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Small Hydro Power Program Introduction Hydropower is a renewable, non-polluting and environmentally benign source of energy.

It is perhaps the oldest renewable energy technique known to the mankind for mechanical energy conversion as well as electricity generation. Hydropower represents use of water resources towards inflation free energy due to absence of fuel cost with mature technology characterized by highest prime moving efficiency and spectacular operational flexibility. Out of the total power generation installed capacity of 1,67,077 MW (January 2011) in the country, hydro power contributes about 25% i.e. 37,367 MW.

Kothi 100 k SHP Project in District Manali, HP Hydro Power Project Classification Hydro power projects are generally categorized in two segments i.e. small and large hydro. In India, hydro projects up to 25 MW station capacity have been categorized as Small Hydro Power (SHP) projects. While Ministry of Power, Government of India is responsible for large hydro projects, the mandate for the subject small hydro power (up to 25 MW) is given to Ministry of New and Renewable Energy.Small hydro power projects are further classified as Class kW Micro Hydro Mini Hydro Small Hydro Up to 100 101 to 2000 2001 to 25000 Station Capacity in

Small Hydro Power Programme Small Hydro Power ( SHP) Programme is one of the thrust areas of power generation from renewable in the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. It has been recognized that small hydropower projects can play a critical role in improving the over all energy scenario of the country and in particular for remote and inaccessible areas. The Ministry is encouraging development of small hydro projects both in the public as well as private sector. Equal attention is being paid to grid-interactive and decentralized projects. Aim: The Ministrys aim is that the SHP installed capacity should be about 6000 MW by the end of 12th Plan. The focus of the SHP programme is to lower the cost of equipment, increase its reliability and set up projects in areas which give the maximum advantage in terms of capacity utilisation. Potential: An estimated potential of about 15,000 MW of small hydro power projects exists in India. Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has created a database of potential sites of small hydro and 5718 potential sites with an aggregate capacity of 15384 MW for projects up to 25 MW capacity have been identified.

Juthed SHP - 100 kW in District Chamba, HP

Titang 800 KW in Kalmoni 200 kW District Chamba in SHP project near Himachal Pradesh Guwahati in Assam Identification of new potential sites and strengthening of database for already identified sites is an ongoing process. In this direction, the Ministry has been giving financial support to state governments/ agencies for identification of new potential SHP sites & preparation of state perspective plan.

Small hydro installed capacity and progress The total installed capacity of small hydro power projects (upto 25 MW) as on 31.01.2011 is 2953 MW from 801 projects and 271 projects with aggregate capacity of 914 MW are under construction.

STATE WISE NUMBERS AND AGGREGATE CAPACITY OF SHP PROJECTS (UPTO 25 MW) POTENTIAL, INSTALLED & UNDER IMPLEMENTATION (AS ON 31.1.2011) Sl. No. State Potential Nos. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chattisgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh J&K Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura 497 550 119 95 184 6 292 33 536 246 103 138 245 299 255 114 101 75 99 222 237 66 91 197 13
Total Capacity (MW)

Projects Projects under Installed Implementation Nos. Capacity Nos. Capacity (MW) (MW) 62 101 4 18 6 1 4 7 189.83 78.835 27.11 58.3 19.05 0.05 12.6 70.1 18 28 4 11 1 2 40 5 8 18 7 4 15 3 3 1 4 5 15 2 6 61.75 38.71 15 36.31 1.2 3.4 132.2 5.91 34.85 107.5 23.8 19.9 51.7 2.75 1.7 0.5 4.2 3.93 21.4 5.2 33 -

560.18 1,328.68 238.69 213.25 993.11 6.5 196.97 110.05 2,267.81 1,417.80 208.95 747.59 704.1 803.64 732.63 109.13 229.8 166.93 188.98 295.47 393.23 57.17 265.55 659.51 46.86

112 375.385 34 129.33 6 4.05 111 725.05 20 136.87 11 86.16 39 263.825 8 5.45 4 31.03 18 36.47 10 28.67 10 79.625 43 153.2 10 23.85 16 47.11 16 94.05 3 16.01

8 MW SHP project on Tungabhadra Dam, AP set up by NCL Energy

Standards for Small Hydro

In order to ensure project quality/performance, the MNRE has been insisting to adhere to IEC/International standards for equipment and civil works. The subsidy available from the Ministry is linked to use of equipment manufactured to IEC or other prescribed international standards. The equipment in the project is required to confirm to the following IEC standards. Equipment Standard Turbines and generator (rotating IEC 60034 1: electrical machines) 1983 IEC 61366-1: 1998 IEC 61116-1992 IS: 4722-2001 IS 12800 (part 3) 1991 Field Acceptance Test for IEC 60041: 1991 Hydraulic performance of turbine Governing system for hydraulic IEC 60308 turbines Transformers IS 3156 1992 IS 2705 1992 Inlet valves for hydro power stations & systems Scheme for SHP (upto 25 MW) IS 2026 - 1983 IS 7326 - 1902

Recently the Ministry has given an assignment to AHEC, IIT Roorkee to revisit the existing standards and come out with standards/manuals/guidelines for improving reliability and quality of small hydro power projects in the country. States with Policy for Private SHP Projects 23 States namely, Andhra Pradehsh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chattisgarh,Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal have announced policies for setting up commercial SHP projects through private sector participation. The facilities available in the States include wheeling of power produced, banking, buy-back of power, facility for third party sale, etc. For detailed policy please see website of the respective State. Private Sector SHP project (as on 31.12.2010) Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Watermills State Andhra Pradesh Assam Gujarat Himachal Pradesh Haryana Jammu & Kashmir Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Punjab Tamil Nadu Uttaranchal West Bengal Total Number 43 1 2 63 2 2 95 3 1 13 2 18 1 10 5 261 Total capacity (MW) 104.43 0.10 5.6 271.25 7.4 17.5 694.90 36.00 2.20 74.00 32.00 26.20 0.35 48.30 6.45 1326.68

3kW Water Mill in Uttaranchal Water wheels, commonly known as `gharats', have traditionally been used in the Himalayan regions for rice hulling, milling of grain and other mechanical applications. These water mills are normally of very old design and work at very low efficiencies. It has been estimated that there are more than 1.5 lakh potential water mill sites in the country. New and improved designs of water mills have been developed for mechanical as well as electricity generation of 3-5 kW. The Ministry is providing subsidy for development and upgradation of water mills. Local organizations such as the Water Mill Associations, cooperative societies, registered NGOs, local bodies, and State Nodal Agencies are being encouraged to take up these activities. A number of NGOs are now propagating water mills for electricity generation to meet small scale electrical requirements of villages. Uttaranchal has taken a lead in setting up electricity generation watermills and over 450 such watermills were installed in remote and isolated areas of the state. Nagaland has recently commenced setting up watermills/micro hydel sets for rural electrification. Watermills are also being installed in Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, J&K, Karnataka and Manipur. Scheme for watermills and Micro Hydel Projects (upto 100 kW) Manufacturing Status India has a wide base of manufacturers of equipment for small hydro power projects. State-of-the-art equipment is available indigenously. 20 manufacturers fabricate almost the entire range and type of SHP equipment. Manufacturers capacity is estimated at about 300 MW per year. In addition, there are about 5 manufactures that are producing micro hydel and watermill equipment. List of SHP equipment manufacturers Technical and consultation Services Consultancy services in the field of small hydro projects are available from a number of Government / private consultancy organizations. The Ministry is strengthening technical institutions to provide such services. AHEC, IIT Roorkee is providing full range of technical services in the field of small hydro including survey and investigation, DPR preparation, project design etc. On site testing facility has been created at AHEC to test SHP stations for their performance. For testing facilities please see AHEC website :

www.ahec.org.in Real Time Digital Simulator for SHP A Real Time simulator has been set up at AHEC which would provide hands on experience to operators of SHP stations. It is the first SHP simulator in the country. The simulator is capable of replicate all conditions of a hydro power station. AHEC is offering regular training programmes for operators and engineers of SHP stations. For details of simulator and training programmes please see AHEC website: www.ahec.org.in