CONTENTS ABSTRACT.................................................................................................................................p 3 INTRODUCTION..............................................................................................

......................p 4-5 1. DEIXIS.....................................................................................................................................p 6 11. What is deixis? ................................................................................................................p 6-13 1.2. Types of deixis...................................................................................................................p 13 1.2.1. Person deixis..............................................................................................................p 13-15 1.2.2. Temporal deixis......................................................................................................p 15-17 1.2.3. Spatial deixis...........................................................................................................p 17-20 1.2.4. Social deixis............................................................................................................p 20-21 1.2.5. Discourse deixis......................................................................................................p 22-23 1.3. Conclusions.................................................................................................................p 23-24 2. POLITICAL DISCOURSE..................................................................................................p 25 2.1 What is political discourse? .........................................................................................p 25-31 2.2. The notion of Political Discourse and Debates...........................................................p 31-32 2.3. The uses of the second-person singular pronoun in Political Discourse.....................p 33-35 2.4 Conclusion....................................................................................................................p 35-36 3. DEIXIS AND POLITICAL DISCOURSE - ANALYSIS..................................................p 37 3.1. Methodology.....................................................................................................................p 38 3.2. Analysis of Political discourse..........................................................................................p 38 3.2.1. Person deixis............................................................................................................p 39-45 3.2.2 Temporal deixis........................................................................................................p 45-48 3.2.3 Spatial deixis.............................................................................................................p 48-50 3.2.4 Social deixis..............................................................................................................p 50-52 3.2.5 Discourse deixis........................................................................................................p 52-53 3.2.6 Conclusion.....................................................................................................................p 53

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4. CONCLUSIONS..............................................................................................................p 54-55 BIBLIOGRAPHY.................................................................................................................p 56-57 Appendix...............................................................................................................................p 58-61

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Abstract
Based on the research on deixis by numerous researchers, my B.A. project focuses on a pragmatic analysis of deixis in political discourse. The data was collected from the internet (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QnkUF6VWOlI),(http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/election 2010/7655577/BBC-leaders-debate-Gordon-Brown-admits-David-Cameron-is-set-to-takepower.html. There are two videos representing a political debate. The aim of my B.A. project is to discuss, identify and analyze deixis in political debates according to Levinson, Fillmore, Pierce and others. The results are based on my own interpretations but are supported by information provided in literature by researchers of deixis.

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In subchapter. i. Deixis refers to the phenomenon wherein understanding the meaning of certain words and phrases in an utterance requires contextual information. temporal and spatial. I will describe the next type of deixis. deixis and indexicality according to Suchman and Charles Pierce. In the first subchapter I will describe the term deixis according to Levinson and Huddleston (1995. 1.4 and 1.1 I will pay attention to the five types of deixis: person. i.2.e. social and discourse deixis.1. I am going to present the five types of deixis. temporal deixis which concerns the various times involved in an utterance. Social deixis concerns the social information that is encoded within 4 . temporal. 1995:10) In my B. 2006). I will start by dealing with some definitions written by some researchers. Words or phrases that require contextual information to convey any meaning are deictic“. (1990. I will present some characteristics of person deixis according to Fillmore (1982).2. The next subchapter 1.2.3. spatial.2. which concerns persons involved in an utterance.e. semantics and linguitstics.A. In subchapter 1.5. 1983). (Levinson. And then. spatial deixis has been studied by Levinson (1982) and is the spatial locations relevant to an utterance.2. I will speak about social and discourse deixis.1932) In subchapter 1. person. Later. In the next two subchapters 1.INTRODUCTION ”Deixis is an important field studied in pragmatics. project I will try to highlight the meaning ‘deixis’.2. types of deixis that are similarly pervasive in language use and that were first discussed by Fillmore and Levinson (1982. I will give some characteristics and some examples of deixis. Possibly the most common categories of contextual information referred to by deixis are the first three.

2. In chapter 2. I am going to present political discourse according to some researchers. Arroyo (1960. Before the analysis I will describe the notion of deixis. 2000) and others. In chapter 3.K. Wilson. 2. I am going to analyze a few small fragments. I will write about another researcher. My intention in this analysis is to point out that deixis can be useful in a political debate. where reference is being made to the current discourse or part thereof. I will talk about the uses of the second-person singular pronoun in political discourse. Paul Anthony Chilton (2004). And discourse deixis. This notion was studied by Brown.various expressions. van Dijk (1995). who is interested in analyzing deixis and indexicality in political discourse. such as relative social status and familiarity. which were covered during the entire campaign of a political debate for The Prime Minister position in U. 5 . who analyzed deixis in a political debate. One of them is Teun A. political discourse and debates for a better understanding of them. In the same subchapter. In the last subchapter. 1990.

1. DEIXIS In this chapter. Stephen Levinson (1995:12) defines deixis as follows: “Deixis concerns the ways in which languages encode .com/deixis) is the function of pointing or specifying from the perspective of a participant in an act of speech or writing. I will focus on the notion “deixis”.thefreedictionary. I will present some characteristics and some examples of deixis and later I am going to present the types of deixis.. WHAT IS DEIXIS? Deixis (http://www.. constituting “key points of juncture between grammar and context” (Hanks 1992:47). and describe them. such as • • • • who is speaking the time or place of speaking the gestures of the speaker. 1. aspects of a communication whose interpretation depends on knowledge of the context in which the communication occurs..1. 6 . features of the context of utterance . or the current location in the discourse.” Deixis is reference by means of an expression whose interpretation is relative to the (usually) extralinguistic context of the utterance. Deixis is “the single most obvious way in which the relationship between language and context is reflected” (Levinson 1983:54). and thus also concerns ways in which the interpretation of utterance es depends on the analysis of that context of utterance.. I will define deixis according to Levinson (1995) and other researchers.

and a variety of other grammatical features. • Demonstrative adjectives (this/that). • (Spatial/temporal) adverbs (here/there/now). Here are some deictic expressions according to Levinson (1995:34) that include such lexemes as: • Personal or possessive pronouns (I/you/mine/yours). Deictic information is important for the interpretation of utterance. Very typical and important examples are the use of demonstratives (this. then perhaps most deictic phenomena are probably considered semantic in Levinson’s point of view (1995:34). then and this vs. deixis is collectively the orientational features of human languages to have reference to 7 . deixis is the process of 'pointing' via language. tense specific time and place adverbs (now. because it directly concerns the relationship between the structure of languages and the contexts in which they are used. that. but deixis belongs to the domain of pragmatics. but I will write more about this in the next subchapters. • Other pro-forms (so/do). It concerns ways in which the interpretation of utterance depends on the analysis of that context of utterance. you). • Demonstrative pronouns (this/that). • Articles (the). • Personal or possessive adjectives (my/your). In this domain according to Levinson (1995:34). (http://en.org/wiki/Deixis) Deixis concerns the ways in which languages express features of the context of utterance or speech event in a different way. first and second person pronouns (I. Levinson writes about proximal and distal expressions (1995:34) like: now vs.wikipedia. If semantics is taken to include all conventional aspects of meaning. In deixis.Another definition that I found on the internet. Natural languages are primarily designed for use in face-to-face interactions. that). As I said above deixis belongs in the domain of pragmatics. from the Greek word for ‘pointing’ or ‘indicating’. here).

deictic markers or deictic words. and both deal with essentially the same idea: contextually dependent references. each is associated with a different field of study. The terms deixis and indexicality are frequently used almost interchangeably. noun phrases that refer to a class of objects. the term indexicality typically is used to distinguish those classes of expressions. while indexicality is associated with philosophy. either a linguistic or extralinguistic context for their interpretation. as Suchman points out (1990:21).for example. the 8 . for example. A word that depends on deictic clues is called a deictic or a deictic word. space. interpretation of indexical expressions may in part depend on a variety of paralinguistic and non-linguistic features. deixis was associated specifically with spatiotemporal reference whereas indexicality was used more broadly. 1995:36). or context-free terms. But in an important sense. and the speaking event between interlocutors. And also Levinson (1995:35) said that. However. Among philosophers and linguists. here and now. deixis is associated with linguistics. Words are deictic if their semantic meaning is fixed but their denotational meaning varies depending on time and/or place. More importantly. English pronouns are deictic. they are also sometimes called indexicals. in linguistics. whose meaning is claimed to be specifiable in objective. It is often and best described as “verbal pointing”. namely a communicative one. whose meaning is conditional on the situation of their use. Words or phrases that require contextual information to convey any meaning . I and you. like this and that. that is to say pointing by means of language. The linguistic forms of this pointing are called deictic expressions. deixis refers to the phenomenon wherein understanding the meaning of certain words and phrases in an utterance requires contextual information. In conversation (Levinson. In the past. Deixis is closely related to both indexicality and anaphora. as will be further explained below. But it has some relevance to analysis of conversation and pragmatics. Levinson (1995:36) points out that “deixis is an important field of language study in its own right and very important for learners of second languages”. the two terms have different histories and traditions.points in time. from those such as. Deictic words are bound to a context. such as hand gestures and the shared experiences of the participants.

Many but not all indexicals are also egocentric. in that it refers to the singular first person. referred to as indexical and referential. is a sign which contains both referential and indexical meaning.” (Pierce 1932:22) is a referential indexical. demonstratives. and place of utterance. in ordinary usage. In this sense. A referential indexical. Pierce (1932:21) also points out that it is possible for signs to have two kinds of meaning. as in “I went to the store. So for example. that). which means that in order to successfully interpret them the hearer must have knowledge of the respective speaker. is when a word functions to describe events or states of affairs in the world independent of the context of the utterance. the word I. and indexical content. 1990:21) Another researcher who studied indexicals is Charles Peirce. (Suchman. L. and tense markings. in that both vary in meaning depending on context. Referential meaning. by pointing gestures or other non-verbal expressions of their sense. and time. place. Indexical meaning is meaning that is context-dependent. It has referential content.significance of a linguistic expression is always contingent on the circumstances of its use. when they say it. also called a ‘shifter’.” (Pierce 1932:22) because the meaning that it conveys is independent of who says it. 9 . An example of this could be “Unicorns drink ambrosia. deictic expressions. Demonstratives may be thought of as forming a subset of indexicals: they are often accompanied. etc. in that its meaning depends on who uttered the word. Some frequently-used English examples are pronouns. For example. In his paper (1932:21) he mentioned that indexicals are closely related to demonstratives (this. time. he considers the traditional deictic categories of person. and pronouns are just particularly clear illustrations of a general fact about situated language. also called ‘semantico-referential function’. place and time adverbs.

just like its gestural indication. it creates boundaries to the structure of the event. for instance. there is an increased interest in not only what is called first-order indexicality. they index (via first-order indexicality) their understanding of the need for deference to the addressee.Charles Peirce also speaks (1932:23) about indexical sign types that are defined by rules of use that state and that there exists a relationship between mutually implied existence of sign vehicle token (i. “some aspect of the context is spelled out in the rules of use. For example. Indexes.” According to Charles Pierce (1932:24). For example in the case of English indexical pronouns. but subsequent second-order as well as “higher-order” levels of indexical meaning. In other words. economic situation. In other words. The power of language to encode these preconceived ‘stereotypes’ based solely on accent is an example of second-order indexicality (representative of a more complex and subtle system of indexical form than that of first-order indexicality). fixed and presupposed.e. instances of deference indexicality such as the variation between informal ‘Tu’ and the more formal ‘Vous’ in French indicate a speaker/addressee communicative relationship built upon the values of ‘power’ and ‘solidarity’ possessed by the interlocutors”. (1932:24) When a speaker addresses somebody using the V form instead of the T form. both referential and non-referential. Second-Order Indexicality. But indexical expressions are not necessarily put to deictic use. First-order indexicality can be defined as “the first level of pragmatic meaning that is drawn from an utterance. Prandi (2004:40) suggests that the success of a deictic act of reference to a given book by means of an indexical expression like “This book”. In the use of pure indexical tokens the sign can also have a creative or performative aspect in that rather than change the context. also analyzed by Pierce (1932:26). He gives the following example (1932:26). they perceive an incongruence between their level of ‘power’ and/or ‘solidarity’. requires the presence of the book within the visual field shared by the interlocutors. icon. “a woman is walking down the street in Manhattan and she stops to ask somebody where a McDonalds is. The indexical sign token presupposes the aspect of the speech situation and is referentially uninterpretable without some knowledge of context. and some containing clear aspects of both. He also says that definite noun phrases and third person pronouns allow for anaphoric and 10 . She notices this accent and considers a set of possible personal characteristics that might be indexed by it” (such as the man’s intelligence. index or symbol) and certain aspects of the context of discourse. some more creative. I and we (as opposed to he/she/it/they) create parameters that specify the parties to whom one is referring. is concerned with the connection between linguistic variables and the metapragmatic meanings that they encode. and must be understood for the referential contribution to be made. and other non-linguistic aspects of his life). therefore exist on a sliding scale. He responds to her talking in a heavy ‘Brooklyn’ accent. some more presupposing. and that of their interlocutor and employ a more formal way of addressing that person to suit the contextual constraints of the speech event. in much of the research currently conducted upon various phenomena of non-referential indexicality.

whereas “I love this city. for example.” requires being able to see which finger is being held up. the term deixis applies to the use of expressions in which the meaning can be traced directly to features of the act of utterance. tone of voice. when and where it takes place. In a similar vein.” requires only knowledge of the current location. “this country” is likely to be interpreted deictically as the country in which the utterance takes place. Symbolic usage. gestural and symbolic.” (Prandi. it is used as an indefinite article. A simple example is when an object is pointed at and referred to as “this” or “that”. Gestural deixis refers. broadly. According to Huddleston (2006:20). such as direction of gaze. 11 . The expression does not typically refer to an individual physically given in the perceptual field. In their primary meaning. M. as well as non-deictic usages of frequently deictic words. Several of the pronouns are predominantly used deictically. and who is involved as speaker and as addressee.cataphoric use. requires generally only basic spatiotemporal knowledge of the utterance. you to the addressee(s) or a set including the addressee(s). During anaphoric indication. in the examples below given by Levinson (1995:32): “I broke this finger. much the way “a” could be used in its place. now and here are used deictically to refer respectively to the time and place of the utterance. However. I find it (this paper) interesting. the expression remains the same. “I went to this city one time…” is a non-deictic usage of “this”. but necessarily refers to an entity previously or subsequently named within the same discourse or text: “I'm reading a paper on cataphora. Rather. the category can include other types of information than pointing. which does not reference anything specific. and so on. but the field undergoes a change. 2004:40) Levinson (1995:32) thinks that it is helpful to distinguish between two usages of deixis. to deictic expressions whose understanding requires some sort of audio-visual information. So. by contrast. Similarly. with I and we referring to the speaker and a group including the speaker.

Proximal deictic expressions include this. Another meaning of the word deictic is directly showing or pointing out. It could mean relating to or the distinctiveness of a word. ‘that’. But I will write more about them in the next subchapters. 1. The first three are more common than the last two. Proximal expressions are generally interpreted in relation to the speaker's location or deictic centre. according to Huddleston (2006:21) the most basic distinction being between near the speaker (proximal) and away from the speaker (distal).2. which comes from the word deiktos. as well as ‘this’ have a deictic function. temporal. meaning to show. The term deictic is applied to a word which specifies an identity or a temporal or a spatial location from the perception of a speaker or a listener in the circumstance in which the communication takes place. social and discourse. meaning ‘able to show’. The word deictic has its roots in the Greek word ‘deiktikos’. what Fillmore (1966) calls the “major grammaticalized types” of deixis. For instance. Distal deictic expressions include that.2 TYPES OF DEIXIS Possibly the most common categories of contextual information referred to by deixis are those of person.1 Person deixis 12 . which is a verbal of the word deiknynai. For example now is taken to mean some point or period in time that matches the time of the speaker's utterance. Levinson (1995:39) points out that there are five types of deixis: spatial. A related word is deixis. the reference of which is dependent on the conditions of its use. there and then. the terms ‘those’. and place. used in pragmatics and linguistics where it refers to a process whereby either words or expressions are seen to rely utterly on context. time.Deixis is clearly tied to the speaker's context. person. here and now. 1. I will deal with types of deixis in the following subchapters.

the word deictic implies the latter but not necessarily the former.less important. there is a third person (the person they are talking about).g. According to Fillmore (1982:32). He (Fillmore. which does not have to take part in the conversation.g. here. “overhearer. because the only two persons of importance are the first person (speaker . Fillmore (1982:31) affirms that there are basic grammatical distinctions: categories of first. but necessary for the speech act). but a finer distinction is often made between personal pronouns such as I. second and third person (three-way distinction). (2) those not directly involved (e. according to Fillmore Charles (1982). A speech act includes at least two persons: first person or the speaker (centre of speech act) and second person or the addressee. 1982) concerns itself with the grammatical persons involved in an utterance. you. there. In most texts. and (3) those mentioned in the utterance. 1982:31) also says that if the two persons do not only refer to themselves while talking.most important) and the second person (addressee . Usually the third person is not grammatically marked. Person deixis (Charles. i. those who hear the utterance but who are not being directly addressed”). English does not use personal deixis to indicate relative social status in the same way that other has a potential for ambiguity. the traditional category of plural is not symmetrically applied to first person (we) in the way it is to the third (they). the addressee”). Pronouns are generally considered to be deictics. Fillmore (1982:30) points out that person deixis is commonly expressed by the following kinds of constituents: pronouns. then. and it (commonly referred to as personal pronouns) and pronouns that refer to places and times such as now. In addition. possessive affixes of nouns and agreement affixes of verbs. “the speaker. (1) those directly involved (e. between exclusive we (excludes the hearer) and the hearer-including (inclusive) we.e.In this subchapter I will describe the first type of deixis: person deixis. he also mentions that there are two 13 . According to Fillmore (1982:30).

and so forth. one of the words for ‘we’ means ‘you and I’).includes the addressee (that is.‘we-inclusive-of-addressee’ . has been studied by Fillmore Charles (1966) as well. which denotes the consecutive next day after every day.first person `plural` pronouns.” . deixis concerns itself with the various times involved in and referred to in an utterance.’we-exclusive-of-addressee’ . 1.2 Temporal deixis The next type. and also different tenses. In this subchapter I described person deixis. ‘soon’. Next. This includes time adverbs like ‘now’. “We mean to stop your plans!” . or temporal. A good example is the word ‘tomorrow’. or 14 . corresponding to `we-inclusive-of-addressee` and `we-exclusive-ofaddressee`. Fillmore says that time. Fillmore (1982:32) gives the following examples: “Let`s go to the cinema. temporal deixis or time deixis. The pronouns of the first (I-my-mine) and second person (you-your-yours) are deictic: reference to the speaking person. all languages have personal pronouns or at least words. or ET) or when the utterance is heard (Fillmore’s “decoding time”.2. that refer to the participants of the speech act. another word for ‘we’ means ‘he/she and I. Time adverbs can be relative to the time when an utterance is made (what Fillmore calls the “encoding time”. Filmore (1982:32) also sustained that. I will focus on temporal deixis.excludes the addressee (that is. ‘then’. but not you’) He gives those two examples to show the difference between we-exclusive and we-inclusive. The ‘tomorrow’ of a day last year was a different day than the ‘tomorrow’ of a day next week.

” (Fillmore. but I hope when you read this it will be sunny. Charles J. and the second “when you read this” is relative to the time when the utterance is heard. the addressee’s time Fillmore (1966:219) also points out that psychological distance can apply to temporal deixis as well. For instance. if one were to write: “It is raining out now. 1966:220) because the action is made in the speaker’s time. we speak of “the coming year” or “the approaching year”. to be relayed today. 1966:220) . We can treat temporal events as things that move towards us (into view) or away from us (out of view). to be relayed next Thursday” (Fillmore. Charles J. as in "He had gone. While these are frequently the same time. simple English past tense is absolute." (Fillmore. And also the deictic centre that is projected on the addressee: “This programme was recorded last Wednesday. C. as in the case of prerecorded broadcasts or correspondence. is being recorded today.” (Fillmore. The deictic centre that remains on the speaker: “This programme.because deictic centre was projected into the future. such as in “He went.” deictic centre was projected into the future (Fillmore. April 1st. So. with the former deictic term concerning ET and the latter the DT. Charles J. This may stem 15 . the ET and DT would be different. Charles J. For example. Tenses are generally separated into absolute (deictic) and relative tenses. for example. 1966:220) while the pluperfect is relative to some other deictically specified time. Wednesday April 1st. 1966:219) In the first part “now” is relative to the time when an utterance is made – ET. 1966:220) Fillmore also speaks in his paper about deictic centre. There are two types of deictic. they can differ.DT).

2. i. “in the box”) or unbounded (indicating a spatial region without a clearly defined boundary. there are language systems with more than 3 possibilities. future is an event/action after the speech act (you will work). Tenses are time relations in connection to a given point in time.g. also known as place deixis. we can distinguish between levels of past. Levinson (1995:40) suggests that it is common for languages to show at least a two-way referential distinction in their deictic system: proximal. The first type of deixis that Levinson (1995) is talking about is spatial deixis. i. past is an event/action before the speech act (worked). It can also be either bounded (indicating a spatial region with a clearly defined boundary. far 16 . e. In the following subchapter I will present spatial deixis.3 Spatial deixis In this subchapter I will present some notions about spatial deixis. as in “this (that is the next) weekend” or “this evening” (said earlier in the day). I. “over there”). We treat the near or immediate future as being close to utterance time by using the proximal deictic expression “this” alone.e. In temporal deixis Fillmore (1966:220) discussed about tenses. and distal. dependent on their distance from the speaker's utterance tense of immediate past. We can distinguish: • • • • • present is an event/action simultaneously to the speech act (work). near or closer to the speaker. In this subchapter I spoke about temporal deixis. e. concerns itself with the spatial locations relevant to an utterance.g.from our perception of things (like weather storms) which we see approaching both spatially and in time.e.

“She was sitting over there. adverbs: here and there = contrast on a proximal/distal dimension. (Levinson. (Levinson. that = the object beyond the pragmatically given area close to the speaker's location. Locations can be specified relative to the location of participants.from the speaker and/or closer to the addressee. Usually physical and (metaphorical) psychological distance will appear the same. English exemplifies this with such pairs as this and that. It is likely that the basis of spatial deixis is psychological distance (rather than physical distance). He also believes that the use of proximal and distal expressions in spatial deixis is confused by deictic projection.”). I will give you some examples taken from Levinson (1995:41): “I enjoy living in this city. here and there. 1995:40) One characteristic according to Levinson of spatial deixis is its basic way of referring to objects: by describing or naming them and by locating them. some pure place-deictic words: here and there (adverbs).” “here” is an adverb locating the place of the statue. 1995:40) this = the object in a pragmatically given area close to the speaker's location. as when you indicate an item of food on your plate with “I don't like that”. This is the speaker's ability to project himself or herself into a location at which he or she is not yet present. S.. S. this and that (demonstrative pronouns).” 17 . But a speaker may wish to mark something physically close as psychologically distant. A familiar example is the use of here on telephone answering machines (“I'm not here at the moment.” “This” is a demonstrative pronoun referring to the city where he/she lives “Here is where we will place the statue. Below.. etc.

demonstratives are deictic words (they depend on an external frame of reference) that indicate which entities a speaker refers to and distinguishes those entities from others. Levinson (1995:41) believes that it is interesting to note that while “here” and “there” are often used to refer to locations near to and far from the speaker. S. if they are not in the same location as the speaker. respectively. as in “The shop is across the street.” (Levinson. In linguistics. Unless otherwise specified. for example whether something is currently been said or was said earlier. it is too sunny over there. 1995:42) is an example of the latter. The term “here” is near the speaker and “there” is far from the speaker.“there” is an adverb. So. referring to the location of the addressee even if they were not in the same place. place deictic terms are generally understood to be relative to the location of the speaker. showing the place where she is sitting. “there” can also refer to the location of the addressee.org/wiki/Demonstrative_pronoun) 18 . “How is the weather there?” (Levinson.wikipedia.” where “across the street” is understood to mean “across the street from where I am right now”. while “Here is a good spot. (http://en. S. 1995:41) exemplifies the former usage. Demonstratives are employed for spatial deixis (using the context of the physical surroundings of the speaker and sometimes the listener) and for discourse deixis (including abstract concepts) where the meaning is dependent on something other than the relative physical location of the speaker.

Levinson (1983:66) points out that “this ice” is not near the speaker in the physical sense. but the deictic does not refer to real ice. those) show whether the noun they refer to is singular or plural and whether it is located near to or far from the speaker or writer.html This: singular and near the speaker That: singular and at a distance from the speaker These: plural and near the speaker Those: plural and at a distance from the speaker Eg. This ice could be useful for future lunar expeditions. This apartment needs to be painted..wikipedia. Levinson gives the following example: “There may be ice hidden in unexplored places of the Moon.usingenglish.. . not items of the outside reality).) Demonstrative adjectives (this. That soup is good.org/wiki/Demonstrative_adjectiven) Spatial deictics are often reused as anaphoric pro-forms that stand for phrases or propositions (that is. these. that. (this is a demonstrative adjective to indicate which apartment) 2. 1.EXAMPLES OF DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS : http://www.” (Levinson 1983:66) In the above example. near the speaker and readily understood in the context of the conversation. which is conceptually near the speaker in the discourse flow. (that is a demonstrative adjective because it describes the soup) (http://en.("This" refers to something that is sing. 19 . 2: We bought this last year . “This ice” refers to the phrase “ice hidden in unexplored places”. Eg: 1.) Eg.("Those" refers to bags that are at a distance from the speaker. items of discourse.com/glossary/demonstrative-pronoun.: You take these bags and I'll take those.

These categories of deixis (social and discourse). From the beginning Fillmore (1982:20) defines social deixis. I. familiarity. Furthermore. whereas the V form would be used speaking to a stranger or social superior.In this subchapter I described spatial deixis. named for the Latin “tu” and “vos” (informal and formal versions of “you”) are the name given to the phenomenon when a language has two different second-person pronouns. He believes that this type of deixis concerns “the social information that is encoded within various expressions. Honorifics are a much more complex form of social deixis than T-V distinctions. T-V distinctions. he (1982:20) also points out that. Two major forms of it are the so-called T-V distinctions and honorifics. such as relative social status and familiarity”. 20 . were first discussed by Fillmore and Lyons (1982). The varying usage of these pronouns indicates something about formality. They can involve words being marked with various morphemes as well as nearly entirely different lexicons being used based on the social status of the interactants.2. though they encode similar types of social information. and/or solidarity between the interactants. and I will talk about these in the next two subchapters. for example. there are other types of deixis that are similarly pervasive in language use. In the next subchapter I will speak about the social deixis.4 Social deixis Though the traditional categories of deixis are perhaps the most obvious. the T form might be used when speaking to a friend or social equal. So.

In this subchapter I detailed the notion of social deixis. another to address those of lesser social rank. but these usages are only relevant to the topic of social deixis in so far as they are grammaticalized: polite pronouns. one pro-form might be used to address those of higher social rank. He defines discourse deixis. Another aspect pointed by Fillmore (1982:22) is that social deixis concerns those aspects of language structure that encode the social identities of participants. regardless of whether it is someone below them. and in the next and the last subchapter I will try to describe discourse deixis.Fillmore (1982:22) mentions that social deixis is the use of different deictics to express social distinctions. in which a word in the utterance refers to the utterance itself. “This sentence is false”.5 Discourse deixis Levinson (1983:63) also discusses about discourse deixis. or the social relationship between them. Relational social deixis is where the form of word used indicates the relative social status of the addressor and the addressee. I. another to address those of the same social rank. where reference is being made to the current discourse or part thereof. above them or at the same level of the social hierarchy who is doing the addressing. village chiefs might always be addressed by a special pro-form. In the following subchapter I will describe discourse deixis.2. He also gives examples as: “that was a really mean thing to say”. By contrast. Social relations concern the relation between the speaker and the addressee. The last is an example of token-reflexive discourse deixis. (Levinson 1983:63) 21 . address titles. He gives as example the difference between formal and polite pro-forms. For example. Thus. absolute social deixis indicates a social standing irrespective of the social standing of the speaker.

Discourse deixis, also referred to as text deixis according to Levinson (1983:68), refers to the use of expressions within an utterance to refer to parts of the discourse that contains the utterance including the utterance itself. And for this, he gives the example above: “This is a great story.” (Levinson 1983:68) “this” refers to an upcoming portion of the discourse Characteristics of discourse deixis, also called text deixis: concerns the use of expressions referring to a part of the discourse, e.g. “in the next chapter”, “in the last paragraph”. (Levinson 1983:70) Levinson states that in discourse deixis, there are many words and phrases in English that indicate the relationship between utterance and the prior discourse; but, therefore, in conclusion, to the contrary, still, however, anyway, well, besides, actually, all in all, so, after all. All these words make reference to a statement, sentence etc. that was said before. Some languages have morphemes that mark such discourse notions.

I.3. CONCLUSION At the beginning of this chapter, I defined deixis. In summary deixis is an important field of language study in its own right - and very important for learners of second languages. But it has

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some relevance to analysis of conversation and pragmatics. It is often and best described as “verbal pointing”, that is to say pointing by means of language. A word or phrase whose meaning requires this contextual information - for example, English pronouns - is said to be deictic. Deixis is closely related to both indexicality and anaphora, as will be further explained below. My B.A. project deals largely with deixis in spoken language, but the same concepts can apply to written language and gestures as well. In this chapter I dealt with deixis, types of deixis, more precisely the five categories: person, temporal, spatial, discourse and social deixis. I also presented some characteristics of each of them. Person deixis in English comprises personal pronouns. The simplicity of these pronouns often disguises the complexity of their use. Grammatically, the basic division of first person, second person, and third person is easy to understand. Place deixis specifies the locations relative to the speech event. Here and there are two pure place deictic words in contemporary English. The concept of distance is implied in them as well as in other words which have spatial deictic sense. “Bring that here” and “Take this there” are two expressions which involve the concept of distance. Time deixis in English refers to words and phrases like now, then, today, yesterday, tomorrow, next week, last year, in three days, etc. Now is a proximal term, as it indicates the time of speaking and hearing. Then is a distal expression which applies to both past and future time relative to the time of speaking. I also spoke about deixis and indexicality. The terms deixis and indexicality are frequently used near-interchangeably, and both concern essentially the same idea; contextually-dependant references. However, both have different histories and traditions associated with them. In the next chapter I will pay more attention to political discourse according to Teun A. van Dijk (1995) and Chilton (2004), and I will try to review their researches for a better understanding of the concept of political discourse.

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2. POLITICAL DISCOURSE

In this chapter I will present political discourse from the point of view of researchers, such as Teun A. van Dijk (1995), Paul Anthony Chilton (2004), Brown (1960) and Arroyo (2000). I will detail how they analyze political discourse. I will start with political discourse.

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national and international levels.” (http://en. we can say that the specific political situations and processes (discursive practices. influence. In relation to politics. whether struggle or cooperation.2. both at the local. as the practices and institutions that a society has for resolving clashes of interest over money.wikipedia. and institutional conditions. and hearings) as the phenomenon of interest. liberty. Van Dijk (1995:10) affirms that Political Discourse is identified by actors or authors (politicians). ideological. [. political press briefings) determine discourse organization and textual structure of a variety of discourse types (or genres) in which political discourse as a complex form of human activity is realized. van Dijk made an interesting research on political discourse. such as parliamentary debates. Human interaction to a large extent involves language. such as president and prime ministers and other members of government. historical. and the like. and linguistic interaction is embedded in and determined by socio-cultural.(Chilton 2004:3) In any case.org/wiki/politicaldiscourse) On the one hand. His study is about the text and talk of professional politicians or political institutions.1 WHAT IS POLITICAL DISCOURSE? A definition I picked up from the internet said that “Political discourse is a field of discourse analysis which focuses on discourse in political forums (such as debates. Teun A. 25 .. “politics cannot be conducted without language” (Chilton and Schäffner 1997:206). parliament or political parties.. between those who seek to assert and maintain their power and those who seek to resist it. speeches. politics is viewed as cooperation.] On the other hand. In this subchapter I am going to present political discourse. politics is viewed as a struggle for power.

such as governing . oppression). in courtrooms and classrooms or police stations. legislating. arguing. decisions that pertain to joint action. According to van Dijk (1995:20). interrogations may take place in congressional hearings. political processes. can take part in the political process. parliamentary sessions. dissenting. and hence as participating in political actions. In the third chapter van Dijk (1995:19) shows that politics may not only include all official or unofficial political actors. protesting. demonstrators and dissidents. actions and discourses. political systems. such as making or influencing political decisions. rallies. All these groups and individuals (their organizations and institutions). people as members of pressure and issue groups. encounters. the establishment or change of official norms. etc.(1995:13) Teun A. the integration of political texts and contexts in political encounters may be characterized by accomplishing specific political aims and goals. inequality. and in most of these cases official speakers will ask 26 . settings. or voting. protest demonstrations. and political (group) relations (power. events. ruling. election campaigns. van Dijk (1995:13) also thinks that politicians talk politically also if they and their talk are contextualized in such communicative events as cabinet meetings. but also. and during the official session of parliament. Van Dijk (1995:14) argues that “text and context mutually define each other”. political ideologies (like liberalism). He thinks that “categorization of people and groups should be strict”. regulations and laws. According to him (1995:16). and many of them are involved in political discourse. interviews with the media.He (1995:11) mentions that political activity and the political process also involve people as citizens and voters.) in parliament buildings in an official capacity (as MPs). in the sense that their members are participants of political discourse only when acting as political actors. the distribution of social resources. it means that a session of parliament is only when elected politicians are debating (talking.

or simply ‘doing politics’ by text and talk is obviously more than producing or perceiving discourse in political contexts and by political actors. canvassing or otherwise of influencing or being influenced in view of elections). as addressing the assembly. Similarly. and when speaking relevantly. Accomplishing political action. corrected.” 27 . In his research it is also pointed out that technically. of campaigning. The author would not categorize editorial. sometimes only when they have been allocated a speaking turn (except in special cases. (1995:24) In view of his analysis. In the fourth chapter van Dijk (1995:21) argues that a textual (written. (1995:25) link The author believes that the “official language” of government decisions. a parliamentary debate or the actions of politicians.g. where allowed. For instance. such as speaking out loud. for instance in the attack on political opponents. politically and legally mandatory.official questions. (1995:25). such discourse should be categorized and analyzed as being political. as in interruptions. printed and eventually published or maybe made public. discursively. or most TV programs as ‘political’ discourse. also parliamentary debates are expected to be held in relatively formal style of address and dialogue. a number of further conditions are required. obviously has a possible political condition and consequence. or the laws and regulations. van Dijk (1995:24) continues to specify that as soon as a discourse or part of a discourse is directly or indirectly functional in the political process (e. but therefore no less a form of action and interaction. “Metaphors in politics will function in a political context. such speech will be recorded. Once spoken. even when also directed at politicians. computer) communication may not be face-to-face.. the presentation of policies of political power. an editorial commenting on a government decision. but the precise roles of the speakers and recipients and the aims of the interaction will be different. are both. printed. but essentially as media discourse. news.

pitch and intonation of speakers may influence modes of attention and understanding of what they say following the 28 . i.” (Chomsky 1985:34) For the characterization of topics in political discourse.e. etc. and occasionally as celebrities..g. about the elections. rather direct than indirect. class struggle and the blessings of the welfare state now being destroyed. ideology. about voting for them. or even enemies. a polarization that in general will result in contrastive meanings. governments or parliaments. events and actions. Similarly.According to him (1995:26). THEY are not”.. According to van Dijk (1995:36). “Our group” (party. we may similarly expect that “Our good deeds” will be described with plenty of detail. typically about one (brave or miserable) family. our political and ideological competitors. (van Dijk 1995:33) He (1995:34) believes that one other main semantic strategy is to make propositions with positive predicates about ‘our own group’ rather explicit than implicit. but so may progressive environmentalists referring to “unspoiled” nature. (1995:28) Topics may also feature evaluations. or they may have a special rhetorical effect. those of the Others are obviously terrorist. opponents. They speak about opponents and political enemies and about the bad politics and policies of previous presidents. “through positive evaluations of us and negative evaluations of THEM”. ideology. and “Our soldiers. campaigning politicians speak about themselves as candidates. and the policies they promise to support when elected. are freedom fighters. Sometimes non-elite individuals may appear as victims.) will tend to be described in more positive terms than “their group” (party. mother or child. and ‘stated’ rather than ‘presupposed’. e. given the possibility to vary the level of generality and specificity and the degree of completeness in description of people. or those who share our cause.). e. the semantics will be biased. Van Dijk points out that typically “conservatives may refer to the good old times”. in persuasive discourses `with a personal touch'. etc. or even socialists when referring to the solidarity. Descriptions and references to politicians use the pronoun deixis to refer to them (the speakers) and they (the addressee): “WE are democratic.g. volume (shouting and whispering).

.g. as in revolutionary tracts and slogans during demonstrations.g.): social deixis 3. there. you.) involved in the utterance: person deixis 2. The term “positioned” looked as a spatial metaphor conceptualizing the speaker’s and/or hearer’s relationship to their interlocutor(s). terms of address. In the sixth. and the opposite is true for dispreferred meanings. According to him (2004:10). pitch of voice. to the point of time of the ongoing utterance. high pitch. the language-in-use is the language that consists of utterances generated and interpreted in relation to the situation in which the utterer(s) and interpreter(s) are positioned. regional or class accent. to their physical location. In the first part he paid attention to the indexicality and the dimension of deixis. the place of uttering (here. and to where they are in the ongoing discourse. we.. Preferred meanings are thus emphasized by shouting. the recognition of the relevance of discourse analysis presupposes realization of the perhaps trivial fact that the many ways of doing politics often involves engaging in discursive practices. the persons (I. Verschueren 1999:18) 29 .that is. the ongoing discourse – discourse deixis – e. to bureaucratic 'red tape' (documents of many types) and forms of verbal resistance. ‘Indexical expressions’ or ‘deictic expressions’ are linguistic resources used to perform deixis . even political scientists who are not working on political communication or political rhetoric will accept that many if not most political acts and events consist of text and talk. etc. verb tenses and aspects): temporal deixis 5. go): spatial deixis 4. Upon some reflection. Examples: cabinet meetings and parliamentary debates.principles of the ideological square. come vs. the last example (cf. the time of uttering (now. to generate meaning by expecting the interpreter to relate the uttered indexical expression to: 1. (1995:40) Another researcher who made a research on political discourse is Paul Anthony Chilton (2004). the social or attitudinal relationships among utterers and interpreters (e. and the final chapter. raising intonation. T and V forms.

As Lakoff and Johnson (1980) pointed out. Chilton believes that space is in some way more fundamental than the others. time and society. speaker and listener alike must operate within a realm of indexical or deictic expressions. in political discourse the first person plural (we. but also a third dimension of ‘modality' according to which “Self is not only ‘here’ and ‘now’. For example. takes on an important aspect in political discourse. today. As Chilton points out (2004:20). Political actors are. ‘in London’. and the like. always situated with respect to a particular time.In the next chapter Chilton discusses about space. in terms of space metaphors: for example. either as insiders or as outsiders. ‘in the UK’. 30 . and not just from personal distance. us. Similarly. Because of factors such as these. In politics we can also speak about the relations between social groups. Lakoff 1987). but also the origin of the epistemic true and the deontic right”. temporal and social deixis are usually distinguished from one another. social (and political) relationships are lexicalized. According to Chilton (2004:59). place and social group. He thinks that social indexicals arise from social structure and power relations. our) can be used to include interpreters to conceptualize group identity. He mentions (2004:12). Temporal deixis can have a political significance. spatial representation. Thus here may mean ‘in parliament’. that pronouns are one class of words that can perform deictic functions. coalitions. time appears to be conceptualized as an object moving towards the speaker or as the speaker moving towards a time. or just now could require to be understood as ‘after the election of New Labor’. parties. Spatial indexicals relate to political space. ‘rapprochement’. viewed literally or metaphorically as spatially distinct entities. including metaphorical ones. ‘close allies’. it can require one to assume a particular historical periodisation – for example nowadays. that mean. Johnson 1987. Chilton said that we shall treat spatial representation in discourse as particularly important in the study of political discourse. ‘distant relations’. are part of the vocabulary of politics (Lakoff and Johnson1980. and conceptualized. the dimensions of which are not only time and space. (2004:13) While spatial.

Informal debate is a common occurrence.2. within a framework defining how they will interact. The outcome of a debate may be decided by audience vote. in debating. THE NOTION OF DEBATES In this chapter I am going to define the notion of debates picked up from internet (http://en.org/wiki/Debate) In a formal debating contest. and meetings of all sorts engage in debates. there are rules for people to discuss and decide on differences. my next intention is to describe the notion of debates. and I want to highlight some interesting things about this. man is indeed a political animal. by judges. It borrows terms such as 31 . First of all.org/wiki/Debate). Parliamentary Debate is conducted under rules derived from British parliamentary procedure.wikipedia.wikipedia. Deliberative bodies such as parliaments. Debate is a formal method of interactive and representational argument.There are some structural and functional flaws in this edifice constructed by Chilton. or by some combination of the two. It features the competition of individuals in a multi-person setting. (http://en. always and in all settings. (2004:60) After I spoke about political discourse from the point of view of Teun A van Dijk and Chilton. 2. one side prevails over the other side by presenting a superior "context" and framework of the issue. legislative assemblies. Though logical consistency and some degree of emotional appeal to the audience are important elements of the art of persuasion. which is far more subtle and strategic. it seems to be the case that his characterizations of man's interaction in the polis pertain to all serious conversation. the quality and depth of a debate improves with knowledge and skill of its participants as debaters.

Brown (1960) found that the exchange of pronouns can shape or confirm the power dynamics and solidarity of a relationship.3. Greece and most other nations. he creates an atmosphere where the reader is welcomed into the text. (1995:124) 2. This is usually very formal. 32 . it can encode different aspects of the communicative intentions of speakers. Hylan and others."government" and "opposition" from the British parliament (although the term "proposition" is sometimes used rather than "government" when debating in the United Kingdom). but you say tu to me) implies social distance and an unequal power relationship. we and us. and is the primary style practiced in the United Kingdom. (Brown. While a reciprocal usage implies relative equality and solidarity. 2005:71) thus creating a sense of reader-writer combination towards common goals. 1995:121) Throughout the world. attitudes. The premier event in the world of parliamentary debate. in particular third person plural. the World Universities Debating Championship. but more importantly.. India. political discourse and debates. nonreciprocal usage (e. (1960) One of the most used set of pronouns noticed by Brown (1960) are the person pronouns. THE USES OF THE SECOND-PERSON SINGULAR PRONOUN IN POLITICAL DISCOURSE Many studies have pointed out that pronominal usage is not only related to variables such as formality. (Brown. 1995:123) After I explained the notions. In addition Brown “claims an equality with his audience” (Hyland. my next intention is to speak about “The uses of the second-person singular pronoun in Political Discourse” from the point of view of Brown. I say vous to you. is conducted in the British Parliamentary style.g. and sex. status. parliamentary debate is what most countries know as "debating". By using we and us throughout his speech. with the dominant speaker using the informal pronoun.

Their studies show how pronominal choices reflect the thinking and attitude of politicians towards particular political topics and political personalities. Maitland and Wilson (1987: 40) and Wilson (1990:23). In the latter instance.” (Wilson. In her study she found out that. There are even situations where Brown uses we in a somewhat ambivalent way. He states that “And while we do not today have a written constitution it comes back to being sure about and secure in the values that matter”. (1960) a linguist. We can be interpreted.. In other instances such as “and as we listen to and seek. he “claims the right to speak for the people as a whole” argues Fairclough (1995:181). as Brown’s attempts to place everyone under one umbrella. It has been found that politicians tend to “manipulate pronouns to develop and indicate their ideological positions on specific issues. on the one hand. investigating the pragmatic manipulation of pronouns within various political contexts. Brown continues in his language use with attitude markers in the form of the pronoun us.Examples given by Hyland (2005:71): -“I believe that we have real achievements together” -“The only reason any of us are here is that we are in politics as servants” -“Success in the global economy will depend upon us engaging the creative talents” -“We must aim to be number one” Brown. are focusing mainly on personal pronouns employed by three British politicians. Through these vague and shifting uses of we.. uses in his paper we sometimes inclusively as in “we will do so best” to include the reader or listener.” he uses we exclusively. while on the other hand placing him in a leadership role as one who can speak for the people. the predominance of use of we as self-reference shows that the speaker is not speaking as an individual 33 . 1990: 46) De Fina (1995:45) has analyzed and compared two discourses by two Mexican participants in a conference on the Chiapas revolt of January 1994 in Mexico. Brown refers specifically to the Labour party.

but his words point to a principal. there is a balanced alternation between the description of his own political agenda (in which the presidential I and the partisan we have a special importance) and his criticism of his opponents. She analyzes the main reference meanings of personal pronouns by the two principal participants in the Spanish political electoral debate of June 1993. Distinguishing three main domains of reference (i. and an intermediate world between them). The most recent research on this topic. The first-person pronoun I is more frequently used in political interviews. and therefore stressing the dimension of authorship as the most relevant in his speech. the use of personal pronouns is structured around the first person. And secondly. She found out that. Arroyo has contended that the structure of the debate also significantly affects the pronominal choices. they make use of other pronouns as well as first-person pronouns for self-reference. the speaker is expressing high commitment to the words that he is saying. the group or organization that he has come to represent. both politicians use first-person pronouns differently at different political moments. While in the sections in which the speaker has the audience as his primary interlocutor. O’Connor (1994) explores the variation in indexicality and the subsequent shifts in agency shown by the pronouns you and I She argues that when the speaker switches to you. on the other hand. Bolivar (1999) examines how two Venezuelan politicians from opposing parties use pronouns in political interviews and discourses at different political moments. In the case of the president and socialist candidate. and also the one most related to the present study is Arroyo (2000). in the stages in which the dialogic conflict is most intense.. yet still indexes the 34 . tends to use personal pronouns when attacking his rival rather than explaining his own political proposals. the secondperson pronouns are always used for attacks and political aggression. when they are interested in producing a good effect during an election campaign or when they are just beginning their presidency. the world of the speaker.e. and when self-referencing is realized mostly with the pronoun I. that is. they tend to exclude themselves in plural reference when there is a need to distance themselves from responsibility for their future actions. Arroyo has found that there are considerable differences in the two debaters’ strategic use of pronouns. Firstly. the world of the interlocutor. The conservative candidate.

other-involving (the speaker is drawing the interlocutor in to share in the feeling). van Dijk.self. 2. citizens to vote for the speaker or against the opposite parties. in which I will analyze the use of deixis in political debates. in particular third person plural. (1994: 45). O’Connor proposes that such variation in pronoun use tends to appear in segments of evaluative discourse and “contributes to the construction of story as well as the social construction of the self”. CONCLUSION In this chapter I described political discourse according to Teun A. The next chapter is the practical part of my BA project. 35 . One of the most used set of pronouns noticed by Brown are the person pronouns. I also specified that debates take place only when are elections (when people. in which participants involved in this discourse are politicians. I reviewed the use of second person pronoun in a political debate. this self-indexing you serves three functions: self-distancing (the speaker is distancing himself from the act).4. and self-addressing (the speaker is addressing the figure of the self in his own past). citizens have to choose for their future). such as president or prime minister and other members of government. ‘we’ and ‘us’. This political discourse can be a debate or speech. and Paul Chilton. and the aim of these debates is to influence the voters.

3. Our knowledge and opinions about politicians. to understand the importance of deixis in political discourses and debates. DEIXIS IN POLITICAL DISCOURSE . formal education. media usage and conversation. parties or presidents are largely acquired. 36 . changed or confirmed by various forms of text and talk during our socialization (Merelman 1986). Political action and participation is accomplished by discourse and communication.ANALYSIS The aims of this chapter are to analyze deixis in political discourse.

http://www.2. It contains all five types of deixis.The theoretical framework of this chapter is complex.co. METHODOLOGY The sequence of political debate that I will analyze is taken from the internet (http://www.1. After becoming the star of the past two debates. 3. and an orthographic transcription can be found in appendix. as well as their beliefs. Nick Clegg frequently found himself marginalized in the debate as the two main party leaders attacked one another. This is a political debate which takes place between the three party members. He appeared weak on policy detail during several exchanges and his portrayal as an outsider may have lost its novelty value. It relates various levels and dimensions of the political domain.youtube. spatial. ANALYSIS OF POLITICAL DISCOURSE 37 . The base level consists of individual political actors. a confrontation between the leaders of the three parties for the candidacy of Prime Minister.com/watch?v=QnkUF6VWOlI. and Conservative party leader David Cameron prepare to take part in the first of Britain's leadership election debates. time. i. Liberal Democrat leader Nick Clegg.html). This debate is a dialogue. social and discourse. more precisely.uk/news/election2010/7655577/BBC-leaders-debate-Gordon-Brown-admits-David-Cameron-is-set-to-take-power.telegraph. 3. person. discourses and interactions in political situations. Prime Minister Gordon Brown.e. In the next subchapter I will speak about my research.

and that is why I intend to continue to do.K. such as making or influencing political decisions. If you believe like I do that we can do things differently this time. then together we will really change Brit. the establishment or change of official norms. Nick Clegg says: "This is your election. but is apt to the people to decide. When you go to vote next week. David Cameron says. I will present a sequence. In turn 18. regulations and laws". all three candidates are trying to convince the people to vote for them. if you vote Conservative on Tuesday. in turn 17. in this debate the politicians are Gordon Brown. decisions that pertain to joint action. covered during the entire campaign of a political debate for The Prime Minister position in the U. Nick Clegg and David Cameron." . "the integration of political texts and contexts in political encounters may be characterized by accomplishing specific political aims and goals.In my discourse analysis. "I think that we can do great things in this country. choose the future you really want. if you vote Liberal as we seen tonight is just uncertainly. Gordon Brown "We are desperate to get this country through the recession and into the recovery. making a clean break. 38 . this is your country. and taking our country in a new direction and bringing the change that we need. Political Discourse is identified by actors or authors (politicians). and is your decision.David tries to convince people to vote for him and not his opponents because he will do good things for the country. As van Dijk says (1995:16)." Nick let people to choose the wanted future. if you vote Labor you can get more of the same." He tries to convince people to vote for him because he will make things much better for the country. but for their own good and for the good of the country the best choice is to vote for him in the next election. the distribution of social resources. you can have a new fresh government. In turn 19.

and the policies they promise to support when elected. governments or parliaments. but we need a government with the right values. with people who try to do the right thing. about voting for them. 39 ... We need a government with the best work.we have to take actions against lots of MPs who betrayed the public trust and in the politics.. Also Gordon Brown. sometimes only when they have been allocated a speaking turn (except in special cases. and when speaking relevantly. In turn 17. in turn 13 says : "We’re going to put into a referent next year and let the people decide what politics breaks down in the way it did. we gonna have a new start. Brown presents things that should be made for the country. All three MPs presents all the things they will do if they are voted. about the elections.. where allowed.Also. as addressing the assembly. David Cameron wants to take the country in a new and good direction. with a government with the right values. Gordon Brown says : "I think we should raise the standard of the bank. a referent of next year of a new House of Commons and a new House of Lords". van Dijk. and taking our country in a new direction and bringing the change that we need". you can have a new fresh government... David Cameron try to convince people to vote for him: "We can go on. if you vote Labor you can get more of the same. Campaigning politicians speak about themselves as candidates. (Teun A. He believes that the country needs a new leader who will make new things for the country. we need a government with the vast families and understand that family is the most important thing in our society. and we had corrupt them (please ). as in interruptions. 1995:26). a number of further conditions are required. In turn 9. then. and we need a government that always understands that keeping in safe and secure is the most important thing of all. All three candidates speak loudly and clearly to be understood the message they want to send.but we gonna take action that makes a real difference in the future". They speak about opponents and political enemies and about the bad politics and policies of previous presidents. if you vote Liberal as we seen tonight is just uncertainly. such as speaking out loud. making a clean break. solve our problems and do great things. if you vote Conservative on Tuesday.

second person ‘you’. fair taxes that you pay less. I believe all these can happen. Inclusive "we" specifically includes the addressee (that is.e. With reference to the addresser (I). I will analyze person deixis in this conversation. In conversation. the addressee (you) and the third party involved in a conversation (he. in turn 18. He will work hard for the good of the country. it. First. I made my discourse analysis on the term deixis in the debates. smaller class size for your children a different approach to the economy and decent open politics that you can trust once again. and third person he. When you go to vote next week. PERSON DEIXIS Person deixis is an important component of pragmatics. They are not merely a way of expressing person. person deixis indicate the social status.1. between exclusive we (excludes the hearer) and the hearer-including (inclusive) we.2. one of the words for "we" means "you and I"). But the pronoun we has a potential for ambiguity. number and gender as is suggested by traditional grammarians nor do they only do referential and deictic work.Nick Clegg. English does not use personal deixis to indicate relative social status in the same way that other languages do. she. while exclusive "we" 40 . 3. a fair stop. choose the future you really want. This is your election. then together we will really change Brit". interpersonal relationship and other factors of the conversational parties. each person constantly changes from being ‘I’ to being ‘you’. this debate. she). If you believe like I do that we can do things differently this time. This kind of deixis operates on a three-part division. Pronouns play a key role in the construction of person deixis. i. says "I will work tirelessly to deliver fairly for you. Nick believes that he can do things differently this time. this is your country. but people the top pay their fair share. exemplified by the pronouns for first person ‘I’. I will analyze one by one the five types of deixis.

Nick refers to him and his interlocutor David Cameron.. that he doesn’t want to take actions for the country “and David let’s be honest…you voted against taking actions. Gordon accuses David using the pronoun you. Usually the third person is not grammatically marked.”. I’m talking about what’s going now.specifically excludes the addressee (that is. We all have MPs with dreadful expenses problems”. He also uses the pronoun we “Before we bound about these things. All languages have personal pronouns or at least words. people speak not only about themselves. Right from the start. Person deixis is commonly expressed by some kinds of constituents. let’s be absolutely clear.the Conservative Party (we) is been too lot for too long” and he uses the pronoun I referring to him: “Let me just take one point of the all that Nick said… I think...e. to accuse them of fraud. in turn 1. The next passage. regardless of who else may be involved. Sometimes. the addresser is David Cameron. Here. is the we inclusive i. ”. includes the hearer.”. 41 . “I think a criminal on the run”. the ‘we’ which Cameron refers to. You don’t want back to happened…you blocked it only in the last week…the key issue here is that we will take responsibility for a better form of politics. The most important are the pronouns.” ‘we’ is also inclusive. it was years ago. we were completely exonerated for that. because the only two persons are important i.the overhear. that refer to the participants of the speech act. the first person (speaker) and the second person (addressee). In the first part the addresser is Gordon and the addressee is David. In turn 4. but not you"). in turn 3 is a monologue. Nick Clegg attacks David Cameron.e. He speaks about their Conservative Party using the pronoun we: “we should all be frank”.. there is still a third person who is not speaking and who does not take part in the conversation . another word for "we" means "he/she and I. As we see in this dislogue David speaks also about the opposite party “the liberal-democrats give two and a half million pound to someone who steal”.

ourselves. when David finishes what he has to say. Always the same. 42 .Nick. “I think we should raise the standard of the bank”. Nick continues in turn 8. They did nothing for thirty years. In this sequence ‘we’ is exclusive. then no questions are until the next time in election”. where that basically all you need to get 20-30% to your vote in their areas. excludes the hearer. we. which is complete clean up”. As I said above that in conversation. In turn 7. David becoming the addresser and Nick the addressee. “ what I support. his speech saying “neither of you want to clear the system from top to toe in a way that makes me forgive” and again he is interrupted by David who specifies what measures must be taken to a better governance. The pronouns used here are: I (me). when elections are approaching all Parties make every effort to be elected and after winning elections. Here the pronoun ‘you’ is used to refer to the opoosite MP who does this. continues to describe what happens in parliament. emphasizing that their Party is the most suitable to be voted.” The pronoun ‘they’ is used here in order to accuse the opposite party to what they have done for years. fair votes for everybody. “they should be there just cause they don’t favors to politicians making the rule uses to getting big money. but we gonna take action that makes a real difference in the future. In turn 10. each person constantly changes from being I to being you. David defends himself saying “I disagree with you!”. they do not make any effort for anything. Nick refers to him and his party and not to the hearer.”. Nick continues his speech describing in negative terms the opposite party “cause I’m seeing nothing to support. “we have to take actions against lots of MPs who betrayed the public trust and in the politics I hold the seven republics. and there is nothing new. in turn 6. “Where MPs have jobs for life. not serving ourselves. The pronouns used here are I and you. the roles are changing. not next support me and report me at the House of Commons and the House of Lords…”. is something I supported all my adult political life.

And the first who begins the speech is Cameron. another word for ‘we’ means ‘he/she and I. the most constituent should be able to throw that member of the parliament and not having to wait for general election. Gordon refers to him and his party excluding the addressee. we need to explain to people the only way to get it is a Conservative government. every change will make the difference. recognizing the extent of the challenge faced by Labour to win support. “Don't waste one minute. Here.” Here. each being the addressee and the addresser. then we gonna have a new start”. In turn 15. By contrast. Cameron said: "We've got just six and a half days to go between now and polling day. don't waste one hour. At the end of the debate each candidate tries to convince the public to vote them. to vote their party." Another ‘we’ inclusive. the Prime Minister said: "From now until next Thursday we have got to campaign like we have never campaigned before. exclude the hearer. and we had corrupt them. In turn 13. but not you’).” Both candidates use the pronoun ‘we’. Cameron refers to the audience (that is. it seems that David wants something that all three agree to make things work better. in turn 16. some seconds later his rival Mr. ‘we’ is exclusive. I think it is time that when an MP breaks the rules. this country is crying out for change. Gordon Brown presents his point of view regarding his candidacy “We’re going to put into a referent next year and let the people decide what politics breaks down in the way it did. In the sequence above ‘we’ is exclusive. using the pronoun we like the other candidates to highlights what they are going to do ”we gonna have a new start”. referring to themselves. “let me try and found something that we all agree on it. ‘we’ is inclusive because David refers to him and his opponents (‘we’ means ‘you and I’). 43 .In turn 13. used by the Prime Minister (include the hearer).

appropriate to govern the country.He tries to convince the audience to vote for him and not for the opposite parties:“if you vote Labor you can get more of the same. “ Nick Clegg appeared weak on policy detail during several exchanges and his portrayal as an outsider may have lost its novelty value. I think that we can do great things in this country. to address to the public. we can do so much better than that this time. Nick Clegg urged voters not to be frightened by the other parties out of voting for “real change”. David Cameron will now hope that he can persuade Liberal Democrat voters to switch to the Conservatives in the final days of intense campaigning. this is your country. “We can go on. we need a government with the vast families and understand that family is the most important thing in our society. and we need a government that always understands that keeping in safe and secure is the most important thing of all”. making a clean break. solve our problems and do great things. As his opponent. if you vote Conservative on Tuesday. using the pronoun you. Also in turn 17. In turn 18.” In the last part Cameron uses the pronoun you. We need a government with the best work. with people who try to do the right thing. and will be difficult decisions. for his party. When you go to vote next week. and taking our country in a new direction and bringing the change that we need. but I want to lead as through those to better times ahead. choose the future you really want.”. “This is your election. to vote for him. if you vote Liberal as we seen tonight is just uncertainly. I think that I got a great team behind me. Clegg speaks to the people.In turn 17. don’t let anyone tell you that it can’t 44 . you can have a new fresh government. but we need a government with the right values. than together we will really change Brit. united and strong party. He uses the pronoun we to show that he is not alone. “Just think how many times you’ve been give lots of promises from these old parties and when they get back in to the government you find that nothing really changes at all. If you believe like I do that we can do things differently this time. in the second part of his speech Cameron uses the pronoun I to highlight what he really thinks about this campaign “I believe the test of a good and strong society is how we look after the most valuable and the poorest that’s true in good times but is even more true in difficult times. He has a good.

“you believe like I do”. Brown uses the pronoun he to refer to his opponent. I don’t like having to do this. I believe too. we and they to make comparisons between his party and the opposite parties. They showed that there are big causes we can fight for. but is apt to the people to decide. “all problems you faced can’t be solved over night. Gordon Brown attempted to fight back by warning about the “ideological” drive of the Conservative party. It can! This time you can make the difference. “that you can trust once again”. in his speech. perhaps supported by Nick Clegg. And also in turn 18. that pleasing will be at risk from a conservative government. They also showed that big differences exist between the parties. but I’m gonna tell you that things are too important to be left to risky policies under this two people. he uses the pronoun I to say that he will do great things for the country. “Of course I can’t guarantee”.happen. “This debate is the answer to people that say politics doesn’t matter. But I have the duty of telling you this evening that while we have policies for the future. The Prime Minister’s repeated insistence that he was the only leader with the experience to lead the economic recovery failed to convince viewers. I know that if things stay as they are. He attempted to focus on Conservative plans to cut inheritance tax and cut the child tax credit for middle income earners. as a last attempt to change public opinion. because they have not set that they would match us on pleasing either”. “I believe all these can happened.”. and is your decision.” but I can guarantee that I will work tirelessly”. and that is why I intend to continue to do. In turn 19. I believe also that John Teskot will be cut by both parties if they came into a coalition. the Conservatives would put the recovery immediately at risk with an emergency Budget. And I want to thank everybody who’s been involved in this debate over the last few weeks. We are desperate to get this country through the recession and into the recovery. They are not ready for government because they are not sort through the policies. No.” 45 .”. Brown uses the pronouns I. would be in office. perhaps in eight days' time David Cameron. “I believe that he’s planning to cut the schools budget and he hasn’t denial yet.

And examples of indefinite and non-specific pronouns: “give. “there are big causes”. etc. “I’m seeing nothing to support. last week) --> tendency to categorize in moving away or towards the speaker in time. there.” who’s been involved”. Temporal deixis English refers to words and phrases like now. here. soon) -->ambiguity in now and then. and it (commonly referred to as personal pronouns) and pronouns that refer to places and times such as now. In most texts. you. as it indicates the time of speaking and hearing. Pronouns that refer to place and times: “key issue here”. yesterday.. My next intention is to analyze temporal deixis. in three days. next week. the word deictic implies the latter but not necessarily the former. In time we have single deictic words (yesterday. recently. “they should be there”. today. “then”. but a finer distinction is often made between personal pronouns such as I. and there is nothing new.2. The temporal expressions containing last and next are also distal. “people who try to do”. They did nothing for thirty years.. then. then. tomorrow. and modifiers and measure words (next day. “there were awful things”. Now is a proximal term. In the first subchapter I analyzed the person deixis in the political debate.”. Then is a distal expression which applies to both past and future time relative to the time of speaking. 46 . The actual time referred to must be worked out in relation to the time of the utterance. last year. “what’s going now”. “what politics breaks down”. Pronouns are generally considered to be deictics. “is something I supported”.to someone who steal”. “there is nothing new”. 3.Examples of Indefinite and specific pronouns: “what I support”.2. “there is a direct relation”.

“next time” is a distal form and it is a modifier. so “thirty years” indicate the time. we gonna have a new start”. a long time. then. Thirty is a big number. he uses “They did nothing for thirty years”. I’m talking about what’s going now”. When Nick describes the opposite party. distal form in Past Tense. from then until now. Here. the tendency to move the speaker in time. and ‘now’ is a proximal term. ‘years ago’ distal term. indicates the time of speaking and hearing of the speaker. In this sequence “next year” and “then” are both distal terms.. 47 . we have in this utterance. indicates the future time and not the time of speaking. And “then” is ambiguous.These terms as proximal or distal are defined in relation to the deictic center: • • • central person is the speaker central time is the time of utterance production central place is the speaker’s location at utterance time In the first part Gordon Brown says “you blocked it only in the last week”. Just as I said above. indicates the time of speaking and hearing. And “next Thursday” is a distal term. the speaker is Nick Clegg. past tense. “We’re going to put into a referent next year. Gordon Brown in turn 15 says: “From now until next Thursday we have got to campaign”. Nick also says: “then no questions are until the next time in election”. In describing what happened in the House of Lords and House of Commons. This term shows ambiguity. Gordon Brown describes what his party will do. “now” is a proximal term. in our case. Nick Clegg says: “it was years ago..

The words as ”six and a half days” present the period between “now” . don't waste one hour. Don't waste one minute. the future time. They can be relative to the time when an utterance is made ("encoding time".the moment when Cameron is speaking and the polling day – the moment on the future. or ET) or when the utterance is heard ("decoding time". ‘next week’ is measure word and distal term. “then together we will really change Brit. ‘Tonight’ is proximal term. so is distal term.. proximal term and “polling day” refers to the future and is a distal term. “When you go to vote next week”. Gordon Brown in turn 19 says: “perhaps in eight days' time” “of telling you this evening that while we have policies for the future” ‘In eight days time’ is ambiguous and distal term..David Cameron gathers the world to vote: “We've got just six and a half days to go between now and polling day. showing the time of speaking. David says in his speech: “as we seen tonight is just uncertainly. Nick also says in his speech: “we can do so much better than that this time”. “now” indicates the time of speaking. this country is crying out for change”. sa dezvolt next week 48 . In the first chapter I also spoke about time adverbs. but not the time of speaking. the time of speaking. if you vote Conservative on Tuesday”. ‘Tuesday’ is distal term. And ‘then’ shows ambiguity. also a distal term. ‘one minute’ and ‘one hour’ indicate the time.This time you can make the difference” ‘this time’ appear twice in his speech. show the future time. “policies for the future” is not close to the speaker. ‘This evening’ is distal term. or DT).

In the next subchapter I will focus on spatial deixis. “you paid the money back”. what I support”. We have: present . “I want to thank everybody”.an event/action before the speech act and future .e. This is your election.an event/action simultaneously to the speech act. choose the future you really want”. and not past tense or future. the ET (encoding time) and the DT (decoding time) occur at the same time. “I’m talking about what’s going now”. “we need a government”. As we see in the examples above.“I believe all these can happen. “I supported” Present tense: “this country is crying out for change”. past. Contemporary English uses only two adverbs: here and there. the time dominant during a political debate is the present tense. Spatial deixis The concept of distance is considered relevant to spatial deixis. Future: “every change will make the difference”. ie the time of the speech. When you go to vote next week. In temporal deixis I also discussed about tenses . 3. whenever relative location of things is being indicated. this is your country. past . In this example. Examples of tenses i. “I can’t guarantee”. “I think it is time”. “I mean. such as come and go. In this subchapter I analyzed temporal deixis in the political debate.time relations in connection to a given point in time. “I disagree with you”. present and future. “we have to take actions”. in the debate: Past tense: “it was years ago”.2. “will be difficult”. which retain a deictic sense when they are used 49 . “I’m sorry”. “we can do so much better”. “I think”.3. There are also some verbs of motion. “I will work tirelessly”. “They did nothing”.an event/action after the speech act. “you blocked it”.

In the first part ‘House of Lords’ is bounded.. Speakers temporally away from their home location will often continue to use here to mean the home location. This sequence indicates a special region with a clearly defined boundary ‘the House of Commons and the House of Lords’. Gordon Brown says: “This debate is the answer. “from these old parties. for example...to mark movement toward the speaker. is an 50 . or away from the speaker. Brown affirms: “report me at the House of Commons and the House of Lords”. In the last part of the speech the demonstrative pronoun ‘that’ appears again and it is a distal term. And in the second part ‘there’ is a distal expression i..who’s been involved in this debate.e. Gordon Brown states: “should be able to throw that member.they should be there”.of the parliament.We are desperate to get this country”. indicates a spatial region with a clearly defined boundary. The location. can be fixed mentally as well as physically.. ‘these old parties’ is bounded.e. In turn 19. as in Go to my room . It is described as deictic projection and we can make more use of its possibilities when technology allows us to manipulate location. Nick Clegg argues.. David Cameron states: “this country”. In turn 9.would be in office. i. indicate a spatial region with a clearly defined boundary.we can put that in place”. ‘of the parliament’ is bounded. ‘that‘ is far from the speaker and is a distal expression. ‘this debate’ used twice....... In turn 16. as if they still were in that location. Come to my room. ‘this’ is a demonstrative pronoun and it is the object in a pragmatically given area close to the speaker’s location. ‘this’ is the object in a pragmatically given area close to the speaker’s location In turn 18. the location is specified.. far from the speaker. from the speaker’s perspective. i.. in turn 10: “direct elections of House of Lords.e.this is your country”. In turn 14.

this is your country”. or these) that can appear in the political debates. For example. another to address those of lesser social rank. Social deixis is reference to the social characteristics of. My next step is to analyze social deixis in the same political debate. or distinctions between.2. “this robber system”. Relational social deixis is where the form of word used indicates the relative social status of the addressor and the addressee. And ‘this country’ is close to the speaker’s location. He gives as example the difference between formal and polite pro-forms. that. one pro-form might be used to address those of higher social rank. There are demonstrative pronouns and demonstrative adjectives (this. another to address those of the same social rank. which is which? In this subchapter I focused on spatial deixis. the participants or referents in a speech event. “This is your election.4. Social deixis Social deixis concerns the social information that is encoded within various expressions. “This debate”. Fillmore (1982:22) mentions that social deixis is the use of different deictics to express social distinctions.adjective and a proximal expression.sil. “This time you can make”. those. 3. it is near to the speaker who is Brown. (http://www. Examples of demonstrative pronouns and demonstrative adjectives: “we bound about these things. “They got these safety jobs”. ‘in office’ is bounded and it is far from the speaker.htm) 51 . Two major forms of it are the so-called T-V distinctions and honorifics.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsSocialDeixis. " this time". such as relative social status and familiarity.

In most other languages. may have semantic analogues to convey the mentioned attitudes towards the addressee. To me. 52 . expression of social deixis can be accomplished by several linguistic devices including personal pronouns. In some cases.5. profession. In the next subchapter I will analyze discourse deixis. Perhaps the most common way of doing this is by use of the T-V distinction. as well as within social groups of the speakers of a given language. however. In some circumstances. age.2. refers to the use of expressions within an utterance to refer to parts of the discourse that contains the utterance . (http://en. but addressing them with respect. or “pan” in Polish. kin relationship. and in That was an amazing day.org/wiki/Language) In this debate we can see that the participants at the dialogue are persons with the same social class. it is not unusual to call other people by first name and the respectful form. 3.g. In their confrontation we can not figure out what kind of 'you' is used..Social deixis deals with aspects of sentences in which codification of the social status of the speaker. such as whether to address someone by first or last name. For example. but different ages. ethnic group. the same profession. in This is a great story. or whether to use "sir" / "ma'am" in US English. forms of address. The boundaries between formal and informal language differ from language to language. Languages (e. this gives the impression of maintaining grammatical order while showing formality. Discourse deixis According to Levinson (1983:63) discourse deixis (spoken and written discourse). sex. In the fourth subchapter I analyzed the social deixis. English) which have no syntactic T–V distinction. information included: social class.wikipedia. like “sir” in English. also referred to as text deixis. there is some additional grammatical work involved in displaying an appropriate level of resepect. closely associated with (and sometimes even sub-categorized as) person deixis. clitics/ particles and the choice of vocabulary. Showing respect in English usually just means inserting the word “sir” or “ma’am” somewhere into the sentence.including the utterance itself. addressee or third person or entity referred to as well as the social relationships between them takes place. or last name and familiar form. the 2nd person pronoun is augmented with an additional word. “this” refers to an upcoming portion of the discourse. You are talking directly to someone.

‘this’ refers to an upcoming portion of the discourse. it is discourse deictic. Discourse markers: “but we gonna take”. ‘actually’. An important area of discourse deixis concerns discourse markers. sentence etc. When that expression refers to the same item as a prior linguistic expression. The rule of thumb to distinguish the two phenomenon is as follows: when an expression refers to another linguistic expression or a piece of discourse. “but you have Lords?”. In turn 18. ‘well’. “but people the top pay their fair share”. ‘still’. It is conceptually near the speaker in the discourse. This political debate is a spoken discourse. All these words make reference to a statement. In turn19. “but is apt to the people to decide”.. because it is an oral communication or confrontation between three different parties. ‘but’.’ after all’.. ‘so’. ‘however’. In turn 6. like ‘anyway’. ‘this’ refers to an upcoming portion of the discourse. politics doesn’t matter”. 53 . Gordon Brown affirms: “This debate is the answer to people that say. ‘at all’. “but we need a government”. ‘this’ is not near the speaker in the physical sense. “that nothing really changes at all”. Nick Clegg says: “and listen. it is anaphoric. “But I have the duty”.none of this is going to make any difference if we allow this”. ‘in conclusion’.“that” refers to a prior portion of the discourse. Nick Clegg states: “This is your election”.

but the same concepts can apply to written language and gestures as well. spatial deixis. CONCLUSIONS The purpose of my B. My B. the time and the location.What I did in this chapter was to analyze deixis in a political debate. First. 54 .A. as explained below. To know and understand deixis is important. I defined the notions and then I analyzed person deixis. Understanding the meaning of certain words and phrases in an utterance requires contextual information. Deictic information is important for the interpretation of utterance.A. social deixis and discourse deixis in the debate. temporal deixis. project deals largely with deixis in spoken language. project was to learn about notion of ‘deixis’ in political discourse. Deixis is closely related to both indexicality and anaphora. I have learned that deixis concerns the ways in which languages express features of the context of utterance or speech event in a different way. To know the persons involved in a conversation.

today. discourse and social deixis. because they are more common and more important than the last two. But it has some relevance to analysis of conversation and pragmatics.At the beginning. last year. next week. status. both have different histories and traditions associated with them. The terms deixis and indexicality are frequently used nearinterchangeably. tomorrow. I defined the notions and then I try to analyzed person deixis. but more importantly. Pierce and others. I exemplified some definitions about deixis. temporal deixis. people as members of pressure and issue groups. spatial deixis. In the first part. spatial. then. yesterday. in three days. it can encode different aspects of the communicative intentions of speakers. Place deixis specifies the locations relative to the speech event. attitudes. Time deixis refers to words and phrases like now. and sex. temporal. Person deixis comprises personal pronouns. The simplicity of these pronouns often disguises the complexity of their use. 55 . and both concern essentially the same idea. Indexicality probably played a crucial part in the evolution of language. that political discourse is identified by actors or authors (politicians) and political activity or political process also involve people as citizens and voters. I spoke about deixis and indexicality. by using some definitions and characteristics adopted by some researchers as Levinson. contextually-dependant references. I also present some characteristics about each one. I accomplished that. Huddleston. I have learned that many studies have pointed out that pronominal usage is not only related to variables such as formality. I presented the five types of deixis: person. social deixis and discourse deixis in the debate. I have read in Teun van Dijk book. In the last part of my project I made an analysis on deixis in a political debate. However. Fillmore. etc. I paid more attention to the first three types of deixis. In summary deixis is very important for learners of second languages.

2. Chilton Paul Anthony “Analysing political discourse: theory and practice”. IN: Sebeok.I chose a political debate because I found it very interesting. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. (ed. Gilman. Media Discourse. Fairclough. Norman (1995). A.) Style in Language. T. Brown. How some people fight for power. R. London: Edward Arnold. how they expose their point of view regarding their candidacy. 2004 3.. Cambridge: MIT Press. "The pronouns of power and solidarity. 1960. how they try to convince the audience to vote for them and not for the opposite parties.A. 56 .

Geoffrey “Indexicality and Deixis”. Stephen C. space and time. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The Building Blocks of Meaning: Ideas for a Philosophical Grammar. and John B. 636-724). 14.). (cf. J. Black. The Handbook of Pragmatics. Ablex. Verschueren 7. Levinson.4. Levinson. 2004) 13. In Handbook of Pragmatics. 9. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10. 1932 [1897] 12. John. Suchman. Deixis. 2. Pullum. Computing. 1995. (1983). Deixis. “Cognitive anthropology”. Edward L. 1990) 15. Stephen R. Cambridge Univ. 3. Chap. (2004) "Deixis". Towards a descriptive framework for spatial deixis. Stephen C. In R.. 8. (1977). Stephen C. 15. Semantics (Vol. 1992. (1985). Teun A van Dijk “What is Political Discourse Analysis?”. Blackwell Publishing. Fillmore. pp. 5. pp. In T. C. Levinson. Lyons. Pragmatics. (1982). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.. ed. pp. 2006) 6. Charles J. Shopen (Ed. Peirce. "Division of Signs" in Collected Papers. Language typololgy and syntactic description: Grammatical categories and the lexicon (Vol. Huddleston Rodney and Geoffrey K. & Keenan. Press. 1995. Robertson. 11. Nunberg. Prandi Michele.S. and Cooperation. A Student's Introduction to English Grammar. 259-308). Verschueren 1999:18) 57 . John Benjamins. Lucy A"What Is Human--Machine Interaction?" Cognition. Wayne Zachary. 978–120. by Scott P.

com/watch?v=QnkUF6VWOlI) 17. (http://en.uk/news/election 2010/7655577/BBC-leaders-debate-Gordon-Brownadmits-David-Cameron-is-set-to-take-power.every free call right to petition and a better House of Commons and Lords.telegraph. Gordon Brown: .wikipedia.org/wiki/Deixis) 19.and David let’s be honest…you voted against taking actions. (http://en.. You don’t want back to happened…you blocked it only in the last week…the key issue here is that we will take responsibility for a better form of politics. (http://www.html. (http://www.. 58 . 18. 2.wikipedia.org/wiki/Debate) 20..usingenglish.16..com/glossary/demonstrative-pronoun. (http://www..youtube.html) Appendix Britain's leadership election debates (BBC leaders' debate) 1. Gordon Brown: .co..

then no questions are until the next time in election.. I think a criminal on the run. David Cameron: Let me just take one point of the all that Nick said… I think we should all be frank…and politics has been a mess for all of us.. 6. not next support me and report me at the House of Commons and the House of Lords… 59 . but we gonna take action that makes a real difference in the future. all the money hasn’t been paid back.3. 5. this robber system in Western where carry on. Gordon Brown: I think we should raise the standard of the bank. neither of you… 7. not serving ourselves. and yes the liberal-democrats give two and a half million pound to someone who steal. all rich individuals.none of this is going to make any difference if we allow this. there is a direct relation between of hundreds of Labor and MPs. David Cameron: I disagree with you! 8. 9. Nick Clegg: …and listen. I’m talking about what’s going now. where that basically all you need to get 20-30% to your vote in their areas. there were awful things that happened. David Cameron: If you paid the money back. we have to take actions against lots of MPs who betrayed the public trust and in the politics I hold the seven republics. where MPs have jobs for life. We all have MPs with dreadful expenses problems…Yes. let’s be absolutely clear. we were completely exonerated for that. Nick Clegg: Before we bound about these things. 4. Nick Clegg: …neither of you want to clear the system from top to toe in a way that makes me forgive. They got these safety jobs for lives and a level of abuse quite inexpensive. the Conservative Party is been too lot for too long.. it was years ago.

this country is crying out for change. and we had corrupt them (please ). from top the toe politics direct elections of House of Lords. 15. I mean. fair votes for everybody. what I support… what I support. every change will make the difference. the most constituent should be able to throw that member of the parliament and not having to wait for general election. 60 . don't waste one hour. a referent of next year of a new House of Commons and a new House of Lords. then. is something I supported all my adult political life. they should be there just cause they don’t favors to politicians making the rule uses to getting big money. David Cameron: Well. it’s rather difficult cause Gordon says Nick agrees with Gordon and Nick said Nick doesn’t agree with Gordon. I think it is time that when an MP breaks the rules.10. 16. David Cameron: We've got just six and a half days to go between now and polling day. straight away. 11. Gordon Brown: The truth is that Nick does support from eventual vote of House of Commons and House of Lords… 12. which is complete clean up. I’m sorry that the conservative rejected report. Gordon Brown: From now until next Thursday we have got to campaign like we have never campaigned before. I think we all agree about that and who ever wins the next election we can put that in place. Don't waste one minute. Nick Clegg: but you have Lords? 13. we gonna have a new start. and there is nothing new. that’s the way forward. Gordon Brown: We’re going to put into a referent next year and let the people decide what politics breaks down in the way it did. Nick Clegg: cause I’m seeing nothing to support. let me try and found something that we all agree on it. we need to explain to people the only way to get it is a Conservative government. 14. They did nothing for thirty years.

perhaps in eight 61 . we need a government with the vast families and understand that family is the most important thing in our society. I think that we can do great things in this country. Don’t let anyone tell you that it can’t happen. you can have a new fresh government. but people the top pay their fair share. David Cameron: We can go on. 19. but we need a government with the right values. Nick Clegg: Just think how many times you’ve been give lots of promises from these old parties and when they get back in to the government you find that nothing really changes at all. and will be difficult decisions. This is your election. They showed that there are big causes we can fight for. 18. with people who try to do the right thing. then together we will really change Brit. fair taxes that you pay less. I think I got a great team behind me. but I want to lead as through those to better times ahead. They also showed that big differences exist between the parties.17. We need a government with the best work. if you vote Labor you can get more of the same. I believe the test of a good and strong society is how we look after the most valuable. and the poorest that’s true in good times. When you go to vote next week. I know that if things stay as they are. and taking our country in a new direction and bringing the change that we need. if you vote Conservative on Tuesday. solve our problems and do great things. smaller class size for your children a different approach to the economy and decent open politics that you can trust once again. If you believe like I do that we can do things differently this time. a fair stop. Of course I can’t guarantee that all problems you faced can’t be solved over night. but is even truer in difficult times. And I want to thank everybody who’s been involved in this debate over the last few weeks. but I can guarantee that I will work tirelessly to deliver fairly for you. It can! This time you can make the difference. choose the future you really want. and we need a government that always understands that keeping in safe and secure is the most important thing of all. this is your country. making a clean break. Gordon Brown: This debate is the answer to people that say. if you vote Liberal as we seen tonight is just uncertainly. I believe all these can happen. we can do so much better than that this time. politics doesn’t matter.

the Conservatives would put the recovery immediately at risk with an emergency Budget. We are desperate to get this country through the recession and into the recovery. would be in office. but I’m gonna tell you that things are too important to be left to risky policies under this two people. 62 . perhaps supported by Nick Clegg. I believe too. They are not ready for government because they are not sort through the policies. No. and that is why I intend to continue to do. I don’t like having to do this. that pleasing will be at risk from a conservative government. but is apt to the people to decide. and is your decision.days' time David Cameron. But I have the duty of telling you this evening that while we have policies for the future. I believe also that John Teskot will be cut by both parties if they came into a coalition. because they have not set that they would match us on pleasing either. I believe that he’s planning to cut the schools budget and it hasn’t denial yet.

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