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R07 Code: R7222301

II B.Tech II Semester (R07) Supplementary April/May 2012 Examinations MASS TRANSFER & SEPARATION

Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks 1. (a) (b)

Max Marks: 80

***** What is molecular diffusion? Write down Fick first law of diffusion explaining the terms in the law. A small diameter tube closed at one end was filled with acetone to within 15 mm from the top and maintained at 290 K with a gentle stream of air blowing across the top. After 15000 seconds, the liquid level had fallen to 27.5 mm. The vapor pressure of acetone was 1.95 kN/m2. Calculate the diffusivity of acetone in air. The total pressure is 99.75 kN/m2. Density of acetone is 790 kg/m3. Define mass transfer coefficient. Discuss evaluation of convective mass transfer coefficient (k l ) using various dimensionless numbers. A large volume of pure air at 26.1C is flowing parallel to a flat plate of solid benzoic acid where L = 0.244 m in the direction of flow. The water velocity is 0.061 m/s. The solubility of benzoic acid is 0.02948 kg mol/m3. The diffusivity of benzoic acid is 1.245 X 10-9 m2/s. Calculate the mass transfer coefficient k l and the flux N A . Since the solution is very dilute, the physical properties of water at 26.1C can be used. = 8.71X10-4 Pa.S = 996 kg/m3 D AB = 1.245X10-9 m2/s Show that the relationship between the individual phase transfer coefficients and the overall coefficient takes the form of addition of resistances.


(a) (b)



(a) (b)

Derive the basic expressions for material balances and their graphical representation for one component transferred single stage counter current absorption operation. Ammonia is recovered from a gas mixture of 20% ammonia and rest air by counter current scrubbing with water at one standard atmospheric pressure and 20C. The scrubber is designed to remove 99% ammonia. Evaluate the minimum water rate and theoretical number of stages for actual absorption with 1.2 times the minimum rate. The gas flow rate is 3500 kg/hr. Equilibrium data
Partial pressure of ammonia in mm Hg Gm ammonia per 10 grams water 12 0.2 18 0.3 32 0.5 50 0.75 70 1.0 106 2.0


(a) (b)

Explain differential or simple distillation with the help of a neat schematic diagram. Derive the Rayleigh equation for differential distillation of binary mixtures. A mixture of 50 grams of water and 50 grams of ethyl acetate is steam distilled at one atmospheric pressure. Determine the distillate composition and steam requirement per kg mole of ethyl acetate. Following data is available:
Temperature in C Vapor pressure of water in mm Hg Vapor pressure of ethyl acetate in mm Hg 38.1 51.1 1 64.4 199.9 5 80.6 363.9 10 96 657.6 20 113.2 1225 40



Explain liquid extraction or solvent extraction with a simple example and schematic diagram? Discuss the fields of its usefulness Contd. in Page 2





Pure solvent isopropyl ether at the rate of 600 kg/hr is being used to extract an aqueous solution of 200 kg/hr containing 30 wt % acetic acid by counter current multistage extraction. The desired exit acetic acid concentration in the aqueous phase is 4%. Calculate the compositions and amounts of the ether extract and aqueous raffinate. Use the following equilibrium data
Acetic Acid 0 0.69 1.41 2.89 6.42 13.30 25.5 36.70 44.30 46.4 Water Layer (wt%) Water Isopropyl Ether 98.9 1.2 98.1 1.2 97.1 1.5 95.5 1.6 91.7 1.9 84.4 2.3 71.1 3.4 58.9 4.4 45.1 10.6 37.1 16.5 Isopropyl Ether Layer (wt%) Acetic Acid Water Isopropyl Ether 0 0.6 99.4 0.18 0.5 99.3 0.37 0.7 98.9 0.79 0.8 98.4 1.93 1.0 97.1 4.82 1.9 93.3 11.40 3.9 84.7 21.6 6.9 71.5 31.10 10.8 58.1 36.20 15.1 48.7


(a) (b)

What is an adsorption isotherm? Discuss any two classical methods used to evaluate adsorption isotherms. An aqueous solution containing a valuable solute is colored by small amounts of an impurity. Before crystallization, the impurity is to be removed by adsorption on a decolorizing carbon which adsorbs only insignificant amounts of the principal solute. A series of laboratory tests was made by stirring various amounts of the adsorbent into batches of the original solution until equilibrium was established, yielding the following data at constant temperature:
kg carbon/kg solution Equilibrium Color 0 9.6 0.001 8.1 0.004 6.3 0.008 4.3 0.02 1.7 0.04 0.7

The color intensity was measured on an arbitrary scale, proportional to the concentration of the colored substance. It is desired to reduce the color to 10% of the original value, 9.6. Determine the quantity of the fresh carbon required per 1000 kg of solution for a single stage operation. 8. (a) (b) Describe separation of liquid mixtures using membranes. Discuss membrane structure used for gas separation processes.