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CT3020N Network Planning and Simulation Week 1

Prof.DrTech. Algirdas Paktas London Metropolitan University Faculty of Computing a.pakstas@londonmet.ac.uk

2001-2012 Algirdas Paktas CT3020 Network Planning and Simulation

OUTLINE
Organisational Issues Recommended Books Network Design Process Control Model Introduction to Information Theory
Basics Example: Radio Channel Channel Theory: Signaling Rate

Introduction to Network Design Data Used by Network Designers: Network Information System Conclusions

2001-2011 Algirdas Paktas CT3020 Network Planning and Simulation

Organisational Issues
Teaching Contact hours: Fridays 14:00-18:00 Lectures: 14:00-16:00
Room TBC Prof Algirdas Paktas

Laboratories/Tutorials: 16:00-18:00
Room TBC very many workstations, all shall have necessary software, please obtain UNIX account before week 6; Lab Tutorial Assistants (TAs): TBC Surgery Hours by Prof Algirdas Paktas Wednesday and Friday 18:00-19:00 in T10-04 The calendar in Semester 2, 2011/12 contains 12 teaching weeks (including 1 week for revisions)

2001-2008 Algirdas Paktas CS3026N Computer Network Analysis, Design and Security

Module History
Due to so many changes some course materials may still bear old codes, numbers, titles, or other inconsistences please be sensible and patient. 2011-: CT3020 Network Planning and Simulation 2008: CS3026 Computer Network Analysis, Design and Security
Officially named Network Design and Security (by mistake will be changed in the next incarnation); There are currently different modules and even specialised IT security programmes available at the Dept of Computing this one is not especially focusing on it look elsewhere if you are serious; Due to the total re-shaffle of the Departments teaching portfolio in Spring 2008 (for 2008/9 Academic Year) this module will stick to its traditional Network Planning and Management values with exposure to the network management and security issues; THIS MODULE IS NOT SUITABLE FOR STUDENTS WHO HAVE NOT GOT SUFFICIENT TECHNICAL BACKGROUND, IT IS NOT CONSIDERING MANAGEMENT ISSUES PER SE BUT ONLY IN THE CONTEXT OF NETWORK PLANNING/OPERATION! Re-badged version of the IM213 after the merger: LGU + UNL = LONDONMET; Originally inherited from the University of North London; Significantly modified in 2001 and 2002 (changed textbooks and for Labs introduced use of Network Simulator ns-2 and later on WAN Design Tool DELite); Slowly changing from 2003 (both lectures and courseworks); Started from 1998 (?) One of the modules designated as starred (equivalent of level 3) at the UNL; Mostly focused on the theory, routing protocols and LAN design issues;

2006-2007: CS3004 Network Planning and Management


2001-2005: IM213 Network Planning and Management

Pre 2001: IM213 Network Planning and Management


2001-2008 Algirdas Paktas CS3026N Computer Network Analysis, Design and Security

Course Organization: Teaching Plan


Part 1 (Week 1-5/6): Lectures:
Module Overview (wk 1) Network Design Problem, Basic terminology, (wk 2-4) Reading:
Lecture Notes (Powerpoint in WebLearn) Robert S. Cahn book (Ch.1, 3, 4)

Labs:
Introduction to WAN Design Tool Delite (wk 1) Further Tutorial for WAN Design Tool Delite (wk 2) Work on Coursework Part 1 is using Delite (wk 2-6)
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Course Organization: Teaching Plan


Part 2 (Week 6-11): Lectures:
Overview of Network Simulator/Animator (wk 6) Topics in Network Analysis, Design and Management Reading: Book: J.D.McCabe Practical Network Analysis and Design, Chapters 1,2,5,7-12 (the book is STRONLY
RECOMMENDED - no alternative materials or good Web-resources!) Tutorial for Network Simulator ns-2 by Marc Greis: can be easily obtained from the Web
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Course Organization: Teaching Plan


Part 2 (Week 5/6-12): Labs: - Week 6-8 - 3 tutorials preparing to use of Network Simulator ns-2 and Animator nam:
IMPORTANT: Familiarisation with Unix environment - use of X-Windows emulator, file editing in Unix, FTPing between Windows <--> Unix,etc. (wk 5). Unix accounts will be prepared for all students Learning NS/NAM with the help of Marc Greiss Tutorial (wk 5-6)

- Week 8-12 - work on Coursework Part 2


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Coursework
Comprises 60% of the total module mark It is an INDIVIDUAL assignment Consists of 2 parts Will be issued approximately by week 2 Submission deadlines:
Week 12, Friday.

2001-2008 Algirdas Paktas CS3026N Computer Network Analysis, Design and Security

Recommended Books
Wide Area Network Design: Concepts and Tools for Optimization

By Robert S. Cahn San Francisco,


Morgan Kaufman Publishers, 1998

ISBN: 1-55860-458-8
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Recommended Books
Practical Computer Network Analysis and Design
by James D. McCabe

San Francisco,
Morgan Kaufman Publishers, 1998

ISBN 1-55860-498-7 STRONGLY 2001-2008 Algirdas Paktas RECOMMENDED!!! CS3026N Computer Network Analysis, Design and Security
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Additional Reading
Documentation for Network Simulator and Animator, Marc Greis Tutorial.

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ISO 9001 Network Design Process Control Model


Agreed Customer Requirements Other Requirements Contract Review Design Input Design Process Design Output Network In Use
Implement Network

Design Management Tasks Plan Review Resource Reviews & Verification Design Change Final Review Verification Validation

Network Topology
Network topology defines components (nodes and communications links) and structure of their connectivity With each node is associated its location in case of WANs coordinates of sites are required With each communications link is associated link capacity representing maximal data rate which can be carried by the link and is defined by the transmission technology Topology can be represented as a graph Or it can be described with the help of some special notation (language) Defining network topology and planning of link capacities is primary task of any network design Graph Theory is used for selecting graph topology
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Introduction to Information Theory


Link capacities of the transmission technologies are defined using Information Theory The study of information as a mathematical theory was stimulated by the expanding of the communication technology in the 1940s and 1950s. Developed by American mathematician-engineer Claude Shannon (photo at Bell Labs around 1950)
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Introduction to Information Theory


First expressed in engineering terms
It was seen by C.Shannon as applicable to other disciplines Communication Theory was a focus around which many studies gathered to spawn the multi-disciplinary subject of Communication: Psychology, Linguistics, Logic, Technology.

Thus, Information (or Communication Theory) lies there where all these areas are overlapping:

PSYCHOLOGY

TECHNOLOGY

LOGIC LINGUISTICS

INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION THEORY

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Introduction to Information Theory


If communication can be thought of as having three levels
a The transmission and reception of information b The structure of the language used and its meaning, c The results of that Communication.

then communication theory


concentrates largely on (a) has something to say about (b) but does not deal in any way with (c).

In (a) the theory examines the information inherent in a source of communication and the possibility of conveying that information in a given channel. In (b) the theory provides an alternative model of language to that given by a structural or grammatical approach.
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Introduction to Information Theory


Communication theory is essentially stochastic i.e. it involves probability or uncertainty and as a model of language is most usefully employed in measuring communication. The theory has shortcomings in the area of the structure of language, particularly in the problem of translation, where the model of Noam Chomsky has more to offer.

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Introduction to Information Theory


Communication channels can take two forms:
Discrete Continous

MESSAGE

MESSAGE

TIME
CONTINOUS DISCRETE

TIME

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Introduction to Information Theory


Examples of discrete channels are:
Morse code, semaphore, telex, computers and many telephone systems.

Continous system examples are:


Conventional telephones, radio and TV. In the realm of human communication we have any written or printed text.
While written language is discrete spoken language it is largely continous (inflexion, emphasis, pauses, pace, etc.).

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Introduction to Information Theory


In discrete channels a finite (though possible large) number of symbols can be used. In continous channels there is a potentially infinite number of possibilities. This potential is restricted by the performance of both receiver and transmitter.
For example the human ear can only detect a finite number of sound intensities.

2001-2008 Algirdas Paktas CS3026N Computer Network Analysis, Design and Security

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Introduction to Information Theory


In 1948 C.Shannon recognized that every communication channel has six common elements:
SOURCE

CODER

CHANNEL

DECODER

RECEIVER

NOISE

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Introduction to Information Theory


More detailed view applicable to the technical communication system is shown below

TRANSMITTER
ENCODER
MODULATOR

CHANNEL
TRANSMISSION MEDIUM

RECEIVER
DEMODULATOR DECODER

INFORMATION IN

INFORMATION OUT

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Example: Radio Channel


At the beginning of the 20th century Guglielmo Marconi transmitted the first transatlantic radio signals from England to Newfoundland.
Since then, improved. radio communications have continually

Televisions, cordless phones, garage-door openers, radiocontrolled model airplanes and cars, pagers, cellular phones, and security systems are all examples of commonplace radio communication technology.

Understanding radio wave propagation is essential in the planning and operation of radio communications to ensure that communications can be established at all.
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Example: Radio Channel


Transmission and Reception in the wireless environment:
The transmitter launches the radio frequency signal into the propagation medium. The radiowave travels through the propagation medium and is subject to propagation mechanisms such as reflection, refraction and scattering.
The radio signal may travel as ground waves, troposphere waves or ionospheric wave or any combination thereof.

The traveling waves are detected at a remote point (the receiver). The information received at the receiver is recovered while any noise or other undesirable artifacts of the transmission journey are removed
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Example: Radio Channel


Radiowaves propagate through space as travelling electromagnetic waves. The electric field and magnetic field are related to each other and are changing according to the law described by Maxwells equations.
Maxwells equations state that a time varying magnetic field produces and electric field and a time varying electric field produces a magnetic field. The electrical field (E) and the magnetic field (B) vary sinusoidally with time. Therefore, the two fields always exist together
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Example: Radio Channel


Electromagnetic field is composition of electric and magnetic fields of different polarisation Electric and magnetic fields are in phase, perpendicular to each other, and perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the wave.

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Example: Radio Channel


Frequency
Radio waves are transmitted as a series of cycles, one after the other. The unit called hertz (abbreviated Hz) is equal to one cycle per second. The portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that constitutes radiowaves normally is described as extending from a frequency of 3 kilohertz (kHz) to 300 gigahertz (GHz), although most available radio receivers can only tune down to about 150 kHz.

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Example: Radio Channel


Wavelength
The term "wavelength" is left over from the early days of radio. Back then, frequencies were measured in terms of the distance between the peaks of two consecutive cycles of a radio wave instead of the number of cycles per second. The distance between the peaks of two consecutive cycles is measured in meters.

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Example: Radio Channel


The relationship between a radio signal's frequency and its wavelength can be found by the following formula:
wavelength = C / frequency in Hz C - speed of propagation of the electromagnetic waves in the free space which is equal to 300,000 km/sec.
Based on this we can derive a simplified formula:
wavelength = 300 / frequency in MHz

EXAMPLE. A frequency of 9680 kHz would be equivalent to a wavelength of 30.99 meters, which we would round to 31 meters (wavelengths 1190 meters are referred as short waves). Thus, 9680 kHz, 9.68 megahertz (MHz), and 31 meters all refer to the same operating frequency.
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Channel Theory: Signaling Rate


The signaling rate of a transmission system is a number of independent symbols sent per second
Its unit is the baud, i.e. one symbol per second is a signaling rate of 1 baud For binary symbols (1s and 0s) the circuit speed in bits per second is equal to the signaling rate in bauds

Each bearer that is used for creation of the low-pass communication channel has its characteristic passband (bandwidth) of B Hz
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Channel Theory: Nyquists Theorem


In the early 20th century Dutch mathematician Nyquist established that over a channel with

bandwidth B Hz it is possible to transmit independent symbols at a rate no greater than 2B baud:


R <= 2B baud EXAMPLE:
Voice-grade telephone lines have passbands of 4 kHz. Predicted maximum signaling rate R=2x4000=8000 Hz
2001-2008 Algirdas Paktas CS3026N Computer Network Analysis, Design and Security

Practical maximum signaling rate is only 2400 baud


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Overcoming the Limitation of Signaling Rate


Four unique symbols (S1, S2, S3 and S4) can represent all possible combinations of 2 bits: S1=00, S2=01, S3=10, and S4=11. 16 unique symbols (S1, S2, S16) can represent all possible combinations of 4 bits: S1=0000, S2=0001, S3=0010, S4=0011, S5=0100, S6=0101, S7=0110, S8=0111, S9=1000, S10=1001, S11=1010, S12=1011, S13=1100, S14=1101, S15=1110, and S16=1111 Consequently, if we have 2n unique symbols, they can represent all possible combinations of n bits
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Overcoming the Limitation of Signaling Rate


EXAMPLE. Consider the signaling rate of 2400 bauds and the following data stream
011111100101101000000000000000001000100001111110

Using 2 symbols, S1=1 and S2=0 (a signaling efficiency of 1 bit per baud), we can achieve a rate 2400 bits/s. Using 4 symbols as defined above (a signalling efficiency of 2 bits per baud), we can represent the data stream as
S2S4S4S3S2S2S3S3S1S1S1S1S1S1S1S1S3S1S3S1S2S4S4S3

and achieve a rate 4800 bits/s.


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Overcoming the Limitation of Signaling Rate


Using 16 symbols as defined above (a signaling efficiency of 4 bits per baud), we can represent the data stream as S8S15S6S11S1S1S1S1S9S9S8S15 and achieve a rate 9600 bits/s.

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Overcoming the Limitation of Signaling Rate


To achieve higher signaling rate we need to create a set of unique symbols representing groups of bits.
To achieve a rate of 9600 bits/s (=4x2400) we need to create a set of 16 unique symbols (16=24). It can be done by using 16 sinusoidal signals of the same frequency that are characterized by a particular amplitude and phase angle.
For instance, we may choose to create 16 unique symbols from 2 amplitude values (1 and 2) and 8 phase angle values (0o, 45o, 90o, 135o, 180o, 225o, 270o, and 315o). This is known as 16-QAM (quadrature-amplitude modulation). The diagram showing the 16 symbols plotted in polar form is known 2001-2008 Algirdas Paktas as a signal constellation. 35
CS3026N Computer Network Analysis, Design and Security

Overcoming the Limitation of Signaling Rate


Constellation that create 4-bit symbol sets can be created in different ways, for instance:
4 amplitude values and 4 phase angle values (0o, 90o, 180o, and 270o) 16 amplitude values and one phase angle 1 amplitude value and 16 phase angle values etc.

Thus, each constellation consists of 16 signal points which can be used to represent the 16 combinations of 4-bits
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Overcoming the Limitation of Signaling Rate


Examples of 4 different constellations which create 4-bit symbol sets (16 symbols):
16Amplitudes X 1Phase 2Amplitudes X 8Phases 4Amplitudes X 4Phases 1Amplitude X 16Phases 2001-2008 Algirdas Paktas
CS3026N Computer Network Analysis, Design and Security

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Overcoming the Limitation of Signaling Rate


Example of constellation which uses 4 amplitudes and 4 phase angles as well as resulting signal stream for the data steam discussed above, is shown in the Figure

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Overcoming the Limitation of Signaling Rate


Phasor diagram for 9600 bps Bell 209A modem is shown in Figure. Here are shown 3 amplitudes and 12 phases which are used to produce 16 (not 36 as it could be!) 4-bit symbols.
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Channel Capacity (Nyquests Theorem Revisited)


Thus, we demonstrated that it is possible to transmit more than 1 bit per symbol and, consequently, increase the data bit rate We can generalize that maximum data bit rate of a noiseless transmission channel, C, is given by the expression: C=2B log2M where B is the bandwidth in Hz and M is the number of levels per signaling element
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Channel Theory: Noise Factor


A channel adds noise to the transmitted signal

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Channel Theory: Noise Factor


The signal to noise ratio (S/N) is often determinative of the ability to establish radio communications.
The (S/N) ratio depends upon
the absolute level of the signal the external noise in the propagation medium internal noise in the transmitting and receiving equipment

For HF communications, noise in the propagation medium predominates while for VHF, noise generated within the first stages of the receiver is usually the determining factor.
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Physical Sources of Noise


Galactic Noise comes from external sources in space (pulsars and stars) - 15MHz 100 MHz Atmospheric Noise primary source is lightning discharges. Very high probability of interference Shot noise, also known as quantum noise, arises due to the statistical random nature of current and the flow of electrons. Man-made Power lines, industrial equipment, fluorescent tubes and machinery.
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Physical Sources of Noise


Circuit noise comes from the internal circuitry both in the transmitter and receiver. This is caused by such things as channel conductance in field-effect transistors, or bipolar junction transistor amplifier noise creating voltage and current fluctuations. Thermal noise. Circuit resistances cause heating, and hence thermal fluctuations due to the random nature of electrons, resulting in noise. Thermal noise can also be caused by external temperature sources.

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Channel Theory: Noise Factor


Tools which are used for planning radio channels must have good noise channels in order to predict signal quality If the statistics of this noise are assumed to be Gaussian, the channel is called an Additive White Gaussian Noise channel. Due to this noise, there exists a maximum rate at which information can be transmitted over the channel with arbitrarily high reliability. This transmission rate is called the error-free capacity of the communication channel.
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Example: Theoretical Capacity of Various Channels in Presence of Thermal Noise


According to the Shannon-Hartley law, the channel capacity is C = B log2 (1 + S / N) bit/s. We will show calculated theoretical capacity for the following:
Twisted pair, Coaxial cable, Optical Fibre Assuming room temperature. Consider only thermal noise and a received signal strength of 1 mW.
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Example: Theoretical Capacity of Various Channels in Presence of Thermal Noise


Solution:
Thermal noise N = kTB [W] Boltzmanns constant k = 1.38 * 10-23 J/K Temperature T = 290 K

Resulting values for C are shown in the Table

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ErrorError-Free Channel Capacity with Noise


The error-free capacity of a communication channel is:

Where
C is channel capacity in bits/s Bw is one-way transmission bandwidth (Hz) S=EbR is signal power (W) N0 - signal sided noise power spectral density (W/Hz). Eb is energy/bit of the received signal R is information rate (bits/s)

Thus, here S/N0Bw is the same S/N ratio as defined above


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Net data throughput (NDT)


For data transmission in A typical NDT curve is shown below. blocks (e.g. in synchro Thus, block size should nous lines) there is an be optimal for particular optimum block length for transmission line net data throughput (NDT)
helps to keep data corruption probability at minimum level
When block lengths are long, there is larger chance that it will be affected by a bit error. When block lengths are too short it reduces effectiveness (too large overheads)

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Introduction to Network Design


We will briefly consider: What is Network Design? Who is a Network Designer Overview

What is Network Design? Who is a Network Designer?


Network design is Create network structure (blue print) Decide how to allocate resource and spend money Two basic questions: How much it cost to build a usable network? How much improvement does $x buy? Answer: Depends on network services and components available We will concentrate on the techniques and algorithms

Overview
Every network has three characteristics:
Performance = f(Capacity,Delay) Reliability = f(Complexity,Structure,Number of components,...) Cost

First we need to find agree-upon quantitative numbers. Based on the quantitative numbers of these characteristics, we can evaluate different design alternative by ordering them and ruling out losers

Data Used by Network Designers: Network Information System Homework Exercise


The Network Information System (NIS) is a web-based decision support suite of key related information, data, and applications. It is an useful resource which may help to get an idea about reality of the long-distance pricing mechanisms, possible tariffs options including International, etc. which is focused on serving USA institutions but nevertheless is a valuable example. Please do the following:
Go to http://netinfo.mitretek.org From Modules select the FTS2001 SDP Pricer
Click SDP Pricer Login as
Username: IM213-STAR Password: student

Download FTS2001 SDP Pricer Users Guide from the Help link
Familiarise yourself with the tool functionality and answer the following questions: What is CSS? What is DTS? What is FRS/ATM? What is PSS/IPS?

Data Used by Network Designers: Network Information System Homework Exercise


Explore available options in SDP Pricer (especially for DS0, T1/E1 leased lines tariffs and international link tariffs) Think if this can be used as a source/substitute for obtaining tariffs for your chosen COUNTRY Explore FTS2001 Database Structure and compare formats of the various data with those in the .GEN files in DELIte (e.g. similarities/differences in appearance, etc.); Explore UTILITIES and think how they can be used for WAN design Pay attention to the Lat-Long Converter

Conclusions
Computer networks are very complex systems They are based on use of electromagnetic waves which are carrying digital signals in presence of noise Channel capacity is predefined by bandwidth, signaling and noise Computer networks can be used practically only when strict agreements (protocols) about information interchange between sender and receiver are specified (Theory+Standards) and implemented (Products) Network design tools may help to create computer networks which are suitable for particular purpose 2001-2008 Algirdas Paktas 55
CS3026N Computer Network Analysis, Design and Security