You are on page 1of 76

Network Analyzer Basics

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Network Analysis is NOT.…

Router
Bridge
Repeater
Hub

Your IEEE 802.3 X.25 ISDN


switched-packet data stream
is running at 147 MBPS with
-9
a BER of 1.523 X 10 . . .

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


What Types of Devices are Tested?
High

Duplexers RFICs
Diplexers MMICs
Filters T/R modules
Couplers Transceivers
Bridges
Splitters, dividers Receivers
Combiners Tuners
Isolators Converters
Circulators
Integration

Attenuators VCAs
Adapters Amplifiers
Opens, shorts, loads Antennas
Delay lines VCOs
Cables Switches VTFs
Transmission lines Multiplexers Oscillators
Waveguide Mixers Modulators
Resonators Samplers VCAtten’s
Multipliers
Dielectrics
Low

R, L, C's Diodes Transistors

Passive Device type Active

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Device Test Measurement Model
Complex

84000 RFIC test

Ded. Testers BER Full call


EVM sequence
VSA ACP Pulsed S-parm.
Harm. Dist. Pulse profiling
LO stability Regrowth
SA Intermodulation
Image Rej. NF Constell.
Distortion
Eye
VNA Gain/Flat. Compr'n
Response

Phase/GD AM-PM
TG/SA Isolation
Rtn Ls/VSWR
SNA
tool

Impedance
S-parameters
NF Mtr. NF
Imped. An.
LCR/Z
Param. An. I-V
Measurement
Power Mtr. Absol.
Simpl

Power plane
Det/Scope Gain/Flatness
e

DC CW Swept Swept Noise 2-tone Multi- Complex Pulsed- Protocol


freq power tone modulation
RF
Simple Stimulus type Complex

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Lightwave Analogy to RF Energy

Incident
Transmitted

Reflected
Lightwave

DUT

RF

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Why Do We Need to Test Components?

• Verify specifications of “building blocks” for more


complex RF systems
• Ensure distortionless transmission
of communications signals
– linear: constant amplitude, linear phase / constant group
delay
– nonlinear: harmonics, intermodulation, compression, AM-
to-PM conversion
• Ensure good match when absorbing
power (e.g., an antenna)

KPWR FM 97

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


The Need for Both Magnitude and Phase
S21
1. Complete
S11 S22
characterization of
linear networks S12
2. Complex impedance 4. Time-domain
needed to design characterization
matching circuits
Mag

3. Complex values Time


needed for device
modeling High-frequency transistor model 5. Vector-error correction
Error
Base
Collector
Measured
Emitter
Actual

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Agenda

 What measurements do we make?


 Transmission-line basics

 Reflection and transmission

parameters
 S-parameter definition

 Network analyzer hardware


 Signal separation devices

 Detection types

 Dynamic range

 T/R versus S-parameter test sets

 Error models and calibration


 Types of measurement error

 One- and two-port models

 Error-correction choices

 Basic uncertainty calculations

 Example measurements
 Appendix

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Transmission Line Basics
+ -
I
Low frequencies
 wavelengths >> wire length
 current (I) travels down wires easily for efficient power
transmission
 measured voltage and current not dependent on position
along wire

High frequencies
 wavelength ≈ or << length of transmission medium
 need transmission lines for efficient power transmission
 matching to characteristic impedance (Zo) is very important
for low reflection and maximum power transfer
 measured envelope voltage dependent on position along
line

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Transmission line Zo
• Zo determines relationship between voltage and current
waves
• Zo is a function of physical dimensions and εr
• Zo is usually a real impedance (e.g. 50 or 75 ohms)
1.5
Twisted-pair
1.4 attenuation is
Waveguide lowest at 77 ohms
1.3

a 1.2

normalized values
50 ohm standard
1.1
b
1.0

Coaxial
εr h
0.9

0.8
h
0.7 power handling capacity
peaks at 30 ohms
w1 0.6
w
w2 0.5
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Coplanar Microstrip characteristic impedance


for coaxial airlines (ohms)

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Power Transfer Efficiency
RS

For complex impedances, maximum


RL
power transfer occurs when ZL = ZS*
(conjugate match)
Rs +jX
1.2
1
(normalized)
Load Power

0.8 -jX
0.6
0.4 RL
0.2
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

RL / RS

Maximum power is transferred when RL = RS

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Transmission Line Terminated with Zo
Zo = characteristic
Zs = Zo impedance of
transmission line

Zo

Vinc

Vrefl = 0! (all the incident power


is absorbed in the load)

For reflection, a transmission line terminated in Zo


behaves like an infinitely long transmission line

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Transmission Line Terminated with
Short, Open

Zs = Zo

Vinc

Vrefl In-phase (0o) for open,


out-of-phase (180o) for short

For reflection, a transmission line terminated in a


short or open reflects all power back to source
Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics
Transmission Line Terminated with 25 Ω

Zs = Zo

ZL = 25 Ω

Vinc

Vrefl

Standing wave pattern does not go to zero


as with short or open

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


High-Frequency Device Characterization

Incident
Transmitted
R
B
Reflected
A

REFLECTION TRANSMISSION

Reflected A Transmitted B
= =
Incident R Incident R

Return Group
SWR Gain / Loss Delay
Loss
S-Parameters Impedance, Insertion
S11, S22 Reflection Admittance S-Parameters Phase
Coefficient S21, S12 Transmission
R+jX,
Γ, ρ G+jB Coefficient
Τ,τ
Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics
Reflection Parameters
Reflection Vreflected ZL − ZO
Coefficient Γ =
Vincident
= ρ Φ =
Z L + ZO
Return loss = -20 log(ρ), ρ = Γ
Voltage Standing Wave
Emax
Emin
Ratio
Emax 1+ρ
VSWR = =
Emin 1-ρ

No reflection Full reflection


(ZL = Zo) (ZL = open, short)

0 ρ 1
∞ dB RL 0 dB
1 VSWR ∞
Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics
Smith Chart Review .

o
+jX Polar plane 90

1.0
.8
.6
.4
0 +R
∞→ + 180o .2 o
0
-

0 ∞
-jX

Rectilinear impedance -90 o


plane
Constant X

Z L = Zo Constant R

Smith Chart maps Γ= 0

rectilinear Z L = 0 (short) ZL = (open)

impedance Γ= 1 ±180
O
Γ =1 0
O

plane onto polar


plane
Smith chart
Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics
Transmission Parameters
V Incident V Transmitted
DUT

V Transmitted
Transmission Coefficient = Τ = = τ∠φ
V Incident
V Trans
Insertion Loss (dB) = - 20 Log = - 20 log τ
V Inc

V Trans
Gain (dB) = 20 Log = 20 log τ
V Inc

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Linear Versus Nonlinear Behavior
A * Sin 360o * f (t - to)
A
Linear behavior:
 input and output frequencies are
Time
to the same (no additional
frequencies created)
Sin 360o * f * t A
phase shift =  output frequency only undergoes
to * 360o * f
magnitude and phase change
Time f Frequency
1

Input DUT Output

Nonlinear behavior:
f Frequency  output frequency may
1 Time
undergo frequency shift
(e.g. with mixers)
 additional frequencies
created (harmonics,
f
1 Frequency intermodulation)

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Criteria for Distortionless Transmission
Linear Networks
Linear phase over
Constant amplitude over bandwidth of
bandwidth of interest interest
Magnitude

Frequency

Phase

Frequency

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Magnitude Variation with Frequency

F(t) = sin wt + 1/3 sin 3wt + 1/5 sin 5wt

Time
Time

Linear
Network
Magnitude

Frequency Frequency Frequency

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Deviation from Linear Phase
Use electrical delay to
remove linear portion of
phase response
Linear electrical length
Deviation from linear
RF filter response added
phase
(Electrical delay function)
Phase 45 /Div

Phase 1 /Div
o

o
+ yields

Frequency Frequency Frequency

Low resolution High resolution

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Why Measure Group Delay?

Phase
Phase

f f
−d φ −d φ
dω dω

Group
Delay
Group
Delay

f f

Same p-p phase ripple can result in different


group delay
Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics
Why Use S-Parameters?
 relatively easy to obtain at high frequencies
 measure voltage traveling waves with a vector network analyzer

 don't need shorts/opens which can cause active devices to oscillate or self-

destruct
 relate to familiar measurements (gain, loss, reflection coefficient ...)
 can cascade S-parameters of multiple devices to predict system performance
 can compute H, Y, or Z parameters from S-parameters if desired
 can easily import and use S-parameter files in our electronic-simulation tools

Incident S 21 Transmitted
a1
S11 b2
Reflected DUT
S22
Port 1 Port 2 Reflected
b1
a2
Transmitted S12 Incident

b1 = S11 a1 + S12 a 2
b 2 = S21 a1 + S22 a 2

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Measuring S-Parameters
S b2
Incident 21 Transmitted
a1
Z0
S 11
Forward Reflected DUT Load
b1 a2 = 0

Reflected b1
S 11 = = a
Incident 1 a2 = 0 b2
S 22 = Reflected
b = a a1 = 0
Transmitted 2 Incident 2
S 21 = = a
Incident 1 a2 = 0 b
Transmitted 1
S 12 = = a
Incident 2 a1 = 0

a1 = 0 b2
Z0 S 22
DUT
Load Reflected Reverse
a2
b1 Transmitted S 12 Incident

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Criteria for Distortionless Transmission
Nonlinear Networks
• Saturation, crossover,
intermodulation, and other nonlinear
effects can cause signal distortion
• Effect on system depends on amount
and type of distortion and system
architecture
Time Time

Frequency Frequency

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Measuring Nonlinear Behavior
Most common measurements:
 using a network analyzer and power

sweeps
 gain compression

 AM to PM conversion

 using a spectrum analyzer + source(s)

 harmonics, particularly second and

third
RL 0 dBm ATTEN 10 dB 10 dB / DIV
 intermodulation products resulting

from two or more RF carriers


8563A SPECTRUM ANALYZER 9 kHz - 26.5 GHz

LPF DUT

CENTER 20.00000 MHz SPAN 10.00 kHz


RB 30 Hz VB 30 Hz ST 20 sec
LPF

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


What is the Difference .

Between Network and


Spectrum Analyzers?
SPECTRUM ANALYZER 9 kHz - 26.5
8563A GHz
Amplitude Ratio

Amplitude
Measures Measures
known unknown
signal signals
Frequency Frequency

Network analyzers: Spectrum analyzers:


 measure components, devices,  measure signal amplitude characteristics
circuits, sub-assemblies carrier level, sidebands, harmonics...)
 can demodulate (& measure) complex signals
 contain source and receiver
 are receivers only (single channel)
 display ratioed amplitude and  can be used for scalar component test (no
phase phase) with tracking gen. or ext. source(s)
(frequency or power sweeps)
 offer advanced error correction

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Agenda

 What measurements do we make?


 Network analyzer hardware
 Error models and calibration
 Example measurements
 Appendix

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Generalized Network Analyzer
Block Diagram
Incident Transmitted

DUT
Reflected
SOURCE

SIGNAL
SEPARATION

INCIDENT REFLECTED TRANSMITTED


(R) (A) (B)

RECEIVER / DETECTOR

PROCESSOR / DISPLAY

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Directivity
Directivity is a measure of how well a
coupler can separate signals moving
in opposite directions

(undesired leakage (desired reflected


signal) signal)

Test port

Directional Coupler

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Interaction of Directivity with the
DUT (Without Error Correction)
0
Data Max
DUT RL = 40 dB

Directivity
Return Loss

Add in-phase

Device
30

60
Frequency

Device
Data Min
Device

Data = Vector Sum


Add out-of-phase Directivity
Directivity

(cancellation)

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Incident Transmitted

Detector Types SOURCE


Reflected
DUT

Scalar broadband SIGNAL


SEPARATION

Diode (no phase INCIDENT (R)


REFLECTED
(A)
TRANSMITTED
(B)

information) RECEIVER / DETECTOR

PROCESSOR / DISPLAY

DC
RF
AC

Tuned Receiver
RF IF = F LO ± F RF
Vector
ADC / DSP (magnitude and phase)
IF Filter

LO
Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics
Comparison of Receiver Techniques
Broadband Narrowband
(diode) (tuned-receiver)
detection detection
0 dB 0 dB

-50 dB -50 dB

-100 dB -100 dB
-60 dBm Sensitivity < -100 dBm Sensitivity

 higher noise floor  high dynamic range


 false responses  harmonic immunity

Dynamic range = maximum receiver power - receiver noise floor

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Dynamic Range and Accuracy
Error Due to Interfering Signal
100

10 -

+
Error (dB, deg)

1
phase error Dynamic range
is very important
magn error
for measurement
0.1 accuracy!

0.01

0.001
0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 -50 -55 -60 -65 -70
Interfering signal (dB)

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


T/R Versus S-Parameter Test Sets
Transmission/Reflection Test Set S-Parameter Test Set
Source Source

Transfer switch

R R

A B A B

Port 1 Port 2 Port 1 Port 2

Fwd DUT Fwd DUT Rev

 RF always comes out port 1  RF comes out port 1 or port 2


 port 2 is always receiver  forward and reverse
 response, one-port cal measurements
available  two-port calibration possible
Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics
Processor / Display
Incident Transmitted

DUT 50 MH-20GHz
NETWORK ANYZER
ACTIVE ENTRY
CHANNEL

Reflected RESPONSE
SOURCE

SIGNAL
STIMULUS INSTRUMENT R CHANNEL
SEPARATION STATE

T R L S
INCIDENT REFLECTED TRANSMITTED
(R) (A) (B)
HP-IB STATUS

PORT 1 PORT 2

RECEIVER / DETECTOR

PROCESSOR / DISPLAY

 markers
 limit lines

 pass/fail indicators

 linear/log formats

 grid/polar/Smith

charts

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Agilent VNA Solutions

PNA-X, NVNA
Industry-leading performance
10 MHz to 13.5, 26.5, 43.5, 50, 67GHz
Banded mm-wave to 2 THz

Test Accessories PNA


Performance VNA
10 MHz to 20, 40, 50, 67, 110 GHz
Banded mm-wave to 2 THz

PNA-L
World’s most capable value VNA
300 kHz to 6, 13.5, 20 GHz
10 MHz to 40, 50 GHz
ENA Mm-wave
World’s most popular
economy VNA solutions
9 kHz to 4.5, 8.5 GHz Up to 2 THz
300 kHz to 20.0 GHz
ENA-L
Low cost VNA PNA-X receiver
300 kHz to 1.5/3.0 GHz 8530A replacement
FieldFox
RF Analyzer
5 Hz to 4/6 GHz
Page 47
Agilent’s Series of HF Vector Analyzers
Microwave
PNA series
PNA- L series  110 GHz in
 6, 13.5, 20, 40 GHz coax
 economical  highest
 fast, small, integrated accuracy
 test mixers, high-power  modular,
amps flexible
 advanced connectivity  pulse systems

RF
ENA series
 ENA-L  3, 8.5 GHz
series  flexible
 1.5, 3 GHz hardware
 low cost  rich feature set
 LAN  offset and
harmonic RF
sweeps

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Spectrum Analyzer / Tracking Generator
RF in

IF 8563A SPECTRUM ANALYZER 9 kHz - 26.5 GHz

LO
DUT

Spectrum analyzer

TG out

DUT
f = IF Tracking generator

Key differences from network analyzer:


 one channel -- no ratioed or phase measurements
 More expensive than scalar NA (but better dynamic range)
 Only error correction available is normalization (and possibly
open-short averaging)
 Less accurate
 Small incremental cost if SA is required for other measurements
Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics
Calibration Topics
 What measurements do we
make?
 Network analyzer hardware
 Error models and calibration
 measurement errors

 what is vector error

correction?
 calibration types

 accuracy examples

 calibration considerations

 Example measurements
 Appendix

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Measurement Error Modeling
Systematic errors
 due to imperfections in the analyzer and test setup

 assumed to be time invariant (predictable)

Random errors
 vary with time in random fashion (unpredictable)

 main contributors: instrument noise, switch and

connector repeatability
Drift errors
 due to system performance changing after a calibration

has been done


 primarily caused by temperature variation

Errors:

SYSTEMATIC
Measured Unknown
Data RANDOM Device

DRIFT

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Systematic Measurement Errors

R A B
Directivity Crosstalk

DUT

Frequency response
 reflection tracking (A/R)
Source Load
 transmission tracking (B/R)
Mismatch Mismatch

Six forward and six reverse error terms


yields 12 error terms for two-port devices

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Types of Error Correction
 response (normalization)
simple to perform
only corrects for tracking errors
stores reference trace in memory, thru
then does data divided by memory
 vector
requires more standards
requires an analyzer that can measure phase
accounts for all major sources of systematic error

SHORT

S11a OPEN
thru
S11 m LOAD

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


What is Vector-Error Correction?
 Process of characterizing systematic error terms

 measure known standards


 remove effects from subsequent measurements
 1-port calibration (reflection measurements)
 only 3 systematic error terms measured
 directivity, source match, and reflection tracking
 Full 2-port calibration (reflection and transmission
measurements)
 12 systematic error terms measured
 usually requires 12 measurements on four known standards
(SOLT)
 Standards defined in cal kit definition file
 network analyzer contains standard cal kit definitions
 CAL KIT DEFINITION MUST MATCH ACTUAL CAL KIT
USED!
 User-built standards must be characterized and entered into
user cal-kit
Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics
Reflection: One-Port Model
Error Adapter
RF in Ideal
RF in 1
ED = Directivity

S11A ERT = Reflection tracking


ED ES S11A
ES = Source Match
S11M S11M
S11M = Measured
ERT
S11A = Actual

To solve for error terms,


S11A
we measure 3 standards S11M = ED +
to generate 3 equations ERT 1 - ES S11A
and 3 unknowns
 Assumes good termination at port two if testing two-port devices
 If using port 2 of NA and DUT reverse isolation is low (e.g., filter passband):
 assumption of good termination is not valid
 two-port error correction yields better results
Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics
Before and After One-Port Calibration
0
2.0

data before 1-port


calibration
20
1.1
Return Loss (dB)

VSWR
40
1.01

data after 1-port


60 calibration
1.001

6000 12000
MHz

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Two-Port Error Correction
Reverse model
Forward model Port 1 Port 2
E RT'
Port 1 EX Port 2
S21
a1 A b2
S21A b2 E L' S11 S22 A ED'
ETT A E S' a2
a1 ES b1
ED S11A S22 A a2
b1 EL S12 A
E TT'
EX'
E RT S 12
A

ED = fwd directivity EL = fwd load match


ES = fwd source match ETT = fwd transmission tracking
ERT = fwd reflection tracking EX = fwd isolation
ED' = rev directivity EL' = rev load match
E S' = rev source match ETT' = rev transmission tracking
E RT' = rev reflection tracking EX' = rev isolation

 Each actual S-parameter is a function


of all four measured S-parameters
 Analyzer must make forward and
reverse sweep to update any one S-
parameter
 Luckily, you don't need to know these
equations to use network analyzers!!!

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Errors and Calibration Standards
UNCORRECTED RESPONSE 1-PORT
FULL 2-PORT
SHORT
SHORT SHORT

DUT OPEN
OPEN OPEN
thru
 Convenient LOAD
LOAD LOAD
 Generally not
DUT
accurate
 No errors removed DUT
 Easy to perform thru
 Use when highest
accuracy is not  For reflection
DUT
required measurements
 Removes  Need good termination for
high accuracy with two-  Highest accuracy
frequency
 Removes these
response error port devices
 Removes these errors: errors:
Directivity Directivity
ENHANCED-RESPONSE
Source match Source, load
 Combines response and 1-port Reflection tracking match
 Corrects source match for transmission Reflection tracking
measurements Transmission
tracking
Network Analyzer Basics Crosstalk
www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics
Calibration Summary
Test Set (cal type) SHORT
Reflection S-parameter
T/R
(one-port) (two-port)
OPEN
 Reflection tracking
 Directivity LOAD

 Source match
 Load match

Test Set (cal type)

Transmission T/R S-parameter


(two-port)
(response, isolation)
error can be corrected
 Transmission Tracking
error cannot be corrected
 Crosstalk
* enhanced response cal corrects * )
for source match during  Source match (
transmission measurements
 Load match

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Reflection Example Using a One-Port Cal

Remember: convert all dB


values to linear for
Load uncertainty calculations!
match: (-dB )
18 dB ρ or loss(linear) = 10
20

(.126)
Directivity: DUT
40 dB (.010) 16 dB RL (.158)
1 dB loss (.891)

.158
Measurement uncertainty:
-20 * log (.158 + .100 + .010)
= 11.4 dB (-4.6dB)
(.891)(.126)(.891) = .100
-20 * log (.158 - .100 - .010)
= 26.4 dB (+10.4 dB)

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Using a One-Port Cal +
Attenuator
Measurement
uncertainty:
-20 * log (.158 + .039)
= 14.1 dB (-1.9 dB)
Load match:
18 dB (.126) -20 * log (.158 - .039)
= 18.5 dB (+2.5 dB)
DUT 10 dB attenuator
Directivity: (.316) SWR =
40 dB (.010) 1.05 (.024)

16 dB RL (.158)
.158 1 dB loss (.891)

(.891)(.316)(.126)(.316)(.891) = .010 Low-loss bi-directional devices


generally require two-port calibration
(.891)(.024)(.891) = .019 for low measurement uncertainty

Worst-case error = .010 + .010 + .019 = .039

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Transmission Example Using Response
Cal

RL = 18 dB (.126)

RL = 14 dB (.200)
Thru calibration (normalization) builds error
into measurement due to source and load
match interaction

Calibration Uncertainty
= (1 ± ρS ρL)

= (1 ± (.200)(.126)
= ± 0.22 dB

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Filter Measurement with Response Cal
DUT
Source match 1 dB loss (.891)
= 14 dB (.200) 16 dB RL (.158) Load match =
18 dB (.126)
1

(.126)(.158) = .020

(.126)(.891)(.200)(.891) = .020

(.158)(.200) = .032

Total measurement Measurement uncertainty


uncertainty:
= 1 ± (.020+.020+.032)
+0.60 + 0.22 = + 0.82 dB
= 1 ± .072
-0.65 - 0.22 = - 0.87 dB
= + 0.60 dB
- 0.65 dB
Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics
Filter Measurements using the
Enhanced Response Calibration
Calibration Uncertainty
Effective source match = = (1 ± ρS ρL)
35 dB! = (1 ± (.0178)(.126)
DUT = ± .02 dB
Source match = 35 dB 1 dB loss (.891)
(.0178) 16 dB RL (.158) Load match =
18 dB (.126)
1
Measurement uncertainty
= 1 ± (.020+.0018+.0028)
(.126)(.158) = .020 = 1 ± .0246
= + 0.211 dB
(.126)(.891)(.0178)(.891) = .0018 - 0.216 dB
(.158)(.0178) = .0028

Total measurement
uncertainty:
0.22 + .02 = ± 0.24 dB
Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics
Using the Enhanced Response
Calibration Plus an Attenuator
10 dB attenuator (.316) Calibration Uncertainty
SWR = 1.05 (.024 linear or 32.4 dB) = (1 ± ρS ρL)
Analyzer load match =18 dB (.126) = (1 ± (.0178)(.0366)
= ± .01 dB
DUT
Source match = 35 dB 1 dB loss (.891)
(.0178) 16 dB RL (.158) Effective load match = (.316)(.316)(.126) + .024
= .0366 (28.7dB)
1
Measurement uncertainty
(.0366)(.158) = .006 = 1 ± (.006+.0005+.0028)
= 1 ± .0093
(.0366)(.891)(.0178)(.891) = .0005 = ± 0.08 dB

(.158)(.0178) = .0028

Total measurement
uncertainty:
0.01 + .08 = ± 0.09 dB
Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics
Calculating Measurement Uncertainty
After a Two-Port Calibration
DUT
1 dB loss (.891)
Corrected error terms:
(8753ES 1.3-3 GHz Type-N)
16 dB RL (.158)
Directivity = 47 dB
Source match = 36 dB
Load match = 47 dB Reflection uncertainty
Refl. tracking = .019 dB
Trans. tracking = .026 dB
Isolation = 100 dB

= 0.158 ± .0088 = 16 dB +0.53 dB, -0.44 dB (worst-case)

Transmission uncertainty

= 0.891 ± .0056 = 1 dB ±0.05 dB (worst-case)

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Comparison of Measurement
Examples
Reflection
Calibration type Measurement uncertainty
One-port -4.6/10.4 dB
One-port + attenuator -1.9/2.5 dB
Two-port -0.44/0.53 dB

Transmission
Calibration type Calibration uncertainty Measurement uncertainty Total uncertainty
Response ±0.22 dB 0.60/-0.65 dB 0.82/-0.87
Enhanced response ±0.02 dB ±0.22 dB ±0.24
Enh. response + attenuator ±0.01 dB ±0.08 dB ±0.09
Two port ----- ±0.05

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Response versus Two-Port Calibration

Measuring filter insertion loss


CH1 S21 &M log MAG 1 dB/ REF 0 dB
CH2 MEM log MAG 1 dB/ REF 0 dB

Cor
After two-port calibration

After response calibration

Uncorrected
Cor

x2 1 2
START 2 000.000 MHz STOP 6 000.000 MHz

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


ECal: Electronic Calibration (85060/90 series)
• Variety of modules cover 30 kHz to 26.5 GHz
• Six connector types available (50 Ω and 75 Ω)
• Single-connection
 reduces calibration time
 makes calibrations easy to perform 
85093A

 minimizes wear on cables and standards Electronic Calibration Module


30 kHz - 6 GHz

 eliminates operator errors


• Highly repeatable temperature-compensated
terminations provide excellent accuracy

Microwave modules use a


transmission line shunted by
PIN-diode switches in various
combinations

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Adapter Considerations
reflection from desired signal
adapter
leakage signal
ρ ρ ρ
measured = Directivity + adapter + DUT
Coupler directivity = 40 dB

Adapter DUT Termination DUT has SMA (f) connectors

Worst-case APC-7 calibration done here


System Directivity Adapting from APC-7 to SMA
(m)

28 dB APC-7 to SMA (m)


SWR:1.06

APC-7 to N (f) + N (m) to SMA (m)


17 dB SWR:1.05 SWR:1.25

APC-7 to N (m) + N (f) to SMA (f) + SMA (m) to (m)


14 dB SWR:1.05 SWR:1.25 SWR:1.15

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Swap Equal Adapters Method

Accuracy depends on how well


Port 1 Port 2
DUT the adapters are matched - loss,
electrical length, match and
impedance should all be equal
Adapter
Port 1 A Port 2 1. Transmission cal using adapter A.

Adapter
Port 1
B
Port 2 2. Reflection cal using adapter B.

Adapter Port 2
Port 1 DUT
B
3. Measure DUT using adapter B.

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Adapter Removal Calibration
 Calibration is very accurate and traceable
 In firmware of 8753, 8720 and 8510 series
 Also accomplished with ECal modules (85060/90) Port 1 DUT Port 2
 Uses adapter with same connectors as DUT
 Must specify electrical length of adapter to within 1/4
wavelength of highest frequency (to avoid phase ambiguity)

Cal
Port 1 Adapter Port 2 1. Perform 2-port cal with adapter on port 2.
Adapter B
Save in cal set 1.
Cal Set 1

Cal Adapter 2. Perform 2-port cal with adapter on port 1.


Port 1 Port 2
Adapter B Save in cal set 2.
Cal Set 2

[CAL] [MORE] [MODIFY CAL SET] 3. Use ADAPTER REMOVAL


[ADAPTER REMOVAL] to generate new cal set.

Port 1 DUT Adapter Port 2 4. Measure DUT without cal adapter.


B

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Thru-Reflect-Line (TRL) Calibration
We know about Short-Open-Load-Thru (SOLT) calibration...
What is TRL?
 A two-port calibration technique

 Good for noncoaxial environments (waveguide, fixtures, wafer

probing)
 Uses the same 12-term error model as the more common SOLT

cal
 Uses practical calibration standards that

are easily fabricated and characterized TRL was developed for non-
 Two variations: TRL (requires 4 receivers) coaxial microwave
and TRL* (only three receivers needed) measurements
 Other variations: Line-Reflect-Match (LRM),

Thru-Reflect-Match (TRM), plus many others

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Agenda

 What measurements do we make?


 Network analyzer hardware
 Error models and calibration
 Example measurements
 Appendix

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Frequency Sweep - Filter Test
CH1 S 21 log MAG 10 dB/ REF 0 dB REF 0 dB
CH1 S11 log MAG 5 dB/

Cor

69.1 dB Stopba
nd
rejectio
n

START .300 000 MHz STOP 400.000 000 MHz CENTER 200.000 MHz SPAN 50.000 MHz
CH1 S 21 log MAG 1 dB/ REF 0 dB

Cor
Return loss
m1: 1
4.000 000 GHz -
0.16 dB
m2-ref: 2.145 234 GHz
0.00 dB
ref 2

Insertion lossCor

x2 1 2
START 2 000.000 MHz STOP 6 000.000 MHz

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Optimize Filter Measurements with
Swept-List Mode Segment 3: 29 ms
(108 points, -10 dBm, 6000 Hz)
CH1 S 21 log MAG 12 dB/ REF 0 dB
PRm

Swept-list sweep: 349 ms


(201 pts, variable BW's & power)
Linear sweep: 676 ms
(201 pts, 300 Hz, -10 dBm)
PASS

Segment 5: 129 ms
Segment 1: 87 ms (38 points, +10 dBm, 300 Hz)
(25 points, +10 dBm, 300 Hz)

START 525.000 000 MHz STOP 1 275.000 000 MHz

Segments 2,4: 52 ms
(15 points, +10 dBm, 300 Hz)

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Power Sweeps - Compression

Saturated output
Output Power (dBm)

power

Compression
region

Linear region
(slope = small-signal gain)

Input Power (dBm)

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Power Sweep - Gain Compression
CH1 S21 1og MAG 1 dB/ REF 32 dB 30.991 dB
12.3 dBm

1 dB
compression:
1 input power
resulting in 1 dB
drop in gain
0

START -10 dBm CW 902.7 MHz STOP 15 dBm

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


AM to PM Conversion
Measure of phase deviation caused by amplitude variations
Amplitude Power sweep

 AM can be undesired:
AM Mag(Ami supply ripple, fading, thermal
(dB)
n)
 AM can be desired:
DUT modulation (e.g. QAM)
PM
(deg)

Test Stimulus Time Q


Amplitude

AM Mag(AMo
(dB)
ut)
AM - PM Conversion =

Mag(Pmout)
(deg/dB
Mag(Amin) ) PM
(deg) Mag(Pmo I
ut)
AM to PM
Output Time conversion can
Response cause bit errors
Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics
Measuring AM to PM Conversion
1:Transmission Log Mag 1.0 dB/ Ref 21.50 dB
2:Transmission /M Phase 5.0 deg/ Ref -115.7 deg
Ch1:Mkr1 -4.50 dBm
20.48 dB
Ch2:Mkr2 1.00 dB
0.86 deg

 Use transmission setup


2 with a power sweep
 Display phase of S21
1  AM - PM = 0.86 deg/dB

1
1
Start -10.00 dBm CW 900.000 MHz Stop 0.00 dBm
Start -10.00 dBm CW 900.000 MHz Stop 0.00 dBm

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Agenda
 What measurements do we make?
 Network analyzer hardware
 Error models and calibration
 Example measurements
 Appendix
 Advanced Topics
time domain
frequency-translating devices
high-power amplifiers
extended dynamic range
multiport devices
in-fixture measurements
crystal resonators
balanced measurements
 Inside the network analyzer
 Challenge quiz!

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR)
 What is TDR?
time-domain reflectometry


analyze impedance versus time




distinguish between inductive and




capacitive transitions
 With gating:
analyze transitions

inductive
analyzer standards

transition
impedance

Zo
time
capacitive
transition
non-Zo transmission line

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


TDR Basics Using a Network Analyzer
 start with broadband frequency sweep (often requires microwave VNA
 use inverse-Fourier transform to compute time-domain
 resolution inversely proportionate to frequency span
Time Domain Frequency Domain

CH1 S 22 Re 50 mU/ REF 0 U


-1
F

Cor 20 GHz
t f 6 GHz

∫ F(t)*dt
0
Integrate 1/s*F(s)

TDR -1
F

t f CH1 START 0 s STOP 1.5 ns

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Time-Domain Gating
 TDR and gating can remove undesired reflections (a form of
error correction)
 Only useful for broadband devices (a load or thru for example)
 Define gate to only include DUT
CH1 S11&M log MAG 5 dB/ REF 0 dB
 Use two-port calibration
PRm
Cor

2
CH1 MEM Re 20 mU/ REF 0 U
1: -45.113 dB 0.947
PRm Gate GHz
1: 48.729 mU 638 ps 2: -15.78 dB 6.000
Cor RISE TIME
2: 24.961 mU 668 ps GHz
29.994 ps
8.992 mm 1 3: -10.891 mU 721 ps

Thru in frequency
Thru in time domain 1 domain, with and
CH1 START 0 s STOP 1.5 ns
without gating
START .050 000 000 GHz STOP 20.050 000 000 GHz

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics


Time-Domain Transmission
RF Input

RF Output

CH1 S21 log MAG 15 dB/ REF 0 dB


Main Wave
Leakage

Triple Surface
Travel Wave
CH1 S21 log MAG 10 dB/ REF 0 dB Cor
RF Triple
Leakage Travel
Cor

Gate off

Gate on START -1 us STOP 6 us

Network Analyzer Basics www.agilent.com/find/backtobasics