© 2011 ANSYS, Inc.

October 24, 2011 1
Human Body Modeling with 
ANSYS Software
Marc Horner, Ph.D.
Technical Lead, Healthcare
ANSYS, Inc.
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 2
Overview
This talk is motivated by the following observations:
1. Our understanding, and thus our ability to mathematically describe, the 
human body is to the point where one can assemble human body models as 
“boundary conditions” for  biomedical simulations.
2. Improvements in ease‐of‐use and stability of multiphysics modeling tools.
3. Computational capabilities are continually increasing.
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 3
Types of Human Body Models
Application areas:
• Coronary stents
• Peripheral stents
• Artificial organs
Application areas:
• Transdermal
• Inhalers
• Oral
• Intrathecal
CARDIOVASCULAR DRUG DELIVERY MUSCULOSKELETAL
Human Body 
Modeling
• CFD, FEA, and emag
models coupled to 
lumped parameter 
representations of the 
human body
Parametric System 
Level
• DOE for HBM
• Fully automated 
process
EMAG
Application areas:
• Medical imaging
• Cardiology
• Drug delivery
• Cancer treatments
Application areas:
• Orthopaedic implants
• Exercise equipment
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 4
Types of Human Body Models
Application areas:
• Coronary stents
• Peripheral stents
• Artificial organs
Application areas:
• Transdermal
• Inhalers
• Oral
• Intrathecal
CARDIOVASCULAR DRUG DELIVERY MUSCULOSKELETAL
Human Body 
Modeling
• CFD, FEA, and emag
models coupled to 
lumped parameter 
representations of the 
human body
Parametric System 
Level
• DOE for HBM
• Fully automated 
process
EMAG
Application areas:
• Medical imaging
• Cardiology
• Drug delivery
• Cancer treatments
Application areas:
• Orthopaedic implants
• Exercise equipment
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 5
Geometry
Material properties
Can typically assume density and viscosity at average
hematocrit and high shear.
µ = 1.05 g/cm
3
µ = 0.035 g/cm-s
Resting Condition
Q
tot
= 6.8 L/min, 75 bpm**
Exercising Condition
Q
tot
= 12.8 L/min, 117 bpm**
* Stevens et al., Math Biosciences (2003)
Inflow conditions
Literature a good source for inflow data*
** Murgo et al., Circ Res (2003)
Idealized Blood Flow
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 6
Material properties
Can take a blood sample and measure the patients
hematocrit, protein content, etc.
Inflow conditions
Taken from on-line measurements***
*** Huntsman et al., Circulation (1983)
** Cho & Kensey, Biorheology (1991)
µ vs H* µ vs ¸**
* Hinghofer-Szalkay, ?? (1986)
Geometry
(courtesy Materialise Inc.)
Patient‐Specific Blood Flow
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 7
My Flow Patterns
speed
wall shear
pressure
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 8
One complicating factor in aortic 
flow modeling is the application 
of accurate outflow boundary 
conditions.
Specialized conditions are required 
because the flow split at a 
bifurcation is controlled by 
downstream organ demand, not 
the bifurcation geometry.
Without a specialized condition, an 
analyst will not have a proper 
understanding of the baseline 
flow patterns and how an 
implanted device affects those 
patterns.
+5.5 L/min
-0.3 L/min
-0.8 L/min
-1.1 L/min
-1.1 L/min
-2.2 L/min
Flow Rate Reqs for Human Organ Circuits
1
1
Rhodes & Tanner, Med Physiology (1995)
Outflow Conditions For Aortic Flows
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 9
Create a detailed geometric model of the 
entire cardiovascular system, extending 
from the heart to the capillaries.  The 
problems with this approach are obvious:
• Large geometric model required to 
capture full geometric details
• Accuracy of the geometry will be at 
question, esp. below 0.5 mm
* Image from Texas Heart Institute web-site
Modeling Options for Outflow BCs
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 10
Electrical Circuit Model of the
Human Cardiovascular System*
* Westerhof et al., J Biomech (1969)
Modeling Options for Outflow BCs
Create a detailed geometric model of the 
entire cardiovascular system, extending 
from the heart to the capillaries.  The 
problems with this approach are obvious:
• Large geometric model required to 
capture full geometric details
• Accuracy of the geometry will be at 
question, esp. below 0.5 mm
Use a lumped parameter approach to 
alleviate the need for detailed geometry 
at all length scales.
• The image to the right is an electrical 
circuit model of the human circulatory 
system, extending from the heart to 
the small arteries.
• Each box contains a lumped parameter 
representation of an artery section.
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 11
The circuit on the lower left can be used to model the flow rate and 
pressure losses in each artery section. This circuit is referred to as 
a 3‐element Windkessel.
R
R
D
C
resistance term – accounts for
downstream flow resistance
(primarily in the capillary beds)
compliance term – accounts for
artery expansion/contraction
(primarily in the large arteries)
inertance term – accounts for
inertial effects (primarily in the
large arteries)
Lumped Parameter Model Details
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 12
The Westerhof Circuit in Simplorer
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 13
0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00
0.00
100.00
200.00
300.00
400.00
500.00
m
a
g
(
1
/
E
1
.
I
)
Ansoft LLC
total input imedance magnitude
Curve Info
mag(1/E1.I)
AC
Impedance Comparison
Westerhof Model Simplorer Model
(Inverted L Network)
0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00
F [kHz]
-75.00
-50.00
-25.00
0.00
25.00
-
a
n
g
_
d
e
g
(
E
1
.
I
)

[
d
e
g
]
Ansoft LLC
total input imedance phase
Curve Info
-ang_deg(E1.I)
AC
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 14
Insert FLUENT into the Simplorer HBM
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 15
The Windkessel boundary condition was applied to an idealized representation of 
the abdominal aorta.  Transient values for the inlet flow rate and outlet 
pressures were culled from a literature source*.  The geometry and boundary 
conditions were symmetric in this case.  As seen in the figure on the right, there 
was excellent agreement between published and computational results for the 
outlet pressure.
Q
in
P
out
Iliac RCR parameters
R
D
= 3.22 mm Hg-s/cc
R = 0.55 mm Hg-s/cc
C = 0.001 cc/mm Hg
* Wan et al. (preprint)
Outlet pressure from SI[mplorerr compared
well with the results of Taylor
Validation
‐ Flow Past a Symmetric Bifurcation
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 16
A Non‐Symmetric Case
velocity
pressure
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 17
Types of Human Body Models
Application areas:
• Coronary stents
• Peripheral stents
• Artificial organs
Application areas:
• Orthopaedic implants
• Exercise equipment
Application areas:
• Transdermal
• Inhalers
• Oral
• Intrathecal
CARDIOVASCULAR DRUG DELIVERY MUSCULOSKELETAL
Human Body 
Modeling
• CFD, FEA, and emag
models coupled to 
lumped parameter 
representations of the 
human body
Parametric System 
Level
• DOE for HBM
• Fully automated 
process
EMAG
Application areas:
• Medical imaging
• Cardiology
• Drug delivery
• Cancer treatments
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 18
Anybody for Implant Loads
AnyBody: Determine spine kinematics
ANSYS: FEM
analysis of a
spine implant
based on the
spine kinematics
AnyBody provides a detailed description of the loads and joint forces occurring in
the human body in daily activity. ANSYS Mechanical can import loads from Anybody,
providing critical information for testing orthopaedic implants and the like.
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 19
Medical images
CAD/Mesh Finite Element Analysis
FEA loads for
activities of daily living
Musculoskeletal
Simulation
Optimization
Activities of daily living
Orthopaedic Workflow
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 20
Activities of daily living
Boundary
conditions
Patient
information
FE-model
Functional Patient‐Specific Modeling
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 21
Unique Open Body Model Library
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 22
Daily Activity Analysis
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 23
Dynamic Physiologic Loads
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 24
Thielen et al. 2009
In vivo validation
‐ Hip forces
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 25
A Hip Simulator
video from: http://edp.tkk.fi/en/research/tribology/research_projects/biotribology/
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 26
Upper fig: Calonius and Saikko, Acta Polytechnica (2003)
waveforms whole head patterns flattened patterns
- Slide tracks represent the relative motion of the ball and cup
Slide tracks on the head are
determined by mounting pens to
fixed points on the cup and vice
versa for slide tracks on the cup.
Lower fig: Calonius and Saikko, J Biomech (2002)
Slide Track Patterns
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 27
Variation in Slide Track Patterns
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 28
-27
-17
-7
3
13
23
2.84 3.84 4.84
A
n
g
l
e

i
n

D
e
g
r
e
e
s
Time (S)
HipAbduction
HipFlexion
HipExternalRot
ation
Walking
Model Inputs 
Geometry 
• Femur and implant provided in STL 
format
• Acetabular cup was created in ANSYS 
Mechanical
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
0 0.5 1
Flexion
Abduction
Ext. Rotation
Cycling
Initial STL geometry Implant and cup assembly
• Kinematic joint conditions provided by AnyBody:
d
head
= 20 mm
d
cup
= 22 mm
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 29
Implementation
Geometry
• Head, cup (rigid), and stem
Material properties
• Default material properties used for all parts
Boundary Conditions
• Angular data entered as displacement BC’s for the 
cup in tabular format
Solver
• ANSYS Mechanical 12.1 transient solver
• Rigid‐flexible contact maintained between the head 
and the cup
Post‐processing
• Slide tracks are calculated using an APDL script which 
is inserted as a command object
cup
head
stem
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 30
Creating Slide Tracks using APDL
Choose location of the “pen”
Get the node number for the pen 
location
Track the node during the transient 
cycle
Report (x,y,z) vs time for the node at the 
end of simulation
Use point locations to create keypoints
Join keypoints to form a spline
Display the spline with initial geometry 
to see the slide tracks
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 31
Slide Tracks on the Cup
‐ Walking Profile
Side of cup Top of cup
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 32
Slide Tracks on the Cup
‐ Cycling Profile
Side of cup Top of cup
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 33
-1500
-1000
-500
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 3.2
MediolateralForce ProximoDistalForce
AnteroPosteriorForce
29
50
64
69
87
Force vs time data
Slide track with time-step locations
Slide Tracks on the Cup
‐ Walking Forces
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 34
-1500
-1000
-500
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 3.2
MediolateralForce ProximoDistalForce
AnteroPosteriorForce
147
168
182
187
205
Force vs time data
Slide track with time-step locations
Slide Tracks on the Cup
‐ Walking Forces
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 35
Slide Tracks on the Cup
‐ Kinematics
Side of cup Top of cup
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 36
Archard’s Law defines the effect of sliding distance (v) and 
contact pressure (o) on the per cycle wear depth (w):
Which can be approximated as:
• where,
– k
w
is the wear coef. (which is material and surface dependent) = 1.066E‐
6
– o is the contact stress, and
– S is the sliding distance
dt t v t k w
cycle
) , , ( ) , , ( ) , ( u | u | o u |
}
× × =
¿
× × =
cycle
w
S k w o
Wear Calculation
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 37
Cumulative Wear
(after 1 cycle)
walking
cycling
wear depth reported in (mm)
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 38
Hall et al (Proc Instn Mech Engrs, 1998) measured wear of 
UHMWPE acetabular components retrieved from 200 
patients.
Validation
‐ Clinical Data
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 39
Types of Human Body Models
Application areas:
• Coronary stents
• Peripheral stents
• Artificial organs
Application areas:
• Transdermal
• Inhalers
• Oral
• Intrathecal
CARDIOVASCULAR DRUG DELIVERY MUSCULOSKELETAL
Human Body 
Modeling
• CFD, FEA, and emag
models coupled to 
lumped parameter 
representations of the 
human body
Parametric System 
Level
• DOE for HBM
• Fully automated 
process
EMAG
Application areas:
• Medical imaging
• Cardiology
• Drug delivery
• Cancer treatments
Application areas:
• Orthopaedic implants
• Exercise equipment
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 40
Pharmacokinetic (PK) Modeling
• PK models utilize a compartmentalized
approach to model drug distribution in the
body over time. The compartments
represent organs and other drug depots.
• PK models simulate drug/chemical:
• Absorption
• Distribution
• Metabolism
• Excretion
• Coupling the PK model to the drug
delivery model enables the designer to
further refine the delivery system to work
together with the human body, understand
dependence on patient variability, disease
state, etc.
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 41
The system consists of a cylindrical patch applied to 
the skin.  The drug reservoir (in the patch) 
contains a mixture of drug and permeation 
enhancer.  Diffusion is the only mode of transport 
out of the patch and through the skin.  The far 
boundary of the skin is the inlet to the 
microcirculation, which acts as a drug sink.
• Two boundary conditions are tested 
at the far wall:
1. zero flux condition – which 
assumes the plasma is an infinite 
sink
2. PK condition – to account for drug 
build‐up in plasma
patch
skin
microcirculation
Transdermal Delivery Model
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 42
Axisymmetry is assumed
Drug and enhancer are modeled as  user‐defined 
scalars in FLUENT
A transient diffusion equation models transport 
through the skin and patch:
, where i = drug, permeation enhancer
( )
i i
i
c D
t
c
V · V =
c
c
K c c
patch drug skin drug
=
, ,
/
skin i skin i patch i patch i
c D c D
, , , ,
V = V
r = 0.925 cm
50.8 µm
50.8 µm
patch
skin
r = 0.9 cm
• The interfacial conditions at the patch‐skin interface are continuity of flux 
and a partitioning (jump) condition:
, where K is the partition coefficient
Transdermal Model Details
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 43
The permeation enhancer increases the drug flux through the 
skin.  The level of enhancement is typically a function of the 
local enhancer concentration.  Two typical situations are:
D
drug,skin
= D
drug,0
+µ*C
pe
K
drug,skin
= K
drug,0
+q*C
pe
The permeation enhancer increases
the diffusivity of drug in the skin
The permeation enhancer increases
drug solubility in the skin
µ increasing
q increasing
Transdermal Model Details
‐ Formulation Effects
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 44
Validation Case
‐ Fentanyl Patch, No PK Model
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
simulation
experiment
reference
Time (hr)
D
r
u
g
F
l
u
x
 
(
µ
g
 
c
m

2
h
r

1
)
Comparison of drug  flux through  lower boundary  of epidermis.  Initial 
concentration of drug and  enhancer  0.06, 0.04(gm  cm
‐3
). dt=100, 
ncells=58400, µ=1.8e‐4, η=0.0
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
simulation
experiment
reference
Time (hr)
D
r
u
g
F
l
u
x
 
(
µ
g
 
c
m

2
h
r

1
)
Comparison of drug  flux through  lower boundary  of epidermis.  Initial 
concentration of drug and  enhancer  0.06, 0.04(gm  cm
‐3
). dt=100, 
ncells=58400, µ=0.0, η=19.0
flux when D
drug
=f(C
enhancer
) flux when K = f(C
drug
)
Reference: Rim et al., Annals of BME, (2005)
Rim et al. examined the effect of enhancement type on drug 
flux.  These plots compare FLUENT results to their 
experimental and computational results.
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 45
• BC between epidermis and
dermal vasculature:
)] ( ) , [ t C f t l c P
z
c
D
p u
· ÷ · =
c
c
÷


• The ODE’s for the three 
compartment PK model are:
MOTIVATION: Understand/optimize
patch performance by including the
physiologic processing of drug.
) ( ) (
) ( ] [
)] ( ) , [
3 3 31 2 2 21
13 12
t C k t C k
t C k k k
t C f t l c dt dC
p el
p u p
µ µ
u
+ +
· + + ÷
· ÷ · =


) ( / ) (
2 21 2 12 2
t C k t C k dt dC
p
÷ = µ
) ( / ) (
3 31 3 13 3
t C k t C k dt dC
p
÷ = µ
plasma:
well-perfused
compartment:
poorly perfused
compartment:
• Patch model extensions:
C
F
D

M
o
d
e
l
P
K

M
o
d
e
l
Pharmacokinetic (PK) Analysis of a 
Fentanyl Patch
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 46
• BC between epidermis and
dermal vasculature:
)] ( ) , [ t C f t l c P
z
c
D
p u
· ÷ · =
c
c
÷


• The ODE’s for the three 
compartment PK model are:
) ( ) (
) ( ] [
)] ( ) , [
3 3 31 2 2 21
13 12
t C k t C k
t C k k k
t C f t l c dt dC
p el
p u p
µ µ
u
+ +
· + + ÷
· ÷ · =


) ( / ) (
2 21 2 12 2
t C k t C k dt dC
p
÷ = µ
) ( / ) (
3 31 3 13 3
t C k t C k dt dC
p
÷ = µ
plasma:
well-perfused
compartment:
poorly perfused
compartment:
• Patch model extensions:
Pharmacokinetic (PK) Analysis of a 
Fentanyl Patch
MOTIVATION: Understand/optimize
patch performance by including the
physiologic processing of drug.
C
F
D

M
o
d
e
l
P
K

M
o
d
e
l
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 47
Types of Human Body Models
Application areas:
• Coronary stents
• Peripheral stents
• Artificial organs
Application areas:
• Transdermal
• Inhalers
• Oral
• Intrathecal
CARDIOVASCULAR DRUG DELIVERY MUSCULOSKELETAL
Human Body 
Modeling
• CFD, FEA, and emag
models coupled to 
lumped parameter 
representations of the 
human body
Parametric System 
Level
• DOE for HBM
• Fully automated 
process
EMAG
Application areas:
• Medical imaging
• Cardiology
• Drug delivery
• Cancer treatments
Application areas:
• Orthopaedic implants
• Exercise equipment
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 48
HFSS‐Workbench Link for Modeling 
Cancer Treatment
Hyperthermia cancer treatment used to accelerate effects of 
chemotherapy
RF power applied to tumor using phased array antenna
• Eight strip dipole antennas connected in parallel pairs and printed on 
inner surface of cylindrical plastic shell
MRI Cross Section of Lower Leg with Tumor
(Courtesy Duke University Medical Center)
HFSS Model of Patient with Phased Array
Applicator on Lower Leg
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 49
HFSS Model of RF Phased Array 
Applicator
Device operates at 138 MHz
• Element excitations optimized to concentrate power inside tumor 
HFSS Model of Applicator on Leg
Tumor (shown in green)
HFSS Model of RF Phased Array
Applicator
Electric Field Magnitude with
Optimized Array Weights
Local Specific Absorption Rate (SAR)
with Optimized Array Weights
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 50
Transient Thermal Analysis in ANSYS 
Workbench
• Electromagnetic power is a function of 
time
– 28 W used to reach desired
temperature and 9 W to maintain
temperature
• Transient analysis used to determine 
temperature rise inside tumor
– Reaches 47°C in 6 minutes and is
maintained there for 14 minutes
Geometry in ANSYS Workbench
Results of Transient Thermal Analysis
(max/min temperature in the tumor)
Results of Transient Thermal Analysis
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 51
Closing Remarks
Coupling detailed simulations to 
lumped parameter models can 
provide more rigorous prediction of 
device performance.
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 52
Closing Remarks
Coupling detailed simulations to 
lumped parameter models can 
provide more rigorous prediction of 
device performance.
V&V is possible.
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
simulation
experiment
reference
Time (hr)
D
r
u
g
F
l
u
x
 
(
µ
g
 
c
m

2
h
r

1
)
, µ , η
P
out
© 2011 ANSYS, Inc. October 24, 2011 53
Closing Remarks
ANSYS provides flexible and open solutions that 
can be adapted to solve even the most 
challenging problems facing the biomedical 
engineers of today.
The ANSYS vision for this industry includes 
collaborating with other software vendors 
to enable one‐way and/or cosimulation
with the highest fidelity models available.

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