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Master of Business Administration

Semester I
Business Communication Assignment Set- 1

Q1.List the importance of effective communication in the workplace? Ans. Importance of effective communication in the workplace

Effective communication in the workplace means improving employee communication skills Effective communication in the workplace is the backbone of any business. Without it, you could miss out on important opportunities, waste time and cause your employees and customers to become frustrated. But not everyone is a born communicator, and there is always room to improve. That's why it's important to train your staff to create effective communication in the workplace. Removing roadblocks to effective communication in the workplace When a problem arises, it's often due to poor communication in the workplace. Particularly in this digital age when we rely so heavily on emails and phone calls to get things done, vital information can become lost or misinterpreted if not communicated clearly. Arming your staff with good communication skills enables them to work efficiently, effectively and navigate any potential issues that may arise. Everyone is different People have different styles of communication in the workplace. And while there is no right or wrong way to go about it, you can ensure that your staff are understood by teaching them how to adapt their style to the needs of others. With appropriate training, your employees will be able to identify their own communication style in the workplace, understand how this influences the process, and develop strategies to get the best results. Effective communication in the workplace is a two-way street Communication skills don't simply mean the ability to talk and write effectively - they also rely heavily on listening and negotiation. Through training, employees will be able to practice their active listening and problem-solving skills and develop the means to influence outcomes. A professional training organization can help your employees develop effective communication in the workplace by teaching:

the importance of effective communication different styles of communication awareness of non-verbal communication, such as body language how to improve written communication skills how to communicate with confidence how to tailor communication for an intended audience how to manage workplace conflicts or issues negotiation and influencing skills

Active listening skills and how to ask the 'right' questions. Benefits of training to improve communication in the workplace

By developing better rapport with co-workers, employees are likely to be happier and more successful in their roles. Improving employees' morale will make them more likely to remain loyal to your business. Improving communication between individuals, teams or departments within your organization will streamline business processes and activities. Customer retention will be improved through better customer service. Staff will learn how to handle difficult situations and resolve conflict before it becomes a problem. Opening the channels By promoting better communication in the workplace, you'll not only increase the efficiency of your team, but your organization too. Talk to a training specialist today about how you can improve the communication skills of your staff to create a more successful business. Q2. Explain the different aspects of non-verbal communication? Ans. Different aspects of non-verbal communication Non-verbal communication, defined as communication without words. It refers to any way of conveying meanings without the use of verbal language. The game of dumb charades is a perfect example. Nonverbal communication is generally unintentional, unlike verbal communication. All of us tend to communicate silently and unknowingly send signals and messages by what we do, apart from what we say. Gestures, facial expressions, posture and the way we dress, are all part of non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication can have a greater impact than verbal communication, since how you say something is sometimes more important than what you say. Although non-verbal communication can affect both our personal and business relationships, it is particularly important in the workplace. While the spoken or written words may be perfect, the non-verbal aspects could convey the exact opposite meaning. Aspects of non-verbal communication: 1. Kinesics this is the most often studied and important area of non-verbal communication and refers to body movements of any kind. Different body movements can express inner states of emotion. Facial Expressions can convey feelings of surprise, happiness, anger and sadness. If you meet a long lost friend and say Im very happy to meet you again, but with a sad facial expression, it conveys the exact opposite meaning. Eye Movements, such as wide open pupils express feelings of surprise, excitement or even fear. The importance of eye contact with ones audience was pointed out earlier. Direct eye contact is an indication of intensity and interest, while lack of it can convey feelings of nervousness and guilt. Gestures, such as movement of the hands while giving a lecture or presentation indicates a high level of involvement in what you are saying. On the other hand, shuffling of the feet is a sign of nervousness and speaking with ones hands in ones pockets is considered to be casual or even rude. Head Movements like nodding the head can convey interest, appreciation, agreement or understanding. Body Shape and Posture Body shape is not within ones control but can be stereotyped to convey certain

meanings. For example, someone who is strong and muscular is generally thought to be athletic, as opposed to a person who is short and fat! Posture on the other hand is within our control. In formal settings such as job interviews or classroom settings, it is essential that you maintain an erect posture to convey that you are attentive, since slouching or a relaxed posture conveys a casual attitude. Physical Appearance Our outward appearance, including the way we dress and the jewelry and make-up that we wear can convey an impression of formality or informality. Going to a job interview dressed in blue jeans or not sticking to a stipulated dress code at the workplace can convey that you are a rebel, non-conformist or a very casual person. Therefore, it is important to take care of your appearance, so that you convey the right meaning to others. 2. Proxemics Proxemics is derived from the word proximity or closeness and is the communication term for personal space and distance. The space and distance which we choose to keep from people is also part of non-verbal communication. Each of us has our own inner and outer circles, which differ for different people. Our inner most circle is an intimate space, into which we generally admit only select people such as family and close friends. Next comes a personal space which might include other friends and colleagues or coworkers. These two spaces involve communication of an informal nature. Most of us also have a social and public space, which includes official or workplace relationships, where the communication is of a more formal nature. In a business context, it is more relevant to understand the concept of fixed space and semi-fixed space. Fixed space means that the physical features of the work environment such as furniture, room size and seating arrangement are permanent. 3. Time Language This refers to the meaning or importance attached to time and varies between different people. One person may value time more than another. Similarly, time language also varies across cultures. In most western cultures for example, punctuality is considered to be important. Arriving late for a business meeting is inexcusable. In other cultures, it is more relaxed and time is not given that much importance. We convey messages to others through the time we spend on a work related activity or by the importance that we give to time. Arriving early at work or for a job interview shows interest, involvement and seriousness. Spending time with an employee and giving him suggestions on how to improve his performance shows interest and involvement in his career growth. 4. Paralanguage Para means like or similar to, therefore paralanguage means like language. Of all the forms of non-verbal communication, paralanguage is closest to verbal communication. It refers to the tone of voice with which something is said. In other words, it is how something is said, and not what is said. The tone of voice includes the pitch (high or low pitch), the pace (slow or fast) the emphasis on words and the volume (soft or loud) and can convey different moods and emotions, as mentioned earlier in this unit. Example: The statement I practice good business communication can be understood in different ways, depending on the emphasis on certain words. Saying I practice good business communication means that I alone practice it above anyone else. On the other hand, saying I practice good business communication could be interpreted to mean that you communicate particularly well in a business context, rather than in a general context. The important point to keep in mind regarding tone of voice is to avoid mixed signals that is, making sure that what you say is consistent with how you say it. 5. Physical Context: This refers to the physical environment or surroundings within which we communicate and includes two aspects 1) color and layout and 2) design. Colors are known for their symbolic meaning and have associations with different feelings. For example, colors like black and grey are associated with death, mourning and negative feelings. Yellow and green are associated with more positive feelings. Of course, these can also vary across cultures. The point to

remember is that you can make the right impressions with use of the right colors. Layout in a work environment refers to the size of an office, or the arrangement of furniture. Design refers to the type of chairs, desks or carpeting. All these can convey status, formality or informality. We have seen how the types of non-verbal communication outnumber the types of verbal communication. Non-verbal communication is an important supplement to verbal communication and can enhance verbal communication, if used in a positive way. Q3. Write short notes on: (a) Upward communication (b) Downward communication (c) Horizontal communication Ans: a) Upward Communication

Upward communication is the flow of information from subordinates to superiors, or from employees to management. Without upward communication, management works in a vacuum, not knowing if messages have been received properly, or if other problems exist in the organization. By definition, communication is a two-way affair. Yet for effective two-way organizational communication to occur, it must begin from the bottom. Upward Communication is a mean for staff to: Exchange information Offer ideas Express enthusiasm Achieve job satisfaction Provide feedback

b) Downward Communication Information flowing from the top of the organizational management hierarchy and telling people in the organization what is important (mission) and what is valued (policies). Downward communication generally provides enabling information which allows a subordinate to do something.

e.g.: Instructions on how to do a task. Downward communication comes after upward communications have been successfully established. This type of communication is needed in an organization to: Transmit vital information Give instructions Encourage 2-way discussion Announce decisions Seek cooperation Provide motivation Boost morale Increase efficiency Obtain feedback Both Downward & Upward Communications are collectively called Vertical Communication

c) Horizontal/Literal communication Horizontal communication normally involves coordinating information, and allows people with the same or similar rank in an organization to cooperate or collaborate. Communication among employees at the same level is crucial for the accomplishment of work. Horizontal Communication is essential for: Solving problems Accomplishing tasks Improving teamwork Building goodwill Boosting efficiency

Q4. Explain the different barriers to listening. List the differences between Discriminative listening and comprehension listening. Ans. Barriers to listening A pointed out earlier, listening is not easy and there are a number of obstacles that stand in the way of effective listening, both within outside the workplace. These barriers may be categorized as follow 1. Physiological Barriers: - some people may have genuine hearing problems or deficiencies that prevent them from listening properly. Once detected, date andgenerally be treated. Some people may have difficulties in processinginformation, or memory related problem which make them poor listeners. Another physiological barrier is rapid though. Listeners have the ability to process information at the rate of approximately 500 words per minute, whereas speaker talks at around 120 words per minute. Since listeners are left with a lot of spare time, there attention may not be focused on words the speaker is saying, but may under elsewhere. 2. Physical Barriers: - These referred to distraction in the averment such as the sound of an air conditioner, cigarette smoke, or an overheated room, which interfere with the listening process. They could also be in the form of information overload. For example, if you are in meeting with your manager and the phone rings and your mobile beeps at the same time to let u know that you have the message. It is very hard to listen carefully to what is being said. 3. Attitudinal Barriers :- pre occupation which personal or work related problems can make it difficult to focus ones attention completely on what speaker is saying, even what is being said is of crime importance. Another common attitudinal barrier is egocentrism or the belief that you are more knowledgeable when the speaker and that you have nothing new to have to learn from his ideas. People with this kind of close minded attitude may very poor listeners. 4. Wrong Assumptions:- The success of communication depend on the both the sender and receiver, as we have seen in an earlier unit. It is wrong to assume that communication is the sole responsibility of the sender or the speaker and those listeners have no role to play. Such an assumption can be big barrier to listening. For example, a brilliant speech or presentation, however welldelivered, is wasted if the receiver is not listening at the other end. Listeners have as much responsibility as speakers to make the communicationsuccessful, by paying attention seeking clarifications and giving feedback. Another wrong assumption is to think that listening is a passive activity, in which a listener merely the thoughts of the speaker. On the contrary, real listening or active listening is hard work it requires speaking sometimes to ask question, agree or disagree with the speaker, give feedback etc.

5. Cultural Barriers: - accents can be barriers to listening, since they interfere with the ability to understand the meaning of words that are pronounced differently. The problem of different accents arises not only between cultures, but also within a culture. For example, in a country like India where there is enormous cultural diversity, accents may differ even between regions states. Another type of cultural barrier is doddering cultural values. Theimportanceattached to listening and speaking differs in westen and oriental cultures.Generally, Orientals regard listening and silence as almost a virtue, whereas Attach greater importance to speaking. Therefore this would interfere with thelistening process, when two people from these two different cultures communicate. 6. Gender Barriers: - communication research has shown that gender can be barrier to listening. Studies have revealed that men and women listen very differently and for different purposes. Women are more likely to listen for the emotion behind a speakers words, when men listen more for the facts and the content. Example: - salespersons giving a demonstration of a new type of office equipment may be asked by two colleagues if the equipment will work without ant problem and respond by saying Sure. A male user may take his at face value; whereas the female user may detect some hesitation in his voice. This is because the male user listens for the content of the message, where as the female user listen for the tone of the message. 7. Lack of Training: - listening is not an inborn skill. People are not born good listeners. They have to develop the art of listening through practice and training. Lack of training in listing skills is an important barrier to listing, in the Indian Context. 8. Bad Listening Habits: - Most people are very average listeners who have developed poor listening habits that are hard to say and that act as barriers to listening. For example, some people have the habits of faking attention, or trying to look like a listeners, in order to impress the speaker and to assure him that they are paying attention. Others may tend to listen to each and every fact and, as a result, miss out on the main point.

Q5. Discuss the principles of business writing? Ans. Principles of business writing Initial Thoughts Quite a number of writing principles have made the rounds over time and I hope my contribution helps to further sharpen these principles; first off, what I've found to add tremendous benefit to these principles is the art of passive vs. active writing. The Principles Each of these will be explained in a few sentences... Stay Focused First off, you need to adjust the scope and scale of your writing to influence the behavior of your readers. This is the first step towards sharpening the focus of your writing.

Scope - adjust the breadth (restricting yourself to the subject matter) and depth (level of detail included) of your material. Scale - length of your writing. The larger your scale, the higher the need to plan your writing. Behavior - action or inaction of your reader after reading your material. Identify your Purpose Next is to identify the purpose of your writing and connect it to your readers expectations. Avoid buzzwords and simply use a purpose analysis model (usually sieved from questions asked when taking your initial brief) to gather your thoughts in 3 simple ways: Identify your personal values and ambitions Identify your readers' expectations Find areas of overlap emphasize recurring commonalities and address all discrepancies. Explain your Meaning Always explain the meaning of whatever you write, whilst making sure readers can also relate!! :0) For example, answering the question what does A mean to B in a business stakeholders' communication is a simple, yet effective way of connecting with your readers. If you are looking for a simple way to put this into writing, use the [Statement], meaning [consequence] format. Simple illustrations include: We are facing stiffer competition in our market, meaning we need to develop new products This logistics team achieved its set targets, meaning team members have earned a bonus. Substantiate, substantiate, substantiate!!! Your writing will gain credibility when it is substantiated with facts. Always make sure to verify your factual statements before 'publishing'. ;0) My approach will be to use focus as the lead principle. This will guide you when building a text from scratch. Once the main structure of the text has been prepared, your substantiating details can then be added. Always build a Structure Three useful indicators include the use of sequence, consistency and balance to build a structure that guides the reader though your text Sequence - order in which your writing unfolds; Consistency - using the same style and the same words when referring to the same object; Balance - your sentence or paragraph must be long enough to maintain a readers' interest but not too long. Consider sentences that are around 2 to 3 lines and paragraphs that hover around 6 to 10

lines. Provide enough writing Clarity Ensuring clarity when you're writing is presenting your piece so that the readers thinking revolves around a compelling idea. Total clarity is therefore achieved during editing, since this is where you create a distance between yourself and the material; i.e. reviewing and re-writing it. This puts your writing into perspective and allows proper evaluation of the pros and cons of your work, a definite litmus test to check whether the initial five principles are self-evident. Remain Humble!!! Be humble while writing and editing, and always critically judge your work first. Though this has no effect on how good the technicality of your work is, the truth is that most people are sick of reading anything that has an arrogant or condescending tinge to it. A tinge you definitely want to avoid if your thoughts are to be heard via your writing.

Q6. Explain the advantages of oral communication with the help of suitable example. Ans. Oral Communication Oral communication implies communication through mouth. It includes individuals conversing with each other, be it direct conversation or telephonic conversation. Speeches, presentations, discussions are all forms of oral communication. Oral communication is generally recommended when the communication matter is of temporary kind or where a direct interaction is required. Face to face communication (meetings, lectures, conferences, interviews, etc.) is significant so as to build a rapport and trust. Advantages of Oral Communication. There is high level of understanding and transparency in oral communication as it isinterpersonal. There is no element of rigidity in oral communication. There is flexibility for allowingchanges in the decisions previously taken. The feedback is spontaneous in case of oral communication. Thus, decisions can bemade quickly without any delay. Oral communication is not only time saving, but it also saves upon money and efforts. Oral communication is best in case of problem resolution. The conflicts, disputes andmany issues/differences can be put to an end by talking them over. Oral communication is an essential for teamwork and group energy. Oral communication promotes a receptive and encouraging morale amongorganizational employees. Oral communication can be best used to transfer private and confidentialinformation/matter.

Set 2
Q1. List the differences between extensive reading and intensive reading? Ans: Differences between extensive reading and intensive reading Intensive reading It is related to further progress in language learning under the teacher's guidance. It provides a basis for explaining difficulties of structure and for extending knowledge of vocabulary and idioms. It will provide material for developing greater control of the language and speech and writing. Students will study short stories and extracts from novels, chosen for the standard of difficultly of the language and for the interest they hold for this particular group of students. Intensive reading is generally at a slower speed and requires a higher degree of understanding to develop and refine word study skills, enlarge passive vocabulary, reinforce skills related to sentence structure, increase active vocabulary, distinguish among thesis, fact, supportive and non-supportive details, provide socio cultural insights.

Extensive reading It develops at the student's own pace according to individual ability. It will be selected at a lower level of difficulty than that for intensive reading. Where frequency word counts are available for the language being learned, extensive reading will conform to a lower frequency word count than intensive reading. Material will be selected whose choice of structure is habitually less complex and whose vocabulary range is less extensive. The purpose of extensive reading is to train the students to read directly and fluently in the target language for enjoyment without the aid of the teacher. Where graded texts are available, structures in texts for extensive reading will be already familiar, and new items of vocabulary will be introduced slowly in such a way that their meaning can be deduced from context or quickly as certained. The student will be encouraged to make intelligent guesses at the meaning of unfamiliar items. Material consists of authentic short stories and plays, or informative or controversial articles from newspapers and magazines. A few adaptations of vocabulary and structure will be made. The style of writing should entail a certain amount of repetition without monotony. Novelties of vocabulary should not coincide with difficulties of structure. It means reading in quantity and in order to gain a general understanding of what is read. It is intended to develop good reading habits, to build up knowledge of vocabulary and structure and to encourage a liking for reading, Increase total comprehension, enable students to achieve independence in basic skill development, acquaint the student with relevant socio-cultural material, and encourage recreational reading.

Q2. Explain the different advantages and disadvantages of intranet.

Ans: Advantages and disadvantages of intranet are as follows: Advantages of Intranet There are number of advantages of intranet discussed below: Intranets offering workforce productivity which can help user to find and observe information very fast. User may also use applications according to their roles and tasks. Through web browser a user can get access to entire contents of any website from anywhere or any time. Intranet also increase the ability of employees by performing their job confidently very fast, and accurately. Intranet permits business companies to share out information to employees according to their need or requirements. Employees may also link to appropriate data at their expediency. The best advantage offered by intranet is communications within an organization or business company, landscape or portrait. Intranets are helpful to converse planned initiative that has an international reach all through the organization. The well known examples of transportation are chat, email, and blogs. Actual world example of Intranet is Nestle had a number of food processing plants. The most significant advantage of Intranet is Web publishing which permits burdensome corporate knowledge to be continued and effortlessly access all through the company using Web technologies and hypermedia. The familiar examples of web publishing consist of training, news feed, company polices, documents, and employee manual. Intranet can be accessed general internet standards such as CGI applications, Flash files, and Acrobat files. Each unit can bring up to date the online copy of a document and intranet always provides the most recent version to employees. Intranet Offering business operations and administration solutions because it also being used as a platform of mounting and organizing applications across the internet world. Another advantage of Intranet is time saving because there is no need to maintain physical documents such as procedure manual, requisition forms, and internet phone list. Disadvantages of Intranet Intranet has great features for interconnected manners but has some disadvantages too

Management does need to stop control of specific information, this problem can be minimized but with appropriate prudence. The other disadvantage of Intranet is security issue Intranet gathered everything in one location which is really good but if it is not prearranged then you will spoil everything. The cost of intranet is very high but has lots of advantages after implementing.

Q3. List the different principles of business letter writing.

Ans. Principles of Writing Business Letters: The format of a business letter is different from other styles. Expect the tone to be less casual and the information kept straight to the point. Keep the intended audience in mind at all times. Like all types of writing, however, planning is a must. First organize your thoughts, and then put pen to paper or fingers to the keyboard. Tone The tone of a business letter is formal. Avoid casual words and slang. Write the letter as if you applying for a job and not as if you were talking to a friend. Avoid phrases such as, "you know what I mean," "it's cool," and "you know that." Stay away from the light, conversational tone found in emails and messages to friends. This will help you project professionalism in your writing. Intent and Clarity Jump right in and state the intent of your letter in as few words as possible. Write short and clear sentences. Do not use complicated words when a simpler word will do. Include just enough information so that your message is clear and concise, while still allowing the sentences to flow and maintaining a tactful and polite tone. Pronoun Use Writing a business letter in the first and second person is acceptable. Using "I" and "you" help to create a connection between the author and reader of the message. When printing your message on paper that includes your business's letterhead, use the pronoun "we." The usage of this word could imply that the opinions or information presented in the letter are those of the entire company rather than just you. Format The proper format of a business letter includes the date, addresses of the writer and recipient, greeting, body, closing and signature. The recipient may not view your letter as professional if each of these sections is not included.

Q4. Write short notes on: (a) Corporate identity advertising Ans. (a) Corporate identity advertising Advertising signatures should be presented in a consistent manner, clearly conveying federal sponsorship of the message. Set out here are guidelines on how government policy on the use of the federal signature and the Canada word mark should be applied in advertising. These guidelines are intended to promote clear and consistent identification of the sponsor, while allowing flexibility on how signatures are being applied. The guidelines were developed to assist all those involved in the planning and preparation of government-sponsored advertising. (b) institutional advertising

This section should be used with Chapter 470, Federal Identity Program, and Chapter 480, Government Communications Policy of the Administrative Policy Manual. Official languages requirements with respect to advertising are set out in Chapter 470. Section1. 1, Design, of the FIP Manual contains comprehensive guidelines on the use of symbols and signatures, as well as information on the availability of proofs for reproduction. Guideline examples These guidelines include typical examples to show how the signature and wordmark should be applied in federal advertising. Most of the examples stem from actual advertisements; some of them were modified to reflect the guidelines. Scope Guidelines set out the use of corporate signatures in government-sponsored advertising within Canada. They apply to print advertising, outdoor and transit advertising, television and radio advertising, as well as to paid announcements. Advertising signatures Described below are design criteria that apply to advertising signatures in print advertising, outdoor and transit advertising, and in paid announcements. These criteria pertain to the layout, the relative size and position of the signature and word mark, as well as the use of colour. Federal signature Three aspects determine the design of a signature: layout, type size and typeface. This involves choosing the appropriate layout (e.g. one-, two- or three-line signature), the type size, and the suitable typeface (i.e. Helvetica light, regular or medium). Described below is the effect of these variables on the design of a signature. Layout The signature layout should be chosen on the basis of the signatures length (i.e. number of words) and the space allocated for it in the advertisement. Basically, it is a question of whether a signature should be displayed horizontally, or in a more compact, vertical layout. Where horizontal space is limited, the choice of layout is directly related to the signatures type size. To fit a particular width and to permit the use of a large enough type size, certain signatures may need to be displayed in three or possibly four lines. (b)Institutional advertising. Institutional advertising is marketing designed to promote a company rather than a specific good or service. It can be designed to make the public more aware of a company or to improve the reputation and image of an existing company. Depending on the company, this can be a form of brand advertising. Many forms of advertising are about promoting products. This can involve promoting a new product so that the public is aware of its existence, or trying to persuade the public to buy more of an existing product. Institutional advertising instead promotes the company itself. One example would be a grocery chain running advertisements which stressed the general quality or low prices of its food, rather than detailing specific offers it was running.

Some forms of institutional advertising are so geared towards promoting a positive image that they effectively discourage sales of a product to some extent. For example, alcohol firms may run commercials warning against excessive drinking or driving while under the influence. Such commercials are usually designed to improve the image of the company, making it seem more trustworthy or responsible. In some cases, institutional advertising is the same thing as brand awareness advertising. This is where the advertising promotes a particular brand rather than the product itself. For example, a banking group might run commercials promoting one of its banks as being dynamic and exciting, while promoting a sister bank as being particularly helpful to customers. In both cases this is different than promoting a specific service, for example by advertising a low rate on loans for new customers. It is also possible for institutional advertising to promote an industry rather than a particular company. This will usually be carried out by an industry association. It happens most often in industries where many of the companies are small firms without the budgets to carry out major advertising, particularly in national media. To give a hypothetical example, most wills prepared by lawyers are done so by small law firms with only a few offices. A trade association for inheritance lawyers could carry out institutional advertising by putting together a television commercial which promotes the importance of getting a will, then lists a website which refers viewers to lawyers in their area. Institutional advertising can cause problems for marketing analysis. Where a commercial is for a specific product, marketers can track how it affects sales and see how effective the advertising was. With institutional advertising, the link between the advertising and the effect on business is much weaker and may take longer to show any effects.

Q5. Discuss the different types of business reports? Ans. Different Types of Business Reports This particular article I located discusses the different types of reports used for communication in the business world. Choosing the right type of report also requires a smart analysis. The writer must decide what type to use based on the information that he or she is trying to communicate. Also the writer must take into consideration their intended audience. Is the audience expecting the report to be in a specific format? Are they used to receiving information in one way? and which format will convey the message in the most appropriate way? Finally, how formal or informal should the report be Reports, according to this article, can be classified as according to function or according to formality? Reports according to function can also be subdivided into the following:

Informational reports. Analytical reports Research reports

Whereas reports according to formality can be subdivided into the following:

Statutory reports Non statutory or voluntary reports

The article goes further into outlining other types or reports such as information, analytical, research, statutory, non-statutory, special, and routine reports. Information reports are solely to provide facts without suggestion or personal opinions. Whatever ones findings is that is what reported. These facts are given without personal explanation or, again, any suggestions. Analytical reports are one step further as they contain facts alongside analytical explanation of these facts. They contain a sort of a narration of facts and collected data. They also contain a conclusion or a set of interpretations reached by the writer.

Q6. List the different steps involved in report preparation Ans. Steps in writing a report 1. Define the purpose of your report 2. Define the readers of your report 3. Define your sources of data 4. Gather and analyze your data 5. Decide on your recommendations 6. Decide on the key points to include in the report 7. Decide on the best order for your points 8. Decide on the best structure for the report 9. Select data to support your key points 10. Write a draft 11. Prepare tables and graphics 12. Edit and proof-read the report 13. Write an executive summary 14. Format the report professionally 15. Make a title page and table of contents