women of Indian subcontinent. As a result. In her life cycle a women depends on father. Besides. Both economically and socially vulnerable in the society. and maintenance after divorce or widowhood Limited access to employment in formal and informal sectors Limited access to education and training for women . property rights. they are dominated and oppressed in every sector by the male members. unemployment have increased the stress and tension in male-female relation in poor households and given rise to desertion. divorce and violence. 2004. lack of employment opportunity. the male members think that they always direct women and all services should be centered to the interest of the male. Owing to such dependency. Economic factors Women‟s economic dependence on men Limited access to cash and credit Discriminatory laws regarding inheritance. low rate of education. Traditional socio-cultural practices.

Cultural Factors Gender-specific socialization Cultural definitions of appropriate sex roles Expectations of roles within relationships Belief in the inherent superiority of males Values that give men proprietary rights over women and girls Notion of the family as the private sphere and under male control Customs of marriage (bride price/dowry) Acceptability of violence as a means to resolve conflict Ineffective Legal System: Theoretically Bangladeshi state regards man and women as equal. film and TV shows. an important mechanism of male dominance is the propagation of gender ideology through sanctions of religious texts and their gender-selective interpretation by the community leaders. oppression and all other types of explicit violence from men in all societies where cultural norms.Cultural Ideological Factors: Irrespective of national affluence or level of development. satellite culture etc. women are vulnerable to exploitation. directly or indirectly encourage men to commit offences like rape. tradition and legal system sanction women’s subordination to men. Moreover. increasing exposure to violence through popular reading. In Bangladesh. theaters. However. the states concern to preserve the existing patriarchal social order is clear from the ways laws operate in respect to violence against women. The Bangladeshi legal .

state policies and laws. community practices. During accomplishing these formalities.system has done little to diminish women's vulnerability to violence. Even religious sanctions and traditional values safeguard the interest of the patriarchy through family norms. child custody. such a tendency towards acceptance of violence in the society is mainly responsible for increased violence against women. the rapist is more active to evict the victim and her family and eagerly wait to commit another violence. the muscleman and student cadres of various political parties have committed various acts of violence against women and escaped punishment. As a result. Social Attitude of Women: Women in general in South Asia think that husband has the . Another problem lies in the existing legal system is that the victim has to seek permission from the magistrate for medical test. the offenders do not get punishment. In the last two decades. So. the rape evidences are many a time destroyed. In such circumstances. Such Criminalization and corresponding deterioration of the law and order situation has not spared women. maintenance and inheritance Legal definitions of rape and domestic abuse Low levels of legal literacy among women Insensitive treatment of women and girls by police and judiciary Criminalization of Public Arena: Today the politics and administration in Bangladesh has been criminalized severely. Legal factors Lesser legal status of women either by written law and/or by practice Laws regarding divorce.

They live from hand to mouth. and political unrest tend to force young people to be involved in terrorism. In that case. Political factors Under-representation of women in power. Thus dislocated form moral courage they like to cheer up more by occurring rape violence as thrill and adventure (Islam. miscreants allure them of job and take the opportunity of their helplessness and commit rape. Owing to their poverty condition the rural people something tend to incest female members to workout side the home even in urban areas. Near about 40% of them are live bellows the poverty line. the media and in the legal and medical professions violence not taken seriously Notions of family being private and beyond control of the state Risk of challenge to status quo/religious laws Limited organization of women as a political force Limited participation of women in organized political system . 2004). unemployment etc. Such misconceptions indirectly recognize the right of the male offenders. Devaluation of Moral Character: Socio-economical conditions like poverty. Poverty Pervasiveness: Most people of the country are often victimized of due to object poverty. the rape incidents are not reducing rather it is on increase day by day. illegitimate sex and other antisocial activities. People in large number are live in rural areas.right to impose punishment or torture on wife. hijacking. As a result. drug addiction. politics.

other influential components are responsible for the rape occurrence in the country. expansion of political supremacy in the specific area and others. are directly or indirectly associated with criminal activities including women violence.Other Influential Factors: Besides these. illicit love affair. opposing second marriage. land dispute. • Norms granting men control over female behavior • Acceptance of violence as a way to resolve conflict • Notion of masculinity linked to dominance. low socio-economic status. or aggression • Rigid gender roles • Poverty. lack of education and awareness in case of women. gender disparity. denial of love and marriage. practice of power. unemployment • Associating with delinquent peers • Isolation of women and family • Marital conflict • Male control of wealth and decision-making in the family • Being male • Witnessing marital violence as a child • Absent or rejecting father • Being abused as a child • Alcohol use Oppression in India . honor.

The education of sons is also considered much more important. In many cases. In terms of family planning. without thinking about their consequences. work participation rate among low caste women is better compared to that of upper caste women. there exists gender discrimination which determines intrahousehold distribution of food. Women are also viewed in terms of their virginity. Population control and family planning is considered a way to control women‟s sexuality. Women from upper castes are seldom allowed to work outside the home. malnutrition among adolescent girls and women is quite prevalent in India. Discrimination within the household Within the household. young brides are burnt to death by her in-laws if the parents fail to meet the requisite dowry demanded. the sex ratio is lower than the national average. at the behest of multinational corporations and the corporate sector. Newly married women become subject to verbal and physical abuse. However. Women as property Dowry is demanded from the husband‟s side (in-laws) when younger women get married.Women in India are subject to all forms of violence. Female infanticide is quite common in Haryana and Punjab because there is a preference for sons because male children carry on the family lineage. Because women and girls are given less food than men. as chastity is considered as a great virtue. women have been used as the subjects of experiments. a woman has a much lower capacity to earn. Governments promote contraceptives to lower fertility among women. Lack of opportunity to work Due to lower educational levels. widow system etc @religious system @division of domestic and public work . @Biological structure of women @dowry system @ancient system existing in india early child marriage. Honor killings Honor killings are quite common in Haryana and Tamil Nadu when young girls marry somebody outside their caste and clan against her family‟s wishes. In these two states.

The total number of sexual harassment cases were 10. 1. The number of rape cases has increased by nearly ten fold from 2487 in 1953 to 20737 in 2007.950 in 2007. thus recording an increase of 12. 2. The judiciary and the legal system are biased in favor of men. But in reality. women are afraid of even lodging FIRs (First Information Report) in police stations despite being raped or sexually harassed.734 cases of molestation in 2007. The total number of cases pertaining to cruelty by husband and relatives was 75. 1.601 cases in 2003. According to the latest National Crime Records Bureau 2007.312 cases in 2007. 3. a total of 1. The domestic and public spheres of activity are associated with different amounts of property.5% during 2007. Men are freed from domestic responsibilities. There were 61 cases of importation of girls. Women's reproductive roles and their responsibilities for domestic labor limit their association with the resources that are highly valued.85. Their economic obligations in the public sphere assure them of control of highly valued resources and give rise to male privilege Data on violence against women In a country like India. Cases of violence against women are under-reported.765 during 2006. which they are unable to protest.54. 1. and prestige.64.64. These crimes have continuously increased during 2003-2007 with 1.553 in 2005.765 cases in 2006 and 1. Altogether there were 38. it is difficult to rely on statistics pertaining to rape cases.312 incidents of crime against women (both under Indian Penal Code-IPC and Special and Local Laws-SLL) were reported in the country during 2007 as compared to 1. The data may show that such crimes being committed may be going up or down.40. Young girls also become victims of child abuse at the hands of their closest male relatives.85. power.333 cases in 2004. 1.930.@Sex and Power Motives @social behavior @peer groups bad company The Division Between Domestic and Public Work The division between domestic and public spheres of activity is particularly constraining to women and advantageous to men. CONSEQUENCES Impact and Consequences of Women Violence .55.

As a result many of them choose to prostitution or suicide. asthma.There are multifarious impacts of women violence both on society and the victims. pregnancy infection. Social: Women violence has a great social impact. partial or permanent disability. Rape impacts on victim's health such as pelvic inflammatory disease. chronic pelvic pain. embarrassment. pregnancy complications. maternal mortality from excessive bleeding of infection. A study report of World Bank State that lrape and domestic violence 15-44 aged women are affected by tuberculosis. HIV infections and death etc. everybody treated her as a stigma and burden of society. heart disease and so on which increases the health services costs. If the victim is unmarried. shame. Children in particular are damaged when exposed to it. Different studies have explained consequences of rape in various ways. guilt. Political: The political environment of a country is influenced by the women violence. Akanda and Shamim (1985) have classified the consequences of rape into three categories: Murder. cancer. The incidence of rape reduces the women empowerment. anger and helplessness and so on. hinders income generating activities of women in the society. humiliation. It cuts across boundaries of wealth. Further more. Wherever you live. Nobody will be welcomed her to marriage. hamper5s the social security and creates obstacles to establish democracy and good governance . Actual or threatened violence creates an atmosphere of fear that limits . miscarriage. In this way women violence have many other impact like as: Psychological: In the back drop of psychological and emotional maladjustment the victim can be habituated in smoking. hypertension and heart disease. Economical: Women violence also hinders programs for alleviating poverty in addition to increasing the legal and health costs. It is prevalent in every society in the World. are vital These physical conditions tend to transform them as a dependent person both in the family and society. Sometime these situation push the victim to commit suicide. irritable bowel syndrome. or premature labor. women are suffering violence. in places of conflict or repression. unprotected sex with multiple patterns. race and culture. It affects the young and the old. The victim is considered as a neglected person of the society as a social stigma.A Universal Abuse: It is easy to think that human rights abuses happen to other people. unwanted pregnancy. prostitution and alcohol or drug abuse. it losses the labor time. As a result break down their family and lead an insecure life. Side Spread Harm: The repercussions of violence against women reverberate throughout the family and community. selfblame. They loss the dignity of society and encourage to another violence and social deviant activities. severe injuries and mental illness. delayed physical effects like arthritis. The truth is that violence against women is an abuse that is not confined to any political or economic system.

Women are also targeted because of their race. Data on the social. health. society is impoverished economically. The strength of these treaties rests on an international consensus. be they environmental. the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). politically and culturally. and education that affect the quality of daily life for most women and children. Human development goals undermined There is a growing recognition that countries cannot reach their full potential as long as women‟s potential to participate fully in their society is denied. or for good governance. affirm the principles of fundamental rights and freedoms of every human being. The two Conventions call for the right to protection from gender-based abuse and neglect. class. adopted in 1979. but also to investigate violations when they occur and to bring the perpetrators to justice. culture. True indicators of a country‟s commitment to gender equality lie in its actions to eliminate violence against women in all its forms and in all areas of life. these treaties oblige governments not only to protect women from crimes of violence. and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Discrimination: The underlying causes of violence against women lies in gender discrimination-the denial of women's equality with men in all areas of life. for poverty alleviation. When force and fear restrict women‟s lives. adopted in 1989. While physical injury represents only a part of the negative . and the assumption that all practices that harm women and girls. economic and health costs of violence leave no doubt that violence against women undermines progress towards human and economic development. countries are eroding the human capital of half their populations. sexual identity or HIV status. Women‟s participation has become key in all social development programmes. Health consequences violence against women leads to far-reaching physical and psychological consequences. some with fatal outcomes .the lives of women everywhere. Both CEDAW and the CRC are guided by a broad concept of human rights that stretches beyond civil and political rights to the core issues of economic survival. must be eradicated. or because they are from poor or marginalized communities Denial of fundamental rights Perhaps the most crucial consequence of violence against women and girls is the denial of fundamental human rights to women and girls. adopted in 1948. International human rights instruments such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). no matter how deeply they are embedded in culture. By hampering the full involvement and participation of women. Legally binding under international law for governments that have ratified them.

and low selfesteem. The impact of violence on women‟s mental health leads to severe and fatal consequences.health impacts on women. Battered women have a high incidence of stress and stress-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress syndrome. elevated blood pressure. Studies in many countries have shown high levels of violence during pregnancy resulting in risk to the health of both the mother and the unborn foetus. it is among the more visible forms of violence. panic attacks. there seems to be no escape from a violent relationship except suicide . Assaults result in injuries ranging from bruises and fractures to chronic disabilities such as partial or total loss of hearing or vision. The medical complications resulting from FGM can range from haemorrhage and sterility to severe psychological trauma. alcoholism. In the worst cases. fatally depressed and demeaned by their abuser. sleeping and eating disturbances. Girls who have been sexually abused in their childhood are more likely to engage in risky behavior such as early sexual intercourse. The United States Department of Justice has reported that 37 per cent of all women who sought medical care in hospital emergency rooms for violence-related injuries were injured by a current or former spouse or partner. For some women. and the dangerous complications that follow from resorting to illegal abortions. Sexual assaults and rape can lead to unwanted pregnancies. and are at greater risk of unwanted and early pregnancies Women in violent situations are less able to use contraception or negotiate safer sex. drug abuse. and therefore run a high risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. and burns may lead to disfigurement. depression.Health Consequences Violence Against Women NON-FATAL OUTCOMES Physical health outcomes: Injury (from lacerations to fractures and internal organs injury) Unwanted pregnancy Gynaecological problems STDs including HIV/AIDS Miscarriage Pelvic inflammatory disease . all of these examples of violence can result in the death of the woman – murdered by her current or ex-partner.

their eating and their . exhibit health and behaviour problems.Chronic pelvic pain Headaches Permanent disabilities Asthma Irritable bowel syndrome Self-injurious behaviours (smoking. unprotected sex) Mental health outcomes: Depression Fear Anxiety Low self-esteem Sexual dysfunction Eating problems Obsessive-compulsive disorder Post traumatic stress disorder FATAL OUTCOMES Suicide Homicide Maternal mortality HIV/AIDS Impact on children Children who have witnessed violence or have themselves been abused. including problems with their weight.

They may try to run away or even display suicidal tendencies What can be done When women protest against their exploitation.005 incidents in this regard. According to the NCRB (National Crime Records Bureau) 2008. is a case in point. They may have difficulty at school and find it hard to develop close and positive friendships.200 such cases.5 per cent of cases under Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act of total cases across the country. many try to silence them. 1 Promote gender equality and combat discrimination against women 2 Collection of data on violence against women and development of Indicators 3 Devising effective. the „sathin‟ from Rajasthan. nearly 10% were relatives. Another disturbing aspect was that about a quarter of the rape victims were minors. Andhra had registered 1.sleep. coordinated strategies 4 Combating the impunity of perpetrators of violence against women and access to justice for victims 5 promoting and supporting policies and campaigns to raise awareness of gender equality and to combat violence against women 6 promoting and supporting campaigns focusing on the systematic neglect of girls. In fact. The NCRB data clearly points to the profile of the average rapist – over 75% were known to the victims. Out of a total 1. The experience of Bhanwari Devi. respect for women seem to be the worst in Andhra Pradesh. She was gang-raped for working against child marriage practiced by the upper castes in her village. which accounted for 83. in particular as regards official birth registration and schooling. .

. educational establishments. legal assistance. 10 Redress. 8 Promotion of women's rights in international for a 9 Bilateral and multilateral cooperation: Action to combat violence against women and girls will be accorded priority within the framework of bilateral and multilateral cooperation in defending human rights. age and other relevant factors as well as information on the dissemination of those statistics to the key players concerned and the general public.7 Drafting of human rights reports In their reports. 11 Prevention of violence (a) promotion of and support for action to combat impunity with regard to violence against women and girls. places of detention and other public institutions. The reports will refer to: • institutional and other mechanisms responsible for collecting qualitative and quantitative data throughout the territory and in all types of environments (households. accommodation and the reintegration of victims of violence and their children. (b) support for access to appropriate care services provided free of charge in the fields of psychological support. etc. with particular reference to their right to physical integrity and nondiscrimination and compliance with the international commitments of States as regards violence against women. including in the legal and educational fields. the Heads of Mission must systematically include in their reports a section on compliance with human rights analysing respect for women's fundamental rights. broken down by gender. rehabilitation and access to care (a) support for programmes promoting and ensuring access to justice for the victims of violence. and in particular the existence of discriminatory laws and practices. in collaboration with civil society. workplaces. including victims of violence appearing in court. inter alia via public information campaigns for such services. • the legislative framework as identified in the preliminary approaches.). • statistics.

(b) the provision of assistance for the introduction of effective coordinated mechanisms for collecting data on violence against women and girls. This center is composed of officers belonging to . None is found to come forward to rescue them. They are to move from place to place with a hope to ease their sufferings but with of no avail. Keeping this particular point in mind the Ministry of Women Affairs and Children has introduced One Stop Crisis Center in Dhaka and Rajshahi Medical Colleges with a view to serving the oppressed women by providing health. healthcare and educational professionals. and in particular domestic violence. legal and police aid. (f) support for the establishment of central and decentralised administration services to improve women's status. (e) support for the training of police officers and judicial staff in matters relating to violence against women and girls and the 12 Strengthening capacities (a) the provision of assistance for national action plans implementing the CEDAW (Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women). pursuant to the United Nations Resolution on crime prevention and criminal justice responses to violence against women. judicial staff. (e) support for programmes to reinforce police powers to intervene in cases of violence. (c) support for women's organisations and female human rights defenders.(b) support for education in the fundamental rights and empowerment of women and girls. the media). and more generally for civil society organisations combating violence against women. (d) the provision of appropriate training to all professionals responsible for dealing with violence against women and the causes and consequences of such violence (police. Committee's recommendations. (c) support for campaigns. 13 One Stop Crisis Center: In many cases the oppressed women become helpless and homeless. including the internal dissemination thereof. inter alia in the field of awareness-raising and communication. via the introduction of standardised intervention protocols. focusing on gender equality and measures to combat violence against women and girls through the elimination of the gender stereotyping which contributes to violence against women and girls. (d) support for programmes aimed at improving the economic independence of women.

and for providing compensation”. The Committee made recommendations on measures states should take to provide effective protection of women against violence. sexual assault and sexual harassment in the workplace. investigate and punish international law violations and pay just compensation.health. Mass media‟s power should not be undermined by our policy makers. including public information and education programmes to change attitudes concerning the roles and status of men and women. in accordance with national legislation. 16 Due diligence In 1992. further to “exercise due diligence to prevent. have to be taken into account when dealing with the issue of violence against women by private actors. the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) adopted General Recommendation 19. including violence and abuse in the family. punish acts of violence against women. whether those acts are perpetrated by the State or by private persons”. rehabilitation action and support services for women who are experiencing violence or who are at risk of violence. The concept of due diligence has been taken forward by the judgement of the InterAmerican Court of Human Rights in the case of Velásquez Rodríguez. 15 International legal standards Three doctrines. civil remedies and compensatory provisions to protect women against all kinds of violence. (2) preventive measures. developed by human rights scholars and activists. investigate and. The government has a plan to extend the center in other divisions in near future. (3) protective measures. radio and newspapers can play a positive role in creating awareness about the pitfalls of violence against women. 14 Role of media Media that includes television. The Court required the . social work and police department. The United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women also calls on States to “pursue by all appropriate means and without delay a policy of eliminating violence against women” and. The first is that states have a responsibility to exercise due diligence to prevent. including refuges. including: (1) effective legal measures. including penal sanctions. counselling. in which it confirmed that violence against women constitutes a violation of human rights and emphasizes that “States may also be responsible for private acts if they fail to act with due diligence to prevent violations of rights or to investigate and punish acts of violence.

Therefore. It is therefore necessary to train law enforcers and medical and legal professionals who come in contact with those experiencing violence to understand gender violence.government to “take reasonable steps to prevent human rights violations and to use the means at its disposal to carry out a serious investigation of violations committed within this jurisdiction. Professionals in law and medicine are often resistant to this type of training and to learning from anyone outside their speciality. doctors and others working together to gain a holistic understanding of each particular case and the needs of the individual is the best option. Giving attention to the . judges and doctors adhere to traditional values that support the family as an institution and the dominance of the male party within it. An integrated.Legislation -Police action 19 Training and community support services Most police. governments lack the necessary expertise to develop and implement policy relating to violence against women. Thus. multidisciplinary approach with lawyers. to identify those responsible. social workers. a more cooperative relationship between governments and civil society should be built to combat violence against women. the existence of a legal system criminalizing and providing sanctions for domestic assault would not in itself be sufficient.Criminalization . It would therefore be more effective to involve other professionals in the training programme 20 Effective education system 21 ANTI-VIOLENCE MECHANISMS Example of a Monitoring Procedure: The Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women 22 Cooperation at all levels Overwhelmingly. magistrates. the government would have to perform its functions to “effectively ensure” that incidents of family violence are actually investigated and punished. to impose the appropriate punishment and to ensure the victim adequate compensation”. prosecutors. 17 Equal protection of the law 18 Responses to combat violence . to appreciate the trauma of those suffering and to take proper evidence for criminal proceedings. psychologists.

and to the effective implementation of and follow-up to those commitments and to (a) identify forms of violence against women and girls and analyse the relevant data and indicators concerning them. dependency. restricted options. (h) to encourage. should underpin every approach. and her consequent need for empowerment. (f) it will encourage ratification of the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women and its Optional Protocol. and the incorporation of such instruments into national law. The goal is to work with her to develop her capacity to decide her own future. (c) identify the absence and/or shortcomings of public policies defined in response to violence against women. inter alia on the basis of the interpretation given to those reservations by the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). 23 General approaches: To raise the issue of combating violence against women and girls and the types of discrimination from which such violence originates in its relations with third countries and regional organisations. including the existence of reservations.real-life context of the battered woman. by means of technical support if necessary. (d) identify the international and regional instruments for the protection of women's rights which have been ratified by the countries concerned. Punishment and Eradication of Violence Against Women. . submission of reports to the CEDAW Committee within the deadlines specified and the follow-up to the Committee's reports and recommendations. (g) to encourage the withdrawal of the reservations which have been entered in respect of the Convention. her hopelessness. the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa and the InterAmerican Convention on the Prevention. (b) identify the existence of laws and practices which are explicitly and de facto discriminatory. Such approaches will relate in particular to the degree to which the national legal framework complies with the international standards and commitments of the States in that area. (e) identify the recommendations made to those countries by international and regional mechanisms as regards women's rights and violence against women. and from which such violence originates. and in particular those which contradict the Convention's aims and objectives.

implementing and evaluating public policies in this area. (j) to encourage women's rights defenders and women's organisations to become involved in developing. (k) to encourage Member States to make specific commitments to combat violence and discrimination against women within the framework of the Universal Periodic Review (UPR).(i) to maintain a dialogue and regular consultations with women's rights defenders and women's organisations. new regional and international instruments. . (l) to encourage the development of appropriate.

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