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# 1 Homework Set 3: PH321, EQUILIBRIUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS, SPRING 2012 Instructor: Arindam Kundagrami TOTAL MARKS: 5, DUE: Monday,

## April 23rd, 2012 (in class).

I REPEAT ONCE MORE THAT SOLVING SINCERELY (AND ON YOUR OWN) THE HOMEWORK PROBLEMS WILL COMPLETELY PREPARE YOU FOR THE EXAMS. THAT SHOULD MOTIVATE YOU TO DO THESE PROBLEMS IN DETAILS. REMEMBER, ONLY PRACTICE CAN HELP YOU GRASP THE TOPICS. DISCUSS BUT DO NOT COPY. PROVIDE ALL DETAILS OF YOUR CALCULATION (DO NOT JUMP STEPS).

1. Consider the ideal Bose gas (non-relativistic, 3 dimensions) in the grand canonical ensemble. Always start from the expressions for P = P (, V, T ) and N = N (, V, T ) in a grand canonical ensemble. a) Find an expression (as function of P, V, N, T, z) for the equation of state for all values of T > Tc , where Tc is the condensation temperature. What happens when n3 0? b) Prove that E = (3/2)P V holds good for this non-relativistic gas. c) Find an expression for Tc as function of the mass and density of the gas molecules. d) Show that the pressure in the mixed (T < Tc ) phase does not depend on volume. e) Which value of n3 corresponds to Tc ? f) Write = (N, V, T ) for T Tc . g) Show that Cv 1.925N kB at T = Tc . Further show that Cv vanishes near absolute zero. h) For the reversible adiabatic process, S and N remain xed. From this show that P V 5/3 =const. just like a classical ideal gas. i) Show that in the mixed phase the entropy is extensive only in Ne , where Ne is the number of molecules in the excited single-particle states. This is why the condensed molecules in the ground-state are called entropy-less. [1 mark]

2 2. Two identical and mutually non-interacting particles of mass m interact with an external harmonic potential. a) What are the energy levels of the system? b) Calculate the partition function of the particles considering them to be 1. bosons, 2. fermions, and 3. classical (distinguishable) particles. [Hint: The Hamiltonian of the system is a sum of Hamiltonians of individual particles. To get the partition functions, carefully do the sum over all states; which states are allowed/distinct will depend on the type of the particle. Recall that you already know the classical result.] [1 mark]

3. Consider the ideal Fermi gas (non-relativistic, 3 dimensions) in the grand canonical ensemble. Always start from the expressions for P = P (, V, T ) and N = N (, V, T ) in a grand canonical ensemble. a) Find E, P, F, S as functions of N, T, . Calculate CV (a slightly lengthy calculation, but an important one - applies both for the Bose gas at T > Tc and Fermi gas for all temperatures - follow the book) as CV (N, T, ) as well. b) Argue why very low densities or very high temperatures should give you classical results. Obtain the classical results for E, P, F, S using the above limit. [1 mark]

4. Consider the ideal Fermi gas at absolute zero temperature. a) Argue why the total number of particles should specify the highest occupied singleparticle energy level (F ). Find F (n, m), where n is the density and m is the mass of one molecule of the gas. b) Calculate the energy E, pressure P of the gas. c) Calculate the Fermi momentum for one- and two-dimensional systems (non-relativistic) particles. What will be the corresponding expressions for relativistic particles? d) Calculate the energy and pressure of a two-dimensional, non-relativistic Fermi gas at absolute zero. e) Consider an ideal Fermi gas (non-relativistic, 3D) with intrinsic magnetic moment

3 for each particle. At T = 0, what is the largest density (as function of , B) for which the gas can be completely polarized by an external magnetic eld B? f) Give a numerical estimate for the Fermi energy for 3 He atoms in liquid 3 He (atomic volume = 46 1030 m3 ). [1 mark]

5. Consider the ideal Fermi gas at very low (but not absolute zero) temperature. a) Describe briey what Sommerfeld expansion is, and it is on which variable, and why? b) Write f (z) up to the required order in ()1 , and nd the expressions for E and CV up to the lowest order in T . Show that both CV and the entropy vanish for T = 0. [1 mark]