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Shorter Communication

Identi"cation of hydrodynamic similarity in risers of circulating

#uidized beds

Received 4 May 1999; received in revised form 16 October 1999; accepted 26 October 1999

Transport and reaction performances of a riser of

circulating #uidized beds (CFBs) depend, to a large ex-

tent, on the complicated two-phase hydrodynamics of

such reactors. To make possible the scale up of a laborat-

ory model, it is necessary to establish scaling rules for

hydrodynamic similarity. Till date, several similar sets of

similitude invariants have been presented by di!erent

researchers based mainly on the dimensional analysis or

the analysis of governing equations, and generally, con-

formity of respective criteria to experimental results was

also found (Glicksman, 1984,1988; Horio, Ishii, Kobukai

& Yamanishi, 1989; Ishii & Murakami, 1990; Glicksman,

Westphalen, Woloshun, Ebert, Roth, Lints, Brereton

& Grace, 1991; Chang & Louge, 1992; Patience,

Chaouki, Berruti & Wong, 1992). Although previous

work suggests that the similitude method could be a use-

ful tool for hydrodynamic scale up of such reactors, the

bounds to which the derived similitude numbers can be

con"dently used have remained uncertain, and the rela-

tive signi"cance of those dimensionless numbers are not

yet clear. To ascertain these aspects, we resort to an

equational analysis of the widely adopted 1-D #ow model.

The governing equations of an 1-D #ow models can be

obtained by simplifying the two-#uid model equations

(Nieuwland, Delnoij, Kuipers & van Swaaij, 1997). By

continuity, the equations are

G

E

"

E

;

E

"u

E

E

(1)

for the gas phase, and

G

N

"

N

;

N

"u

N

N

(2)

for the solids phase. For the axial momentum balance,

the equations are

d

dz

(

E

E

u`

E

)"!

E

dp

dz

!F

"

!F

E

!F

EU

(3)

for the gas phase, and

d

dz

(

N

N

u`

N

)"!

N

dp

dz

#F

"

!F

N

!F

NU

(4)

for the solids phase.

With

E

"1!

N

, eliminating pressure gradient terms

from Eqs. (3) and (4) yields

(1!

E

)G

E

du

E

dz

!

E

G

N

du

N

dz

"

E

F

N

#(1!

E

)F

E

!F

"

!(1!

E

)F

EU

#

E

F

NU

. (5)

Similarly, an independent equation for pressure gradi-

ent is obtained by combining Eqs. (3) and (4)

!

dp

dz

"G

N

du

N

dz

#G

E

du

E

dz

#F

E

#F

N

#F

EU

#F

NU

. (6)

In Eqs. (5) and (6), the drag force per unit volume

mixture is de"ned by

F

"

"`

"

C

"

E

(1!

E

)

(u

E

!u

N

)`

d

N

, (7)

the gravity force terms are

F

N

"

N

N

g, (8)

F

E

"

E

E

g, (9)

the gas}wall shear force is

F

EU

"

E

2

E

u`

E

D

(10)

and, the solid-wall shear force is expressed as

F

NU

"

N

2

N

u`

N

D

. (11)

By using Eqs. (1) and (2), the terms u

E

and u

N

can be

expressed as unique functions of

E

. For instance, the

phase slip velocity u

P

may be expressed as

u

P

"(u

E

!u

N

)"

;

E

E

1!

;

N

;

E

E

1!

E

(12)

then the particle Reynolds number becomes

Re

P

"

E

d

N

u

P

E

"

E

;

E

d

N

E

1!

;

N

;

E

E

1!

E

. (13)

0009-2509/00/$- see front matter 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 0 0 9 - 2 5 0 9 ( 9 9 ) 0 0 5 4 8 - 5

Nomenclature

C

"

drag coe$cient

d

N

particle diameter, m

D diameter, m

F force, N/m`

Fr Froude number

g gravity constant, m/s`

G mass #ux, kg/m`s

axial length, m

m magni"cation

p pressure, N/m`

P dimensionless pressure

Re Reynolds number

u local velocity, m/s

; super"cial velocity, m/s

;

R

particle terminal velocity, m/s

z length, m

Z dimensionless length

Greek letters

hold-up

friction factor

viscosity, Pa s

density, kg/m`

slip factor

Q

particle sphericity factor

Subscripts

B body force

cl cluster

D drag

g gas

p solid

t terminal

Selecting and (

N

!

E

)gD as the characteristic scales

of the riser length and pressure, respectively, Eqs. (5) and

(6) can be non-dimensionlized as the following two ordi-

nary di!erential equations:

1#

N

;`

N

E

;`

E

E

1!

E

d

E

dZ

"!

g

;`

E

(

N

!

E

)

E

`

E

#

3C

"

4

d

N

1!

;

N

;

E

E

1!

E

`

!

N

2

N

;`

N

E

;`

E

D

`

E

(1!

E

)`

#

E

2

E

(14)

and

!

dP

dZ

"

;`

E

gD

E

(

N

!

E

)

N

;`

N

E

;`

E

E

1!

E

`

!1

1

`

E

d

E

dZ

#(1!

E

)

(

N

!

E

)

D

#

N

2

N

(

N

!

E

)

;`

N

gD

D

1

(1!

E

)

#

E

2

;`

E

gD

E

(

N

!

E

)

D

1

E

. (15)

Eqs. (14) and (15) contain all the information in the

original governing equations without introducing addi-

tional assumptions.

The following eight independent similitude invariants

can be drawn from Eqs. (14) and (15) that ensure 1-D

hydrodynamic similarity of the gas holdup and pressure

distributions along the riser axis in case of the same

boundary conditions:

E

(Z), P(Z)"function

;`

E

gD

,

;`

N

;`

E

,

E

N

,

D

,

d

N

, C

"

,

D

,

N

,

(16)

where the Froude number is de"ned by

Fr"

;`

E

gD

. (17)

At this point, it is evident that if the veri"cation basis of

similarity is the 1-D voidage and velocity pro"les (Horio

et al., 1989; Ishii & Murakami, 1990; Glicksman et al.,

1991), the derived dimensionless numbers constitute a set

of kinematic and dynamic similarity criteria that should

keep invariant during scaling up.

The "rst "ve dimensionless numbers in the right-hand

side of Eq. (16) contain seven variables, i.e., ;

E

, ;

N

,

E

,

N

, d

N

, , and gD. Though the others are de"nitely de-

"ned, the particle parameters d

N

and

N

deserve further

scrutiny. Under di!erent #ow regimes, particles may ex-

hibit quite di!erent behaviors such as cluster formation

(Horio et al., 1989). In general, d

N

and

N

could be treated

as some e!ective properties such as cluster diameter

d

and density

particle diameter

N

d

N

(Chang & Louge, 1992).

The remaining three dimensionless parameters, i.e., the

drag coe$cient and friction factors due to particle/

#uid}wall shearing, arise from the dynamic similarity

conditions. Although the standard drag coe$cient curve

is not directly applicable to the CFB modeling (e.g.,

Littman, Morgan, Paccione, Jovanovic & Grbavic,

1993), it is commonly accepted that the drag coe$cient is

2742 H. Liu et al. / Chemical Engineering Science 55 (2000) 2741}2744

a function of particle Reynolds number and gas holdup:

C

"

"C

"

(Re

P

,

E

) (18)

where the hold up term serves to roughly characterize the

inter-particle e!ects.

From Eq. (13) it is seen that

Re

P

"function

E

;

E

d

N

E

,

;

E

;

N

,

E

, (19)

where the Reynolds number Re

N

is de"ned as

Re

N

"

E

;

E

d

N

E

. (20)

The #uid}wall shear coe$cient can be de"ned by the

following Blasius relation (Nieuwland et al., 1997)

D

"

D

(Re), (21)

where the Reynolds number, Re, is de"ned as

Re"

E

;

E

D

E

. (22)

The following function for particle}wall shear coe$-

cient was suggested by Nieuwland et al. (1997):

N

"

N

Re

R

, Re

P

,

u`

N

gd

N

,

E

, (23)

where the Reynolds number based on the particle ter-

minal velocity is a newly introduced dimensionless

number:

Re

R

"

E

;

R

d

N

E

. (24)

The boundary conditions at the riser entrance should

also be incorporated into the present criteria. From Pug-

sley, Patience, Berruti and Chaouki (1992), for Geldart

A-powders the voidage at the bottom of a riser is corre-

lated by

@

"0.714

;

N

;

E

""````

Re"`"`

R

D""`"". (25)

There is no new dimensionless number appearing in

this correlation except for the anomalous dimension of D.

This implies that strong scale e!ect may occur during the

scaling up for the entrance region. Because of a lack of

data, at present, it seems di$cult to further resolve this

e!ect.

Due to the restriction of the one-dimensional #ow

model, other governing parameters such as inter-particle

force, and the e!ects of choking and electrostatics (Chang

& Louge, 1992) are not taken into account in the above

analysis. In what follows, the derived criteria are exam-

ined by a comparison with the previous ones.

Based on an analysis of the generalized governing

equations of motion, Glicksman (1984,1988) suggested

a set of "ve similitude invariants for bubbling #uidized

beds. According to Glicksman, the dynamic similarity

condition for the drag force is obtained via the Ergun-

type expression. Therefore, in the viscous limit, the drag

coe$cient is a unique function of Re

N

and voidage. In

this case, Glicksman's criteria may be written as (Glicks-

man, 1984,1988):

E

;

E

d

N

E

,

gd

N

;`

E

,

E

N

,

d

N

D

,

d

N

,

Q

. (26)

In the inertial limit, the drag coe$cient is a function of

only gas holdup (Glicksman, 1984,1988), correspond-

ingly, Glicksman's criteria becomes

gd

N

;`

E

,

d

N

D

,

E

N

,

d

N

,

Q

. (27)

When the particle sphericity factor

Q

is combined

with the particle e!ective mean diameter (Chang

& Louge, 1992), it is proved from the above analysis that

Glicksman's set of similarity numbers is equivalent to

those derived in this paper with the precondition of

geometrical similarity.

Horio et al. (1989) derived similarity laws from the

core-annulus model (Ishii, Nakajima & Horio, 1989). In

terms of the given necessary conditions of geometrical

and kinematic similarity, the geometrical similarity con-

ditions for the model (with a prime) and the prototype are

"

D

D

"m. (28)

Combining Fr and ;

N

/;

E

with the geometrical sim-

ilarity conditions yields

;

E

;

E

"

;

N

;

N

"(m. (29)

When the particle diameter is represented by cluster

diameters, combining /d

N

with the geometrical sim-

ilarity conditions yields

d

N

d

N

"m. (30)

By using the speci"ed correlation

N

"au`>@

RA

/gD (Hor-

io et al., 1989), the following Horio similarity condition is

derived:

;

R

;

R

"(m. (31)

Substituting the correlations for ;

R

into Eq. (31) yields

the corresponding single-particle mean-size similarity

conditions (Horio et al., 1989). Therefore, the same sim-

ilarity conditions as those of Horio et al. (1989) can be

derived based on Eq. (16).

Patience et al. (1992) proposed the following criterion

of the slip factor , which incorporates with indicative

H. Liu et al. / Chemical Engineering Science 55 (2000) 2741}2744 2743

* Corresponding author. Tel.: #86-10-64436787; fax: #86-10-

64436781.

E-mail address: licy@buct.edu.cn (C. Li)

experimental evidence in di!erent size risers

"1#5.6/Fr#0.47Fr""

R

, (32)

where Fr

R

";`

R

/gD. Using the continuity conditions, Eq.

(32) can be transformed into

1!

E

E

"

;

N

;

E

(1#5.6/Fr#0.47Fr""

R

). (33)

It is readily seen that

E

"function

;

N

;

E

, Fr, Fr

R

. (34)

This is merely a special case consistent with the criteria

by Horio et al. with the precondition of geometrical

similarity.

All of the analyses mentioned above show that Eq. (16)

can be used as a set of 1-D hydrodynamic similarity

criteria. The signi"cance of the involving dimensionless

numbers can be clearly identi"ed from the simpli"ed Eqs.

(14) and (15). Further research is optionally needed to

quantify their scale-up e!ects.

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the "nancial sup-

port of the NSFC, with the Grant No. 29792073-3.

HUI LIU

BIAOHUA CHEN

CHENGYUE LI*

College of Chemical Engineering

Beijing University of Chemical Technology

Beijing 100029

People's Republic of China

References

Chang, H., & Louge, M. (1992). Fluid dynamic similarity of circulating

#uidized beds. Powder Technology, 70, 259}270.

Glicksman, L. R. (1984). Scaling relationships for #uidized beds. Chem-

ical Engineering Science, 39, 1373}1379.

Glicksman, L. R. (1988). Scaling relationships for #uidized beds. Chem-

ical Engineering Science, 43, 1419}1421.

Glicksman, L. R., Westphalen, D., Woloshun, K., Ebert, T., Roth, K.,

Lints, M., Brereton, C. M. H. Grace, J. R. (1991). Experimental scale

models of circulating #uidized bed combustors. In E. J. Anthony,

Proceedings of the 11th Conference on FBC. Montreal, p. 1169.

Horio, M., Ishii, H., Kobukai, Y., & Yamanishi, N. (1989). A scaling law

for circulating #uidized bed. Journal of Chemical Engineering of

Japan, 22, 587}592.

Ishii, H., & Murakami, I. (1990). Evaluation of the scaling law of

circulating #uidized beds in regard to cluster behaviors. In P. Basu,

M. Horio, & M. Hasatani, Proceedings of the third International

Conference on CFB (p. 125). New York: Pergamon Press.

Ishii, H., Nakajima, T., & Horio, M. (1989). The clustering annular #ow

model of circulating #uidized beds. Journal of Chemical Engineering

of Japan, 22, 484}490.

Littman, L., Morgan III, M. H., Paccione, J. D., Jovanovic, S. D.,

& Grbavic, Z. B. (1993). Modeling and measurement of the e!ective

drag coe$cient in decelerating and non-accelerating turbulent

gas}solids dilute phase #ow of large particles in a vertical transport

pipe. Powder Technology, 77, 267}283.

Nieuwland, J. J., Delnoij, E., Kuipers, J. A. M., & van Swaaij, W. P. M.

(1997). An engineering model for dilute riser #ow. Powder Techno-

logy, 90, 115}123.

Patience, G. S., Chaouki, J., Berruti, F., & Wong, R. (1992). Scaling

considerations for circulating #uidized bed risers. Powder Techno-

logy, 72, 31}37.

Pugsley, T. S., Patience, G. S., Berruti, F. B., & Chaouki, J. (1992).

Modeling the catalytic oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride in

a circulating #uidized bed reactor. Industrial Engineering and Chem-

ical Research, 31, 2652}2660.

2744 H. Liu et al. / Chemical Engineering Science 55 (2000) 2741}2744

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