(
2
2
3
U
u
3 2 3
+ + =
where
y
= and is a pressure gradient parameter.
At the separation point: 0
y
u
0 y
=


.

\

c
c
=
)
`
+ + =
c
c
3
2
2 3
2
4
y 3
y
4
y
2
3
1
2
3
U
y
u
6
4
2
3
0
4
1
2
3
U
y
u
0 y
= = =
)
`
+ =


.

\

c
c
=
Hence:
3 2 3 2
3
2 3
2
3
3
2
3
2
2
3
U
u
= + =
( )
2
d 2 3 1 dy
U
u
1 *
1
0
4
3
1
0
3 2
0
=
(
+ = + =

.

\

=
} }
( since = y/ dy = d )
( )
( )
1286 . 0 2
7
4
5
9
2
1
1
2
7
4
5
9
2
1
d ) 12 4 (9 2 3
d ) 2 (3 2 3 dy
U
u
1
U
u
1
0
6 7 5 4 3
1
0
5 6 4 3 2
1
0
2 3 2 3 2
0
=

.

\

+ =
(
+ = + =
=

.

\

=
}
} }
Hence, the boundary layer shape factor at the separation point
888 . 3
1286 . 0
5 . 0
H
*
= = = (H 3.5 for laminar b.l. p. 34 Lect. Notes)
Note: H = 3 for a linear velocity profile.
24
12. Freestream velocity U = 0.1 m/s. For water at 20C : = 1.0 x 10
6
m
2
/s
From Blasius Solution:
Ux/
5.0
Re
5.0
x
x
= =
U
x
5
Ux/
x 5.0
= =
For point 1 (x
1
, y
1
):
At x
1
= 1 m: Re
x1
= U x
1
/ = 0.1 x 1/1 x10
6
= 1x 10
5
< Re
xtr
where Re
xtr
= 5 x 10
5
Hence, the b. l. flow is laminar at x
1
and therefore:
mm 15.81 cm 1.581 m 10 1.581 m
40
10 x 5
m
10 x 4
1 x 5.0
Ux/
x 5.0
2
2
5
1
= = = = = =
From Blasius Solution:
x
U
y =
and
U
u
' f =
Hence at point 1 (x
1
, y
1
):
162 . 3 10 10 10
1 10 1
0.1
10 10
x
U
y
5 2
6
3
1
1 1
= = =
= =
From the Table of Blasius Solution:
f '
3.0 0.8460
1
3.162 f
1
' = ? use linear interpolation
3.5 0.9130
b
a
c
3.0
3.162
3.5
0.8460
d
0.9130
f '
q
'
1
f
25
From the sketch above:
b
d
c
a
d
c
b
a
= =
This will give: f
1
' = 0.8460 + a = 0.8460 +
b
d
c
= 0.8460 +
0.8460)  (0.9130 x
3.0)  (3.5
3.0)  (3.162
= 0.8460 +
0.067 x
(0.5)
(0.162)
= 0.8677
Hence, at point 1(y
1
= 10 mm):
u
1
= f
1
' U = 0.8677 x 0.1 m/s = 0.08677 m/s 87 mm/s (Answer)
For point 2 (x
2
, y
2
):
At x
2
= 4 m: Re
x2
= U x
2
/ = 0.1 x 4/1 x10
6
= 4 x 10
5
< Re
xtr
Hence, the b. l. flow is laminar at x
2
and therefore:
mm 31.62 cm 3.162 m 10 3.162 m
40
10 x 20
m
10 x 4
4 x 5.0
Ux/
x 5.0
2
2
5
2
= = = = = =
Following the previous method:
581 . 1 5 . 2 10 5 . 2 10
4 10 1
0.1
10 10
x
U
y
4 2
6
3
2
2 2
= = =
= =
From the Table of Blasius Solution:
f '
1.5 0.4868
1
1.581 f
2
' = ?
2.0 0.6298
Using linear interpolation: f
2
' = 0.4868 +
0.4868)  (0.6298 x
1.5)  (2.0
1.5)  (1.581
= 0.4868 + 0.02317
= 0.51
Hence, at point 2 (y
2
= y
1
=10 mm):
u
2
= f
2
' U = 0.51 x 0.1 m/s = 0.051 m/s = 51 mm/s (Answer)
26
13. The transitional Reynolds number Re
x,tr
= 5 x 10
5
.
For the boundary layer flow along the flat plate to remain laminar at the
maximum possible velocity of the air: the length of the plate ( l ) = the
distance from the plate leading edge (LE) to the position of transition x
tr
.
From the expression of Re
x,tr
(=U.x
tr
/), we can obtain the maximum
possible velocity of the air U:
m/s 3 m/s
2.5
10 5 10 1.5
10 5
U
5 5
5
=
= =
l
Since l = x
tr
Re
l
= Re
x,tr
= 5 x 10
5
, hence at x = l = 2.5 m:
mm 17.7 0.01768m m
707.107
12.5
m
10 x 5
2.5 x 5
Re
x 5
5
x
= = = = =
(Answer)
When U is further increased ( > 3 m/s), transition will occur on the plate (or
will move upstream from the plate trailing edge (TE). Hence, the boundary
layer along the plate will consist of laminar and turbulent parts, separated by
the transition. For the expression of the overall C
D
for the plate in terms of C
Dl
and C
Dt
see Lecture Notes: 3.15 Boundary Layer with Transition (p.73).
27
14. From Blasius solution for laminar boundary layer along a flat plate at zero
angle of incidence:
x
Re
5.0
x
=
or
=
U
x
5 (since Re
x
= U
x/)
Given: U
= 25 m/s, x
1
= 1m and
1
= 0.1 cm
For the same and U
at x
2
= 4 m:
2
1
2
1
x
x
=
4
1
0.1
2
=
2
= 0.2 cm
Is this laminar assumption realistic ?
=
U
x
5
1
1


.

\

=
U
x
25
2
1
1 x 25
) 001 . 0 ( x 25
x 25
U
2
1
2
1
= =
= 1 x 10
6
m
2
/s
Re
x= 4m
= U
x/ = 25 x 4/ 1 x 10
6
= 100 x 10
6
= 10
8
Note: Re
xtr
= 3 x 10
5
to 5 x 10
5
At x = 4 m, the laminar boundary layer assumption is not realistic.
Even at x = 1 m Re
x= 1m
= 25 x 10
6
, the laminar boundary layer
assumption is far from realistic.
28
15. (a) In a turbulent flow, the velocity component u(t) is written as u (t) = u' u +
where u is the time average of u(t) defined as:
}
=
T
0
dt u(t)
T
1
u
and
u'
is the fluctuating part of u. T is a time increment large enough to
eliminate all time dependence from
u
. Show that
u'
= 0 and .
x
u
x
u
c
c
=
c
c
Solution: See Lecture Notes: 3.8 Turbulent Flow and Time Averaging (p. 57)
Since
u' u u + =
u u u' =
Time averaging:
u u u' =
} } }
+ + +
= =
T t
t
T t
t
T t
t
o
o
o
o
o
o
dt . u
T
1
dt u.
T
1
dt ). u  (u
T
1
u'
0
T
T u
u = =
x
u
u.dt
T
1
x
.dt
x
u
T
1
x
u T t
t
T t
t
o
o
o
o
c
c
=
(
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
} }
+ +
29
15. (b) A version of the incompressible laminar boundary layer equations is
given in the following:
2
2
y
u
x
p
1
y
u
v
x
u
u
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
(1) and
0
y
v
x
u
=
c
c
+
c
c
(2)
Use the Reynolds averaging procedure to obtain the equations in turbulent
version.
Solution: See Lecture Notes: 3.9 Equations of Motion for Turbulent Flow (p.59)
Multiply the continuity eqn. (2) by u, and add to the eqn. of motion (1) :
2
2 2
y
u
x
P
1
y
uv) (
x
) u (
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
(3)
Introduce: u' u u + = , v' v v + = , and ' P P P + = into Eqns. (3) and (2):
y
) v' (u'
y
) v (u'
y
) v' u (
y
) v u (
x
)
2
u' (
x
) u' u (
2
x
)
2
u (
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c


.

\

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
=
2
2
2
2
y
u'
y
u
x
P'
1
x
P
1
By time averaging each term, we obtain:
(4)
y
u
x
P
1
y
) v' u' (
y
) v u (
x
(
x
(
2
2
)
2
u' )
2
u
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
Similarly, for the continuity equation:
0
y x
v u
=
c
c
+
c
c
(5)
Multiplying Eqn. (5) by u and substracting from Eqn. (4) gives:
y
v' u'
x
u'
y
u
x
P
1
y
v
x
u
2
2
2
u u
c
c
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
.
x
u'
y
v' u'
then layer, boundary the in
x y
Since
2
c
c
>>
c
c
c
c
>>
c
c
Hence:
y
v' u'
y
u
x
P
1
y
v
x
u
2
2
u u
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
30
16. Solution :
See Lecture Notes pp. 65 67:
Universal velocity distribution in turbulent boundary layer can be
represented by power law (as suggested by Prandtl) of the form:
n
1
y u
C
u
u

.

\

=
(3.29)
where C and n are constants depending on the flow Reynolds number and geometry.
For Flat Plate Boundary Layer Flows at Zero Angle of Incidence:
n Re
x
=

.

\

.x U
C
7 5 x 10
5
10
7
8.74
At y = ,
= U u
7
1
y
U
u

.

\

=
\

=
v
(3.33)
can be used for turbulent flow consideration. This was determined by Blasius for
pipe flow, and was later confirmed for flat plate for Re
x
= 5x10
5
to 10
7
.
Applying the momentum integral equation, that is, Eqn. (3.7):
dx
d
U
2
o
=
(


.

\

=
}
0
2
dy
U
u
1
U
u
dx
d
U
or
(
(


.

\

=
}
0
2
2 o
dy
U
u
U
u
dx
d
U
Substituting Equations (3.32) and (3.33) into Equation (3.7), we then have:
31
(
(
(

.

\


.

\

=


.

\

}
0
7
2
7
1
2
4
1
2
dy
y
dx
d
U
U
U 0225 0
v
.
Canceling
2
U
9
7
8
7
dx
d
U
0225 0
4
1
= 
.

\

=


.

\

v
.
After separating the variables, it becomes:
d 4.32 dx
U
4
1
4
1
=


.

\

v
Integrating gives:
C
5
4
32 . 4 x
U
4
5
4
1
+

.

\

=


.

\

v
Assuming that = 0 at x = 0 (that is, the turbulent boundary layer is assumed to
start from the leading edge), then C = 0 and hence:
5
1
5
4
U
37 0


.

\

=
v
x .
Rearranging:
5
1
x
5
1
37 0
x U
37 0
x
=

.

\

= Re .
.
v
(3.34)
Using Equation (3.33) we obtain the skin friction coefficient in terms of :
4
1
2
o
f
U
0450 . 0
U
2
1
C


.

\

= =
v
Substituting for , we obtain:
( )
5 1
x
f
Re
0.0576
C = (3.35)
local skin friction coefficient
By using the same method as before, it can be shown that the average skin friction
coefficient is given by:
}
=
=
=
L x
0 x
f F
dx C
L
1
C which is equal to C
D
(see Section 3.5)
Hence:
( )5
1
L
D
Re
072 . 0
C = for 5 x 10
5
< Re
x
<10
7
(3.36)
32
17. Solution
See Lecture Notes: 3.11 Turbulent Boundary Layer Equations (p. 64)
Consider a 2D, steady, incompressible, turbulent flow. The timeaveraged x and y
components of the NS eqns. are:
y
v' u'
x
u'
y x
u
x
P
1
y
v
x
u
2
2
2
2
2
u u u
c
c
c
c


.

\

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
y
v'
x
' v u'
y
v
x
v
y
P
1
y
v
v
x
v
u
2
2
2
2
2
c
c
c
c


.

\

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
Making the usual boundary layer approximations (as in the case for laminar
boundary layer) with respect to the mean flow gives:
y
v' u'
x
u'
y
x
P
1
y
v
x
u
2
2
2
u u u
c
c
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
.....(1)
and
y
v'
x
' v u'
y
P
1
0
2
c
c
c
c
c
c
=
.......(2)
y
v'
y
P
1
that so
x
' v u'
y
v'
then
x y
Since
2 2
c
c
=
c
c
c
c
>>
c
c
c
c
>>
c
c
Hence:
C v'
P
2
+ =
where at the wall and at the boundary layer edge:
(x) P (x) P P and 0 v'
o
2
= = =
Hence:
2
v'
) ( P
P
=
x
........ (3)
Thus, unlike laminar boundary layer, there is a slight variation of pressure across
turbulent boundary layer flow, due to velocity fluctuations normal to the wall.
33
18. (a) For oil: = 891 kg/m
3
and = 0.29 kg/ms
i) For stream parallel to the long side of the plate: L = 1.10 m
tr x
Re is which 20277
L U
Re
L
< = =
Hence, laminar boundary layer on the plate, and
00932 . 0
(20277)
328 . 1
Re
328 . 1
C
1/2
x
l
D
= = =
A U
D
2
2
1
=
D 2
1
C A U D
2
=
(for one side)
D
total
= 2D (for both sides of the plate)
= 2 x 0.00932 x x 891 x 6
2
x 0.55 x 1.10 N = 181 N (Answer)
ii) For stream parallel to the short side of the plate: L = 0.55 m
tr x
Re is which 10139
L U
L
Re < = =
Hence, laminar boundary layer on the plate, and
0132 . 0
(10139)
328 . 1
Re
328 . 1
C
1/2
x
l
D
= = =
D
total
= 2 C
D
U
2
A (for both sides of the plate)
= 2 x 0.0132 x x 891 x 6
2
x 0.55 x 1.10 = 256 N (Answer)
[ that is, 41% more than i) ]
34
(b) For water: = 998 kg/m
3
and = 0.001 kg/ms
i) For stream parallel to the long side of the plate: L = 1.10 m
tr x
6
L
Re 10 59 . 6
L U
Re > = =
Hence, turbulent boundary layer on the plate, and
m 083 . 0 x 10 5
x U
Re
tr
5 tr
tr x
= = =
( x
tr
/L = 0.083/1.1 = 7.5 %)
D
total
= 2 x U
2
A C
D
(for both sides of the plate)
( ) { } N 55 . 0
t D tr D tr
C x x C x U
l
2
+ = 
where:
( )
0019 . 0
000 , 500
328 . 1
Re
328 . 1
C
2 / 1
x tr
l
D
= = =
and
( ) ( )
003116 . 0
000 , 590 , 6
072 . 0
Re
072 . 0
C
5 / 1 5 / 1
L x
t
D
= = =
=
Hence: D
total
(for both sides of the plate) = 65.74 N (Answer)
If the laminar portion of the boundary layer is neglected:
D
total
= U
2
A C
Dt
= 67.73 N (for both sides of the plate)
% 02 . 3
74 . 65
74 . 65 73 . 67
Error =
=
35
ii) For stream parallel to the short side of the plate: L = 0.55 m
tr x
6
L
Re 10 295 . 3
L U
Re > = =
Hence, turbulent boundary layer on the plate, and
m 083 . 0 x 10 5
x U
Re
tr
5 tr
tr x
= = =
( x
tr
/L = 0.083/0.55 = 15 %)
where:
( )
0019 . 0
000 , 500
328 . 1
Re
328 . 1
C
2 / 1
x tr
l
D
= = =
and
( ) ( )
00358 . 0
000 , 295 , 3
072 . 0
Re
072 . 0
C
5 / 1 5 / 1
L x
t
D
= = =
=
D
total
(for both sides of the plate) = 72.31 N (Answer)
If the laminar portion of the boundary layer is neglected:
D
total
= U
2
A C
Dt
= 77.82 N (for both sides of the plate)
% 62 . 7
31 . 72
31 . 72 82 . 77
Error =