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# Code: 9A23401

II B.Tech II Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary April/May 2012 Examinations MASS TRANSFER OPERATIONS (Bio Technology)
Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ***** 1. (a) What is molecular diffusion? Write down Fick first law of diffusion explaining the terms in the law. (b) A small diameter tube closed at one end was filled with acetone to within 15 mm from the top and maintained at 290 K with a gentle stream of air blowing across the top. After 15000 seconds, the liquid level had fallen to 27.5 mm. The vapor pressure of acetone was 1.95 kN/m2. Calculate the diffusivity of acetone in air. The total pressure is 99.75 kN/m2. Density of acetone is 790 kg/m3. 2. (a) Define mass transfer coefficient. Discuss evaluation of convective mass transfer coefficient (k l ) using various dimensionless numbers. (b) A large volume of pure air at 26.1C is flowing parallel to a flat plate of solid benzoic acid where L = 0.244 m in the direction of flow. The water velocity is 0.061 m/s. The solubility of benzoic acid is 0.02948 kg mol/m3. The diffusivity of benzoic acid is 1.245 X 10-9 m2/s. Calculate the mass transfer coefficient k l and the flux N A . Since the solution is very dilute, the physical properties of water at 26.1C can be used. = 8.71X10-4 Pa.S = 996 kg/m3 D AB = 1.245X10-9 m2/s 3. (a) Explain differential or simple distillation with the help of a neat schematic diagram. Derive the Rayleigh equation for differential distillation of binary mixtures. (b) A mixture of 50 grams of water and 50 grams of ethyl acetate is steam distilled at one atmospheric pressure. Determine the distillate composition and steam requirement per kg mole of ethyl acetate. Following data is available:
Temperature in C Vapor pressure of water in mm Hg Vapor pressure of ethyl acetate in mm Hg 38.1 51.1 1 64.4 199.9 5 80.6 363.9 10 96 657.6 20 113.2 1225 40

Max Marks: 70

4. (a) Explain liquid extraction or solvent extraction with a simple example and schematic diagram? Discuss the fields of its usefulness (b) Pure solvent isopropyl ether at the rate of 600 kg/hr is being used to extract an aqueous solution of 200 kg/hr containing 30 wt % acetic acid by counter current multistage extraction. The desired exit acetic acid concentration in the aqueous phase is 4%. Calculate the compositions and amounts of the ether extract and aqueous raffinate. Use the following equilibrium data
Water Layer (wt%) Acetic Acid Water Isopropyl Ether 0 98.9 1.2 0.69 98.1 1.2 1.41 97.1 1.5 2.89 95.5 1.6 6.42 91.7 1.9 13.30 84.4 2.3 25.5 71.1 3.4 36.70 58.9 4.4 44.30 45.1 10.6 46.4 37.1 16.5 Isopropyl Ether Layer (wt%) Acetic Acid Water Isopropyl Ether 0 0.6 99.4 0.18 0.5 99.3 0.37 0.7 98.9 0.79 0.8 98.4 1.93 1.0 97.1 4.82 1.9 93.3 11.40 3.9 84.7 21.6 6.9 71.5 31.10 10.8 58.1 36.20 15.1 48.7

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Code:9A23401

5. (a) Explain leaching with simple examples. Discuss about the preparation of solid in leaching. (b) An aqueous solution containing a valuable solute is colored by small amounts of an impurity. Before crystallization, the impurity is to be removed by adsorption on a decolorizing carbon which adsorbs only insignificant amounts of the principal solute. A series of laboratory tests was made by stirring various amounts of the adsorbent into batches of the original solution until equilibrium was established, yielding the following data at constant temperature:
kg carbon/kg solution Equilibrium Color 0 9.6 0.001 8.1 0.004 6.3 0.008 4.3 0.02 1.7 0.04 0.7

The color intensity was measured on an arbitrary scale, proportional to the concentration of the colored substance. It is desired to reduce the color to 10% of the original value, 9.6. Determine the quantity of the fresh carbon required per 1000 kg of solution for a single stage operation. 6. (a) Define the following : Equilibrium Moisture Bound Moisture Unbound Moisture Free Moisture (b) It is necessary to dry a batch of 160 kg of a wet solid material from 30% to 5% moisture content, under constant rate and falling rate period. The falling rate is assumed to be linear. Calculate the total drying time considering an available drying surface of 1m2/40 kg of dry solid. A constant drying flux of 3X10-4 kg/m2s is given. Critical moisture content is 0.2 kg moisture/kg solid. Equilibrium Moisture content is 0.05 kg moisture/kg solid. 7. (a) Describe separation of liquid mixtures using membranes. (b) Discuss membrane structure used for gas separation processes. 8. (a) Discuss extraction of penicillin using butyl acetate highlighting applications of mass transfer. (b) Discuss applications of mass transfer in crystallization of citric acid.

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Code: 9A23401

II B.Tech II Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary April/May 2012 Examinations MASS TRANSFER OPERATIONS (Bio Technology)
Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ***** 1. (a) Discuss diffusion in biological gels. (b) A tube or bridge of a gel solution of 1.05 wt % agar in water at 278 K is 0.04 m long and connects two agitated solutions of urea in water. The urea concentration in the first solution is 0.2 g mol urea per liter solution and 0 in the other. Calculate the flux of urea in kg mol/s.m2 at steady state. For the solute urea at 278 K , D AB = 0.727X10-9 m2/s. 2. (a) Define equilibrium. Discuss the equilibrium distribution of solute between a gas and a liquid phase at constant temperature with the help of schematic diagrams. (b) Calculate the mass transfer coefficient and the mass transfer flux for a sphere of naphthalene in air at 45C and one standard atmosphere flowing at a velocity of 0.305 m/s. Diameter of the sphere is 25.4 mm. Diffusivity of naphthalene in air at 45C is 6.92 X 10-6 m2/s. Vapor pressure of naphthalene is 0.555 mm Hg. air = 1.93 X 10-5 Pa.S and air = 1.113 kg/m3 . Use the empirical relationship Sh = 2 + 0.552 Re0.53 Sc 1/3 3. (a) Derive the basic expressions for material balances and their graphical representation for one component transferred single stage counter current absorption operation. (b) A mixture of 50 grams of water and 50 grams of ethyl acetate is steam distilled at one atmospheric pressure. Determine the boiling point and distillate composition. Following data is available Temperature in C 38.1 64.4 80.6 96 113.2 Vapor pressure of water in mm Hg 51.1 199.9 363.9 657.6 1225 Vapor pressure of ethyl acetate in mm Hg 1 5 10 20 40 4. (b) Write about the quantities to be given consideration in making a choice of solvent in liquid extraction. Pure solvent isopropyl ether of 450 kg/hr is being used to extract an aqueous solution of 150 kg/hr containing 30 wt % acetic acid by counter current multistage extraction. The desired exit acetic acid concentration in the aqueous phase is 10 wt %. Calculate the number of stages required. Use the following equilibrium data Water Layer (wt%) Isopropyl Ether Layer (wt%) Acetic Acid Water Isopropyl Ether Acetic Acid Water Isopropyl Ether 0 98.9 1.2 0 0.6 99.4 0.69 98.1 1.2 0.18 0.5 99.3 1.41 97.1 1.5 0.37 0.7 98.9 2.89 95.5 1.6 0.79 0.8 98.4 6.42 91.7 1.9 1.93 1.0 97.1 13.30 84.4 2.3 4.82 1.9 93.3 25.5 71.1 3.4 11.40 3.9 84.7 36.70 58.9 4.4 21.6 6.9 71.5 44.30 45.1 10.6 31.10 10.8 58.1 46.4 37.1 16.5 36.20 15.1 48.7 Max Marks: 70

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Code:9A23401

5. (a) Derive the basic expressions for material balances and their graphical representation in the phase diagram for single stage leaching operation. (b) An aqueous solution containing a valuable solute is colored by small amounts of an impurity. Before crystallization, the impurity is to be removed by adsorption on a decolorizing carbon which adsorbs only insignificant amounts of the principal solute. A series of laboratory tests was made by stirring various amounts of the adsorbent into batches of the original solution until equilibrium was established, yielding the following data at constant temperature:
kg carbon/kg solution Equilibrium Color 0 9.6 0.001 8.1 0.004 6.3 0.008 4.3 0.02 1.7 0.04 0.7

The color intensity was measured on an arbitrary scale, proportional to the concentration of the colored substance. It is desired to reduce the color to 6% of the original value, 9.6. Determine the quantity of the fresh carbon required per 100 kg of solution for a single stage operation. 6. (a) Define the following : Equilibrium Moisture Moisture Content (Wet Basis) Moisture Content (Dry Basis) Free Moisture (b) 160 kg of wet solid is to be dried from an initial moisture content of 25% to a final content of 6%. Drying test shows that the rate of drying is constant at 3X10-4 kg water/m2s in the region 0.2 to 0.4 kg water per kg solid. The drying rate falls linearly in the range 0.01 to 0.2 kg water per kg solid. If the equilibrium moisture content is 0.01 kg water per kg solid, calculate the time of drying. The drying surface is 1 m2/30 kg dry weight. 7. (a) Discuss the mechanism of transport of gases through polymer membranes with the help of relevant theories and schematics. (b) Describe flow arrangements for hollow fiber membranes with the help of schematic diagrams. 8. (a) Discuss oxygen mass transfer in production of pencillin. (b) Discuss applications of mass transfer in crystallization of citric acid. *****

Code: 9A23401

II B.Tech II Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary April/May 2012 Examinations MASS TRANSFER OPERATIONS (Bio Technology)
Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ***** 1. (a) What is molecular diffusion? Discuss molecular diffusion in biological solutions. (b) A small diameter tube closed at one end was filled with acetone to within 10 mm from the top and maintained at 290 K with a gentle stream of air blowing across the top. After 30000 seconds, the liquid level had fallen to 45 mm. The vapor pressure of acetone was 1.95 kN/m2. Calculate the diffusivity of acetone in air. The total pressure is 99.75 kN/m2. Density of acetone is 790 kg/m3. 2. (a) For a two phase mass transfer, show that the relationship between the individual phase transfer coefficients and the overall coefficient takes the form of addition of resistances. (b) A large volume of pure air at 26.1C is flowing parallel to a flat plate of solid benzoic acid where L = 0.244 m in the direction of flow. The water velocity is 0.061 m/s. The solubility of benzoic acid is 0.02948 kg mol/m3. The diffusivity of benzoic acid is 1.245 X 10-9 m2/s. Calculate the mass transfer coefficient k l and the flux N A . Since the solution is very dilute, the physical properties of water at 26.1C can be used. = 8.71X10-4 Pa.S = 996 kg/m3 D AB = 1.245X10-9 m2/s 3. (a) Discuss constant pressure and constant temperature vapour liquid equilibria with the help of neat schematic diagrams. (b) Ammonia is recovered from a gas mixture of 20% ammonia and rest air by counter current scrubbing with water at one standard atmospheric pressure and 20C. The scrubber is designed to remove 99% ammonia. Evaluate the minimum water rate and theoretical number of stages for actual absorption with 1.2 times the minimum rate. The gas flow rate is 3500 kg/hr. Equilibrium data
Partial pressure of ammonia in mm Hg Gm ammonia per 10 grams water 12 0.2 18 0.3 32 0.5 50 0.75 70 1.0 106 2.0

Max Marks: 70

4. (a) Derive the material balance equations and give their graphical representation in the phase diagram for single stage extraction operation. (b) An inlet solution of 100 kg/h containing 0.010 wt fraction nicotine in water is stripped with a kerosene stream of 200 kg/h containing 0.0005 wt fraction nicotine in countercurrent stage tower. The water and kerosene are essentially immiscible in each other. It is desired to reduce the concentration of the exit water to 0.0010 wt fraction nicotine. Determine the theoretical number of stages needed. The equilibrium data are as follows with x the weight fraction of nicotine in the water solution and y in the kerosene.
X y 0.001010 0.000806 0.00246 0.0010959 0.00500 0.00454 0.00746 0.00682 0.00988 0.00904 0.0202 0.0185

5. (a) What is an adsorption isotherm? Discuss any two classical methods used to evaluate adsorption isotherms.

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Code:9A23401

5. (b) An aqueous solution containing a valuable solute is colored by small amounts of an impurity. Before crystallization, the impurity is to be removed by adsorption on a decolorizing carbon which adsorbs only insignificant amounts of the principal solute. A series of laboratory tests was made by stirring various amounts of the adsorbent into batches of the original solution until equilibrium was established, yielding the following data at constant temperature:
kg carbon/kg solution Equilibrium Color 0 9.6 0.001 8.1 0.004 6.3 0.008 4.3 0.02 1.7 0.04 0.7

The color intensity was measured on an arbitrary scale, proportional to the concentration of the colored substance. It is desired to reduce the color to 10% of the original value, 9.6. Determine the quantity of the fresh carbon required per 1000 kg of solution for a single stage operation. 6. (a) Define the following : Equilibrium Moisture Bound Moisture Unbound Moisture Free Moisture (b) It is necessary to dry a batch of 120 kg of a wet solid material from 27% to 4% moisture content, under constant rate and falling rate period. The falling rate is assumed to be linear. Calculate the total drying time considering an available drying surface of 1m2/35 kg of dry solid. A constant drying flux of 2.76X10-4 kg/m2s is given. Critical moisture content is 0.2 kg moisture/kg solid. Equilibrium Moisture content is 0.05 kg moisture/kg solid. 7. (a) Describe separation of liquid mixtures using membranes. (b) Discuss membrane structure used for gas separation processes. 8. (a) Discuss absorption of ammonia in water highlighting applications of mass transfer. (b) Discuss applications of mass transfer in crystallization of citric acid. *****

Code: 9A23401

II B.Tech II Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary April/May 2012 Examinations MASS TRANSFER OPERATIONS (Bio Technology)
Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ***** 1. (a) Discuss diffusion in biological gels. (b) A tube or bridge of a gel solution of 3 wt % agar in water at 278 K is 0.06 m long and connects two agitated solutions of urea in water. The urea concentration in the first solution is 0.187 g mol urea per liter solution and 0 in the other. Calculate the flux of urea in kg mol/s.m2 at steady state. For the solute urea at 278 K , D AB is 0.7297 X 10-9 m2/s. 2. (a) Define equilibrium. Discuss the equilibrium distribution of solute between a gas and a liquid phase at constant temperature with the help of schematic diagrams. (b) Calculate the mass transfer coefficient and the mass transfer flux for a sphere of naphthalene in air at 45C and one standard atmosphere flowing at a velocity of 0.6 m/s. Diameter of the sphere is 50 mm. Diffusivity of naphthalene in air at 45C is 6.92 X 10-6 m2/s. Vapor pressure of naphthalene is 0.555 mm Hg. air = 1.93 X 10-5 Pa.S and air = 1.113 kg/m3 . Use the empirical relationship Sh = 2 + 0.552 Re0.53 Sc 1/3 3. (a) Discuss equilibrium solubility of gases in liquids in respect of two component systems and multicomponent systems. (b) A binary mixture of 50 mol% A is subjected to simple distillation so that 20 % of feed is vaporized. If the equilibrium relationship is y = 1.2 x + 0.3 calculate the composition of residue and the distillate. 4. (a) Derive the material balance equations and give their graphical representation in the phase diagram for a three stage extraction operation when the extraction solvent and the feed solution are insoluble. (b) An water solution of 1000 kg/h containing 1.5 wt % nicotine in water is stripped with a kerosene stream of 2000 kg/h containing 0.05 wt % nicotine in countercurrent stage tower. The water and kerosene are essentially immiscible in each other. It is desired to reduce the concentration of the exit water to contain only 10 % of the original nicotine. i.e., 90% removed. Calculate the theoretical number of stages needed. The equilibrium data are as follows with x the weight fraction of nicotine in the water solution and y in the kerosene.
X y 0.001010 0.000806 0.00246 0.0010959 0.00500 0.00454 0.00746 0.00682 0.00988 0.00904 0.0202 0.0185

Max Marks: 70

5. (a) Discuss different types of nucleation and give relevant equations. (b) An aqueous solution containing a valuable solute is colored by small amounts of an impurity. Before crystallization, the impurity is to be removed by adsorption on a decolorizing carbon which adsorbs only insignificant amounts of the principal solute. A series of laboratory tests was made by stirring various amounts of the adsorbent into batches of the original solution until equilibrium was established, yielding the following data at constant temperature:
kg carbon/kg solution Equilibrium Color 0 9.6 0.001 8.1 0.004 6.3 0.008 4.3 0.02 1.7 0.04 0.7

The color intensity was measured on an arbitrary scale, proportional to the concentration of the colored substance. It is desired to reduce the color to 6% of the original value, 9.6. Determine the quantity of the fresh carbon required per 100 kg of solution for a single stage operation. Contd. in Page 2

Code: 9A23401

6. (a) Define the following : Equilibrium Moisture Moisture Content (Wet Basis) Moisture Content (Dry Basis) Free Moisture (b) 160 kg of wet solid is to be dried from an initial moisture content of 25% to a final content of 6%. Drying test shows that the rate of drying is constant at 3X10-4 kg water/m2s in the region 0.2 to 0.4 kg water per kg solid. The drying rate falls linearly in the range 0.01 to 0.2 kg water per kg solid. If the equilibrium moisture content is 0.01 kg water per kg solid, calculate the time of drying. The drying surface is 1 m2/30 kg dry weight. 7. (a) Discuss the mechanism of transport of gases through polymer membranes with the help of relevant theories and schematics. (b) Describe flow arrangements for hollow fiber membranes with the help of schematic diagrams. 8. (a) Discuss oxygen mass transfer in production of pencillin. (b) Discuss applications of mass transfer in crystallization of citric acid. *****