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# C|rcu|t 1heory I

## 1he Idea| 1ransformer

A Lransformer conslsLs of Lwo colls wound around a common core
of magneuc maLerlal Lo achleve sLrong magneuc coupllng. 1he colls
are called respecuvely Lhe pr|mary and Lhe secondary
2

## 1he Idea| 1ransformer

Applylng a ume-varylng slgnal (e.g. an AC slgnal) Lo Lhe prlmary
generaLes a changlng ux ln Lhe core. 1hls ln Lurns lnduces a slmllar
ume-varylng slgnal aL Lhe secondary
1he lnduced volLage v
2
(L) ls relaLed Lo Lhe applled volLage v
1
(L) as:
3
n is colleJ tbe turnx rutlo, onJ N1 onJ N2 ore
tbe number of turns in tbe respective winJinqs
1he Idea| 1ransformer

v
1
= N
1
d
dt

d
dt
=
v
1
N
1
v
2
= N
2
d
dt

d
dt
=
v
2
N
2

d
dt
=
v
1
N
1
=
v
2
N
2

v
2
v
1
=
N
2
N
1
1he Idea| 1ransformer
lL ls lmporLanL Lo reallze LhaL slnce Lransformer acuon ls Lhe resulL
of a changlng magneuc ux, Lhe applled volLage musL be of Lhe
ume-varylng Lype.
ldeally a Lransformer dlsslpaLes no energy, so Lhe power absorbed
vla Lhe prlmary musL equal Lhe power released vla Lhe secondary
We observe LhaL for currenL Lo ow ln Lhe prlmary, Lhe secondary
musL be LermlnaLed on a load. ln Lhe absence of any load we have
l
2
=0, and hence l
1
=0 even lf v
1
=0
sLep-up Lransformer: n>1
sLep-down Lransformer: n<1
3
1he Idea| 1ransformer
Slnce coupllng beLween Lhe lnpuL and ouLpuL porLs ls excluslvely
magneuc, Lransformers can be used Lo provlde elecLrlc lsolauon,
LhaL ls Lo LransmlL power (or lnformauon) from one clrculL Lo
anoLher wlLhouL allowlng a conducung paLh Lo exlsLs beLween Lhem
1ransformers wlLh n=1 are used excluslvely for Lhls purpose and are
called |so|anon transformers
6

## uslng Lhe uullLy volLage as source (v

S
=120v) we wanL Lo dellver a power of
9W (
L
=9W) Lo a 1 MU load (8
L
=1MU)
lf we connecL Lhe uullLy volLage dlrecLly Lo Lhe load, Lhe power lnLo Lhe load
would be only:
8y uslng a Lransformer:

1he facL LhaL

## depends on Lhe drlvlng source

and , regardless
of Lhe load, suggesL LhaL Lhe secondary can be modeled by a
dependenL volLage source of value

## depends on Lhe load and , regardless of

Lhe drlvlng source, suggesL LhaL Lhe prlmary can be modeled by a
dependenL currenL source of value

8
ower 1ransm|ss|on
A ma[or appllcauon of Lransformers ls ln elecLrlc power
Lransmlsslon and dlsLrlbuuon
ln absence of any Lransformer Lhe load and Lhe Lransmlsslon llne
would form a volLage dlvlder:
9
R
T
v
S
R
l
v
I
R
T
"spoils" tbe efflclency of tbe tronsmission {unfortunotely witb lonq tronsmission
lines R
T
con be mucb qreoter tbon R
l
so most of tbe power is lost in tbe tronsmission
line, witb only o neqliqible froction reocbinq tbe looJ)
ower 1ransm|ss|on
lf we wanL Lo reduce Lhe power loss on 8
1
Lhe only opuon we have ls Lo
reduce Lhe currenL owlng Lhrough 8
1
(
1
=8
1
l
81
2
)
1he soluuon ls Lo use a sLep-up Lransformer Lo brlng down Lhe currenL
owlng Lhrough 8
1
lollowed by a sLep-down Lransformer Lo brlng Lhe currenL up agaln on Lhe
load (slnce we wanL Lo avold deprlvlng Lhe load of Lhe requlred power

L
=8
L
l
L
2
)
10
P
L
= P
S
P
RT
i
L
= i
RT
n i
RT
=
i
L
n
=
v
L
R
L
n
ower 1ransm|ss|on

R
T
i
RT
= n v
S
~ n v
L
- R
T
v
L
R
L
n
= nv
S
~ nv
L
-
- v
L
n +
R
T
nR
L
[
\
|

)
j
= nv
S
- v
S
= v
L
1+
R
T
n
2
R
L
[
\
|

)
j
-
- v
L
=
v
S
1+
R
T
n
2
R
L
[
\
|

)
j
- v
L
=
v
S
1+
R
T
n
2
R
L
[
\
|

)
j
R
L
R
L
=
v
S
R
L
R
L
+
R
T
n
2
[
\
|

)
j
v
L
=
v
S
R
L
R
L
+
R
T
n
2

=
R
L
R
L
+
R
T
n
2

Cboosinq to moke R
T
,n
2
<< R
l
we con bove
v
l
opproocb v
S
onJ p opproocb unity
Tbis exploin tbe wiJe spreoJ use of biqb voltoqe
tronsmission lines wben power is to be tronsmitteJ
over substontiol Jistonces

## Tbe power proJuceJ by o 120v {rms), 60Ez qenerotor is to be tronsmitteJ to o

1-0 looJ vio o 100 miles tronsmission line bovinq o resistonce of 0.02S 0 per
1000 feet
o. if tbe voltoqe ot tbe qenerotor enJ of tbe tronsmission line is 10Kv {rms),
jinJ tbe looJ voltoqe onJ tbe efjiciency
b. Compore witb tbe cose in wbicb power is tronsmitteJ Jirectly witbout
usinq ony tronsformers
1 mile = 5280 feet R
T
=100 5280
0.025
1000
=13.2
Witbout ony tronsformer
Voltage Divider : v
L
=
v
S
R
T
+ R
L
R
L
=
120
13.2 +1
1 8.45V(rms)
=
R
L
R
T
+ R
L
=
1
13.2 +1
7.04%
Tbis is o Bisoster !!!

Witb tronsformers
-
v
S
R
l
i
l

1:n n:1
R
T
-
10Kv
-
-
120v
-
n =
10kV
120V
83.33
v
L
=
v
S
R
T
n
2
+ R
L
R
L
=
120
13.2
83.33
2
+1
1 119.77 V(rms)
=
R
L
R
T
n
2
+ R
L
=
1
13.2
83.33
2
+1
99.81%
We lost only 0.2Sv !!
kes|stance 1ransformanon
1he prlmary currenL l
1
ls conLrolled by Lhe load currenL l
2
. 8uL l
2
depend
on v
2
LhaL ln Lurn ls conLrolled by v
1
1he equlvalenL reslsLance 8
1
=v
1
/l
1
seen looklng ln Lhe prlmary ls:
14
R
1
=
v
1
i
1
i
1
= ni
2
= n
v
2
R
2
= n
nv
1
R
2
= n
2
v
1
R
2
R
1
=
v
1
i
1
=
R
2
n
2
R
2
offects tbe primory. R
2
oppeors ot tbe
primory os on equivolent resistonce R
2
,n
2
R
1
is soiJ to represent tbe xeconJury rexlxtunce referreJ to the prlmury, onJ
tbe tronsformer is soiJ to perform o rexlxtunce trunxformutlon

kes|stance 1ransformanon
1he reslsLance Lransformauon applles ln boLh dlrecuons
lf Lhe prlmary ls LermlnaLed on a reslsLance 81, Lhen Lhe equlvalenL
reslsLance seen looklng lnLo Lhe secondary ls:
13
R
2
=
v
2
i
2
=
R
1
1/ n
2
= n
2
R
1

## Impact of kes|stance 1ransformanon

on "Load|ng"
8eslsLance Lransformauon has a slgnlcanL lmpacL on
loadlng" (LhaL ls when v
S
has a non negllglble serles reslsLance 8
S
)
16
Irom tbe view point of tbe looJ, tbe seconJory oppeors os o source of volue nv
S

witb o series resistonce of volue n
2
R
S
v
1
=
v
s
R
S
+ R
L
/ n
2
R
L
/ n
2
v
2
= nv
1
v
2
= n
v
s
R
S
+ R
L
/ n
2

R
L
n
2
=
n v
s
n
2
R
S
+ R
L
R
L

## Lect of kes|stance 1ransformanon

on Load|ng
uue Lo loadlng eecL" Lhe galn v
L
/v
S
ls less Lhan n
lf Lhe reslsLance seen looklng lnLo Lhe prlmary (=8
L
/n
2
) ls maLched Lo
reslsLance of Lhe source (=8
S
)
we ensure max power Lransfer from Lhe source Lo Lhe prlmary, and (slnce
8
L
=n
2
8
S
) also maxlmum power Lransfer from Lhe secondary Lo Lhe load
17
Ior n
2
R
S
<< R
l
tbe
qoin opproocbes n

v
L
v
S
=
v
2
v
S
=
nR
L
n
2
R
S
+ R
L
Source-to-IouJ
0uln
R
L
n
2
= R
S
Hoximum Power Tronsfer
ConJition
1hus anoLher useful appllcauon of Lransformers ls Lo make posslble
maxlmum power Lransfer from source Lo load when 8
S
=8
L
18
R
L
= n
2
R
S
1toosfotm k
5
to motcb k
l
tbtooqb o
Lect of kes|stance
1ransformanon on
Load|ng

## Speclfy a Lransformer for maxlmum average power Lransfer from a source

v
S
havlng 8
S
=900 U Lo a load 8
L
=100 U
19
R
L
= n
2
R
S
n =
R
L
R
S
=
100
900
=
1
3
racnca| 1ransformers
racucal Lransformers deparLs from Lhe ldeal behavlor descrlbed
earller because of power losses boLh ln Lhe wlndlngs (w|re |osses)
and ln Lhe core (core |osses) as well as |mperfect coup||ng beLween
Lhe secondary and prlmary wlndlngs
ln Lhe case of non ldeal Lransformers Lhe volLage lnduced on Lhe
secondary clrculL because of Lhe ume varylng currenL ln Lhe rsL
clrculL ls noL perfecL. 1hls ls commonly expressed by lnLroduclng a
parameLer known as muLual lnducLance
20
Mutua| Inductance
8ecause of Lhe muLual lnducLance M, Lhere wlll be Lwo volLages
across each coll, a self-lnduced volLage and a muLually lnduced
volLage. 1he self-lnducLance of Lhe colls are labeled L
1
and L
2
and
Lhe muLual lnducLance ls labeled M
1he polarlLy of Lhe muLually lnduced volLage depends on Lhe way
Lhe colls are wound wlLh respecL Lo Lhe reference dlrecuon of Lhe
coll currenLs
21
Dot Convennon
When Lhe reference dlrecuon for a currenL enLers Lhe doued
Lermlnal of a coll, Lhe reference polarlLy of Lhe volLage LhaL lL
lnduces ln Lhe oLher coll ls posluve aL lLs doued Lermlnal
22
v
1
= L
1
di
1
dt
+ M
di
2
dt
v
2
= L
2
di
2
dt
+ M
di
1
dt

v
g
+ R
1
i
1
+ L
1
di
1
dt
M
di
2
dt
= 0
i
2
R
2
+ L
2
di
2
dt
M
di
1
dt
= 0
l
2
(lt leuvex the Jot)
l
1
(enterx the Jot)

HetboJ #1
Step 1
Arbitrorily select o terminol of one
coil {soy B) onJ mork it witb o Jot
Step 2
Assiqn o current {i
B
) into tbe JotteJ terminol
StepS
0se tbe riqbt bonJ rule to Jetermine tbe
Jirection of tbe moqnetic jielJ estoblisbeJ
by i
B
insiJe tbe linkeJ coil onJ lobel tbis jielJ
1
B
Step4
Arbitrorily select o terminol of tbe seconJ coil {soy A) onJ mork it witb o Jot
Step S
Assiqn o current {i
A
) into tbe JotteJ terminol
Step 6
0se tbe riqbt bonJ rule to Jetermine tbe Jirection of tbe moqnetic jielJ estoblisbeJ by i
A
insiJe
tbe linkeJ coil onJ lobel tbis jielJ 1
A
Step 7
Compore tbe Jirection of tbe jluxes. lf tbey ore is tbe some Jirection it meons tbe orbitrory
selection of tbe Jot morkinqs wos qooJ. lf tbe jluxes ore in opposite Jirections cbonqe tbe
Jot morkinq of tbe seconJ coil
Determ|n|ng Dot Mark|ngs

## HetboJ 1 ossume tbot we bove occess

to tbe two coils onJ we know tbe moJe
of eocb winJinqs
Determ|n|ng Dot Mark|ngs
Note: tbe two coils winJinqs
in tbe exomple ore in tbe some
Jirection !!!

## HetboJ #2 {Fxperimentol Settinq)

Wben tbe switcb is closeJ, tbe
voltmeter Jejlection is observeJ:
lf tbe momentory Jejlection is
upscole, tbe coil terminol connecteJ
to tbe voltmeter receives tbe polority
mork.
lf tbe momentory Jejlection is Jownscole, tbe coil terminol connecteJ to tbe neqotive
terminol of tbe voltmeter receives tbe polority mork
Determ|n|ng Dot Mark|ngs
M(Jl
1
,Jt)
M(Jl
1
,Jt)
Se|f Inductance

v(t) =
d(t)
dt
= N
d(t)
dt

=
A

Ni =Ni

B d

l
C

= I
enc

=

B
S

d

A
I
enc
= Ni
Permeonce of tbe spoce
occupieJ by tbe jlux
Se|f Inductance

v =
d
dt
= N
d
dt
= N
d(Ni)
dt
= N
2

di
dt
Permeonce is o quontity tbot Jescribes
tbe moqnetic property of tbe spoce
occupieJ by tbe jlux onJ its qeometry

B d

l
C

= Ni

=

B
S

d

A
=
ANi

=Ni

Mutua| Inductance
1he ux produced by l
1
can be dlvlded ln Lwo componenLs labeled

11
and
21
1he componenL
11
ls Lhe ux produced by l
1
LhaL llnks only Lhe n
1

Lurns
1he componenL
21
ls Lhe ux produced by l
1
LhaL llnks Lhe n
2
and
n
1
Lurns
29
Mutua| Inductance
1hus, Lhe LoLal ux produced by Lhe currenL l
1
(leL's call lL
1
) ls:
30

1
=
11
+
12

11
=
11
N
1
i
1

21
=
21
N
1
i
1

1
=
11
+
21
= (
11
+
21
) N
1
i
1
Current "encloseJ" in tbe coil 1
=
1
N
1
i
1
v
1
=
d
1
dt
= N
1
d
1
dt
= N
1
2

1
di
1
dt
= L
1
di
1
dt
voltoqe inJuceJ on coil 1
becouse of i1
Ilux linkeJ witb coil 2 becouse of i1
Ilux linkeJ witb coil 1 becouse of i1
v
2
=
d
2
dt
=
d(N
2

21
)
dt
= N
2
d(
21
N
1
)i
1
dt
= N
2
N
1

21
di
1
dt
= M
21
di
1
dt
voltoqe inJuceJ on coil 2
becouse of i1
Hutuol inJuctonce "on" coil 2
becouse of current on coil 1
Mutua| Inductance
Slmllarly lf we exclLe coll 2 wlLh a ume-varylng currenL l
2
and leave
coll 1 open:
31

2
=
22
+
12

22
=
22
N
2
i
2

12
=
12
N
2
i
2

2
=
22
+
12
= (
22
+
12
) N
2
i
2
Current "encloseJ" in tbe coil 2
=
2
N
2
i
2
Mutua| Inductance

v
2
=
d
2
dt
= N
2
d
2
dt
= N
2
2

2
di
2
dt
= L
2
di
2
dt
voltoqe inJuceJ on coil 2
becouse of i2
Ilux linkeJ witb coil 2 becouse of i2
voltoqe inJuceJ on
coil 1 becouse of i2
Hutuol inJuctonce "on" coil 1
becouse of current on coil 2
Ilux linkeJ witb coil 2 becouse of i2
v
1
=
d
1
dt
=
d(N
1

12
)
dt
= N
1
d(
12
N
2
)i
2
dt
= N
2
N
1

12
di
2
dt
= M
12
di
1
dt
ln proctice, tbe moteriol orounJ wbicb tbe coils ore wounJ ore sucb tbot:

12
=
21

M
12
= N
2
N
1

12
= M
21
= N
1
N
2

21
M
12
= M
21
M
Mutua| Inductance |n terms of Se|f-Inductance

## ln reolity tbe concept of mutuol

inJuctonce is just o convenient woy
of expressinq tbe couplinq between
tbe two coils
L
1
= N
1
2

1
L
2
= N
2
2

2
L
1
L
2
= N
1
2
N
2
2

2
= N
1
2
N
2
2
(
11
+
21
)(
22
+
12
)
L
1
L
2
= N
1
2
N
2
2
(
11
+
12
)(
22
+
12
) =
= N
1
2
N
2
2

11

22
+
11

12
+
12

22
+
12
2
( )
=
= N
1
2
N
2
2

12
2

11

22

12
2
+

11

12
+

22

12
+1

## Mutua| Inductance |n terms of Se|f-Inductance

L
1
L
2
= M
2

11

22

12
2
+

11

12
+

22

12
+1

= M
2
1+

11

12

1+

22

12

=1,k
2
Tbus tbe quontity 1,k
2
must be biqqer tbon 1

M = k L
1
L
2 Wbicb meons k must be less tbon 1

k is colleJ coefflclent of coupllng

Mutua| Inductance |n terms of Se|f-Inductance

M = k L
1
L
2
with 0 k 1
1
k
2
= 1+

11

12

1+

22

12

## wben k=0 {=H=0)

it meons tbot tbe two coils bove no common jlux, tbot is
12
=
21
=0
Recollinq tbot:
lt is eosy to see tbot:
if k = 0
1
k
=
12
= 0
Tbere is no jlux linkoqe
between tbe coils
Mutua| Inductance |n terms of Se|f-Inductance

M = k L
1
L
2
with 0 k 1
1
k
2
= 1+

11

12

1+

22

12

## wben k=1 { H=sqrt{l

1
l
2
))
it meons tbot tbe oll tbe jlux tbot links coil 1 olso links coil 2. Tbis is tbe iJeol cose.
ln tbis cose
11
=
22
=0
Recollinq tbot:
lt is eosy to see tbot:
if k =1
1
k
2
=1
11
=
22
= 0
Lnergy |n magnenca||y coup|ed co||s

## At ony instont of time tbe totol enerqy storeJ is:

w(t) =
1
2
L
1
i
1
2
+
1
2
L
2
i
2
2
Mi
1
i
2
Since moqneticolly coupleJ coils ore possive elements tbe totol enerqy storeJ
con never be neqotive. As o consequence we con octuolly use cose {b) to sbow
tbot H connot exceeJ L
1
L
2
w(t) =
1
2
L
1
i
1
2
+
1
2
L
2
i
2
2
Mi
1
i
2
0 only if L
1
L
2
M
Wbicb is onotber woy to soy tbot tbe couplinq coefjicient must be 0sks1
i
1
i2
+
v
1

v
2
+
cose o cose b
{o)
{b)