Temporal Structures

McGill University Faculty of Music 213-631A Time and Rhythm in 20th Century Music Prof.

Brian Cherney

Temporal structures and time perception in the music Qf Gerard Grisey: some similarities and differences to Karlheinz Stockhausen's ideas.

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Orjan Sandred 9448180

Montreal December

1994

1

Introducti.on "L'Itineraire" in Paris. is the name of an ensemble and musicians' collective

The general outlook is that the composers However,

in "L'Itineraire" sweeping

are all working with music from an acoustic point of view, noticeable above all in their way of treating harmony. "L'Itineraire" consists of individual statements may always be dangerous and, like any other grouping, composers with different music.

Gerard Grisey, born on 17 June 1946, is one of the founder-members of "L'Itineraire". His many seminars around Europe on personal great interest in a younger generation The key word for his musical ideas are ideas of and works have triggered composers and musicians.1 perception. listener's generation experience the structural

After a period in music history, when carrying through context of a work has been more important than the reactions to the work, it is of no surprise that a younger is taking great interest in ideas dealing with the of musical structure. European composers, such as

Grisey studied with several well-known O. Messiaen, H. Dutilleux, In an article in "Darmstadter
(If •..

K. Stockhausen,
~

I. Xenakis

and G. Ligeti.

Beitrage

zur neuen Musik" he generously O. Messiaen, L. v. Beet-

gives US a list of composers(~ G. Scelsi, K. Stockhausen,

have had influence on his music I. Strawinsky.

that have helped me to become a musician ...'(2) F. Cerha, E. Varese,

B. Bart6k, A. Webern, G. Mahler, C. Debussy, R. Wagner,

hoven, W. A. Mozart, L. Couperin, J. S. Bach, C. Monteverdi,
1 For Scandinavians there were two opportunities to attend his seminars recently; in the fall of 1992 he was the main guest at the UNM-festival ("Young Nordic Music") in Reykjavik on Iceland and in the spring of 1994 he was in Malmo in the south of Sweden for some days, giving seminars and concerts devoted to his music. 2 [Es sei mir gestattet, an dieser Stelle all jenen offentlich zu danken, die mir dazu verholfen haben, der Musiker zu sein, der ich heute bin, all jenen, die mich durch das Beispiel ihrer Musik dazu gezwungen haben, ausreichend neidisch zu werden, urn ihnen nacheifern zu wollen.] Grisey, Gerard. "Zur Entstehung des Klanges ... " in Darmstadter Beitrage zur neuen Musik, vol.17 (1978): 76.

in time. Periodes Modulations overtone studio. show that. Even at a brief In my analysis of from Stockhausen's.2 G. I will not discuss this subject here. His approach. Ockeghem. (16 or 18 musicians). that Grisey started to compose 1974. instead of harmony and therefore the quality of this part of pitch as timbre interesting this However his music it is better to think of simultaneous in a traditional area may be. synthesis" ways. and the last movement The basic idea for the orchestration The different movements Partiels Transitoires (7 instruments). LesEspaces ideas in very different ways. I will further on illustrate how Grisey puts his ideas acoustiques is a gigantic composition-project was (sOlo is to enlarge the The cycle Les Espaces acoustiques finished orchestra 1985. Besides music Grisey studied acoustics at Faculte des Sciences in Paris. Frescobaldi. to the musical material is very much like a scientist investigating unfolding resulting comparison Modulations Even if Grisey's is different Stockhausen's thinking and organizing the nature of sound and its his ideas are strongly influenced by of musical material. for every part. are Prologue viola). Stockhausen In this essay I will has a prominent role. conclusion like Stockhausen's. J. de Machault. most often distorted Grisey uses the word "instrumental and to understand way. . G. this essay will not deal with pitch in the first place. (33 musicians). between the two composers' works it is clear that they realize their musical into practice. using the same acoustic thinking as in the electronic dealing with harmony.2 Hz). and Epilogue is the in different music for his way of (84 musicians) The harmonic base for each movement spectrum of E (41. in Grisey's theories. (large orchestra).

The philosopher really has no duration. and how a musical context Our everyday (for that time on some occasions seems to be "endless" instance when we are bored) or on other occasions passes very quickly (when we are too busy and do not have "enough time") is familiar to every human being. as composers and how for the sounds musical event). 239-275. New Listening Strategies. of Music. motive. talking about time-lines Henri Bergson discusses this. silence.2 pp. but not the sounds themselves."4 It is interesting to see that we always in space. other authors have Jonathan discussed more strictly what this structure really is. have taken great interest this affects our time-perception. and to use it as an important speed of this perceptual element in his own music. three layers in music that interpret time. chord. more concerned about how to this infrastructure). New York: Schirmer Books (1988): 82. structural One of Grisey's main concerns is to control the time. Jonathan. It is ava~ible in an English translation in Contemporary Music Review! vol. many other 20th-century organize Grisey does not develop the nature of this layer very much in his article. "But what is a time point? Whereas a timespan (whether of a note. The Time of Music: New Meanings. a timepoint and is a specific duration the only one. 4 Kramer. He Grisey distinguishes of time". His 3 This thesis was written 1980 for the summer courses in Darmstadt. New Temporalities. . think about time as unfolding time-points. or whatever). he discusses time and duration. "The flesh of time" and "The skin "The skeleton of time" is the foundation It is the temporal divisions for the structure (or any other He is.3 Tempus ex machina reflexions sur Ie temps In Grisey's main thesis. musical"3. it (he points out himself that many 20th-century in organizing composers.2 (1987) vol. calls them "The skeleton of time". However. Kramer discusses meter and rhythm in chapter four in his book The Time Meter is surely one kind of "skeleton of time". of a piece. however n?t Kramer describes meter as a succession of time points. "Tempus ex Machina: can affect our way of perceiving experience time passing.

metaphorically. just as Langer. is that we are unable to measure time without converting it "We saw above how inner duration exteriorizes itself as spatialized time and how the latter. Feeling and Form. Susan. otherwise it could not be observed and appreciated at all.e. for its passages have also what I can only call.physical."6 Grisey. 6 Langer. J it is filled with its own characteristic forms. Orginally published in 1922. is measurable..New York: Charles Scribner's Sons (1953): 112. calls this layer the qualitative to the quantitative approach to the musical sense. time. and structure on paper for our perception. The phenomena that fill time are tensions . for Bergson the experienced time and not chronometric time.. and the same can be said about other kinds of temporal This brings uS to "The flesh of time" .. longer exist when the other appears. as space is filled with material forms. (i. [. volume.. To be them. itself. is impossible to measure in itself: the first time span does not I think this is very true. 5 Bergson.the sound material Our perception of the length of a time span depends on the In Feeling and Form Susan Langer also writes about events within it. It is henceforth through the intermediary of space that we shall measure every interval of time. or intellectual. It involves more properties than 'length'. I~anapOlis: Bobbs-Merrill (1965): 57. [. emotional.. we will of course not perceive metric music. Henri: Duration and Simultaneity with reference to Einstein's theory."s Real time. any If they have to be expressed in the sounds enveloping context does not care about the bar lines and the of the metric accents. one of the main reasons that an interesting converted to space) is not always satisfying Since the time points in "The skeleton of time" have no duration it is obvious that we can not hear them in an acoustic perceived hierarchy division. translated by Leon Jacobsson. this: "But the experience of time is anything but simple. . space rather than time. or interval between selected moments. compared aspect in "The skeleton of time".4 conclusion into space. J for perception they give quality rather than form to the passage of time ..

or rather in the listener. (1987): 244. the succession of predictability regular repetition above is his "Scale in This scale shows the degree of regular repetition in the basic time structure for the piece.. starting in the pitch area and ending in the duration area where every pul~in the sound becomes a new pitch event (the sound-waves are synthesized with puls~generators). "Tempus ex Machina: A composer!s reflections on musical time. "The skin of time"... of time points in a piece.. . (by when the length of the temporal divisions which he calls "white noise of durations".. tried to control every different parameter by the same system of The basis for Stockhausen's passes . is more or repetition pitch. is the most abstract hardest to analyze. The last layer. vol. At the second measure after reh~safnumber 22 in Griseyfs Modulations we find another example.. when the 2nd douqle-bass and contrabass clarinet start playing."7 The infrastructure A central subject in Grisey's thesis mentioned of complexity". it is the "place of communication musical time and the listener's time .9 Stockhausen in a similar way."8 is determined His aim is to "construct a of intervals (by the extent to which that can be found in the classification and of timbres It is not a new wish to deal with disparate In serial music composers have thesis " .2 (1987). 8 Grisey. it exceeds the threshold for our ears to perceive pitch. or in other words the degree The most in Grisey's scale is periodicity.· 9 There have been several attempts to make a continuum between duration and pitch.. the threshold is that the length of the durations for perceiving does not work out a scale between regular and irregular 7 Grisey! Gerard. and then...5 Also Stockhausen perception talks about the connection between the events and our I will return to this later. A classical example is the enormous glissando in Stockhausen's Kontakte. We can think of the· rhythm in the bass drum as a very low pitch (2. 272. continuum their degree of dissonance) they are non-harmonic) musical parameters number-rows.." is to look at pitch and duration The only difference less than 1/16 sec. and the To of time." in Contemporary Music Review. and the least is at random.1 Hz!) which gets higher. first within the percussion-group. come into the foreground. Here psychological and sociological aspects in between the music. .how time in exactly the same way. use Grisey's own words. We will probably find most of them in electro-acoustic music.

but it is interesting Stockhausen's thesis: to read the following passage from "In order to compare one group of phases [= time-intervals] with another. HOW TIME PASSES . (1978): 74..3 (1959): 10.6 like Grisey. die jeder wahrnehmen und behalten konnen sollte."11 des Klanges .J Grisey.eine Art tiberaus einfacher Orientierungspunkte. Wir werden zwei davon festhalten: die rhytmische Periodizitat lind das harmonische Spektrum (andere Form der Periodizitat).." in DarmsUidter the importance of periodicity. between these extremes. 11 [. where the horizontal axis is the time. However. events. periodicity Fig. starting with as a musical I will come back to how Grisey uses periodicity expression 10 Stockhausen! Karlheinz. we make a distinction between 'periodic' and 'aperiodic' phase-groups.l The scale of complexity In "Zur Entstehung Musik Grisey mentions perception perceived city) .. simple cues that can be (another kind of periodiMechanical succession of is the We hold on to two kinds: the rhythmical can be too perfect. periodicity periodicity events zero). and the harmonic spectrum tires the listener.. If ••••• . DISORDER ! Fig. 2 shows a periodic of the sequence. and.. and the vertical (numbered from the beginning further on in my essay.. we distinguish a greater or smaller number of transitional stages (as deviations from either periodicity or aperiodicity. depending on which predominates) ... Bei trage zur neuen He says that our needs "a kind of exceedingly and remembered."10 a) b) c) d) Periodic Continuous-dynamic Discontinuous-dynamic Statistical maximum predictability average predictability slight predictability zero predictability ORDER J. " in Die Reihe vol.

.Order of events 7 3 2 4" 4" 3 4" 4 4" 5 Time Fig.". 2 J i«: I ~~ Time 4" ~"I" Fig.. As mentioned above.how time passes. All the graphs are as they appear in Grisey's J . 3 shows an accelerando where every duration has Fig. Stockhausen does not make . preceding acceleration or a continuous out that there are two ways of achieving We could either add/subtract duration... Grisey's durations" distinction above owes very much to Stockhausen's "subharmonic series of "scale of in " ... 4 shows a one of the preceding of the preceding one minus 2 seconds. an accelerando a constant duration the preceding or we could multiply/divide with a constant..4 Continuous acceleration where every duration has the length of the preceding one divided with 2. can be either a Grisey points or a to the duration deceleration. the duration Fig. z 4" 2" 8" 6" Fig. "Continuous-dynamic". continuous ritardando. . the preceding Here the rule is also to add a constant note value to duration. thesis "Tempus ex Machina". sequence where every duration has the duration divided with two. The next step on the scale. as Stockhausen's Fig.3 Continuous acceleration where every duration has the length of the preceding one minus 2.2 A periodic succession of events. 3 above has the same idea of proportions proportions".

is It is obvious that it is easier to hear the difference first two note-values difference reasons. It between of the scale that we will perceive durations may now be obvious that we do not experience in a linear but in a logarithmic smooth accelerando To achieve a perfect in fig. Each duration the length of the preceding one divided (1959): 13. . and the term subharmonic in the scale An spectrum (an inversed harmonic spectrum). (which also Grisey points out) .8 any difference means that between pitch and rhythm.5 "Subharmonic" duration-scale. (transposed to the pitch area) the durations form$ a subharmonic example of such a scale can be seen in fig. and he makes a very interesting this type of duration-scale long note values. the difference way. then the next one is already twice as long and the difference On the other hand there are severai note values at the end as almost the same duration. t# I o ! o. for serial purpose have an overweight There is one duration we perceive scale. ~b'j Fig. series of proportions calls this a harmonic o j in the scale wi-Ch two. has 12 Stockhausen. t j1 - o· Fig. 5.12 is great. Each duration in the scale a sixteenth-note longer than the preceding one. between between the The than the last two in the scale in fig. could vary their durations viewpoint reflection: for musical the last two might even be smaller than the degree in his thesis is from the serial pieces that use of as short in the to which the performers Stockhausen's music.6 "Harmonic" duration-scale. 5. 4 it would be better to use the method Stockhausen (equal to the overtone series).

srectrum-like 13 Grisey. for the durations. thinking. or deceleration". 3 2 . Grisey shows two ways The first method for example when of making the sequence of events more unpredictable.. than the previous step. in his thesis discussed above. 7. and has no This is when there is no logical succession already in Stockhausen's duration in a "like a veritable white noise of durations ."13 We the possibility of organizing can find the idea of "noise of durations" In discussing manner 256.. "Discontinuous-dynamic" and is less predictable is the next step in the scale of complexity. as we shall see. has reached a certain speed. too slow.. acceleration CVL:lllS 10 9 II 7 6 S . The deviations sequence. we could make a sudden and then continue our accelerando The other method is to follow the continuous-dynamic The outline for the curve is but the actual sequence is always a bit too fast or a bit could be controlled by adding or subtracting Grisey calls this See fig. jump to a more rapid event-frequency sequence with some deviations._ .9 Stockhausen goes much further with his ideas of duration-scales scale for durations. maintained. : . he says that if (1987): . 7 A statistical acceleration The last step in the scale is called "Statistical" predictability at all. (depending on if the actual sequence is too slow or fast compared to the underlying "statistical Order of curve) small random-durations.--- Fig. is to cut out parts of a continuous-dynamic an accelerando from there.. and creates a chromatic Grisey. develops his ideas in another direction.

one composes the time counterpart To this scale Grisey adds what he calls "Smooth" as a last possibility. "14 spectrum. describes This may fall outside his scale of complexity. or can be perceptible and conceptual. the strings. since their musical intention goes Others seem to take the consequences for the How does Grisey's music relate to his given by their system. 15 Grisey. this absence of durations can either be entirely perceptible. the rhythms being only operative. and develops The first part consists eXClusively At the first page in the score orchestra percussionist (see page 26) he divides the and the first structure is in into two groups. the wind instruments the second group. (1959): 29. one runs the risk to "do away with and thus with the 'harmonic' effect of the whole formantof 'noise'. When it comes to many exceptions rules. a rare case of the total absence of any event. "Scale of complexity"? I have looked in more detail at Modulations fourth movement Paris. single sound or rhythmic silence. He it as "seamlessness": "This 'seamlessness'. music. in Les Espaces acoustiques. (1987): 256-257. "real music" some composers tend to allow themselves system. the in The piece was composed in by the Ensemble InterContemporain of homophonic In the program note Grisey divides the piece into five parts. which may be of great importance of their pieces. being the first. . 1976-77 and was commissioned for 33 musicians. the hammond organ and the The rhythmic second percussionist 14 Stockhausen. layers in the "duration- spectra" to a too great extent.10 one omits or ties duration in the different periodicity."15 Analytic interlude I will now After having gone through Grisey's "Scale of complexity" show how he realizes his theories from their compositional beyond their theoretical understanding in his music.

where every two events should be played by the strings. • ~ causes the ripple on line should illustrate the most predictable sequence. . 32nd-note. numerous complex. The graph can be compared with fig.. The very fast repe- titions of exactly the same chord that occur in the strings are treated as one event.8 l I t/ Ie. (maybe '''colored i t. and the others by the winds. In another way the structure There are not is extremely layers blurring the total impression The time-intervals of clearly pronounced chords. periodicity. 10 'L '1 14 Modulations: from rehear.c is an example of "white noise of durations" . the page.sal numb$r I 1. 4 and 7 above. dualistic The idea. or rather timbres.11 one way very simple. 3. Fig. to put the shortest time-intervals see a tendency In fig. Here the condition is the opposite. Every new event is easy to hear. The lengths of the time-intervals are unpredictable. 8 I have made a graph of the time-intervals of the piece to one measure number the events from the beginning before rehearsal 3.he musi. . that some come in "the wrong order" the curve). 2. irregvlar. (and that A straight j 1. suggest that the events are in such~state ~ of disorder 1" '! o / l / / /' r I o l in the first measure. between two events are entirely on the page is less than a We can also of between at the beginning The shortest time-interval and the longest is longer than a half note.

12 noise" would be closer to the truth. i At rehearsal number 4 the music has lasted for about half a minute (see page 27 and 28). in the music.64 from the (and indeed This is what . and the only exception to mezzo forte and back from the perfect periodicity . clearly illustratef ritardando. 9 shows the time-intervals The chords for the events The number 4 to 6. come Ntoo early. but there are important perceptual) sometimes "too late" to form the absolute straight a deceleration. (no. Finally we look from rehearsal number 12.N and Grisey calls discontinuous-dynamic. call this a statistical bO •• I ~ c t 2 '1 [8 Fig. line. We could therefore and even if this short passagennot the overall process is a long deceleration.dC<'5 of the piece) are here spaced much more regularly.9 Modulations: from rehearsal number 4. The events sometimes curve is almost a straight line. 44 . since we have already noticed the tendency of changing the event-frequency in the passage) . deviations. 10. from rehearsal beginning Fig. we have come to a point where we can talk about periodicity Every event happens on the downbeat (starting in piano and then doing a crescendo again). As we see in the graph in in each measure is when he fig.

The instrument-families 2. from 2/4 in certain measures. state until we reached the most This kind of process from a tense for is of course a very common progress that time unfolds at a number "Scale of complexity". Periodicity periodicity. The of the two groups has changed.l0 Modulaions: from rehearsal number 12. t 't Fig.13 changes the time-signature orchestration are mixed in both groups. to a more relaxed structure time-perception. . moved over the scale from this unpredictable predictable music. 'I I.)J. To summarize the course of the music so far: The piece began in a state of disturbance in maximum disorder Grisey's and the events came irregularly. different 12.l 1lb @1 4 1 L~ U. the "statistical". But in fact the way Grisey achieves Surely we experience and aperiodicity speed at the beginning this it also affects our of the piece than at rehearsal are here used as important musical expressions. Then we gradually The music was on and at the last step. condition.

it allows a pause in the music's unfolding.14 "Periodicity is irreplaceable. Without analyzing pitch in detail we can at the the easily hear that there are very complex chords/timbres chords/timbres get closer to the harmonic spectra. it ends."17 16 Grisey. we use it for its intrinsic qualities. vol. When the musical structure demands it. sometimes. "Structure and experiential time" in Die Reihe . It should be said that the quality of the process discussed can not be seen in the score or in the graphs. 17 Stockhausen. Webern's String quartet op. beginning that are important for our One of the music than just the time spans between events. to each other. depending of events. a redundancy helpful to our powers of comprehension. 28. the suspension of time and. has explored this problem time we need at least two events. we lose our orientation of time.then nothing happens . The same on the theory The infrastructure is not the only thing that affects our perception "Skeleton of time" can be perceived characteristics Stockhausen a complex relationship of the events within it. rare) or more or less altered. it begins. "We experience the passage of time in the intervals between alterations: when nothing alters at all. above the alteration of the music. the temporal differently divisions of time. Even within a single process we experience alterations. change of time-speed A process of To understand one has to listen to the music. 2 (1958) where he analyzes A. the first where the time span begins and the second where it ends. (1987): 247."16 Of course there are other parameters experience is the harmony/timbre. Musical time and sound have To experience (very Inspired by information in his texts. of the piece. avoiding both rejection and obsession.then again something happens.2 (1958): 64. Stockhausen's article "Structure The two events may be identical The following passage and experiential is from time" in Die Reihe no. Karlheinz. Thus even the repetition of an event is an alteration: something happens . and when the music gets more periodic.

our perception of time is sometimes the opposite of how we remember it: in a busy day time can seem to pass quickly as we experience it. (1958): 64. and the The more surprising the same.15 Stockhausen alteration". sequence). (1987): 272-273. 19 [. time-span alteration of alteration) To those ideas he adds the function of (high density we remember the chord repeats in When we are occupied with much information time passes quickly. we start to expect this alteration following events are no longer unexpected time passes. the quicker time passes. but afterwards (for example if one.19 In our memory this seems to be a much shorter time- span (maybe because there is nothing of interest to remember) Grisey has a great interest in the nature of sounds. and the slower time passes.the more time we need to grasp events. the "density of alteration" every new. but on recalling the day we say 'what an interminable day!' Similarly. and the less time we have for reflection. the lower the effective density of alteration (not reduced by recollection or the fact that the alterations coincide with our expectations). so that greater intervals of experiential time lie between the processes.] Grisey.. and the musical events. unchanged. As mentioned science than the timbre from brass using different mutes were analyzed with the help of 18 Stockhausen. the less time the senses need to react. . and vice versa. "The flesh of time". as a rule. as much greater.. are almost identical with Stockhausen's our memory. is small The opposite happens when the degree of an endless. "18 Grisey's ideas about the relation between time perception discussed above. above his harmony traditional instruments is more based on timbre and acoustic For Modulations chord structures. to a quiet day corresponds the perception of time passing slowly and the memory of a day soon over. discusses some concepts linked to "processes of When the "degree of alteration" event. different gets thick and we get surprised at if the alterations for us. the more quickly our experienced "An apparent paradox is immediately explained: the greater the temporal density of unexpected alterations . periodic pass very slowly.the information content . However~ between every event is are always great. we quickly get bored and time seems to . events there are in the sequence.

the piece. interests him. Let us take a detailed Statistical The passage and to focus on either the macro structure or the micro structure. consists of. but he refers to a part of Modulations look at the passage. music. thing the score shows is when a phrase starts. and In this part of the piece Grisey (named A. The score is organized according to those groups. a He does not tell us what this scale as an example. and when the phrase should end. Here the The only notation does not give uS the exact duration for every note. which pitches the phrase consists of. there has to be time for him to grasp the details of information) When experienced (too high density time passes at a The possibility which To control the high speed we can only grasp the overall structure. and thus order for the instruments The notation different horizontal traditional of duration on the first page in the passage The last page uses is from the one on the last page. B. of their length.16 sonograms. of them Each into four groups continues until rehearsal number 44. music is homoPhontVand simultaneously At rehearsal all rhythms on the page should be performed number 37 the situation is more complex. Grisey calls the "depth in music". divides the orchestra group consists changes. Look at the first The phrase phrase in the upper voice of group A (viola 2) fig. "Scale of sound proximity". note values. The line t9 give us a visual impression in all parts. starts here at the second eighth note of the third beat in the second It consists of seven pitches and the performt~ must be done exactly at the second sixteenth note of the fourth beat . The notheads are followed by a thick. structure. textures pointillistic starts at rehearsal number 37 in the score. 11. measure of the page. C and D). and the instrumentation is unusual. and then "reconstructed" (or distorted) in the "chords" of qualities of the in the chord- To let the listener focus on the timbreal In a passage with too much information this is impossible. the vertical of five voices. "play with the zoom lens back and forth" he creates a tool for this.

a "pointillistic" time-fields) we can a passage only (exact The duration) macro- (duration passages within where latter the in the can be very background.. allow force to playa and end note the within at exact there are and not to start term note Thus time-points.. .- 4. - _tk~~r ~=--~..:.... - . ••.=..11 Modulations: group A on page 41 in the score.-.. --_-:-. a "statistical" useful in "the For this he uses time-fields. :--: 1. t..:. _. in complex The depth" perceive structure....==i=. '. -~ \"--'"'~-1.:Ii"'". actual the less the he (He rhythm complicated we can the notation Instead to the in the performance for Cage was expect.0. with Stockhausen's flexible certain two ways article should and written the him the in the performer of 1956. ". he writes and the resulting... and given does not tell us how long each of the of the note the phrase notes between should it is up to the performer limits.:~~ • ::. how notated time passes . r.__ r~. In Stockhausen's about the relation rhythm. of notating duration. : ir·-t. not duration the to distri- the within phrases that is exactly length individual r_j_ notes! .'. disappear "Such a switch..____.. details of the in such music.~ 4:~ZJ '!l ~""' is 4• Ifu-=c~F="_~~=~:'~~~~i. The the notation be... • . gets. ..) system limits..':'-7::.. this.. 1'.:-+----.:= H . problem of giving performer. Fig.7-r. time has become of fields.1. But from 'pointillist' to 'statistical' perceJtion of a further occasion for the statistical composition this means that the elements themselves are no .' J F~=' q::q :_" -1--1~ - ~. .f:~~~~~5"~2'~~~~~~~.17· :'..-.H - f--1 • ~'f .t=. It is the notated.:..·.·=----·1= ~~. ~IfI~ I ~1!~\... ==froD Inc. (A.... ._ _k A:luL.) .... .' •.:: . A more responsibility other.:....17 in the within bute pauses same measure.f_t-y-.c.t. performed precision whole shows points article between The more " .'. out that more John solving has this flexible systems already for notation experimented fall of duration....--t---':::.. ~=P¥(b~g!~-..:.

.. J Rather. and from these to magnitude-proportions of the single fields. The zoom lens "22 and time as a continuum would then merge in a supra-ordered resume our analysis of Grisey's Modulations We shall have this quotat ion in mind when we now and scale of sound We could think of each group from rehearsal number 37 in the score as based on its lowest voice. 34.18 longer presented as discrete degrees of some scale or other [. is substituted for each discrete value . trombone. but the technique Group A should then be based on the 2nd group C on the two french horns I will use group A as an group B on the 1st trombone. in a meaningful served to present how to compose with time-fields in which the composed extremes~. a group-field... in the upper voice to fix the way exactly a dotted eighth note. In my analysis is the same for every group.. 35. in the sense described above.. 22 Stockhausen. and from this the single durations are does not necessarily length of the group-fields. . May be that Stockhausen In fig. 1121 As we have already seen. (1959): (1959): (1959): 32. it is possible group-fields of various sizes. says that " . and group D on the tuba. When discussing Stockhausen pointillist a time-structure but the similarity of their ideas remains. this is exactly what Grisey does. example. a field-size. 20 Stockhausen.if a series of field-sizes and statistical fields mediated between the then we should really be time as a discontinuum concept of dealing with a new musical time-continuum: serial field-time. Similarly."20 Stockhausen develops his ideas further later on in his text. 21 Stockhausen. proximity. number and size to start from arrive at the "A particular number of single field-sizes gives Here the size of the group-fields depends on the of the single fields. 11 he fixes the length of the first group-field determined.

same mode is transposed instruction to a quarter tone high f sharp "jouff tout 1/4ton plus haut"). The 1st bassoon plays the pitches in the same order as the 2nd In the other voices the order for the pitches are free. d. Thus. This picture in electrosounds that could as well be an illustration the higher harmonics for an envelope-generator for natural It is also a common behavior attack last and decay first. c the In the next voice. If we compare all voices in the group vertically. Fig. (note the second measure on the page) the mode in the 2nd trombone sharp. in the phrases are the longer pauses. and in the 2nd viola it is the d sharp. In use the same mode in a phrase. \ \ Fig. since the pauses between the phrases we see that all phrases in the upper voices fit within longest in the first voice. and from the second phrase on the next page in the score all voices in group A play the same. f and g. in the 2nd trombone. to different All voices levels. e flat. In the four in the group there are also slurs indicating The higher voice.12 Graphic illustration of the five voices in a phrase. e. in:the I From the third phrase the harp joins the 1st bassoon and 2nd trombone. the phrases' duration graphically.19 The music in the 2nd trombone upper voices long phrases. and from here on the three lower voices all play the pitches mode in the same order. is the sixths of tone Iowa. but transposed (I start counting phrases from the third beat in the is b. In the harp the starting in the 3rd viola it tone for the mode is b (as in the. transposed pitch-row. . 12 illustrates acoustic music. the same way. trombone.2nd trombone). lS divided into "phrases" indicated by seven~note$- slurs. In the fifth phrase the second violin ~oes I. but here pauses separate the phrases. the 1st bassoon. and each phrase consists so far of seven notes. The next step is to look at the pitches the first phrase in each voice. these phrases will be played most rapidly.

The graph starts at rehearsal number 37 and We can now see the process clearly. considerably complex. play "quasi synfrone". and the impression texture.20 At one measure before rehearsal number 38. to the left indicate I use two ways to indicate that an instrument (but transposed) as the bottom The thin line indicates that just this voice is playing. in mode between the voices within a phrase in a group is not percepis that 20 instruments are playing As the music unfolds the voices in each group come more and The phrases in the upper voices are gradually hend until they are of equal length to those in the bottom voice in the group. and thus the precision increases. in the notation here. meaning of this is clear. and in the third phrase on the Finally. 13 shows the beginning The brackets of the in the text. more together. From here on the 1st bassoon and 2nd trombone in pitch. "quasi" parallel traditional in time. in fig. The indication traditional. The similarity a chaotic lengt- The texture is at the beginning tible. beginning of the example there is a polyphony of 20 parts. "pointillistic" In the phrase one measure after 38 the harp starts to play "quasi synchronous" measure with the two lower voices. the next change in the structure takes place. taneity in duration. order as in the bottom voice. In the At the . so the actual result can not be exact simul- This must yet have been carefully in the score is "quasi synchrone avec trbn 2". In the next phrase Grisey starts to use The graphic illustration process described is playing. should play not just parallel There is an ambiguousness the field-size notation. ends at three measures The vertical (like a rectangle) the pitches even come in the same lines that connect voices show that the voices within a group at the end of the illustration after 39. after 39 all five voices in group A play parallel note values. at the upbeat to one in pitch and next page the 3rd viola joins them. and the It is not meant to be as precise as with notation. where the groups are. and this causes them to play "quasi" parallel. but also parallel in time. When the line The pitches are here in the same mode becomes outlined voice in the group. but the order of them is free. Grisey does still use calculated.

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'" L o..~ texture.1 '7 I _____________. ... illustration ..- 0 ~ ... ) ~~ ' Ju.~.-s---.. . " . I:> .. ~~+" 1:1. . At 37 in the score we are only able to grasp the outline of the texture./ 0 ____.. of sound"... in o~ 0 This is also stressed by the long deceleration the section.€se Fig. the easier we perceive the details in Grisey's of what the texture.. sounds become increasingly for our hearing.____..' ..._____. At two .l..__....... JP ----..-4 . ... leration constructed? -r -1' _... and the timbre of the and micro structure apparent o '_________ o o I 0.l: +f. I~ ._____... _____... The slowing -+ ).....J ~ . 0 0 0 how is the deceDoes J '- J.-----. \ o.zJ. Co ... 13 we are reaching a polyphony measures the point where all groups play together From fig....e~~ .-nJ. fl r-S-. ------.. down of time has the effect that we "arrive at the very $rt Finally. J J 71 !..22 end of fig.. 13 we can get an idea of what Grisey's "Scale of sound proximity" is.. Gradually the music zooms in on the details of the texture.... ------------ J. I . The more the music reaches a homophon.. llA.«~. of four groups. 14 Modulations: length of the phrases from rehearsal number 3'7 in group A.. it relate to his ideas in -J t. r:s. after rehearsal number 43 in the score the music has reached in a homophon¥texture ...-- f7 "zoom lens" is a good happens to Our perception.0". ~{- o 1 I ..____ . -.. Our ears focus on the macro structure.._____..r_ -1:.. I . ---- .

for him measured and perceived proportions. and at the end of the is that the last phrase . There are close connections 23 Grisey. with our ears riveted to the internal we become deaf to of sounds like the eye to a microscope. quintuplet. right column. between which there are many stages.. The differences step in his "Scale of Complexity"? In fig."23 1976/77.. (1959): 38. time-fields and -quantities. . event . "If a composer experiences musical time as multi-dimensional time. are extremes. Time has many dimensions we have and time-quantities... among the five last phrases are a dotted observation consists of nine notes making an acceleration the deceleration! deceleration at this point. 14 we can see the length of each phrase in group A from 37 to 44 in the between two adjacent phrases are shown in the calculated. twenty years after Stockhausen's (among others Lutoslawski. section the differences quarter note." Many composers have used in those twenty years and Berio).. systematic and 'chance' determinations.an acceleration within the overall is in focus.."24 In our analysis of Grisey's "Scale of sound proximity" discovered several stages between time-fields in his music. " . his composition has itself become multi-dimensional. We will however probably not perceive The speed at which time passes is slower. (1987): 259 24 Stockhausen.how time passes . article: Still it is striking how close to The following passage is from ideas Grisey is....23 the continuous-dynamic score.. and we have arrived at a point where the micro structure of global structures dynamism every macrophonic Summary Modulations article proportional Penderecki Stockhausen's Stockhausen's was written notation Grisey explains the effect in this way: "What remains of the dynamism when. The sequence seems to be very carefully The first four phrases increase all with a sixteenth note within a Then the differences An interesting grow in steps.

.the tempi have a great The last word is always left to the listener. passiver Beobaehter auf einem unbewegliehen Punkt. of Factors such as the listener's control. Der Standpunkt der Wahrnehmung ist im Gegenteil seinerseits standig in Bewegung. texture develops through processes. time takes place within the listener. "26 25 Grisey.] Grisey. but Beitrage zur does also affect his are beyond the composers His capability to memorize In Grisey's article in Darmstadter neuen Musik he writes: "Faced with a work of music we are not. die der Rhythmus unseres Leben ist. of his musical to real Gruppen fur drei Orchester and Klavierstuck are greater than the similarities main concern is the listeners} perception compositions.the time In one way Grisey's music is very traditional: His mastery over experienced music. cultural and social background are not trivial. ridiculous structural Problems always arise when we try to apply theories Grisey's criticism of some earlier examples "They There has to be a connection between the composer's [the ideas] became when our elders ended up confusing importance. "25 He uses Gruppen as an example: " . 26 [Einem Musikwerk gegenuber sind wir namlieh nieht. is ideas to Grisey's Modulations. The perception and what the listener experiences.24 between the speed of time's unfolding structures the music. . On the contrary. it is goal-directed and has basically and the way the composer a linear structure of time . I suspect that we experience the time of a work of music from the point of view of another time. experience of music. however unique. Stockhausen's speed. da~ wir die Zeit eines Musikwerkes von einer anderen Zeit aus erfahren. as when faced with a room. da es sieh ja urn die Gegenwart handelt. which is the rhythm of our lives. the point from which we perceive is always in motion. leh vermute im ubringen. (1978): 78. XI. (1987): 240. passive spectators on an immovable point. crushing. and the differences Grisey's structures. the map with the lie of the land. Who perceives them?".. wie etwa einem Raum gegenuber. and his way of focusing on different ~ levels in the structure is We can not find this in Stockhausen's pieces connected to his text above are Zeitmasse. since it concerns the present.

New Temporalities. Gerard. ed.Welbourn (1987). This thesis was originally written in 1980 for the summer courses in Darmstadt. Grisey. vol. 19 (1980/81). pp. Anne and Bouliane. /I ••••• Sons Stockhausen. pp. Jonathan. Denys. "Darmstadt 1980/1 of New Music. vol. Karlheinz. and experiential time" in Die Discography Grisey. HOW TIME PASSES .. ERA2292-45410-2. Modulations pour 33 musiciens. New Listening Strategies. pp. translated by Leon Jacobson. Kramer. Feeling and Form. Gerard.2 (1958). Montreal Dec.2. Orjan Sandred. 10-40. Grisey. 345-347. Gerard. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill (1965). vol. Performed by Ensemble InterContemporain under the direction of Pierre Boulez. Henri. pp. Chicago: St." in Die Reihe vol. The Time of Music: New Meanings. Gerard" in Contemporary Composers. Duree et simultaneite was originally published in 1922.. pp. New York: Schirmer Books (1988). "GRISEY. Modulations: (1978) ./1in Darmstadter Beitrage zur neuen Musik. Paris: Ricordo in Perspectives LeBaron. pp. "Structure Reihe vol. 17 (1978).... "Tempus ex Machina: A composer's reflections on musical time. Bergson. 420-441.James Press (1992). translated by S. Julian. New York: Charles Scribner's (1953) . Langer.94 . Duration and Simultaneity with reference to Einstein's theory.. 73-79. Grisey. Karlheinz. pour 33 musiciens. Stockhausen. "Zur Entstehung des Klanges . Susan. Brian Morton and Pamela Collins.3 (1959). 1983. ERATO. 239-275.25 Bibliography Anderson./1 in Contemporary Music Review. Gerard. 41-74. The article was written in September and October 1956.

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