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, 22-24 June 2011
APPLICATION OF CLOSE RANGE PHOTOGRAMMETRY FOR THE VIRTUAL RECONSTRUCTION OF SHRINE NUMBER 72, SEWU TEMPLE COMPLEX
Arnadi D. Murtiyoso1, Deni Suwardhi2, and Sugeng Riyanto3
Department of Geodesy and Geomatics, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, INDONESIA
3 1, 2
Yogyakarta Archeological Bureau, Yogyakarta, INDONESIA
e-mail: 1 firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract The Sewu Temple is an important monument from pre-Islamic Indonesian history which has withstood various hazards, both anthropological and natural. This temple comprises of a main temple and several hundred shrines forming a circle around it. One of these shrines is the object of interest in this research, as it is a perfect example of a fairly intact archaeological site. Close range photogrammetry was chosen as the preferred method of reconstruction, as a low cost alternative to the use of laser scanners. The method involves photographing the site from several angles and from several distances in order to digitally reconstruct the shrine in three different levels of details. This is done to represent the object in multi resolution three dimensional model, for use in further archaeological studies as well as documentation. The photographs were then processed using PhotomodelerScanner to create a wire-frame model from sparse point clouds for the overall architectural features of the shrine, and dense point clouds to represent the more delicate reliefs. The result is expected to better represent the inhomogeneous bas-relief features within an architectural model of the shrine.
Keywords: close range photogrammetry, archaeology, sewu temple
1. Introduction Reconstruction of objects by means of a three dimensional (3D) model has been used for the purpose of preservation and documentation of archeological sites. There are two techniques to fulfill this purpose. The first one is through the use of laser scanners. Laser scanners provide the users with a 3D model in a fairly short time; however they are expensive and thus require more investment. The other alternative and the subject of this research is the use of close range photogrammetry
(CRP). This technique is far cheaper compared to laser scanners, partly because it requires only an ordinary digital camera. The camera used doesn’t have to be metric; in this research an ordinary Single Lens Reflex (SLR) camera was used. Sewu Temple is a complex of Buddhist temples and shrines located in Central Java and estimated to have been built in the 8th century A.D. After a long period of abandonment, it was rediscovered in the early 19th century and drawn by H. C. Cornelius (Dumarçay, 1986). However,
photographical documentation without photogrammetric processing. Niches on the shrine’s façades and steps on the roof are modeled. Level of detail 3: the resulting model focuses more on the accurate modeling of reliefs. as its condition is relatively intact. such as theories regarding the best photo geometries. these gate shrines and the main temple are in a relatively intact condition. reliefs are not yet modeled. The resulting 3D model is a multi-resolution model encompassing three levels of details (LODs): 1. Reliefs are still represented by flat surfaces. The purpose of this research is to find an optimal method to create a 3D model by means of non-metric photographical instruments. Modeling of historical monuments is usually done by means of manual drawing. 2010). However the smaller shrines are almost entirely in ruins. 22-24 June 2011 the temple remains in a state of almost entirely in ruins. Level of detail 1: a general 3D model. this shrine still have reliefs on its façades which can be used as a good case study for 3D modeling with dense point clouds. Today. Kuala Lumpur. which is defined as a measurement method using cameras from a distance up to 300 m from an object. although some are still intact. To achieve this. It is Figure 1: A plan of the Sewu Temple complex and a photograph of shrine number 72 . This method can be used to measure 3D data with high accuracy can be used by both experienced photogrammetrists and lay persons. There are also two larger shrines in each of the four gates to the complex corresponding to the four cardinal directions. the LOD 3 model is created by the dense surface model feature in the PhotomodelerScanner software. and has since been preserved and reconstructed. In order to use non-metric digital cameras for this method. One of these intact shrines will be the object of study for this research. 2. The Sewu Temple complex comprises of a main temple and about 250 smaller shrines built in four concentric layers. The shrine’s roof is also only modeled generally and has not shown the shape of domes. It was chosen for practical reasons.Proceedings of the 11th South East Asian Survey Congress and 13th International Surveyor’s Congress. 3. However. The first method is ineffective if used on large and complex buildings. which means that carvings are also modeled. but photogrammetric theories must be carefully implemented. forming a Buddhist mandala. Level of detail 2: the resulting model is more detailed than the LOD 1 model. The method used in this research is close range photogrammetry. The object of study was shrine number 72 (Figure 1) located at the second layer of the mandala. the camera zoom must be set as wide as possible (Wotjas. and laser scanning. Also. niches on the shrine are not modeled yet. Data acquisition is very quick.
This method has been successfully applied in some cases such as the documentation of My Son Temple in Vietnam by Barazzetti et al. Behan & Moss (2006) concluded that TLS can only be used for projects with large funding. and improving spatial resolution. good radiometric resolution. However. This is due mainly to two factors. Close range photogrammetry is an alternative technique which can also be applied for that purpose. It also lacks some features to draw primitive graphs. the TLS provides an unrealistic solution. and the historical church of Derinkuyu Kilisesi by Yildiz et al. Figure 2 : Australis calibration plate Data acquisition was conducted on location for two days.Proceedings of the 11th South East Asian Survey Congress and 13th International Surveyor’s Congress. Harintaka. Photographs were taken between morning and afternoon. This is demonstrated by the resulting calibration parameters where Photomodeler tends to be more unstable for the same camera. Figure 3 : Coded target placement configuration on the object’s façade . Some extra CTs were also placed on the base of the shrine. Australis is preferred than Photomodeler as it is more scientific and provides a more robust calculation. (2010) in Turkey. 2. CTs were placed on the four façades of the shrine with a configuration of approximately 12 CTs for each façade. Australis lacks the image matching feature for dense surfaces generation of PhotomodelerScanner. 2008). On the other hand. The third method can be used but as mentioned before. and can be very difficult to store and manipulate. Therefore. (2009). Subaryono. For this phase. funding and the required knowledge. requires heavy investment in instruments (Harintaka. Monastery of Christ Pantepoptes by Duran & Toz (2002). 22-24 June 2011 also usually scale-less. Coded targets (CTs) were used to help with the process of bundle adjustment. The second method cannot be used to produce a 3D model. however Behan & Moss (2006) argues that for many individuals and organizations concerned with the preservation and research of cultural heritage. & Octapianus. Methods Camera calibration was conducted before data acquisition. & Octapianus (2008) mentions that some of the main advantages of using non-metric cameras in virtual reconstructions are the low cost instruments. The use of terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) can indeed hasten the process of modeling. Subaryono. This process was done by photographing the calibration grid made from an iron plate with retro reflective targets from the software Australis (Figure 2). Kuala Lumpur. the calibration parameters from Australis’s calculation was then used for further data processing in Photomodeler. Australis showed a better and more stable performance in the calculation of calibration parameters. The resulting photographs were then processed using Australis 7.
Kuala Lumpur. the average of the respective values were calculated to be used in further processing. two of the best data sets were taken to be used for further processing. During this phase.4159 mm 0. where general architectural features of the shrine were modeled. For this research. 16 photos (8 pairs) were processed in approximately 18 hours time. the position of each camera station and 3D coordinates of the control points was known (Figure 4). PhotomodelerScanner was used instead. niches on the façade are not seen and the roofs are modeled roughly.3E-08 3.00255 0. 22-24 June 2011 The instrument used was a Nikon D5000 DSLR camera with a fixed focal length of 24 mm. For LOD 3 though.9545E-06 Visualization of the resulting models can be seen in Figure 5. This add on to Photomodeler implements an image matching algorithm between photos to create point clouds. Some photos were also taken from a closer distance to help forming textures on the model.08E-09 -7E-06 -1. However one of the disadvantages is the long period of data processing. From these data sets. divided into three sets of convergent photographs. the model is relatively noiseless and the shapes conform with the object. also some high angle photos were taken with the help of a forklift. 3.Proceedings of the 11th South East Asian Survey Congress and 13th International Surveyor’s Congress.14E-06 2.0275 mm 0.016453 3. From these data.9086E-10 1. Visually. A total of over 300 photographs were taken in an approximate work time of 4 hours. 3D modeling up to LOD 2 was done by using the software Photomodeler. These points are then used as control points on the next phase. with results showing that they did not show any significant difference. The resulting calibration parameter values can be seen in Table 1. However. Photographs were taken around the object three times.56E-06 6.0416 mm 0. Product and analysis The calibration parameters were obtained from 10 data sets. This result is also seen in the resulting dense point cloud model of the northern façade relief as seen . The data taken was then processed by employing bundle adjustment with Photomodeler. it is a similar alternative to laser scanners (Barazzetti et al. In the resulting model. After bundle adjustment was successfully employed. Table 1: Calibration results from Australis 7 Figure 4 : Camera configuration and 3D coordinates of control points Modeling of the object begun with LOD 1. niches on the walls and steps on the roofs are present. Because of its ability to produce point clouds.000183 -4.031021 0. A statistical test was also used (using tstudent test) between the data sets. complex stupa or dome shaped roof is still absent.. Surface texture of the walls are also absent. to better represent the carvings and inhomogeneous surface of the relief. CT points were semi-automatically identified on each photos and referenced between photos.7E-06 Σ 0. Next in LOD 2. the f Xp Yp K1 K2 K3 P1 P2 Value 24.9E-07 1. The reliefs are also still in the form of flat surfaces. Data was taken by photographing the object in a convergent manner. 2009).
and thus some more photos should be taken from a higher angle. (b) LOD 2. On the other hand. This is mainly because to generate point clouds. the easier the software can implement image matching algorithm. Kuala Lumpur. photos with small angles or stereo pairs provide the best point cloud quality.219 pixels. for the purpose on point cloud generation. (c) LOD 3 Figure 6 : Dense point cloud of the relief from the northern façade . while the average angle between photos is 56. the software uses an image matching algorithm between pairs of photos. This problem may also be demonstrated on the upper parts of the stupa where a definite gap can be seen. The angle between photos are important to determine the quality of the model. Therefore it can be said that bundle adjustment can reach better quality with larger photo angles. However. This may be because more photo pairs are required to form point clouds from other angles. Thus. (a) (b) (c) Figure 5 : Visualization of the resulting 3D models in (a) LOD 1. and the residual RMS 0.476 pixels.3°. The gap exists even with photographs taken from the forklift. The largest residual from bundle adjustment is 0. many gaps can be seen on the point cloud model. 22-24 June 2011 in Figure 6.Proceedings of the 11th South East Asian Survey Congress and 13th International Surveyor’s Congress. the more similar the pair.
In conventional photogrammetry. The use of CTs is also very recommended to diminish the effect of human error in digitizing to improve the quality of the resulting model to the level of sub-pixel.005 m 0.606 m 1. the precision and accuracy towards the Y axis was influenced by the resultants from the other photographs. X Y Z RMS Precision 1.002 m 0. Kuala Lumpur. However in this case. precision towards Y axis is lowest. The relative accuracy was calculated from the ratio between RMS precision and the longest distance in the model. UAVs can help the generation of point clouds particularly those from higher angles which are often inaccessible by terrestrial photogrammetry.611 m 1.628 m 1. Thus it can be concluded that good quality can be achieved by merely using standard. Visually it also results in models which can represent the inhomogeneous carvings and textures of the relief. 22-24 June 2011 The resulting accuracy and precision of the model can be seen in Table 2. This may be due to the fact that in this research. some features can be generalized to form some architectural features missing from LOD 2. Table 3 : A comparison between field and 3D model measurements Distometer 1. resulting in lower Y precision and accuracy. precision towards the Z axis is always lower because the X and Y vector are far shorter than the Z vector.0055 m . and processing time which is far longer than that of laser scanners. these measurements can be compared with similar dimensions measured from the model (Table 3).430 mm 6. Further implementations should also consider using the help of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). However it should be noted that a good calibration is required to achieve the best quality. Both measurements differ in less than 1 cm. Both precision and relative accuracy of the X axis are higher than those of the Y and Z axis.193 meter. Disadvantages include the longer time for preparation.6315 m Photomodeler 1. simpler instruments.626 m Difference 0. this method is also suited for archaeological purposes albeit some disadvantages. Thus. with the largest difference being 5. the LOD 3 model will be improved by using the software RapidForm. Apart from its low cost requirement. and easy to learn processing. For further research.005 m 0. convergent geometry is used in place of conventional stereo geometry for data acquisition. Conclusion The results of this research shows that close range photogrammetry provides the user with relatively good archeological 3D model in terms of precision and accuracy.486 m 1.491 m 1.Proceedings of the 11th South East Asian Survey Congress and 13th International Surveyor’s Congress.63 m 1. Results also show that CRP is a good alternative to the use of laser scanners.209 mm 2. Table 2 : Precision and relative accuracy of the model 4. nonmetric cameras. Calibration is also a very important phase and must be conducted robustly before any data acquisition.5 mm and the average difference 3 mm. After scaling the model. in this case it is the distance between the highest point of the stupa and the base of the shrine which is 10. Also from the resulting point cloud model of LOD 3.338 mm Accuracy 1 in 7000 1 in 1500 1 in 4000 Some field measurements were also conducted during the field data acquisition using a distometer.
(November 2008). Neseli. s. Dumarçay. Newcastle upon Tyne. R.. Binda. 603-607). Scaioni. A. & Taranto. Photogrammetric Reconstruction of the My Son "G1" Temple in Vietnam. Harintaka. Newcastle upon Tyne. Jakarta: Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi Nasional. (2002). M. Remote Sensing.. L. L. M. Cucchi. & Moss. Photogrammetric Evaluation of Saint Theodoros Trion Church (Derinkuyu Kilisesi). M. 3rd ISPRS International Workshop 3D-ARCH 2009: "3D Virtual Reconstruction and Visualization of Complex Architectures".Proceedings of the 11th South East Asian Survey Congress and 13th International Surveyor’s Congress. Vol. (2010). O. Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. & Octapianus. Kuala Lumpur.. and Spatial Information Sciences. Z.. Wotjas. XXXVIII. Off-the-Shelf CloseRange Photogrammetric Software for Cultural Heritage Documentation at Stonehenge. & Mutluoglu.. Subaryono. Yakar. The Eurographics Association. UK: International Archives of Photogrammetry. UK: International Archives of Photogrammetry. Trento.XXXVIII. The 7th International Symposium on Virtual Reality. Vol. & Toz. Duran. (2010).. Media Teknik . G. H. 22-24 June 2011 References Barazzetti. Part 5 .. A. (1986). Photogrammetric Reconstruction and Virtual Presentation of Monastery of Christ Pantepoptes. 623-626). Candi Sewu dan Arsitektur Bangunan Agama Buda di Jawa Tengah... Archeology and Cultural Heritage VAST. Commission V Symposium (s. Civil Engineering Faculty. . P. Close-Range Photogrammetric Measurement and 3D Modelling for Irish Medieval Architectural Studies. J. Italy. (2009). 434441. Yildiz. M. F. Part 5 . O. Istanbul. (2006). Commission V Symposium (s. Pemodelan Virtual Bangunan Arkeologi Candi Kelir di Taman Wisata Candi Prambanan Menggunakan Kamera Amatir Digital. Behan. Turkey: ITU.
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