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ENERGY INTERACTIONS WITH THE EARTH SURFACE

The energy interactions with the earth surface have three elements. The elements are reflected, absorbed and transmitted. The interrelationship between these three energy interactions as EI () = ER () + EA () + ET () ER EA ET = reflected energy = absorbed energy = transmitted energy = wavelength

The above equation is an energy balance equation expressing the interrelationship between the mechanism of reflection, absorption, and transmission. Two points concerning this relationship: 1. It depending on their material type and conditions which permit us to distinguish different features on an image. 2. The wavelength dependency even within a given features type, the proportion of reflected, absorbed and transmitted energy will vary at different wavelength. Example; An object, blue when they reflect highly in the blue portion of the visible spectrum, green when they reflect highly in the green spectral region and so on.

REFLECTED Reflection occurs when radiation bounces off the target and is redirected. In remote sensing, we are most interested in measuring the radiation reflected from the target. Two types of reflected: 1. Specular reflectors o Are flat surfaces that manifest mirror like reflections, where the angles of reflection are equals the angle of incidence. o Eg; in the relatively long wavelength radio range, rocky terrain can appear smooth to incident energy. 2. Diffuse reflectors o Are rough surfaces that reflect uniformly in all directions. o Eg; in the visible portions of the spectrum, even a material such as fine sand appears rough.

In short, when the wavelength of incident energy is much smaller than the surface height variations or the particles sizes that make up a surface, the surface is diffuse.

Diffuse refections contain spectral information on the colour of the reflecting surface, whereas specular refections do not. Hence, in remote sensing, we are most often interested in measuring the diffuse reflectance properties of terrain features.

All remote Sensing systems have three types of resolution: Spectral Spatial Temporal

a) Spectral o Spectral characteristics of an object and has a strong influence on the choices of wavelength region(s). o Three types of spectral reflectance consists of three basic types of earth Vegetation For example, plant reflectance in the 0.7 to 1.3-m range result primarily from the internal structure of plant leaves. Soil For example, soil reflectance is moisture content, soil texture, surface roughness and organic matter content. Soil reflectance may reduce because of surface roughness and the content of organic matter. Clear lake water For example, reflectance from the water body can stem from an interaction with the waters surface with material suspended in the water. Water contain of sediment from soil erosion have high visible reflectance than other clear water.

b) Spatial o Factor that because the same features at a given point in time to have different characteristics at different geographic location. o For example is the change in the leaf morphology of trees when stress. Then, the tree becomes infected with disease, its leave begin to cup and curl, changing the reflectance of tree.

c) Temporal o o Factor that change the spectral characteristic of a feature overtime. For example, when we collect sensor data of many species of vegetation are in nearly change of growing season. o In addition to being influenced by temporal and spatial effects, atmospheres are important to influence of spectral response patterns.

Utilizing of different reflectivity

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Object can be identified from visible light reflected from their surfaces Visible light consists of blue, green and red component Vegetation as green because it strongly reflect green light within the visible light In addition the surfaces of object also reflect nearinfrared and ultravoilet light which are invisible to human sight

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Reflectivity depends on different wavelength In reference, it is possible to identify and classify objects by measuring the strength of light, reflected from surfaces

Reflectivity depends on different wavelength