# EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS ON TURNING OF INCONEL 718

B.Satyanarayana
Department of Mechanical Engineering, VNR Vignana Jyothi Institute of Engineering & Technology, Hyderabad, India E-mail: sanbollu@gmail.com

G. Ranga Janardhana
Principal, College of Engineering, J N T U, Vizayanagaram, India E-mail: ranga.janardhana@gmail.com

D. Hanumantha Rao

ABSTRACT
Nickel-base super alloy, Inconel 718, is generally known to be one of the most difficult materials to machine because of its high hardness, high strength at high temperature. The aim of the present work is to study the influence of machinability factors such as cutting force, specific cutting pressure, and shear angle while machining Inconel 718 in terms of cutting parameters such as Cutting Speed, Feed rate, and Depth of Cut in turning operation. Taguchi experimental design method is used to set the parameters. Orthogonal array L9(3 power 3) of Taguchi, Signal to Noise ratio, the Analysis of Variance(ANOVA) are employed to find the optimal levels and to analyze the effect of the cutting parameters on machinability factors. Main effects of process parameters on the quality characteristics have been analyzed and the results show that the parameters setting for optimal machinability factors, obtained at a cutting speed of 43 m/min, feed rate 0.18 mm/min and depth of cut of 0.5. The cutting tool used is Sandvik make SNGN 120408 H13A. Confirmation tests with the optimal levels of cutting parameters are carried out. A multiple regression analysis was carried out to establish a mathematical model and the results are presented and analyzed in this paper.

Key words: Cutting Force, Specific Cutting Pressure, shear angle, Taguchi method. 1. CTION
Turning processes comprise a very big portion of metal cutting process in industry. The cutting parameters are selected mostly based on the experience or by hand book. But, this does not

INTRODU

guarantee that the selected parameters are optimal one. Nickel-base super alloy, Inconel 718, is generally known to be one of the most difficult materials to machine because of its high hardness, high strength at high temperature [1-3]. Inconel 718 is one of the mostly used materials among the commercial super alloys that are used in

hardness. low power consumption. machining of Inconel remained a difficult problem. The treatment of the experimental result is based on the analysis of average and analysis of Variance (ANOVA)[11-13]. The model was validated by carrying out a confirmation test. Cutting force was used as a response characteristic. The applications in which the concept of Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio is useful are the improvement of quality through variability reduction and the improvement of measurement. CBN tools etc. Taguchi approach to design of experiments is easy to adopt and apply for users with limited knowledge of statistics. Hence. Therefore the authors selected the uncoated cemented carbide tool. A lower cutting force gives long tool life. Using orthogonal arrays the number of experimental configurations is significantly reduced. presence of abrasive carbide particles. Therefore the objective this work is to optimize the cutting force when machining Inconel 718 in terms of cutting parameters such as Cutting Speed. nominal the best and larger the better. It provides simple.. work hardening. Taguchi method is a powerful tool for the design of high quality systems. However. The process parameters are optimized using Taguachi method. appears to give better overall performance than uncoated carbide tools while machining nickel-based alloys[5-8]. 2. Considerable research and development efforts are directed worldwide to ensure efficient and economic machining of Inconel 718 while machining at high cutting conditions. The setting of parameters was determined by using Taguchi experimental design method. and Depth of Cut in turning operation. The cutting force is chosen as the output parameter to understand thoroughly the machinability of Inconel 718 with uncoated cemented carbide tool insert Sandvik make SNGN 120408 H13A. but their cost limits the use in engineering applications. The Taguchi method utilizes orthogonal arrays from design of experiments theory to study a large number of variables with a small number of experiments. which makes it difficult to machine.. Feed rate. It provides the total energy expended in deforming the chip and in . lesser deflection. An effective approach is still not available. . hence gained wide popularity in the engineering and scientific community [4]. efficient and systematic approach to optimize designs for performance. affinity to react with tool material etc. quality and cost. The objective is to select the best combination of control parameters so that the product or process is most robust with respect to noise factors. dimensional accuracy and improved surface finish. coated carbide tools produced by PVD technique. The S/N ratio is divided into three categoriessmaller the better. The higher the S/N ratio the better the result [9-10]. “lower the better” S/N ratio characteristic was chosen for the cutting force. METHODOLOGY The present work attempts to understand and evaluate the machinability of Inconel 718 considering the practical difficulties. Inconel 718 is considered to have poor machinability due to peculiar characteristics such as lower thermal conductivity. especially when comparative tool life data is not available. Specific cutting pressure is computed from measured cutting force and is often used to compare the machinability of materials. A regression model was developed based on the response characteristic of cutting force. The use of different tool materials such as ceramic tools. The results and its percentage error are presented in table.space and airplane industry.

Thickness of the chips was measured for all the experiments. In this work. The tool signature of the same is presented in Table 1. Table 1: Tool signature of carbide insert used in experiments Inclination angle Orthogonal rake angle Orthogonal clearance angle Auxiliary cutting edge angle Principle cutting edge angle Included angle Nose radius . Chip thickness measurements were carried out with a precision ball end micrometer. ‘Lower the Better’ characteristic was chosen to obtain the correlation among the factors (cutting speed. Average chip thickness was obtained by taking the average of three readings at different locations of the same chips produced during machining. Once the shear angle is defined. It also represents the severity of the machining process. Based on the response characteristic.66 %. DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT Design of experiment is a powerful tool for analyzing the influence of the process variables over some specific variable. EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS 4.60 -60 60 150 750 900 0. A multiple regression analysis was carried out to establish a mathematical model based on the above characteristics. Taguchi-based method is used for analysis. Based on the response characteristic of chip thickness a regression mathematical model was developed to evaluate other machinability factor such as shear angle (Ф) to understand the nature of machinability of Inconel 718. Ti = 0. and depth of cut DoC. a regression model was developed and used to evaluate the other machinability index such as shear angle (Ф) to understand machinability of Inconel 718 using uncoated cemented carbide tool insert.9%.1 Tool and work piece . Cr = 17. Design based on Taguchi method design involves selection of response 4. The work material used was Inconel 718 ( Ni = 54. The major step in the Taguchi method is the selection of factors affecting the performance measures.48 %.overcoming friction between the tool and chip. feed and depth of cut with respect to cutting force.(d). feed and depth of cut) and the measured the cutting force. Al = 0.8mm 3. feed(f). Cutting force was measured online during turning of inconel 718 with three-component cantilever type strain gauge dynamometer.96% balance are Fe and other).5%. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is used to study the effect of process parameters and establish correlation among the cutting speed. It dominates the cutting forces. Shear angle is also taken as a machinability evaluation factor. Based on the preliminary experiments the selected factors and their levels are presented in Table 2. which is an unknown function of these process variables. all other process parameters could be predicted. 4. Nb = 4.2 Experimental setup and cutting conditions Machining tests were carried out on a Kirlosker Turnmaster 35 lathe under dry cutting conditions by varying cutting parameters such as cutting speed (Vc). respectively. The performance measure selected for the experimentation was cutting force. experiments have been carried out on machinability of Inconel 718 using uncoated cemented carbide tool and the ISO designation of the insert is SNMG 120408 H 13A.

18 0.686 -59.5 797 2 17 0.75 1297 5 27 0.75 1243 The results are analyzed manually by choosing the ‘lower the better‘ S/N ratio characteristic for cutting force.25 0.variables.18 0. f (mm/rev) Depth of Cut.18 0. Table 6 show the optimum set of control factors and indicate that at high cutting speed. and at low feed and depth of cut the cutting force is optimum.5 840 9 42 0.2 0. Standard L9 orthogonal array was selected.25 0.37 -62. Levels 2 3 27 0.5 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND ANALYSIS 5.75 42 0. independent variables.18 1 793 8 42 0. Table 4 and 5 show the result the S/N ratio and ANOVA analysis and indicate that the Table 5: Results of Analysis Variance for Cutting Force (F) 5.2 0.31 3.69 -61.25 1 depth of cut is the most influencing factor on the cutting force.07 2.2 0.2 Selection of optimum set of conditions To find the optimum set of conditions. their interactions and an orthogonal array. Table 4: Response Table for S/N ratio smaller is better (Cutting Force F) Cutting Feed Speed (mm/rev) (m/min) -61.75 1247 3 17 0.1 Cutting Force Analysis A lower cutting force gives long tool life. Screening experiments were conducted so as to identify the suitable parameters and their levels.5 903 7 42 0. Table 2: The machining parameters and their levels Parameters Cutting Speed Vc (m/min) Feed. Table 6: optimum set of conditions Cutting Force (F) .25 1 1850 4 27 0. hence selected the factor levels which have maximum S/N ratio values.28 3 -59.48 -61. The parameters and the corresponding levels chosen for the investigations are shown in Table 2. low power consumption.73 2 Level 1 2 3 Delta Rank DoC (mm) -58.34 -61.99 -62. Table 3 shows standard L9 orthogonal array with experimental results when machining Inconel 718.83 1 of 1 17 0. lesser deflection.2 1 1540 6 27 0. the individual level average of S/N ratios is calculated. d(mm) 5.41 2. Feed Speed of Cut Force No (mm/rev) (m/min) (mm) (F) 1 17 0. dimensional accuracy and improved surface finish. The objective is to maximize the S/N ratio. Table 3: Experimental layout using standard L9 orthogonal array with experimental results Cutting Depth Cutting Expt.

Control factor Optimum value Cutting Speed Vc (m/min) 42 Feed f (mm/rev) 0.36 A B 5. 5. 1 Influence of depth of cut on cutting force .5 Effect of Depth of Cut and Feed on Cutting Force Fig 1 and 2 shows the variation of cutting force with various depths of cut and feed rate at constant cutting speed.5 cutting speed (Vc) + 4744.376 Confirmation -57. d(mm) 0. Table 9 shows the percentage error between experimental values and modeled values. Table 7: Comparison of S/N ratios S/N Ratio Value Predicted -55.4 Regression mathematical model for Cutting Force The regression equation obtained for cutting force is as follows: Cutting Force (F) = -258.4 3.79] The machining parameters used in turning of Inconel 718 for confirmation tests are presented in Table 8.S/N ratios are presented in Table 7 . Therefore increase in cutting force is due to increase in contact area and increase in shear strength in the flow zone.75 Table9: Comparison of experimental value and modeled value of cutting force Tests Cutting Force(F) Experimental value 950 1226 Model value 880 1181 % Error 7. As the feed and depth of cut increases the cutting force is increasing at a constant cutting speed. the predicted and confirmation tests .5 Fig.9-13. Table 8: Cutting conditions used for confirmation test Cutting Depth Speed Feed.6 DoC (d) [R2=74. It is due to the fact that higher coefficient of friction between the tool and work material because the contact area is more and chips are become thicker.5 B 35 0. f Test No of Cut.23 0.2 feed (f) + 1095.3 Verification Experiment Confirmation test was conducted with the above optimum set of conditions.19 0. The difference in value of S/N ratios was with in 2 which is reasonable degree of approximation.7 5. The percentage error associated with each experiment is observed to be lower and is well within the limit with a reasonable degree of approximation.18 Depth of Cut. Vc (mm/rev) d(mm) (m/min) A 23 0.

It is high for low feed rate and depth of cut. the specific cutting pressure/cutting force.25 0.24 0.shows variation of specific cutting pressure with depth of cut and feed. 5.26 Feed (mm/rev) Fig 4.8 0. Effect of depth of cut on Sp. The quality of the machined surface is significantly influenced by the status of the cutting wedge.V=42 m in m /m 7 400 7 200 7 000 Fig. Effect of feed on Sp.23 0. which are indirect indicators of the status of the cutting wedge.7 0.1 Depth of Cut (m ) m Fig 3. The specific cutting pressure is largely dependent on area of the chip section (d X f).8 Regression mathematical model thickness (b0) for chip . 2 influence of feed rate on cutting force 6800 6600 6400 6200 5.7 Effect of Depth of Cut and Feed on Specific Cutting Pressure Cutting speed.6 0.19 0.2 0. the specific cutting pressure (SCP) was estimated from the measured cutting force value using the following equation: SCP= Fc/A = Fc/(f X d) N/mm2 Where Fc is the cutting force. Fig 3 and 4 6000 5 800 5 600 0.17 0. Cutting pressure 5.6 Specific Cutting Pressure Specific cutting pressure can also be used as one of the performance indicator of a tool and is usually influenced by the cutting speed and material. feed and depth of cut were the main factors influencing the variation of specific cutting pressure at constant cutting speed.4 0.18 0. which is the product of the feed rate (f) and depth of cut (d). For all the conditions tested. As the feed and depth of cut increases the specific cutting pressure decreases because specific cutting pressure is inversely proportional to the feed and depth of cut.21 0. f=0. v=42m/min Specific Cutting Pressure (N/mm2) 6400 6200 6000 5800 5600 0. Hence. It is dependent on the tool work material pair. and A is the undeformed chip cross sectional area.25 m /rev.5 0.9 1 1 . Cutting pressure. can be used as a process indicator. any change in the specific cutting pressure can be attributed to the loss of form stability of the cutting wedge.22 0. d=1mm .

22 0.10 Effect 0. Relationship between Feed Vs Shear angle f=0.23 0. and it is calculated using following relationship: Tan Φ = rc cos γ / (1 .2 8 7. feed and depth of cut) and the measured chip thickness is obtained using multiple linear regression analysis.8 7. there is an increase in shear angle.4 0. bc=uncut chip thickness. of Depth of Cut and Feed on shear angle (Ф) From fig 7 it is observed that as the feed increases.18 0.2 7 0.8 10. Relationship between depth of cut Vs Shear Angle. and bo=cut chip thickness. with increase in chip compression ratio. V=42 m in m /m 9.0043 cutting speed (Vc) + 2.4 8 7.4 10 9.6 9.9 1 1. It is due to the already established fact that at constant cutting geometry.2 10.8 8. Shear Angle(deg) .2 9 8. γ =rake angle.17 0. Once the shear angle is defined.6 0.2 m /rev.6 0. all the other process parameters could be predicted. V=42 m in m /m 13. The regression equation obtained for chip thickness (b0) is presented below: b0 = -0.2 12. therefore with increase in depth of cut the shear angle decreases as shown in fig 8. the shear angle is inversely proportional to chip compression ratio CONCLUSIONS In this experimental study. Shear angle (Ф) dominates the cutting forces [14.5 0. 15]. Therefore.19 Angle (Ф) Shear Angle(deg) The basic mechanism of chip formation involves localized shear deformation of the work material ahead of the tool cutting edge. d=1m .8] 5. The correlation between the factors (cutting speed.6 8.2 8. the selections of optimal parameters are important to produce quality components and to minimize the higher unit cost.4 8.8 8.rc sin γ) Where cutting ratio (rc) =bc/bo.7 0.4 12 11. Chip thickness measurements were carried out with a ball end screw micrometer.6 11.2 0.23 feed (f) + 1.9 Shear (b0/bc) and it decreases with increase in feed.21 0.133 Depth of Cut (d) [R2 = 84.Chips were collected during each of the experiments.4 7. The work material is further subjected to extensive plastic deformation in the secondary shear zone adjacent to the chip–tool interface and in the tertiary shear zone over the tool flank.6 7.24 0.25 0. the work material chosen was Superalloy Inconel 718 which is a costly material and has got poor machinability.3771+0.26 Feed (mm) Fig 7. shear angle decreases.8 12. 5. Shearing takes place over very narrow regions of the primary shear zone inclined at the socalled shear angle (Ф). As the shear angle is inversely proportional to the chip compression ratio.1 D epth of cut (mm) Fig 8.8 0.

86:1-16. McGraw-Hill. 4) D. the shear angle increases with an increase in feed. Montgometry. University international MDP conference. He N. CRC. EI-Baradie MA. The machinability of nickel-based alloys: a review. wang Zg.  The optimum set of control factors indicates that at high cutting speed. New Yor+k. 11) Davim JP (2001) J Mater Process Technol 116:305 12) Yang WH. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 33:911–914 15) Astakhov VP (1998) Metal cutting mechanics. 5) Choudary IA.p23340. With increase in depth of cut the shear angle decreases and it resulted in higher cutting force. 4th edition. Mata Francisco (2007) A comparative evaluation of the turning of reinforced and unreinforced polyamide.1968.(1998) J mater Process Technol 77:278. there was a gradual decrease of the same with increasing feed and depth of cut. Aang(2002) J Mater Process Technol 129:127 8) Rehman M Seah WKH. Egypt. 1997. Wanga ZM. 6) Ezugwa EO. In: Proceedings of the sixth cario . EI-Baradie MA. and at low feed and depth of cut the cutting force is optimum from the selected cutting parameter values. In: Sixth Plan see seminar Book. Bonney J. Machinability assessment of nickel based alloys: tool life in turning inconel 718. Yamane Y (2003) J mater Process Technol 134:233. depth of cut and tool work material used. New York: Wiley. •ANOVA analysis for ‘Lower the Better’ characteristics indicated that the depth of cut has major influence on the cutting force. Teo TT(1997) J Mater Process Technol 63:199 9) Phadke MS (1989) Quality engineering using robust design Prentice-Hall.1996. The results indicated that the Taguchi parameter design was an efficient way of determining the optimal cutting parameters for cutting force. 2) Choudary IA. Machadop AR. Tarng YS (1998) J Mater Process Technol 84:122 13) Nalbant M Gokkaya H. Cario.NJ 10) Ross PJ (1988) Taguchi techniques for quality engineering. In turning of Inconel 718 with uncoated carbide insert. 3) Sims CT. The mathematical model developed is also effective in this regard. 7) Li I.C. Englewood Cliffs. Boca Raton References 1) Ezugwa EO. Design and analysis of experiments. J Mater Process Technol 1999. Sur G(2007) Mater Des 28:1379 14) Paulo Davim J.  The shear angle is inversely proportional to the chip compression ratio.Keeping in mind the applications of this material the following conclusions are drawn based on the experimental study:  In this study the optimal cutting condition was selected by varying cutting parameters through the Taguchi parameter design method.  The specific cutting pressure is usually influenced by the feed.