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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

This chapter is about the description of the introduction. It is devided into seven sub sections. They are background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, scope of the study, method of research, definition of key terms and organization of the final project.

A Background of the Study The increasing need which is caused by the development of global era demands the global society to enhance their human resources quality in order to compete to other countries. Responding to this situation, the role of communication has become a part that can not be separated from this condition. As English has become a very powerful language in the world, it has become one of international language. Mohammad Reza Talebinezad and Mohammad Aliakbari (in Kurniawan Yudhi Nugroho, 2007:2) stated that English as International language means the use of English by people of different nations in order to communicate with one another. As the important of English in communication, it isnt difficult to see that the language is frequently used either to formal or informal places such as foreign companies, embassy office, tourist sector and many other places. Different from Malaysia, Singapore, India, and Thailand, they put English as their second

language as their language communication, while Indonesia puts English as its

foreign language. It is used as an instrument of utilizing modern sciences and technology for national development and it is also used as a means of

communication when Indonesian people want to communicate to people from overseas. No doubt that only a few Indonesian people master it, even most of them tend to ignore it, they used to think that foreign language isnt something important for their daily life and learning it will only waste time. However, nowadays, the assumption is gradually scraped off by the development of global era that demands the society to be more competitive and to be able to enhance their human resources quality. Therefore, the role of English is needed to face the globalization era, where it will be many new things happened in our nation. Since English recently is considered as foreign and important language for Indonesian, it has a major portion in Indonesian educational system and becomes a compulsory subject to be studied either in junior or senior high schools in todays Indonesian educational system. In learning English, there are four skills that should be mastered, they are: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Reading is one important skill in learning a language. It is also a means of recreation and enjoyment. At the same time it enlarges knowledge and improves the technological achievement. In order to develop reading skill, it is necessary to read many kinds of reading materials. Students should not only develop their reading skill through formal education and assignment in various school textbook, but they also should read fiction, free reading books, newspapers and magazines.

Although people read many kinds of reading materials and have interest in reading, actually they do similar things. They try to catch the meaning or the idea of the text. It means that they do not only interact with the written symbol, but they also use the knowledge to catch the meaning. The goal of reading for Indonesian students is to understand or comprehend the material of the test because reading comprehension is a bridge to understanding scientific books they read. The ability of the students in reading is very important because by having the ability to read, they will be able to improve their knowledge. Rauch and Weinstein consider that reading is a key to success for anyone who wants to be an educated person (1968:4) (In Dewi Ratnawati, 2006: 17-18). Reading needs practice and guidance or we can call it as intensive learning. The first we need to force ourselves to read. Reading activity will be easily done if we have motivation. Include motivation from ourselves, our teachers, or our environment. In teaching process, we can use many kinds of teaching models to generate students motivation. Now, the fact is not every students in Junior High School especially in SMP N 1 Kedungwuni succed to master it; therefore their reading achievement still bellow the standard. It happens because many students still have poor reading achievement. So, they cant understand many text in English well. However, the test item which is used in every final exam is about reading.

In order to help them to understand reading, the writer is interested to make a research entitled The Effect of Group Investigation Teaching Technique Toward Students Reading Achievement. This research presents a reading teaching strategy to junior high school students. In which it is going to be very fun and interesting for them. By providing Group Investigation as a teaching method in teaching reading to junior high school students, The writer hopes that it can make them feel happy to learn reading. The writer also hopes that it can give motivation to the students to learn reading. The use of group investigation will make the students active in their learning and to learn how they try to solve the problem together in a group. From the explanation above the writer assumes that the use of group investigation is one of the good and effective way to teach and to motivate them to study.

B. Statements of Problem The basic problems which the writer wants to discuss in this research are: 1. What is Group Investigation teaching technique? 2. How is the Implementation of Group Investigation teaching technique in teaching reading for the second grade students at SMP N 1 Kedungwuni? 3. Does the use of Group Investigation give a positive effect to the second grade Junior High School students reading achievement?

C. Scope of Study In this experiment, the writers main purpose is to find out whether group investigation teaching technique gives positive effect to the reading ability of the

second grade Junior High School students or not. So the writer sets the study only about reading and its teaching technique. Actually, there are many kinds of teaching technique which can be used to teach reading: such us Jigsaw Puzzle, Number head together, TGT, STAD, Group Investigatin, Talking Stick and so on. However, in this research, the writer chooses Group Investigation as the teaching technique. The writer chooses Group Investigation because the writer wants to find out whether Group Investigation gives positive effect to students reading ability or not. The writer sets the study this way in order to obtain detailed results on his research.

D. Objectives of study The objectives of the study of this thesis are: 1. To find out some data about Group Investigation. 2. To describe the implementation of Group Investigation teaching technique in teaching reading for the second year students at SMP N 1 Kedungwuni? 3. To find out whether the use of Group Investigation gives positive effect to the second grade Junior High School students ability in reading or not.

E. Method of Research The writer uses experimental method as method of research. Experimental research is a method of research which examines the relationship between two variables or more. In this research, the writer does a manipulation or treatment toward the independent variable. Independence variable is a variable which is manipulated on purpose in order to be known its effect toward the dependence

variable. On the other hand, dependence variable is a variable which is appeared as result of independence variable or response of independence variable (Nana Sudjana, 2008:24). The independence variable of the research is the implementation of the Group Investigation teaching technique while the students reading achievement is as the dependence variable of the research. The writer also take all of the second year students of SMP N 1 Kedungwuni in the academic year 2010 2011 as the population of the research. In order to make the research is easier to be investigated, the writer will take some students of the population as a sample. The samples in this research are taken from the population and the writer took two classes as samples, and each class consists of 30 students who are chosen by using random sampling technique. In this research the writer uses test items as the research instrument. To collect the data the writer uses a written test that is reading test in multiple choice form which consists of 30 items with 4 options A, B, C, and D.

F. Defintion of Key Term This chapter provides explanation of key terms. The terms are listed alphabeticall as follows: Achievement : the result of what an individual has learned from some educational experiences. Cooperative learning : The instructional use of small group so that students work together to maximize their own and each others learning (Johnson & Johnson, 1993:3)

Reading

: act of one who read

Group Investigation : One kinds of cooperative learning method that emphasize the participation and activities of students to find their own materials lesson which will be learnt through the available materials, for example from textbook or students can search through the internet.

G. Organization of Writing. Chapter I is introduction. The writer presents the background of the study, statement of the problems, formulation of the problem, scope of the study, objectivities of the study, method of research, difinition of key term and organization of the final project. Chapter II is the review of related literature. The writer presents the theories in writing this study. They are: review of related literature, framework thinking and the hypotesis. Chapter III is the methodology of the research. The writer presents the place and the time of the research, research design, population and sample, variable, research instrument,technique of data coolection, and technique of data analysis. Chapter IV is the research finding and disscussion. The writer presents the result of the students achievement in reading by using the group investigation. Chapter V is the conclusions and suggestions. The writer presents the conclusions and suggestions of the final project.

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter explains about the description of the review of related literature. It consists of three sub sections. They are underlying theories, framework thinking and hypotesis.

A. Underlying Theories 1. The Nature of Reading a. The Definition of Reading According to Bond, Pinker and Wasson (1979:3) (In Dewi Ratnawati, 2006: 18) that in our world, reading more will provide more information and it makes our knowledge become increasingly in great numbers. Clark and Sandra (In Dewi Ratnawati, 2006: 18) define reading as an active cognitive process of increasing with print and monitor comprehension to establish meaning. Kennedy (1982:5) (In Dewi Ratnawati, 2006:18) has argument that reading can be defined as the ability of an individual to recognize a visual form; associate the form with a sound and or meaning acquired in the cover and on the part of experience, understands, and interprets its meaning. Mary Lee Field (1997:6) (In Diar Kholisoh, 2010: 20) in his book also said that reading is a powerful activity that confers knowledge, insight and perspective on readers.

According to the explanation above, we can conclude that reading is a process to convey a message or information of printed or written verbal symbol in order to get the meaning. b. Reading Material Reading text has been playing an important role in teaching and learning in the classroom. For the teacher, a text is motivator, inspirator, facilitator, as well as guidance. Teacher needs to have some particular skill to select appropriate text for their students. They have to be able to see whether the content, the language, and the difficulty level are on line with instructional objectives stated in the English syllabus. There are many criterion to select an appropriate text. They are: 1) Interesting The content of the text interests the students interest. It means that the content of the text which is selected should be interesting. An interesting text can make students motivate to read it. 2) Authenticity of language Authenticity of language means that the feature of language should not be filtered out from language teaching purpose. To learn and to read properly, student must, early on, learn to deal with all those features of written English already described. 3) Variety of format, register and textual organization.

Outside the EFL classroom, we may read letters, articles, instruction, discourse, etc. Student should be exposed to this full range. In reading, communication happens between the writer and the reader. The writer expresses his ideas pass through a text and the reader get a message by reading a text. Althought that process looks easy, but the students (the reader) often find some difficulties to comprehend what the text means. Some factor which make the student can not understand a text are as follows: 1) The writers language are not the same with the readers language. 2) The readers comprehension level are not the same with the readers knowledge. 3) The writers complexities 4) The limited readers vocabulary mastery c. The Type of Reading Activity There are four type of reading activity. They are: 1) Skimming Skimming is a useful skill to be applied in reading (Nuttal. Christine, 1982:34) (In Dewi Ratnawati, 2006: 25). William says that skimming is the ability to read a text quickly in order to find the general idea or the gist of the text (William, 1986) (In Dewi Ratnawati, 2006: 25). One reading type, by exploring the reading text quickly; in orders the reader can take the main ideas. A

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skimming reader can take the main ideas quickly by collecting words, phrases and main sentences. There are many reasons of skimming reading: a) To find a piece of special information in the paragraph, quotation or reverence. b) To take the main idea and the important items from the text quickly. c) To make the usage the time exactly, because the reader is very busy and has no time. By these techniques, a reader moves his eyes quickly over a text to get the gist of it. 2) Scanning Scanning is the ability to read a text quickly in order to find specific information (William, 1986) (In Dewi Fatmawati, 2006:25). Scanning means a technique of flashback in careful way. It has a goal to find the special information from the text. The technique of scanning depends on some objectives or questions, which has been determined in the beginning. In other word, the writer can take a short conclusion that scanning is used when we want to find a word, fact, data, name, etc. Our eyes can observe the whole pages quickly to find out something that we want, for instance, indexes, table of contents, telephone book page or dictionary.

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The writer can take scanning to find an art or a next concept, which the writer wants to read carefully. The ability in scanning is very useful that the teacher has to teach it to the students. (Burmeister, 1978:296) (In Dewi Ratnawati, 2006:26) The writer concludes that scanning is a way of reading which makes the readers quickly go through a text to find a particular piece of information. 3) Extensive reading In extensive reading, readers usually face a longer text. The purpose of using different types of reading is for ones own pleasure. In reading, one needs a total understanding of the writing. 4) Intensive reading Intensive reading is reading for detail. It usually has a shorter text. A reader usually wants to get some specific information. These different ways of reading are not mutually exclusive. For example, one often skim through a passage to see what it is about before deciding whether a particular paragraph is worth scanning for the information he is looking for. 2. Teaching Reading to Junior High School Students Teaching reading to Junior High School Students is different from teaching reading to children because Junior High School students have wider knowledge and skill than children. Different from the children whom cognitive aspect have not developed yet, junior high school

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students have been able to use their cognitive aspect to help them in learning something. Furthermore, junior high school students is also has a great capacity to learn something. A English teacher must choose some approaches, methods and techniques which are related to the topic and curriculum. There are many approaches, methods and techniques that can be used by the teacher to teach reading. We can use one of the method as the strategy to teach reading in junior high school but we have to remember that teenage students havent adult yet so we have to choose an enjoyful teaching method since junior high school students still like an enjoyful learning. 3. The Principles of Teaching Reading According the principles for teaching of reading, William (1986) (In Dewi Ratnawati, 2006: 29) makes a very good list called Top Ten Principles for Teaching Reading. The principles are: a. In the absence of interesting texts, very little is possible. It is true that interest is important but it always happens that finding our interesting texts for all students and preferably also for the teacher is very difficult. It is the teachers task to use any aspect of the text to arouse the students, interest. b. The primary activity of a reading lesson should be learners reading texts. This principle is very important to remind the teacher who often interrupts the students reading activity and mixes it with others.

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c.

Growth in language ability as an essential part of the development of reading ability. This means that knowledge of language is necessary for learning reading. Otherwise, the students will not develop. In fact, the development of reading abilities and that of language knowledge are interdependent.

d.

Classroom procedure should reflect the purposeful, task-based, interactive nature of real reading. Teaching reading should encourage the students to have a purpose when reading a text and make a dialogue with the writer through the text in order to achieve their purpose. The students should become active and positive readers.

e.

Teachers must learn to be quiet: all too often, teachers interfere with and so impede their learners reading development by being dominant and by talking too much. This principle reminds the teachers who dominate the reading lesson by talking about the text to the students instead of asking them to read it.

f.

Exercise types should, as far as possible, approximate to cognitive reality. The main point here is the teacher should identify how an efficient reader uses different skills for different purposes of reading, then she/he makes the students aware of and develop their reading skills.

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g.

A learner will not become a proficient reader simply by attending a reading course or working through a reading textbook. The time available for reading in the classroom is very limited and not enough for developing the students reading skills. Therefore, extensive must be encouraged.

h.

A reader contributes meaning to a text The students have to be trained to use their relevant background knowledge efficiently when reading a text so that they do not only rely on the printed stimuli.

i.

Progress in reading requires learners to use their ears, as their eyes. This principle encourages the teacher to ask the students to manipulate the Silent Supra-Segmental in the text in order to understand the text better.Therefore while the students are reading silently, it might be useful for them to listen to their teacher reading aloud or to the tape.

j.

Using a text does not necessarily equal teaching reading. This principle reminds the teacher that a text can be used for many purposes, e.g. for teaching reading or vocabulary. Hence the text is not used for teaching reading. The teacher must be aware of this and know the difference between using a text for teaching reading and using a text for other purpose.

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4.

General Concept of Cooperative Learning Cooperative learning is the instructional use of small group so that students work together to maximize their own and each others learning (Johnson & Johnson, 1993: 9). According to Jacobs coperative learning is Principles and techniques for helping students work together more effectively (Jacobs, Power, & Loh, 2002: 1). Cooperative learning is more than having students work in group: it is a fundamental shift from teacher as information provider and sole source of truth, to teacher as facilitator. It involves the use of tasks whose completion requires the combined efforts and skills of the individual group members. a) Cooperative Learning Principles. There are eight principle of Cooperative Learning. They are: 1) Heterogeneous Grouping. This principle means that the group in which students do cooperative learning tasks are mixed on one or more of a number of variables including sex, ethnicity, social class, religion, personality, age, language proficiency, and diligence. 2) Collaborative Skills. Collaborative skills, such as giving reasons, are those needed to work with others. Students may lack these skills, the language involved in using the skills, or the inclination to apply

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the skills. Most books and websites on cooperative learning urge that collaborative skills be explicitly taught one at a time. 3) Group Autonomy. This principle encourages students to look to themselves for resources rather than relying solely on the teacher. When student group are having difficulty, it is very tempting for teachers to intervene either in a particular group or with the entire class. We may sometimes want to resist this temptation, because as Roger Johnson writes, Teachers must trust the peer interaction to do many of the things they have felt responsible for themselves. 4) Simultaneous Interaction (Kagan, 1994:55). In classrooms in which group activities are not used, the normal interaction pattern is that of sequential interaction, in which one person at a time usually the teacher speaks. In contrast, when group activities are used, one student per group is speaking. In a class of 40 divided into group of four, ten students are speaking simultaneously, for example, 40 students divided into 4 students per group = 10 students (1 per group) speaking at the same time. 5) Equal Participation (Kagan, 1994:57). A frequent problem in group is that one or two group members dominate the group and, for whatever reason, impede the participation of others. Cooperative learning offers many

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ways of promoting more equal participation among group members. 6) Individual Accountability. When we try to encourage individual accountability in group, we hope that everyone will try to learn and to share their knowledge and ideas with others. 7) Positive Interdependence. This principle lies at the heart of Cooperative Learning. When positive interdependence exists among members of a group, they feel that what helps one member of the group helps the other members and that what hurts one member of the group hurts the other members. It is this All for one, one for all feeling that leads group members to want to help each other, to see that they share a common goal. 8) Cooperation as a Value. This principle means that rather than cooperation being only a way to learn, for example, the how of learning, cooperation also becomes part of the content to be learned, such as, the what of learning. This flows naturally from the most crucial cooperative learning principle, positive interdependence.

Cooperation as a value involves taking the feeling of All for one, one for all and expanding it beyond the small classroom group to encompass the whole class, the whole school, on and on, bringing

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in increasingly greater numbers of people and other beings into students circle of ones with whom to cooperate. b) Example of Cooperative Learning Method. There are a lot of kinds of teaching method which belongs to cooperative learning method. They are STAD (Students Team Academic Devision), TGT (Team Tag Turnament), Group

Investigation, Jigzaw, and so on. 5. Group Investigation Group Investigation is one kind of cooperative learning model that emphasizes the participation and activities of students to find their own materials (information) lessons which will be learnt through the available materials, for example from textbooks or students can search through the internet. Students are involved from the planning, both in determining the topics and how to learn through investigation. This cooperative learning model requires the students to have good skills in communication and group process skills. Group Investigation model trains students to

cultivate the ability to think independently. Active student involvement can be seen starting from the first phase until the final stages of learning. In Group Investigation method there are three main concepts, namely: research or enquiri, knowledge, and the dynamics of the learning group, (Udin S. Winaputra, 2001:75). The research here is the dynamic process of the students responded to the problem and solve the problem. Knowledge is the student learning experience obtained either

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directly or indirectly. While the dynamics of the group shows depicting a group atmosphere interact with each other involving a variety of ideas, opinions and exchange their experiences through the process of arguing with each other. Slavin (1995) and Siti Maesaroh (2005:28), suggests the important things to do the Group Investigation method, such as: a) Requires capability group. In the work on each task, each group member should have the opportunity to contribute.In the investigation, students can seek information from a variety of information from inside and outside class. Then, students gather the information given from each member to work on the worksheet. b) Cooperative plan. Students are jointly investigating their problems, which sources they need, who is doing what, and how they will present their projects in class. c) Role of teachers. The teacher provides resources and facilitates the learning. He rotates among group and help students to organize their work and help them when students find difficulty in group interaction. The teachers who use the Group Investigation method generally divide the class into group of 5 to 6 students with characteristics that are heterogeneous, (Trianto, 2007:59). Distribution group can also be

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based on pleasure friends or common interests of a particular topic. Furthermore, students choose a topic for investigation, conduct indepth investigation of topics that have been selected, then prepare and present its report to the class. 6. The Implementation of Group Investigation In the Group Investigation Teaching Technique, the students work through six stages. The teachers need to adapt the guideliness about that stages and their components so that Group Investigation can run well. The six stages of Group Investigation are: a) First stages: Identify the topic and arrange the group. This stage is directed to the problem setting. Teacher will presents a series of problems or issues (e.g. understanding of geography, economy and culture of South America) and the students identify and choose a variety of subtopics to be studied, based on their interests and backgrounds. This phase begins with cooperative planning involving the entire class, which can be described as follows: 1) Teachers present a problem to the whole class and ask "What do you want to know about this problem?" Each student gives questions about aspects of the problem which they want to be investigated. 2) The students are gathered in the discussion, write down all ideas and then report it to the entire class. Brief discussion of the class

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will produce a list of proposals with the subtopics that will be the subject of investigation. 3) Planning begins with each student write proposals, and is continued in group of two to four and even eight-member students. At each stage, the group members compare their lists, eliminating the same proposal, and compile a list of the same. This final list represents the interests of all members. The next step is to make all these proposals can be owned by the whole class. Teachers or students can do this by writing the entire proposal on the blackboard or printed on paper and hung on the wall, or they can also make copies and distribute them to each student. After all students have proposed a list of all persons, the members of the class will be classified into several categories. This step can be done by using one of three new methods described. For example, if the class is studying about South America, different group may have chosen a different country, or one group may have chosen the physical geography of South America, other group chose the natural resources, and so on. Participation at this stage makes the students can express their interest in each other and exchange ideas and opinions with their classmates. It is important for teachers to allow the students to determine the subject investigation without rejecting the ideas of students. The Implementation of this initial phase of the plan shows

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that the group learning process is based on the needs and experiences of the individual members of the group. It would be better if two classes investigate the same general topic and different subtopic which reflect the interest of whole group members in each class. In the final step of this phase, the subtopic is presented to the entire class, usually on the board. Then, the group is formed based on student interest, each student joined a group to study the subtopics of their own choice. Teachers may make limitation of the number of members in one group. If a particular subtopic is very popular, two group could be formed to investigate it. Because of differences in needs and interests of group members, each of the two group will produce a unique work, although the subtopic is same. b) Second stage: Planning an investigation in the group After following their research group, the students turn their attention to the subtopic of their choice. At this stage, the group members determine which aspects of each subtopic (one by one or in pairs) will be investigated. As a result, each group should formulate a problem that can be researched, decides how to carry it out, and determine which sources will be needed to conduct those investigations. Many group find out that it will very useful if they fill out an activity sheet containing questions relevant to this planning stage. The activity sheet may be shaped like this:

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OUR RESEARCH TOPICS MEMBER GROUP WHAT WE WANT INVESTIGATION WHAT ARE THE SOURCES ARE WE HOW WE SPLIT THE JOB

: : (the names) :? :? :?

Teachers can attach an authenticated photocopy of the worksheet for each group in order to display graphical evidence that the class is a "group of group." Each student contributes to small group

investigation of the investigation group, and each group contributes to the whole class learning on a larger unit. c) Third stage: Conducting investigations In this stage each group carry out the plan which has been formulated previously. Usually, this stage spends a lot of

time. Although students may be given a time limit workmanship, but the exact number of sessions they need to complete their investigations can not be counted. The teachers should seek various ways to enable a group project run well until the investigation is completed or at least until most of the work is completed. During this stage, the students, one by one or in pairs, collect, analyze, and evaluate information, making conclusions, and apply new knowledge into their part to create a resolution of the problem which is investigated. Each student investigates some aspects that

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interest them, and gives contribution one part that is needed to create a "whole group". When individuals or couples have completed their portion of the group task, the group will gather again and its members share their knowledge. The group may select one member to record their conclusions, or each member may present a written summary of their findings. d) Fourth stage: Final report preparation. This stage is the transition of the stage of data collection and clarification to the stage where the whole group report the results of their investigation to the whole class. In this stage, each group prepares their final presentation that will be presented on the next stage. The teacher will ask each group to choose one person in each group to become as steering committee. The steering committee will help each group in organizing the presentation including setting the time in which they will do a final presentation. The teacher plays as advisor at this stage. The teacher will give some advice to each group in preparing their presentation. Sometimes, the teacher gives a help to a group which still confuse or dont understand about the final report presentation. e) Fifth stage: Presenting the final report

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Now each group prepares to present their final report to the class. At this stage, they regrouped and returned to the class as a whole. The students who will make a presentation must fill that role which is considered as the new role for them. They should be able to overcome not only the demands of the task and procedure-idea-but also must be able to overcome the organizational problems associated with the coordination of all work and planning, and do a presentation. The following guidelines have been proven to be able to help: Talk concisely and clearly when giving the opening to the classroom, but convey a lesson as little as possible. Use the blackboard to illustrate the concepts. Use audio-visual equipment, such as overhead projector. Perform a formal debate in the classroom if necessary. Consider showing some portion of the task, or simulate certain events. Consider the quiz programs as a way to attract listeners. Consider to view pictures, paintings or photographs to turn the presentation. f) Sixth stage: Evaluation of achievement Group investigation challenges the teachers to use innovative approaches in assessing what students have learned. In traditional classroom teaching, all students are expected to learn the same

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material and mastered the concept of a similar series. The way they show their understanding of the subject being taught is also relatively similar. In the group investigation, teachers have to evaluate the highest thoughts on the subject which students learn - how they investigate certain aspects of the subject, how they apply their knowledge to solve a new problems, how they make conclusions from what they learned in discussing questions that require analysis and research and so on. This kind of evaluation is best done through a cumulative view of the results of individual work during the entire investigation project.

B. Framework Thinking Based on the theoretical basis and background of study, the writer draws some logical frameworks as follows: 1. One of the determinant factors in the success of the learning process and learning achievement targets is the use of appropriate teaching technique. 2. Not all teaching technique can help students to achieve goals. Good teaching involves skills in determining the appropriate teaching technique. 3. One of the teaching technique is Group Investigation. The Group Investigation can make students active in learning, the students given opportunity to learn language through a group and given opportunity to choose the subject matter thatthey want to learn.

C. Research Hypothesis

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Hypothesis is a temporary answer of research problem till its proved through data collection (Arikunto, 2006:71). Based on review related literature, the writer determines the hypothesis of the research as: H0 : Group Investigation Teaching Technique gives no effect to the reading achievement of second year Junior High School Student. H1 : Group Investigation Teaching Technique gives a positive effect to reading achievement of second year Junior High School Students.

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CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter explains about the research methodology. It is devided into seven sub sections. They are place and time of the research, population, sample, variable, technique of collecting data, research instrument and technique of analyzing data.

A. Reseach Design This study is experimental research. Experimental research is a method of research which examines the relationship between two variables or more. In this research, the writer does a manipulation or treatment toward the independent variable. The writer uses two group design as the research design. Two group design is a research method which uses two classes or group in which the first group plays as experimental group and the other plays as control group. Experimental group is a group which is taught using group investigation teaching technique, while control group is a group which isnt taught using group investigation teaching technique.

B. Research Setting This research is taken place at SMP N 1 Kedungwuni on the second year students in the academic year 2010 2011.

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C. Population Population refers to the entire group of people, events, or things of interest that the researcher wishes to investigate (Sekaran, 2000:56). The writer takes all of the second year students of SMP N 1 Kedungwuni in the academic year 2010 2011 as the population of the research. All of the second year students of SMP N 1 Kedungwuni consist of 185 students which is divided into 6 classes; those are VIII A, VIII B, VIII C, VIII D, VIII E, and VIII F.

D. Sample The sample of research is part of some research or representation from population of research (Arikunto, 2006: 131). The samples is taken from the population. The writer takes two classes as samples, and 30 students in each class are chosen as sample by using random sampling technique. 30 students for the first group as experimental group (students who are taught by using Group Investigation). 30 students for the second group as control group (students who are not taught by using Group Investigation).

E. Variable Variable is individual characteristic, object, indication, event that can be measured quantitively or qualitatively (Sudjana, 2008: 23). The research reveals relation between two variables; they are independent variable and dependent variable.

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The independent variable in this research is the implementation of Group Investigation teaching technique, while the dependent variable is the studentsgrammar achievement.

F. Technique of Collecting Data The technique of collecting data that is used in this research is multiple choice test. The test consists of 30 grammar multiple choice item with 4 options a, b, c, or d. Each of correct answer will be given 1 point and each of wrong answer will be given 0 point.

G. Research Instrument 1. Type of instrument In order to get the data about the effectiveness of using group investigation teaching method toward students grammar achievement at second grade students of Junior High School, the writer decides to use test as the type of the instrument of this research. A test in simple terms ia a method of measuring a persons ability, knowledge, or performance in a given domain (Brown, 2004:3). In this research, the writer uses multiple choice test as the instrument of the research which consist of 30 multiple choice items. 2. Technique of Trial Instrument An instrument can be said as a good instrument if it is valid and reliable. Therefore the writer have to check the validity of the test and the reliability of the test.

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a) Validity of the test Validity is a standard or criteria that shows whether the instrument is valid or not, (Arikunto, 2006: 168). A test or an instrument can be considered valid when it measures what it is intended to measures. A good research is a research that has valid data. Therefore, the writer needs a validity test in order to check wether the data which has got is valid or not.In this research, the writer uses Pearson product moment formula as validity test. The Pearson product moment formula is as follow:

rxy =

N. x

N xy x y
2

x N . y 2 y
2

Where: = coefficient of correlation between variable X and Y (2 variable which are correlation) N = number of respondent X = the score of experiment test Y = the score of other test as criterion XY = number of product from variable X and Y

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Table 1: Score of the Instrument Validity No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Nama Andy Ahmad Pahlevi Aqmarina Hilya Dienana Arinal Husna Ayu Lestari Ayu Milatina Asti Cahyo Eko Anggoro Deny Pratama Dewi Aisyah Dian Lustantiningsih Dita Suangki Dofi Faringga Evi Dianah Farikha Qonita Fatkhunnada Firdaus Irohmawati Karimah Tri Larasati Kartika Dyah P Khairul Imam Lilis Sri Hartati Lukman Indra Setiawan M. Fikri Zaidi Taqwa M. Yusril Syaiful Amin Masdiana Safitri Mukti Wibowo Nalbas Suny Lazuardi Nizar Zulmi Nurul Fatimah Nur Hidayah Nurul Fatimah X 7,33 7,67 7,33 7,67 7,67 6 7 7 8 7 6 6 7,33 7,33 8 7,33 7,33 7 6 7 7 7,33 7,67 8 7 8 7 7 6,67 7 214,66 Y 7 7,33 7 8 7 5 7,33 6 7 6 5 6,67 7,67 7,67 7 7 7 6,33 5,33 7,33 6 7 7 6,33 6,67 7 6 7 6,33 6 199,99 X2 Y2 XY 53,7289 49 51,31 58,8289 53,7289 56,2211 53,7289 49 51,31 58,8289 64 61,36 58,8289 49 53,69 36 25 30 49 53,7289 51,31 49 36 42 64 49 56 49 36 42 36 25 30 36 44,4889 40,02 53,7289 58,8289 56,2211 53,7289 58,8289 56,2211 64 49 56 53,7289 49 51,31 53,7289 49 51,31 49 40,0689 44,31 36 28,4089 31,98 49 53,7289 51,31 49 36 42 53,7289 49 51,31 58,8289 49 53,69 64 40,0689 50,64 49 44,4889 46,69 64 49 56 49 36 42 49 49 49 44,4889 40,0689 42,2211 49 36 42 1545,907 1349,438 1439,434

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rxy =

N. x

N xy x y
2

N. y

)( ) ( ) )+

( *( ( ) )(

*(

)(

)(

= = 0,664176 From the computation above, we find that the r-test value is 0,664176 then the level of significant 5%, we found that r-table with N= 30 is 0,361, so r-test is higher than the r-table (0,664176 > 0,361). It can be said that the test is valid. b) Reliability of the test Reliability of the test is the stability of the test scores when the test is used (Arikunto, 2006: 178). To measure the reliability of the test; the writer uses the formula of Spearman -Brown. That is: r11 =
( )

34

Where: r11 = the reliability of the instruments. = Index correlation between two-half instruments. Table 2: Score of the Instrument Reliability No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Name Andy Ahmad Pahlevi Aqmarina Hilya Dienana Arinal Husna Ayu Lestari Ayu Milatina Asti Cahyo Eko Anggoro Deny Pratama Dewi Aisyah Dian Lustantiningsih Dita Suangki Dofi Faringga Evi Dianah Farikha Qonita Fatkhunnada Firdaus Irohmawati Karimah Tri Larasati Kartika Dyah P Khairul Imam Lilis Sri Hartati Lukman Indra Setiawan M. Fikri Zaidi Taqwa M. Yusril Syaiful Amin Masdiana Safitri Mukti Wibowo Nalbas Suny Lazuardi Nizar Zulmi Nurul Fatimah Nur Hidayah Nurul Fatimah SCORE 22 23 22 23 23 18 21 20 24 21 18 18 22 22 24 22 22 21 18 21 21 22 22 24 21 24 19 21 20 21 640
35

X 12 12 11 12 11 9 11 10 12 10 9 9 11 11 12 10 10 10 9 10 12 11 11 10 11 12 10 11 10 10 319

Y 10 11 11 11 12 9 10 10 12 11 9 9 11 11 12 12 12 11 9 11 9 11 11 14 10 12 9 10 10 11 321

x2 144 144 121 144 121 81 121 100 144 100 81 81 121 121 144 100 100 100 81 100 144 121 121 100 121 144 100 121 100 100 3421

y2 100 121 121 121 144 81 100 100 144 121 81 81 121 121 144 144 144 121 81 121 81 121 121 196 100 144 81 100 100 121 3477

xy 120 132 121 132 132 81 110 100 144 110 81 81 121 121 144 120 120 110 81 110 108 121 121 140 110 144 90 110 100 110 3425

N = 30 X = 319

X2 = 3421 Y2 = 3477

XY = 3425 Y = 321

( ( ) + *

) (
( )( (

) ( ) +
) ) ( ) +

*(

) (

) )(

)(

)(

= = 0,334246

r11

( (

) )

0,501026

36

From the results above, we find that the r-test value is 0,501026 after the consult with the level of significant 5%, we found that r-table is 0,361, we can see that r- test is higher than of the r-table (0,501026 > 0,361) so there is a significant correlation between the X as the first-half score and Y as twohalf score. This means that the test is reliable.

H. Technique of Analyzing Data Data of this research was taken by giving English reading test to the two group of samples: group one and group two. The writer uses statistic formula ttest to analyze the data. The formula t-test is obtained by : 1. Look for the Mean X= Notes: X= mean x1 = total score n = number of sample 2. Look for the Median Median is the middle score of the data from the research. 3. Look for the Modus Modus is score of the data which often appear. 4. Look for the Deviation standard SD =
(

X)

37

Notes: SD (X1 X) = Deviation Standard = Deviation of Quadrant meant

5. Look for the Deviation Standard Combination S=


( ) ( )

Notes: S1 S2 n1 n2 = Deviation standard of group 1 = Deviation standard of group 2 = number of sample of group 1 = number of sample of group 2

6. Look for t- test (to) t=


Notes: S 1 2 n1 n2 = Varian = mean of group 1 = mean of group 2 = number of sample of group 1 = number of sample of group 2

If the datas have been tested by t-test and the result has been consulate to the table, it can be known whether the hypothesis is accepted or refused. Hypothesis of research is accepted if t-test is higher than t-table and it means that null hypothesis is refused.

38

In this research, the hypotheses are: H1 H0 = Research hypothesis = Null hypothesis

I. Finding Interpretation The writer gets the data analysis of this research is tested by t-test, for testing the differences between two group. If the result of t-test is higher than the t-table, null hyphothesis (H0) is refused, while the research hyphothesis is accepted. It means that there is a significant difference between two group.

39

40

CHAPTER IV FINDING INTERPRETATION

A. Discription of the Data The data are obtained through multiple choice test. The number of the test is 30 items with 4 options a, b, c, and d. It needs 80 minutes to do. This research purpose is to determine the extent to which the use of group investigation influence on students reading achievement at SMP N 1 Kedungwuni in academic year 2010/2011. The tests are given to group of samples which have been divided into two group. Each group consists of 30 students. Group I is the experiment group that is taught by using a group investigation. Group II is the control group which is not taught by using the group investigation. In this research, the writer uses t-test formula to answer the problem formulation and to find out whether the hypothesis is received or not. This is chosen in order to identify significant differences between two group of research samples. After finished the research, the writer obtain many data as follows:

41

Tabel 3. The score of the students who is taught by Group Investigation (GROUP 1) No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Nama Siswa Abid Khoirul Anam Akhrom Hasan Ariyall Hikam Pratama Ayu Aminy Dewi Nurrohmah Dyah Syifa Herawati Firda Silviana Gilang Syarif Hamim Mujahid Hana Putri Maula Iga Busang Wijaya Intan Nia Nofita Irhas Maulana Kartika Dewi Lailul Maskanah Lintang Dina Syafiera Luli Bibah Amalia M. Darmawan Hardianto M. Hafidh Syafian M. Rifqi Ramadhani Maharani Mailina Al Husna Medianto Mohammad Syahrul Himawan Muh. Anggi Irawan Nadia Eka Indrianing Nely Rizqiyah Nisfah Nofa Isnan Hadi Nur Hidayah Nurul Falah Score 7,33 8,67 7 8,67 8,67 7,33 8 8 8 8 7,67 7,67 9 7,33 7,33 7 7,33 8,33 6,33 8,67 7,33 7 7 6,67 6 6,67 6,67 7 6 6,67 223,34

42

Tabel 4. The score of the students who isnt taught by Group Investigation (GROUP 2) No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Nama Siswa A. Arifin Ahmad Turrohim Ainun Najib Ana Istikharoh Angga Prasetya Putra Armand Esa Mahendra Atabika Ilmi Ata Riskiana Chaerul Umam Dina Diana Dwi Anggoro Putro Enno Farrisafina Shafira Fitria Febryana Fitria Rakhmi Setiyani Hammadillah Sofyan Heni Sulistianingrum Hemi Nugroho Hilda Meliana Ike Izmy Fatmala Khissiyyatunnisa M. Ali Shofi M. Izzul Islam M. Subchan Nitama M. Nurul Hazmi M. Yusuf Bachtiar Maudy Wihelmina Maulida Rachmayani Moh. Rosul Rohbi M. Radifan Aldiansyah Novita Aryani P Score 7 5,33 8 7,67 6 6,67 7,67 7,67 7,33 7,33 7,33 7 7 8,33 7 6,67 6 6,67 7,67 6,67 6 6 6 6,67 6 7,67 6,33 6 6 8 205,68

43

B. Technique of Data Analysis To simplify in computing data analysis, the writer makes a table of preparation as follows: Tabel 5. List of Data of the student who are taught by Group Investigation. Nilai Nilai Nilai Variabel Variabel Variabel (X) (X-X1) (X-X1)2 7,33 -0,11 0,01 8,67 1,23 1,51 7 -0,44 0,19 8,67 1,23 1,51 8,67 1,23 1,51 7,33 -0,11 0,01 8 0,56 0,31 8 0,56 0,31 8 0,56 0,31 8 0,56 0,31 7,67 0,23 0,05 7,67 0,23 0,05 9 1,56 2,43 7,33 -0,11 0,01 7,33 -0,11 0,01 7 -0,44 0,19 7,33 -0,11 0,01 8,33 0,89 0,79 6,33 -1,11 1,23 8,67 1,23 1,51 7,33 -0,11 0,01 7 -0,44 0,19 7 -0,44 0,19 6,67 -0,77 0,59 6 -1,44 2,07 6,67 -0,77 0,59 6,67 -0,77 0,59 7 -0,44 0,19 6 -1,44 2,07 6,67 -0,77 0,59 223,34 19,43
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No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Nama Siswa Abid Khoirul Anam Akhrom Hasan Ariyall Hikam Pratama Ayu Aminy Dewi Nurrohmah Dyah Syifa Herawati Firda Silviana Gilang Syarif Hamim Mujahid Hana Putri Maula Iga Busang Wijaya Intan Nia Nofita Irhas Maulana Kartika Dewi Lailul Maskanah Lintang Dina Syafiera Luli Bibah Amalia M. Darmawan Hardianto M. Hafidh Syafian M. Rifqi Ramadhani Maharani Mailina Al Husna Medianto Mohammad Syahrul Himawan Muh. Anggi Irawan Nadia Eka Indrianing Nely Rizqiyah Nisfah Nofa Isnan Hadi Nur Hidayah Nurul Falah

Tabel 6. List of Data of the students who are not taught by Group Investigation. Nilai Nilai Nilai Variabel Variabel Variabel X (X X2) (X-X2)2 7 0,14 0,02 5,33 -1,53 2,34 8 1,14 1,30 7,67 0,81 0,66 6 -0,86 0,74 6,67 -0,19 0,04 7,67 0,81 0,66 7,67 0,81 0,66 7,33 0,47 0,22 7,33 0,47 0,22 7,33 0,47 0,22 7 0,14 0,02 7 0,14 0,02 8,33 1,47 2,16 7 0,14 0,02 6,67 -0,19 0,04 6 -0,86 0,74 6,67 -0,19 0,04 7,67 0,81 0,66 6,67 -0,19 0,04 6 -0,86 0,74 6 -0,86 0,74 6 -0,86 0,74 6,67 -0,19 0,04 6 -0,86 0,74 7,67 0,81 0,66 6,33 -0,53 0,28 6 -0,86 0,74 6 -0,86 0,74 8 1,14 1,30 205,68 17,50

No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Nama Siswa A. Arifin Ahmad Turrohim Ainun Najib Ana Istikharoh Angga Prasetya Putra Armand Esa Mahendra Atabika Ilmi Ata Riskiana Chaerul Umam Dina Diana Dwi Anggoro Putro Enno Farrisafina Shafira Fitria Febryana Fitria Rakhmi Setiyani Hammadillah Sofyan Heni Sulistianingrum Hemi Nugroho Hilda Meliana Ike Izmy Fatmala Khissiyyatunnisa M. Ali Shofi M. Izzul Islam M. Subchan Nitama M. Nurul Hazmi M. Yusuf Bachtiar Maudy Wihelmina Maulida Rachmayani Moh. Rosul Rohbi M. Radifan Aldiansyah Novita Aryani P

45

From the data above and formulas of data analysis, the writer starts to search: A. The group who are taught by using the Group Investigation 1. Computing Mean
X=

X
N

=
= 7,44 2. Computing Median Me = = 7,33 3. Computing Modus From the data in above modus are 7,33 4. Computing Standard Deviation SD =
( )

= = = SD = 0,82 5. Variants (S2) S12 = SD2 = 0,82 2

46

= 0,67 B. The group who are not taught by using Group Investigation 1. Computing Mean X= = = 6,86 2. Computing Median Me = = 6,84 3. Computing Modus From data in above the modus is 6 4. Computing Standard Deviation SD =
( )

= = 0,78 5. Variant (S2) S22 = SD2

47

= 0,782 = 0,6

A. Computing the Combination of Variants

S2 = = = =

( (

) ) (

) )

= 0,64 S = = 0, 8 Table 7: Summary of the result of reading test No 1. 2. Sample Group I Group II N 30 30 Rs 96 8,33 5,33 X 7,44 6,86 Me 7,3 6,84 Mo 7,33 6 S2 0,67 0,6 SD 0,82 0,78

Note N : Number of sample

Rs : Range of Score Me : Median X : Mean

48

Mo : Modus S2 : Variants SD : Standard Deviation From the data in above, the next it is tested with using t-test.

t=

= = = =
= 2,86

The result of t-test is 2,86 C. Descusion of Analysis Data After counting the t-test above, the writer finds out that the result of t-test is 2,86. On the other hand, by look up on the t-table with 5% significant level and 58 degree of freedom, the writer finds out that the t-table is 1,645. 58 degree of freedom is obtained from using (n1+n2) - 2 formula. So, (n1+n2) 2 = (30+30) 2 = 58. If the writer compares the t-test result with 5 % significant level and 58 degree of freedom in t-tabel, the writer will find out that the t-test result is higher than the t-table (2,86 > 1,645). Because the t-test is higher than the t-table, the

49

writer can conclude that null hyphothesis(H0) is refused and

the alternative

hyphothesis (H1) is accepted. It means that there is a significant effect between the first group and the second group. So, the writer can conclude that teaching English using Group Investigation technique gives a possitive effect toward students reading achievement on eighth year students of SMP N 1 Kedungwuni in academic year 2010/2011

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

A. Conclusion Based on the result of the study on the eighth year student of SMP N 1 Kedungwuni in academic year 2010/2011, the writer obtains many data such as; validity of test item = 0, 664, reliability of test item = 0,501, the mean of Group 1 = 7,44, the mean of Group II = 6,84, and t-test = 2,86. Connected with the test item, the writer finds out that the validity of the test item value is 0,664. At 5% significant of r-table is 0,361. If the writer compares the validity of the test item value with the r-table one, the writer finds out that validity of the test item value is higher than the r-table one (0,664 > 0,361). It means that the test item which is used is valid. The writer also finds out that reliability of the test item is 0,501 and at 5 % significant of r-table value is 0, 361. From this data, we can conclude that reliability of the test item is higher that the r-table one (0,501 > 0,361). It means that the test item is reliable. From statistical computation, the result of t- test is 2,86, the writer compares it to t table with 5% significant level value which is 1,645. Because the result of the t test is higher than t table (2,86 > 1,645), so the null hypothesis (H0) is refused and the alternative hypothesis (H1) is accepted. So the students achievements who are taught by using group investigation is better than students who are not taught by using the group investigation.

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B. Suggestion After doing the research, the writer has some suggestions as follows: 1. The teacher should be creative in teaching English because creativity can help the teacher to apply many different methods whenever they teach in order to make an enjoyful learning for the student and the teacher. 2. Teacher should have wider knowledge about how to teach English because there are many model of teaching which can be applied to the class recently. 3. Teacher should make an enjoyful teaching learning process. An enjoyful teaching learning process can motivate the student to study hard. 4. The teacher should find solution to maximize learning in applying group investigation technique because group investigation has a problem in how to make each students of the group have his own job and do it honestly. 5. The teacher should motivate his students in learning English; therefore the students will improve their competence in English. The teacher gives exercise for them to be actively in facing the material. 6. In teaching process, the teacher should be able to select the appropriate model, thus, the students will get goals effectively.

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BIBLIOGRAFY

Brown, H. Douglas. 2001. Teaching by Principles. San Francisco: Longeman. Harmer, Jeremy. 2000. The Practice of English Language Teaching. Cambridge: Longeman. Hornby, AS. 1985. Oxford Advanced Learner Dictionary of Current English. Walton Street: Oxford University Press. Jordan, Anne, Carlile, Orison, and Stack, Anneta. 2008. Approach to Learning. New York: Open University Press. Kholisoh, Diar. 2010. The Effect of Using Talking Stick towards the Students Reading Achievement the study on the seventh year of SMP Muhammadiyah 01 Tegal in Academic 2009/2010: A Thesis. Pancasakti University. Larsen-Freeman, Diane. 2000. Technique and Principles in Language Teaching. New York: Oxford University Press. Ratnawati, Dewi. 2006. The correlation between vocabulary mastery and reading comprehension: the case of the seventh grade students of smp n 13 semarang in the academic year 2005/2006: A Final Project. Semarang States University Richard, J. C., and Rodgers, Theodore S. 2001. Approach and Methods an Language Teaching (2nd edition). New York: Chambridge University Press. Nugroho, Kurniawan Yudhi. 2007. THE USE OF CIRCLE GAMES AS A STRATEGY TO IMPROVE THE STUDENTS MASTERY IN ENGLISH VOCABULARY (An Action Research In the Case of Elementary School Students of SDN 01Banyumanik Semarang in the Academic Year 2007/ 2008): A Final Project. Semarang States University. Slavin, Robert.E. 2010. Cooperative Learning(8th ed). Bandung: Nusa Media. Somantri, Ating & Muhidin, Sambas Ali. 2006. Aplikasi Statistika dalam Penelitian. Bandung: CV Pustaka Setia. Sudjana, Nana. 2008. Tuntunan Penyusunan Karya Ilmiah(11st ed). Bandung: Sinar Baru Algesindo. ___________ . Program Peningkatan Kualitas Seribu Guru Sekolah Dasar. Universitas Negeri Malang.

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