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# Lecture Notes on Industrial Hydraulics

## Prepared by Dr. Sadettin Kapucu

CHAPTER 1

1.1 INTRODUCTION TO FLUID POWER Fluid power systems are power transmitting assemblies employing pressurized liquid or gas to transmit energy from an energy generating source to an energy use area. Fluid power can be divided into two basic disciplines: 1- Pneumatics 2- Hydraulics Employing a compressed gas. Employing a pressured liquid.

Our interest in this course is primarily concerned with hydraulics. References to pneumatic devices are limited to areas pressurized gas is used to supplement the hydraulic system, or where combined system provide significant advantages in power transmission. 1.1.1 Hydraulics- What is it? The actual term hydraulics is derived from the Greek word " hydro" and means "water". First studies were made of water at rest and in motion. The dams in our rivers, the pipe networks that convey our drinking water, and sewage are examples of water hydraulics. A number of hydraulic fluids are used in industrial hydraulic systems. These fluids include oil, water, compressed air, phosphate esters, aqueousbase ethylene glycol compounds, oil in water, and water in oil. The field of hydromechanics ( fluid mechanics) can be divided into two distinct classes as follows: 1- Hydrostatics Mechanics of still fluid ( theory of equilibrium conditions in fluids)

## Prepared by Dr. Sadettin Kapucu

Hydrostatic energy is the class of energy used in most industrial hydraulic systems. Hydrostatic energy is the potential energy available when a liquid is confined and pressurized. This is a basic application of a fundamental law of physics discovered by Pascal in 1650. It should be noted at this point that the term static is used to prefer only to the conditions of pressure in a hydraulic system. It is quite obvious that variation of position, or motion, must also be present to accomplish work with a hydraulic system. Thus, we must now include dynamic factors, or the forces encountered when a liquid is in motion. The movement of liquid from one point to another point involves a transfer of energy. Therefore, the work accomplished will actually be measure of transferred energy. In the study of hydraulics we shall encounter energy in three forms: 1. Potential energy or pressure energy 2. Heat energy, the energy of resistance to flow or friction 3. Kinetic energy, the energy of the moving liquid Potential energy is defined as a static factor. Kinetic and heat energy are both resultant of motion and therefore, defined as a dynamic factors. 2- Hydrodynamics Mechanics of moving fluid (flow theory )

The second class of hydraulics, hydrodynamics, is not normally encountered in the operation and maintenance of conventional industrial hydraulic systems. Hydrodynamic hydraulics is a phase which employs impact as a prime factor. The simple act of driving a nail with a hammer is an example of impact. A more useful application of hydrodynamics will be found in the fluid drive or hydraulic clutch and in now common application of torque converters automobiles. In each case the fluid medium is the drive medium and imparts force and action to the driven member, releasing its kinetic energy by virtue of impact.

## Prepared by Dr. Sadettin Kapucu

1.2 SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDRAULICS 1- High forces (torque's) with compact size, i.e. high power density. 2- Automatic force adaptation. 3- Movement from standstill possible under full load. 4- Steeples change (control or regulation ) of speed, torque, stroke force, etc. can be achieved simply. 5- Simple overload protection. 6- Suitable for fast movement process and for extremely slow precision movements. 7- Relatively simple accumulation of energy by means of gas. 8- Combined with decentralized transforming of the hydraulic energy back into mechanical energy, simplified central drive systems are possible. giving a high degree of economy. 1.3 HYDRAULIC PRESSURE AND FORCE Pressure is one of the most important measurements hydraulics and ids defined as force per area.
P= F A

where P = pressure in bar F = force in N A = area in cm2 Previously, pressure was stated as kp/cm2
1 kp cm 2
= 1 at (1 atmosphere )

As Newton units are now used for force, the following results:
1 bar = 10 N cm
2

=1

daN cm 2

1 bar = 1. 02

kp cm 2

kp cm 2

= 0 . 98 bar

## Prepared by Dr. Sadettin Kapucu

If the fundamental quantities for force (N) and area (m2) according to SI units are used, the Pascal (Pa) unit is used for pressure.
1 Pa = 1 N m2

However, since the Pascal unit results in practice in values which are too high, it is preferable to use the Bar unit (bar) 1 bar = 100 000 pa The unit psi (pound force per square inch) is still used 1 bar= 14.5 psi Pressure details in (bar) according to SI units refer to absolute pressure.

## p = 100 bar g =gauge pressure

Positive pressure

p = 1,013 bar a

p =0 bar g

0 % vacuum atmospheric air pressure 0,2 bar negative pressure 0,8013 bar absolute pressure absolute pressure vacuum 100 % vacuum

p a = 0 bar

p = 1.013 g

1.4 HYDROSTATICS 1.4.1 Hydrostatic pressure: inside a head of liquid, pressure occurs due to the weight of the fluid mass over a determined area. The pressure is related to the height of the head of liquid (h), the density () and the acceleration due to the gravity (g). 4

## Prepared by Dr. Sadettin Kapucu

P= h g

1 A1 F1

P 2 A2 F 2

P3 F 3

A3

Taking tanks of different shapes filled with the same fluid, the pressure at one certain level is related only to the height of the head of liquid (Fig.1)
P1 = P 2 = P 3

Hydrostatic pressure creates a force on the base of the tank. If the pressure as shown in Fig.1 acts on the same surface area in each container (A1=A2=A3), the forces resulting from this are also equal (F1=F2=F3).

1.4.2 Pressure by External Forces (Pascal's law) : In general states that pressure exerted at any point on a confined static liquid (1) is transmitted with equal intensity in all directions, (2)acts with equal force on equal areas, and (3) acts in a direction at right angles to the areas of confinement. Fig.2 demonstrates Pascal's law. A force of 100 N/m2 or (pa) is transmitted equally to all parts of each container regardless of the container size or shape.

100 N 1 m2

## 100 pa 100 pa 100 pa

100 pa 100 pa

Fig 2 Pascal's law illustrated. 1.4.3 Hydraulic Force Transmission:As the pressure distributes equally to all sides, the shape of the tank is not important. In order to operate with pressure created by an external force influence, we use a system as shown in Fig.3. If we know pressurized surface A1with force F1, we create pressure
P= F1 A1

Pressure P affects all parts of the system, therefore also on surface A2. The force which can be achieved.
F 2 = P A2 thus F1 A1
=

F2 A2

or

F1 F2

A2 A1

The forces have the same relationship to each other as the surfaces. The pressure in such a system always depends on the size of the load and the effective surface. This means that the pressure rises until it can overcome the resistance, which builds up in opposition to the fluid movement.

## Prepared by Dr. Sadettin Kapucu

F1

F2 S2 S1 A2

A1

Fig.3 Hydraulic force transmission. If it is possible to achieve the pressure necessary to overcome the load F2 (via surface A2) by means of force F1 and surface A1, then load F2 can be raised. ( Friction losses need not be taken into consideration here). The relationship of the paths S1 and S2 of the two pistons is then opposite to that of the surfaces.
S1 S2
=

A2 A1

1.4.4 Principle of Pressure Transmission: Two pistons of different sizes are fixed rigidly to one another by means of a piston rod. If surface A1 is affected by pressure P1, force F1 occurs at the large piston. Force F1is transferred to the smaller piston by means of the piston rod. This force now affects surface A2 and causes pressure P2 (Fig.4). The following are valid without friction losses:
F1 = F 2 = F P1 A1 = P 2 A2 thus P1 A1 = F 1 P2 A 2 = F 2 P1 P2 A2 A1

or

## Prepared by Dr. Sadettin Kapucu

A1

A2

P1

F2

Fig. 4. 1.5 HYDRODYNAMICS 1.5.1 Flow law (Continuity): If fluid flows in a pipe or conduit of variable cross section, and assuming that there are no cavities, then the mass of fluid passing any one cross section must be constant. If the velocities and areas of the conduit on two given cross sections are V1, A1, and V2, A2, respectively, then
1V1 A1 = 2V2 A2

In any case of an incompressible fluid, there is no change in density between any two points, and Eq.**** can be written
V 1 A1 = V 2 A 2 or AV = constant

Eq. ***** expresses mathematically the law of continuity of flow. 1.5.2 Energy law (Bernoulli's equation): The energy law applied to a moving fluid says that the total energy of a fluid does not change, as long as energy is not supplied from the outside or drained to the outside. If you do not take into consideration the types of energy which do not change during flow, the total energy is made up of:

## Prepared by Dr. Sadettin Kapucu

potential energy

potential energy related to the height of the head of liquid pressure energy of static pressure

and kinetic energy movement energy (pressure head) related to flow speed. Bernoulli's equation
P +V 2 g h+ = constant 2

## related to pressure energy, this means:

PTotal = Pst + g h +

where Pst =static pressure gh =pressure via the height of the head of fluid (/2)V2 =pressure head. if you now look at the continuity equation and the energy equation, the following situation results: 1- If speed increases as the diameter decreases, the movement energy increases. 2- Since total energy remains constant, potential energy or pressure energy, or both, must change, i.e. decrease, when the diameter decreases. 3- However, decrease in diameter causes a scarcely noticeable change in potential energy. 4- Static pressure thus changes in relation to normal pressure, i.e. in relation to the flow speed. In a hydraulic unit, pressure energy ( static pressure) is the main decisive factor, since the fluid level and flow speed are too low. 9

## Prepared by Dr. Sadettin Kapucu

1.5.2 Loss of Energy By Friction Piping and tubing, as well as restrictions in valves, fittings and deflection components etc. represent hydraulic resistance's for the volumetric flow. Frictional losses are generated at these resistances. These losses become apparent in the form of pressure loss and heat. Hydraulic energy cannot be transferred without loss. The amount of energy loss depend upon: - flow velocity (and therefore upon the relationship between the volumetric flow and the cross sectional area) - length of the flow line or restriction - shape of restriction - the viscosity of the liquid flowing - the density of the liquid flowing - the type of flow (laminar or turbulent) 1.5.3 Types of Flow The types of flow changes from laminar to turbulent at a certain critical velocity. This velocity is given by the Reynolds's number Re. For cylindrical flow lines applies:
Re = V di

where

=kinematic viscosity (m2/s) di=flow line internal diameter (m) V=velocity (m/s)

As soon as the value for Re exceeds 2300, the laminar flow changes to turbulent flow. For restrictions, the critical value lies considerably below 2300. In flow lines, the aim is to achieve laminar flow. Turbulent flow is usually encountered in valves.
Q = Cd A 2 P

where Cd=flow factor 0.6....0.9, A= restriction area (m2), Pa, and =density of the liquid in kg/m3

P=pressure drop

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## Extensively simplified, the formula can be reduced to

Q
P or

Q P

1.6 PRESSURE RANGES IN HYDRAULICS Each of the branches of industry in which hydraulics are used has its own particular pressure ranges. The common pressure ranges can differ considerably from each other. The relatively low pressure range which is common to metal-cutting machines for instance is due to the fact that in the interests of a constant rate of feed, oil compression must be avoided as far as possible. As regards the remaining applications a higher range of pressure is chosen in order to increase the power efficiency of the hydraulic system. The upper pressure limit is determined by the resistance to pressure of the various components, particularly the pumps. The economically maximum pressure at the present time is about 315 bar. Higher pressures, such as are needed for presses and for clamping functions, are generated by means of pressure intensifiers.
Agricultural machinery Construction machines and public service vehicles Plastic manufacturing machines Heavy industries Machine tools, non-cutting Tractors Combines Excavators, graders, loaders, cranes, winches, hydrotransmissions Blow-molding machines, injection-molding machines Steel mills, continuous-casting plant Material-testing presses, ceramics and plastics presses, folding and bending presses, drawing presses Clamping devices planers and slotting machines, lathes, drilling and turning machines, grinding machines 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Operating pressure (bar)

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## Prepared by Dr. Sadettin Kapucu

1.7 CLASSIFICATION OF POWER IN HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS In a hydraulic system, mechanical power (generated from thermal or electrical power) is transmitted into hydraulic power is than transported in this state, it is controlled and routed, and is finally transformed back again into mechanical power. The various forms and classifications of power are presented in the accompanying illustration from which it can be seen that the power is always comprised of two different components. Hydraulic power is the product of the pressure p and the volumetric flow Q.
Pow = p Q

P F,V Load Q M U M

Electrical power P= U x J

## Mechanical Hydraulic power power P= M x P= p x Q

Mechanical power P= F x V

1.8 DESIGN OF A HYDRAULIC SYSTEM In the first place, in hydraulic systems mechanical energy is transformed into hydraulic energy, this is then transmitted and controlled in order, finally to be converted back again into mechanical energy. The main elements of hydraulic engineering can thus be sub-divided into the following headings:

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## Prepared by Dr. Sadettin Kapucu

1- Energy conversation: This takes place on the primary side in pumps, and on the secondary side in cylinders and hydraulic motors. Furthermore, energy conversion also takes place in accumulators. 2- Control of energy: Magnitude and effect of the hydraulic energy (power), in the form of pressure and flow, is controlled and influenced by the various valves as well as by the regulators of the variable-capacity hydraulic pumps. 3- Transmission of energy: This takes place by means of the hydraulic medium (oil), which is directed through pipes, hoses, and bores ect. 4- Other elements: In order to prepare and store the hydraulic medium (oil), a number of auxiliary devices are needed such as, for instance, filters, reservoirs, coolers or radiators, heaters ect. Furthermore, mention must be made of the measuring and test equipment which is an essential part of the overall set-up.

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