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Energy Efficiency of Amorphous Metal Based Transformers

R. Hasegawa Metglas, Inc 440 Allied Drive, SC 29526 USA

October 2004

OVERVIEW
Basics Introduction Amorphous versus crystalline magnetic material Properties of amorphous magnet - why amorphous ? Exchange Interaction and Magnetization Magnetic Anisotropy, Magnetostriction, Magnetic Domain and Structure B-H Characteristics and Magnetization Processes Magnetic Losses Applications Electric Power Transformers High Frequency Power Electronics Telecommunication Pulse Transformers and Pulse Power Devices Magnetic Sensors and Electronic Article Surveillance Automotive Magnetics Medical Applications Magnetic Shielding

FUNDAMENTALS
CASTING
To achieve an amorphous structure in a metallic solid, one has to solidify the molten metal before constituent atoms take their positions in a crystalline atomic structure. The required rate for molten-metal cooling is about one million degrees Celsius per second for most of the amorphous metal we are interested in. The schematic drawing shown below is a method we use to mass-produce amorphous metal in our company.

FUNDAMENTALS ATOMIC STRUCTURE & MAGNETIC PROPERTIES

Crystalline

Amorphous

Ordered structure
magnetocrystalline anisotropy

Random network of atoms


lack of crystalline anisotropy

Polycrystalline structure
higher coercivity

Absence of phase boundaries


lower coercivity

These features do not help for easier magnetization and demagnetization.

These features lead to faster flux reversal.

ATOMIC STRUCTURE - AMORPHOUS

FUNDAMENTALS OF AMORPHOUS METAL Electrical Properties


The electrical resistivity of many amorphous metals ranges from about 100 to 150 -cm. This is two-to-three times higher than that of silicon steel or Fe50-Ni50 alloy, which is partially responsible for low core losses in these metals. The temperature coefficient of the resistivity is relatively low and can reach nearly zero in some of the Fe-based alloys.

Mechanical Properties
Amorphous metals are hard with Vickers hardness ranging from about 700 to 1000, but mechanically ductile in the as-cast state. Elastic modulus is about 60x109 N/m2 . Thermal expansion coefficient is about 6-13 ppm/oC.

MAGNETIZATION PROCESS AND CORE LOSS


Magnetization processes are via uniform rotation ( high frequency limit) and domain wall motion (low frequency limit). Macroscopic magnetic loss (e.g. core loss) arises from eddy current (caused by magnetization rotation) and hysteresis behavior (caused by domain wall motion). Empirically we find: Core Loss = a B 1.5-2 f + b B 1.5-2.5 f 1.5-2
1000 Supermendur 100 m Deltamax 50 m METGLAS SA-1 25 m 10 Core Loss (W/kg)

100

Core Loss /f = a B +B (loss separation)

1.5-2

1.5-2

0.5-1.0

1 Supermalloy 25 m 0.1 METGLAS 2714A 25 m H7C4 (ferrite) (estimated) 100 1000

0.01 Bmax=0.2T 0.001 0.1 1 10 Frequency (kHz)

FUNDAMENTALS

SOFT MAGNETIC PROPERTIES


Relative Permeability
10
7

3.0 2.5

Saturation Induction (T)


Fe-50Co Fe-3Si Fe-6.5Si Fe-base AM Fe-(40-50)Ni Fe-Ni base AM Fe-(70-80)Ni Co-base AM Fe-- Carbon Steel
Fe & Fe Alloy Powder

10

Co-base AM

2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0


10
-3

10

Supermalloy Fe-Ni base AM Sendust

10

Fe-base AM

10

78 Permalloy Hipernik Ni-Zn Ferrite Fe-3Si

Permalloy Powder

10 -3 10

10
-2

Fe

Mg-Zn Ferrite

Soft Ferrites

10

-1

10

10

10

Coercivity (A/cm)

10

-2

10

-1

10

10

10

Coercivity (A/cm)

FUNDAMENTALS OF AMORPHOUS METAL Why amorphous versus crystalline soft magnets ?


Examples: Effects of Field Annealing
B

LONGITUDINAL

TRANSVERSE

FUNDAMENTALS OF MAGNETICS

Why amorphous versus crystalline soft magnets ?


Amorphous Metals exhibit:
- easier magnetization (low coercivity and high permeability); - lower magnetic loss (low coercivity, high permeability and high resistivity);

- faster flux reversal (as a result of low magnetic loss)


- versatile magnetic properties resulting from post-fabrication heat-treatments and a wide range of adjustable chemical compositions.

ELECTRICAL POWER APPLICATIONS Three basic families of amorphous soft ferromagnets


Fe-Base (e.g. METGLAS2605SA1)
Main Application: Distribution Transformer

ELECTRICAL POWER APPLICATIONS


High saturation induction and low core losses at 50/60 Hz are required for electrical transformer applications. Amorphous metal-based transformers have 75-80% lower core losses than crystalline Fe-Si base units under linear loads. When higher harmonics are present, the difference in core losses becomes even greater. Load losses are still less than Fe-Si based transformers. Significant savings can be achieved when existing Fe-Si based transformers are replaced by amorphous metal-based units. The energy efficiency translates to reduced emission of hazardous gasses such as CO2, SO2, etc.

NO LOAD LOSSES Amorphous vs SiFe Steel Transformers

Transformer Rating
50 kVA, 1-Phase 300 kVA, 3-Phase

Core Loss (W) Silicon Steel


In Service Best

Amorphous Metal
35 165

Loss Reduction %
75 to 80%

210 1000

105 500

TRANSFORMER LOSS Amorphous vs SiFe Steel Transformers

TRANSFORMER EFFICIENCY
100.0% 99.5% Amorphous Metal 99.0%
% Efficiency

98.5% 98.0% 97.5% 97.0% 96.5% 96.0% 0% 25%

Conventional

2000 kVA Transformer Efficiency

50%

75% Load

100%

125%

150%

IMPACT ON Co2 GAS GENERATION

2000 kVA Comparison Watt Rating


20 000 18 000 16 000 14 000 12 000
Watts

Average Loading Range - Commercial and Industrial

10 000 8 000 6 000 4 000 2 000 0 0% 25% 50% Load 75% 100%
UltraGlas

Other Cast Coil

UltraGlas

Other Cast Coil

AMORPHOUS METAL TRANSFORMERS & TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION

Build-In Superior Performance for Harmonic Conditions

What Are Harmonics And Where Are They Found ?

Pure Power
200 150 100 50 0 -50 -100 -150 -200 0

Distorted Power

Adjustable Speed Motor Drives UPS HID Lighting PCs


Step Up 24 kV Utility Generation 765 - 236 kV Step Down 230 - 34.5 kV Substation 34.5 - 1.2 kV Primary Distribution

Distribution < 1.2 kV Secondary Distribution

Transmission Subtransmission

Commercial &Industrial

Harmonics Basics
fundamental =100 Amp RMS
200 150 100 50 0 -50 -100 -150 -200 0 0.004 0.008 0.012 0.016

Any periodic waveform can be considered as a summation of sinusoidal waveform of different discrete frequencies
ASD Line Current =143.8 Amp RMS
400 300 200

5th Harm(300 Hz) =79.5 Amp RMS


150

100 0 -100 0 0.004 0.008 0.012 0.016

100 50 0 0 -50 -100 -150 0.004 0.008 0.012 0.016

-200 -300 -400

7th Harm(420 Hz) =66 Amp RMS


150 100 50 0 0 -50 -100 -150 0.004 0.008 0.012 0.016

500 KVA Transformer Loss Study


Total Loss Increase: ~100 % (Amorphous) ; ~300 % (SiFe)
24 22 20 18 Total Losses (kW) 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Load Ratio 0.8 1 1.2
AM SiFe AM

Actual hourly and weekday/weekend data

SiFe

Expected losses based on laboratory NL and LL tests

Laboratory Test Data on Harmonics Effects on No Load Losses


(30 kVA Units with Identical Coils)
100
900

% of Fundamental

800 No Load Loss (W) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0

AMT SiFe

770

80 60

67

Harmonic # 75 % THD

40 40 20

230 50 "Pure" Power 80

2 0 3 5 7

2 15

w/ 75% THD

11

13

No-Load Loss Increase: 60% (Amorphous) ; 235% (Silicon Steel)

AMT Performance under Harmonics


250 KVA Transformer Losses @ ~56% Loading ERDA Industrial Site Field Tests
3000

2500

AM Increase - 41 W
2000 74 99 1500

SiFe Increase - 387 W


698

155

Los es (W) s

Core Eddy Current

Core Hysterisis
311 33 155

Coil

1000

99 1553 1671 1084

500

966

0 Expected AMT Actual AMT Expected CRGO Actual CRGO

Eddy Current Losses Increase in Both the Core and Coil, but Much Less for the Amorphous Core

Harmonic Impact on Transformer Losses


Total Harmonic Distortion = ( in2)1/2 / i1 in : n-th harmonic current Magnetic Loss = A f + B dl fm Bn / (A, B : constant)
Property/Exponent (resistivity) d (thickness) l m
n

Amorphous Metal ~ 130 -cm ~ 20 m 1-2 ~ 1.5 ~2

Silicon Steel ~ 50 -cm 200 m 2 ~2 ~2

Smaller thickness and higher resistivity coupled with smaller exponent m lead to lower magnetic loss at higher frequencies in amorphous transformer cores.

Harmonic Impact on Transformer Losses -250 kVA


A. Harmonic Content (THD~25%) Harmonics Content (%) B. 1 100 3 1 5 20 7 10 9 1 11 9 13 6 15 1 17 5

Transformer Losses without Harmonic Distortion Loss (W) Hyteresis Eddy Current Total Core Loss Coil Loss Loading Level (%) Total Transformer Loss Amorphous Metal 99 33 132 966 55 1,098 Silicon Steel 155 311 466 1,084 58 1,550

C.

Transformer Losses with Harmonic Distortion of Table A Loss (W) Hyteresis Eddy Current Total Core Loss Coil Loss Loading Level (%) Total Transformer Loss Amorphous Metal 99 74 173 1,553 55 1,726 Silicon Steel 155 698 853 1,671 58 2,524

Harmonic Impact on Transformer Losses


Twofold Effect
CURRENT DISTORTION INCREASES WINDNG LOSS INDUCES VOLTAGE DISTORTION, INCREASING NO-LOAD LOSS INCREASES NO-LOAD LOSS DECREASES POWER FACTOR

VOLTAGE DISTORTION

Direct Consequences: Very High Total Transformer Losses much higher than spec values Transformer Failure / Electrical Fire Associated Problems: Deterioration of Electrical Power Quality Extra Energy Cost Decreased Distribution Capacity

Solution to THD Problems


using Amorphous Metal-based Transformers
No Need for Added Devices such as Isolation Transformers, Harmonic Filters Impact of THD on Transformer Losses (examples)
Transformer Loss Increase (THD=75%): 60-100 % (Amorphous); 200-300 % (Silicon Steel) Transformer Loss Increase (THD=25%): 57 % (Amorphous); 63% (Silicon Steel)

Increased Energy-Savings (Example: 500 kVA , unit price at $7,500) Condition


Without Harmonics With Harmonics Worldwide

Energy Consumption
20,000 kWh/y 130,000 kWh/y

Annual Savings (@$.125/kWh)


$2,500 $16,250 (Payback: 3 years) (Payback: 0.5 year)

Annual Electrical Energy Savings (current estimate)


~125 TWh ($16 billion) ~220 TWh ($28 billion) ~100 million tons of CO2 gas reduction ~170 million tons of CO2 gas reduction

Without Harmonics With Harmonics

Electrical power pollution is costing US businesses $26 B/y in damage and prevention. By the year 2000, 60 % of all electricity will be passing through nonlinear loads. - Business Week

CONCLUSIONS
Under pure sinusoidal excitation, amorphous metal-based transformers exhibit about of the no-load loss of a high-grade silicon-steel. This corresponds to an annual worldwide potential savings of about 125 TWh and annual reduction of CO2 emission of about 100 million tons. Under harmonic conditions which are the actual conditions we are in, potential energy savings are considerably higher than the above. The energy savings is estimated at ~220 TWh. Worldwide use of amorphous metal-based transformers, therefore, will help us reduce fossil-fuel dependency and create cleaner environment with higher air quality.