v
1
= N
1
d
dt
d
dt
=
v
1
N
1
v
2
= N
2
d
dt
d
dt
=
v
2
N
2
d
dt
=
v
1
N
1
=
v
2
N
2
v
2
v
1
=
N
2
N
1
1he Idea 1ransformer
lL ls lmporLanL Lo reallze LhaL slnce Lransformer acuon ls Lhe resulL
of a changlng magneuc ux, Lhe applled volLage musL be of Lhe
umevarylng Lype.
ldeally a Lransformer dlsslpaLes no energy, so Lhe power absorbed
vla Lhe prlmary musL equal Lhe power released vla Lhe secondary
We observe LhaL for currenL Lo ow ln Lhe prlmary, Lhe secondary
musL be LermlnaLed on a load. ln Lhe absence of any load we have
l
2
=0, and hence l
1
=0 even lf v
1
=0
sLepup Lransformer: n>1
sLepdown Lransformer: n<1
3
1he Idea 1ransformer
Slnce coupllng beLween Lhe lnpuL and ouLpuL porLs ls excluslvely
magneuc, Lransformers can be used Lo provlde elecLrlc lsolauon,
LhaL ls Lo LransmlL power (or lnformauon) from one clrculL Lo
anoLher wlLhouL allowlng a conducung paLh Lo exlsLs beLween Lhem
1ransformers wlLh n=1 are used excluslvely for Lhls purpose and are
called soanon transformers
6
and , regardless
of Lhe load, suggesL LhaL Lhe secondary can be modeled by a
dependenL volLage source of value
8
ower 1ransmsson
A ma[or appllcauon of Lransformers ls ln elecLrlc power
Lransmlsslon and dlsLrlbuuon
ln absence of any Lransformer Lhe load and Lhe Lransmlsslon llne
would form a volLage dlvlder:
9
R
T
v
S
R
l
v
I
R
T
"spoils" tbe efflclency of tbe tronsmission {unfortunotely witb lonq tronsmission
lines R
T
con be mucb qreoter tbon R
l
so most of tbe power is lost in tbe tronsmission
line, witb only o neqliqible froction reocbinq tbe looJ)
ower 1ransmsson
lf we wanL Lo reduce Lhe power loss on 8
1
Lhe only opuon we have ls Lo
reduce Lhe currenL owlng Lhrough 8
1
(
1
=8
1
l
81
2
)
1he soluuon ls Lo use a sLepup Lransformer Lo brlng down Lhe currenL
owlng Lhrough 8
1
lollowed by a sLepdown Lransformer Lo brlng Lhe currenL up agaln on Lhe
load (slnce we wanL Lo avold deprlvlng Lhe load of Lhe requlred power
L
=8
L
l
L
2
)
10
P
L
= P
S
P
RT
i
L
= i
RT
n i
RT
=
i
L
n
=
v
L
R
L
n
ower 1ransmsson
R
T
i
RT
= n v
S
~ n v
L
 R
T
v
L
R
L
n
= nv
S
~ nv
L

 v
L
n +
R
T
nR
L
[
\

)
j
= nv
S
 v
S
= v
L
1+
R
T
n
2
R
L
[
\

)
j

 v
L
=
v
S
1+
R
T
n
2
R
L
[
\

)
j
 v
L
=
v
S
1+
R
T
n
2
R
L
[
\

)
j
R
L
R
L
=
v
S
R
L
R
L
+
R
T
n
2
[
\

)
j
v
L
=
v
S
R
L
R
L
+
R
T
n
2
=
R
L
R
L
+
R
T
n
2
Cboosinq to moke R
T
,n
2
<< R
l
we con bove
v
l
opproocb v
S
onJ p opproocb unity
Tbis exploin tbe wiJe spreoJ use of biqb voltoqe
tronsmission lines wben power is to be tronsmitteJ
over substontiol Jistonces
Witb tronsformers

v
S
R
l
i
l
1:n n:1
R
T

10Kv


120v

n =
10kV
120V
83.33
v
L
=
v
S
R
T
n
2
+ R
L
R
L
=
120
13.2
83.33
2
+1
1 119.77 V(rms)
=
R
L
R
T
n
2
+ R
L
=
1
13.2
83.33
2
+1
99.81%
We lost only 0.2Sv !!
kesstance 1ransformanon
1he prlmary currenL l
1
ls conLrolled by Lhe load currenL l
2
. 8uL l
2
depend
on v
2
LhaL ln Lurn ls conLrolled by v
1
1he equlvalenL reslsLance 8
1
=v
1
/l
1
seen looklng ln Lhe prlmary ls:
14
R
1
=
v
1
i
1
i
1
= ni
2
= n
v
2
R
2
= n
nv
1
R
2
= n
2
v
1
R
2
R
1
=
v
1
i
1
=
R
2
n
2
R
2
offects tbe primory. R
2
oppeors ot tbe
primory os on equivolent resistonce R
2
,n
2
R
1
is soiJ to represent tbe xeconJury rexlxtunce referreJ to the prlmury, onJ
tbe tronsformer is soiJ to perform o rexlxtunce trunxformutlon
kesstance 1ransformanon
1he reslsLance Lransformauon applles ln boLh dlrecuons
lf Lhe prlmary ls LermlnaLed on a reslsLance 81, Lhen Lhe equlvalenL
reslsLance seen looklng lnLo Lhe secondary ls:
13
R
2
=
v
2
i
2
=
R
1
1/ n
2
= n
2
R
1
v
g
+ R
1
i
1
+ L
1
di
1
dt
M
di
2
dt
= 0
i
2
R
2
+ L
2
di
2
dt
M
di
1
dt
= 0
l
2
(lt leuvex the Jot)
l
1
(enterx the Jot)
HetboJ #1
Step 1
Arbitrorily select o terminol of one
coil {soy B) onJ mork it witb o Jot
Step 2
Assiqn o current {i
B
) into tbe JotteJ terminol
StepS
0se tbe riqbt bonJ rule to Jetermine tbe
Jirection of tbe moqnetic jielJ estoblisbeJ
by i
B
insiJe tbe linkeJ coil onJ lobel tbis jielJ
1
B
Step4
Arbitrorily select o terminol of tbe seconJ coil {soy A) onJ mork it witb o Jot
Step S
Assiqn o current {i
A
) into tbe JotteJ terminol
Step 6
0se tbe riqbt bonJ rule to Jetermine tbe Jirection of tbe moqnetic jielJ estoblisbeJ by i
A
insiJe
tbe linkeJ coil onJ lobel tbis jielJ 1
A
Step 7
Compore tbe Jirection of tbe jluxes. lf tbey ore is tbe some Jirection it meons tbe orbitrory
selection of tbe Jot morkinqs wos qooJ. lf tbe jluxes ore in opposite Jirections cbonqe tbe
Jot morkinq of tbe seconJ coil
Determnng Dot Markngs
v(t) =
d(t)
dt
= N
d(t)
dt
=
A
Ni =Ni
B d
l
C
= I
enc
=
B
S
d
A
I
enc
= Ni
Permeonce of tbe spoce
occupieJ by tbe jlux
Sef Inductance
v =
d
dt
= N
d
dt
= N
d(Ni)
dt
= N
2
di
dt
Permeonce is o quontity tbot Jescribes
tbe moqnetic property of tbe spoce
occupieJ by tbe jlux onJ its qeometry
B d
l
C
= Ni
=
B
S
d
A
=
ANi
=Ni
Mutua Inductance
1he ux produced by l
1
can be dlvlded ln Lwo componenLs labeled
11
and
21
1he componenL
11
ls Lhe ux produced by l
1
LhaL llnks only Lhe n
1
Lurns
1he componenL
21
ls Lhe ux produced by l
1
LhaL llnks Lhe n
2
and
n
1
Lurns
29
Mutua Inductance
1hus, Lhe LoLal ux produced by Lhe currenL l
1
(leL's call lL
1
) ls:
30
1
=
11
+
12
11
=
11
N
1
i
1
21
=
21
N
1
i
1
1
=
11
+
21
= (
11
+
21
) N
1
i
1
Current "encloseJ" in tbe coil 1
=
1
N
1
i
1
v
1
=
d
1
dt
= N
1
d
1
dt
= N
1
2
1
di
1
dt
= L
1
di
1
dt
voltoqe inJuceJ on coil 1
becouse of i1
Ilux linkeJ witb coil 2 becouse of i1
Ilux linkeJ witb coil 1 becouse of i1
v
2
=
d
2
dt
=
d(N
2
21
)
dt
= N
2
d(
21
N
1
)i
1
dt
= N
2
N
1
21
di
1
dt
= M
21
di
1
dt
voltoqe inJuceJ on coil 2
becouse of i1
Hutuol inJuctonce "on" coil 2
becouse of current on coil 1
Mutua Inductance
Slmllarly lf we exclLe coll 2 wlLh a umevarylng currenL l
2
and leave
coll 1 open:
31
2
=
22
+
12
22
=
22
N
2
i
2
12
=
12
N
2
i
2
2
=
22
+
12
= (
22
+
12
) N
2
i
2
Current "encloseJ" in tbe coil 2
=
2
N
2
i
2
Mutua Inductance
v
2
=
d
2
dt
= N
2
d
2
dt
= N
2
2
2
di
2
dt
= L
2
di
2
dt
voltoqe inJuceJ on coil 2
becouse of i2
Ilux linkeJ witb coil 2 becouse of i2
voltoqe inJuceJ on
coil 1 becouse of i2
Hutuol inJuctonce "on" coil 1
becouse of current on coil 2
Ilux linkeJ witb coil 2 becouse of i2
v
1
=
d
1
dt
=
d(N
1
12
)
dt
= N
1
d(
12
N
2
)i
2
dt
= N
2
N
1
12
di
2
dt
= M
12
di
1
dt
ln proctice, tbe moteriol orounJ wbicb tbe coils ore wounJ ore sucb tbot:
12
=
21
M
12
= N
2
N
1
12
= M
21
= N
1
N
2
21
M
12
= M
21
M
Mutua Inductance n terms of SefInductance
1
L
2
= N
2
2
2
L
1
L
2
= N
1
2
N
2
2
2
= N
1
2
N
2
2
(
11
+
21
)(
22
+
12
)
L
1
L
2
= N
1
2
N
2
2
(
11
+
12
)(
22
+
12
) =
= N
1
2
N
2
2
11
22
+
11
12
+
12
22
+
12
2
( )
=
= N
1
2
N
2
2
12
2
11
22
12
2
+
11
12
+
22
12
+1
L
1
L
2
= M
2
11
22
12
2
+
11
12
+
22
12
+1
= M
2
1+
11
12
1+
22
12
=1,k
2
Tbus tbe quontity 1,k
2
must be biqqer tbon 1
M = k L
1
L
2 Wbicb meons k must be less tbon 1
k is colleJ coefflclent of coupllng
Mutua Inductance n terms of SefInductance
M = k L
1
L
2
with 0 k 1
1
k
2
= 1+
11
12
1+
22
12
M = k L
1
L
2
with 0 k 1
1
k
2
= 1+
11
12
1+
22
12