DESIGNAND PRACTICE
VERNON MARSHALL
Concrete Society of Southern Africa
Prestressed Concrete Division
Midrand, South Africa
JOHN M. ROBBERTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE v
1 INTRODUCTION 11
1.1 THE BASIC IDEA OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.2 EFFECTS OF PRESTRESSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.3 GENERAL PRINCIPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.4 BASIC DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
1.5 PRESTRESSED VERSUS REINFORCED CONCRETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
1.6 HISTORY OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
1.7 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES 21
2.1 CONCRETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.1.1 Compressive strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.1.2 Stressstrain relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.1.3 Modulus of elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.1.4 Tensile strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
2.1.5 Timedependent behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
2.1.6 Thermal properties of concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
2.1.7 Poisson’s ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
2.1.8 Fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
2.2 STEEL REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
2.2.1 Nonprestressed reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
2.2.2 Prestressed reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
2.2.3 Relaxation of prestressing steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
2.2.4 Fatigue characteristics of reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
2.2.5 Thermal properties of reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
2.3 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
3 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 31
3.1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.2 PRETENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.2.1 Basic principle and procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.2.2 Stressing beds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.2.3 Structural frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.3 POSTTENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
3.3.1 Basic principle and procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
3.3.2 Posttensioning systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
3.3.3 Posttensioning operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
3.3.4 Ducting for bonded construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
3.3.5 Grouting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
3.4 PRETENSIONING VERSUS POSTTENSIONING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
3.5 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
TABLE OF CONTENTS i
4 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE 41
4.1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
4.2 SIGN CONVENTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
4.3 ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
4.3.1 Basic assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
4.3.2 Flexural response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
4.3.3 Analysis of the uncracked section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
4.3.4 Cracking moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
4.3.5 Ultimate moment: Sections with bonded tendons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
4.3.6 Analysis of beams with unbonded tendons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
4.3.7 Flexural analysis of composite sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
4.4 DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
4.4.1 Limit states design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
4.4.2 Design for the serviceability limit state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
4.4.3 Design for the ultimate limit state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
4.4.4 Limits on steel content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
4.4.5 Flexural design of composite sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
4.4.6 Partial prestressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
4.5 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
5 PRESTRESS LOSSES 51
5.1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
5.2 METHODS FOR CALCULATING PRESTRESS LOSSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
5.2.1 Total loss in pretensioned members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
5.2.2 Total loss in posttensioned members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
5.2.3 Methods for calculating prestress losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
5.3 ELASTIC SHORTENING OF THE CONCRETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
5.3.1 Pretensioned concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
5.3.2 Posttensioned concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
5.4 TIMEDEPENDENT LOSSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
5.4.1 Loss due to relaxation of the steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
5.4.2 Loss due to shrinkage of the concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
5.4.3 Loss due to creep of the concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510
5.5 LOSSES DURING POSTTENSIONING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528
5.5.1 Friction losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528
5.5.2 Anchorage seating losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535
5.6 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540
6 EFFECTS OF CONTINUITY 61
6.1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
6.2 ELASTIC ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
6.2.1 Eccentricity of the prestressing force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
6.2.2 Force (flexibility) method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
6.2.3 Fixedend moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
6.2.4 Displacement (stiffness) method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 611
6.2.5 Concept of equivalent loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 617
ii TABLE OF CONTENTS
6.2.6 Effects of losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623
6.2.7 Concordancy and linear transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625
6.3 DESIGN AT SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628
6.4 ANALYSIS AT ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629
6.4.1 Secondary moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629
6.4.2 Moment redistribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629
6.5 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632
7 SHEAR 71
7.1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
7.2 BEAMS WITHOUT WEB REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
7.2.1 Cracking behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
7.2.2 Shear capacity of the concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
7.3 BEAMS WITH WEB REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 713
7.4 DESIGN PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 716
7.5 COMPOSITE BEAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 725
7.6 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 730
8 DEFLECTIONS 81
8.1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
8.2 UNCRACKED BEAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
8.2.1 Instantaneous deflections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
8.2.2 Longterm deflections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
8.3 CRACKED BEAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 814
8.3.1 Instantaneous deflections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 814
8.3.2 Longterm deflections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 819
8.4 DEFLECTION LIMITATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 831
8.5 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 832
9 ANCHORAGE ZONE DESIGN 91
9.1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
9.2 TRANSFER LENGTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
9.3 ANCHORAGE ZONE REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
9.3.1 Spalling Stress Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
9.3.2 Bursting Stress Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 915
9.4 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 921
10 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE SLABS 101
10.1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
10.2 EFFECTS OF PRESTRESS ON STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
10.2.1 Flexural behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
10.2.2 Restraint to axial shortening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
10.3 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS BY THE EQUIVALENT FRAME METHOD . . . . . . . . 108
10.4 DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1011
10.4.1 Design codes of practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1012
10.4.2 Preliminary value for the slab thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1013
TABLE OF CONTENTS iii
10.4.3 Prestressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1014
10.4.4 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1019
10.4.5 Serviceability limit states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1021
10.4.6 Ultimate limit states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1026
10.5 DETAILING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1030
10.5.1 Prestressed reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1030
10.5.2 Nonprestressed reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1031
10.5.3 Openings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1033
10.6 DESIGN EXAMPLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1033
10.6.1 Material properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1034
10.6.2 Loadings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1035
10.6.3 Balanced load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1035
10.6.4 Check the preliminary value for the slab thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1035
10.6.5 Minimum cover to tendons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1035
10.6.6 Design: NorthSouth direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1036
10.6.7 Design: EastWest direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1059
10.6.8 Punching shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1060
10.6.9 Deflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1065
10.6.10 Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1071
10.7 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1071
11 DETAILING 111
11.1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
11.2 COVER TO TENDONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
11.2.1 Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
11.2.2 Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
11.3 LIMITATIONS ON PRESTRESSING STEEL CONTENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
11.3.1 Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
11.3.2 Minimum steel content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
11.3.3 Maximum steel content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
11.4 LIMITATIONS ON SPACING OF TENDONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
11.5 EFFECTS OF TENDON CURVATURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
11.5.1 Inplane normal forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
11.5.2 Outofplane multistrand effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
11.5.3 Minimum radius of curvature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1111
11.5.4 Minimum tangent length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1112
11.5.5 Code requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1113
11.6 LONGITUDINAL NONPRESTRESSED REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1114
11.7 DRAWINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1118
11.8 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1119
APPENDIX A: LIST OF SYMBOLS
APPENDIX B: DRAWINGS
FLAT SLAB: REINFORCEMENT LAYOUT
TENDON LAYOUT
BRIDGE DECK: PRESTRESSING DETAILS
iv TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE
The content of this book was initially written and issued as a set of notes for the course Prestressed
Concrete: Design and Practice, commissioned by the Prestressed Concrete Division of the Concrete
Society of Southern Africa. The course was aimed at young engineers and technologists with little
or no experience in the design of prestressed concrete structures, and it was the intention that it
should serve as a vehicle for providing bridging education between tertiary training and design
practice. Although the objective and intended audience of the book is the same as that of the course,
it can also serve as a useful reference text for undergraduate students, postgraduate students and
practising designers. It is important to note that a unique feature of the book is that current South
African practice is emphasised throughout the text.
Basic background information, essential for the design of prestressed concrete structures, is presented
in the first three chapters. These cover the material properties of concrete, prestressing steel and
nonprestressed reinforcement as well as the various prestressing systems and procedures generally
used in South Africa. These chapters also cover relevant specifications.
The basic concepts and procedures required for the analysis and design of a prestressed concrete
flexural member are presented in Chapters 4 to 9 as follows:
• Chapter 4: Analysis and design of a section for flexure at the serviceability and ultimate limit
states. Composite sections, unbonded construction and partially prestressed sections are also
covered.
• Chapter 5: Procedures for estimating the instantaneous and longterm loss of prestress in
pretensioned and in posttensioned construction.
• Chapter 6: The effects of continuity in prestressed concrete members.
• Chapter 7: Design for shear, including composite beams.
• Chapter 8: Procedures for calculating the instantaneous and longterm deflections of prestressed
concrete flexural members. Both uncracked and cracked beams are considered.
• Chapter 9: Design of the anchorage zone. The design considerations, applicable to both
pretensioned and posttensioned construction are covered.
The analysis and design of posttensioned flat plates and flat slabs are covered by Chapter 10. This
material is limited to slabs using unbonded tendons and levels of prestress at which the slabs will
be cracked under the design service loads because most of the posttensioned flat plates and flat
slabs constructed in South Africa are of this type.
Various aspects, peculiar to prestressed concrete members, which affect detailing are presented in
Chapter 11. The details of both the prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement are covered in
this chapter, and a number of local effects, induced by tendon curvature, are also discussed. Working
drawings of the prestressing details of a flat slab and of a highway bridge are presented in
Appendix B.
Generally, the procedures for simulating the various aspects of behaviour are developed from the
basic principles of structural mechanics. However, in a case where a semiempirical approach is
followed, the relevant experimental work on which such a procedure is based is presented and
discussed. The manner in which these aspects of behaviour are reflected in the various design codes
of practice, commonly used in South Africa, are also explained. Each chapter contains comprehensive
examples that illustrate the analytical concepts and design procedures covered.
PREFACE v
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 THE BASIC IDEA OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
In its general form, the term prestressing means the deliberate creation of permanent stresses in a
structure before it is subjected to any imposed load. Because the object of prestressing a structure
is to improve its performance, the stresses resulting from prestressing are designed to counteract
those induced by the acting loads.
As an example, consider the case of a simply supported beam made from an elastic material which
is equally strong in compression and in tension. The deflected shape of the beam and the stress
distribution over the depth of the midspan section, which result from the application of a uniformly
distributed load w, are shown in Fig. 11a. The principle of prestressing can subsequently be used
to counteract this response by applying an eccentric compression force P to each end of the beam.
The prestressing forces are shown in Fig. 11b together with the resultant deflected shape of the
beam and the stress distribution over the midspan section. Figure 11c shows the response to the
combined application of the load w and the prestressing forces P, which is obtained by the
superposition of the response to the load w (Fig. 11a) and the response to the prestressing forces
P (Fig. 11b).
A comparison of the deflected shapes and midspan stresses shown in Figs. 11a and 11c illustrates
the effects of prestressing on the structural behaviour of the beam: Not only can both the compressive
and tensile stresses (and hence, the corresponding strains) in the top and bottom fibres of the
midspan section be reduced, but the beam deflection can also be reduced. It should be noted that
although the stress in the bottom fibre (f
wb
– f
pb
) resulting from the combined action of the load w
and the prestressing forces P is shown to be compressive in Fig. 11c, it could be tensile depending
on the relative magnitudes of f
wb
and f
pb
. Similarly, the resultant deflection (d
w
 d
p
) shown in
Fig. 11c to be upward, could be downward.
Given the fact that concrete is strong in compression and weak in tension, it seems natural that one
of the most successful applications of the principle of prestressing has been the development of
prestressed concrete. A simply supported plain, unreinforced concrete beam subjected to an
increasing load will fail immediately after the development of cracks when the induced flexural
tensile stress f
wb
(Fig. 11a) exceeds the tensile strength of the concrete. In the case of a reinforced
concrete beam, suitable steel reinforcement is provided in the tension zone of the section to carry
the tensile forces required for equilibrium of the cracked section. For this reason, a reinforced
concrete beam can carry loads which exceed the cracking load by a considerable margin.
As opposed to reinforced concrete, where the concrete is allowed to crack under service loads, the
original development of prestressed concrete was based on the prevention of flexural cracks forming
under service loads. This was achieved by applying the criterion of no tensile stress, because it is
generally accepted that if there are no tensile stresses present in the concrete it will not crack.
However, this criterion has been relaxed with the subsequent development of prestressed concrete
and it is currently common practice to allow some tension to develop in the concrete. As shown in
Fig. 11, the tensile stresses induced by the load can be neutralised to any desired degree by
providing suitable prestressing.
With the subsequent development of the concept of partial prestressing significant tension and
controlled cracking are allowed to develop at service load levels, in much the same way as in
reinforced concrete. The latest schools of thought on prestressed concrete embodies the view that
partially prestressed concrete occupies the range between reinforced concrete and fully prestressed
concrete (i.e. no tension is allowed to develop at service load levels). From this viewpoint reinforced
concrete and fully prestressed concrete represent the two boundaries of the complete range of
THE BASIC IDEA OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 11
possibilities which exist for partially prestressed concrete and, as such, are two special cases of
partially prestressed concrete.
In prestressed concrete, the most commonly used method of applying the prestressing force to the
concrete is by tensioning highstrength reinforcement, commonly referred to as tendons, against the
concrete prior to the application of imposed loads. Two different processes can be distinguished in
this regard:
• Pretensioning: In these prestressing methods, the prestressed reinforcement is tensioned before
the concrete is placed.
w
w
d
w
d
p
d  d
w p
f
wt
(compression)
f
pt
(tension)
f f
wt pt
–
f f
wb pb
–
f
wb
(tension)
f
pb
(compression)
Stresses at midspan
section
Stresses at midspan
section
Stresses at midspan
section
(a) Response to uniformly distributed load
(b) Response to prestressing forces
(c) Response to uniformly distributed load and prestressing forces
e
e
e
e
P
P
P
P
Section
Section
Section
Figure 11: General effects of prestressing.
12 INTRODUCTION
• Posttensioning: In these prestressing methods, the prestressed reinforcement is tensioned after
the concrete has been placed and has developed sufficient strength to sustain the induced stresses.
The definition of prestressed concrete as given by the ACI Committee on Prestressed Concrete (taken
from Ref. 11) is quoted here for completeness:
Prestressed concrete: Concrete in which there have been introduced internal stresses of such
magnitude and distribution that the stresses resulting from given external loadings are
counteracted to a desired degree. In reinforcedconcrete members the prestress is commonly
introduced by tensioning the steel reinforcement.
It is apparent from Fig. 11 that the use of prestressing will enable a designer to provide a structure
of which the deflections at service load levels can be made much less than those of its reinforced
concrete counterpart. This benefit is obtained in addition to the bonus of being in a position to
provide a structure which is relatively crackfree at service load levels.
1.2 EFFECTS OF PRESTRESSING
The effects of prestressing are dictated by the fundamental reason for applying it in the first place:
Prestressing is simply a means by which a controllable set of forces are applied to a structure to
counteract the stresses induced by loads (e.g. dead loads and live loads).
The effects of prestressing with regard to the development of stresses are illustrated by considering
the rectangular beam section shown in Fig. 12a. If a moment M = 286 kN.m is applied to the
section, the resulting stresses at the top and bottom of the section can be calculated from f = My/I,
where y is the distance from the top (or bottom) fibre to the centroidal axis and I is the second
moment of area of the section about the centroidal axis. Taking tension positive and compression
negative, this calculation yields a stress of –5.94 MPa at the top and a stress of +5.94 MPa at the
bottom, as shown in Fig. 12b. The concrete can easily carry the compressive stress at the top of
the section, but will most probably crack under the tensile stress at the bottom because it cracks at
a much lower stress, which lies in the range of 50% to 75% of this value.
As a first attempt to neutralise the tensile stresses in the section, an axial compression force
P = 2258 kN is taken to act at the same time as the moment of 286 kN.m (see Fig. 12c). This
axial force induces an additional uniform compressive stress of –5.94 over the section, which is
calculated from f = –P/A, where A is the area of the section. The total stresses resulting from the
simultaneous application of M and P are obtained by adding the stresses which are separately
produced by each of these actions. As shown in Fig. 12c, a total stress of –11.88 MPa is obtained
at the top and a zero stress is obtained at the bottom. The concrete will be able to carry these
stresses for the strengths normally used in prestressed concrete structures.
The fairly large force of 2258 kN may be reduced by applying it eccentrically. Therefore, as a next
step, a force P = 1127 kN is applied at an eccentricity of 127 mm, measured from the centroid of
the section, as shown in Fig. 12d. The additional stress which arises from the eccentricity is
calculated from f = Pey/I, where e is the eccentricity as defined above. The stresses at the top
and bottom of the section as produced by the various components of load are summarised in
Fig. 12d, from which it may be seen that P causes a zero stress at the top and a compression of
–5.94 MPa at the bottom. The total stresses, which include those produced by M, are seen to be
–5.94 MPa at the top and zero at the bottom. When these results are compared to those obtained in
the previous case, the beneficial effect of applying P eccentrically becomes clear: The tensile stresses
in the section can still be completely neutralised even though the magnitude of P has been reduced
by half, and in the process the total compressive stress in the top fibre has also been reduced by a
half.
m
±
EFFECTS OF PRESTRESSING 13
M = 286 kNm
–5.94 MPa –5.94 MPa
Stress Loading Condition
(a) Section Properties
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
–5.94 MPa –11.88 MPa –5.94 MPa
–5.94 MPa –2.97 MPa +2.97 MPa –5.94 MPa
–5.94 MPa –1.98 MPa +3.96 MPa –3.96 MPa
+5.94 MPa +5.94 MPa
+5.94 MPa –5.94 MPa 0
+5.94 MPa –2.97 MPa –2.97 MPa 0
+5.94 MPa –1.98 MPa –3.96 MPa 0
M = 286 kNm
P = 2258 kN
P = 1127 kN
P = 751 kN
M = 286 kNm
e = 127
e = 254
M = 286 kNm
y = 380
500
760
y = 380
A = 500 760 = 380.0 10 mm
3 2
´ ´
= 380 mm y =
760
2
= 182.9 10 mm
8 4
´ I =
500 760
3
´
12
P
A
–
M y
+
I
–
P e y
I
+
–
M y P e y P
I I A
+
–
+
– –
Figure 12: Effects of prestressing on stresses.
14 INTRODUCTION
As a final example in this regard, consider the case where the compression force P is further reduced
to 751 kN but its eccentricity is increased to 254 mm, as shown in Fig. 12e. Also shown are the
stresses produced in the top and bottom fibres of the section by the various components of load.
Once again, a total bottom fibre stress of zero is obtained while a total compression of –3.96 MPa
is obtained at the top, which is even smaller than before. This result is consistent with the previous
finding that an increased eccentricity has a beneficial effect as far as the total stresses are concerned.
However, it may be seen that the eccentric force acting on its own causes a tension of (3.96  1.98)
= 1.98 MPa at the top. Although this tension is probably not large enough to cause the concrete to
crack, it serves to illustrate that a larger eccentricity can be detrimental in the absence of external
load (represented here by M), even though it is beneficial when the external load is present. This
finding is important for design because it clearly shows that the critical stresses may arise either in
the loaded or in the unloaded structure.
These examples are intended to illustrate the effects of prestressing on the development of stress in
the section, and are not intended to show that limiting the total tensile stress in the section to zero
is necessarily beneficial or not.
Another important effect of prestressing on structural behaviour is its impact on deflections at service
load levels. This effect can be qualitatively investigated with reference to Fig. 11. In the case of
the simply supported beam considered here, the externally applied load w will produce a downward
deflection (see Fig. 11a) while the prestressing force P, which is applied at an eccentricity e, will
cause an upward deflection (see Fig. 11b). The total deflection of the beam under the combined
actions of the external load and the prestressing force is obtained by adding the deflections yielded
by each load acting separately (see Fig. 11c). Because the deflections caused by the two components
of load are opposite, it is clear that the downward deflection produced by the external load is always
reduced by the presence of prestressing and, depending on the relative magnitudes of the two
components of deflection, the resultant deflection can be upward. This observation, once again,
points to the fact that the designer is working between various limits, and that he may find that
although the deflection of the loaded structure is small, the upward deflection of the unloaded
structure is unacceptably large. Such a situation can arise in cases where the live load to dead load
ratio is large.
1.3 GENERAL PRINCIPLES
There are three different concepts which can be used to approach the simulation of the behaviour
of a prestressed concrete member (Ref. 11). Each approach can be used for design provided that
it is properly understood by the designer, and provided that the limitations of each are realized. In
the following, each approach is briefly described.
First approach: Prestressing transforms concrete into an elastic material.
The fundamental idea behind this approach is that the precompression applied during prestressing
transforms the concrete into an elastic material. The brittle behaviour of concrete arises from the
fact that when its tensile strength, which is much less than its compressive strength, is reached it
cracks and subsequently cannot carry any tensile stress. If it is accepted that concrete will not crack
if there are no tensile stresses present, then it can be concluded that the removal of tensile stresses
by prestressing will remove the source of its brittle behaviour and, in so doing, will transform it
into an elastic material.
Using this approach, it is convenient to view the concrete as being subjected to two sets of forces:
• The external load which induces tensile stresses.
• The internal prestress which sets up the compression required for neutralising any tension.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES 15
If the precompression induced by the prestress prevents the concrete from cracking, then the
stresses, strains and deflections caused by each of the sets of forces can be considered separately
and superimposed as required. The examples considered in Fig. 12 (see Section 1.2) serve as an
illustration of how this approach can be used to calculate stresses in a beam section.
This approach is credited to Freyssinet and is the source of the zero tensile stress criterion which
has been applied over many years.
Second approach: Prestressed concrete is a type of reinforced concrete.
Prestressed concrete can be viewed as a type of reinforced concrete in which highstrength
reinforcement has been tensioned against the concrete before any imposed load is applied. Following
this approach, prestressed concrete is considered as a combination of concrete and steel, in which
a resisting internal couple must be developed to equilibrate an external moment. The internal couple
arises from the compression supplied by the concrete and the tension supplied by the steel, as is
the case for reinforced concrete. From this point of view, the primary difference between the
behaviour of prestressed concrete and reinforced concrete lies in the increased cracking load and
the possibility of actively controlling the deformations of the structure. The fundamental principle,
however, remains the same.
To illustrate the use of this approach to analysing a prestressed concrete beam section, consider the
section shown in Fig. 13 subjected to a moment M = 286 kN.m. The prestressed reinforcement is
placed at an eccentricity e = 254 mm and carries a tension T = 751 kN. This example is the same
as that shown in Fig. 12e.
380
Section Properties
3.96 MPa
Stress distribution
0
T = 751 kN
C = 751 kN
e = 254
e
c
= 127
l
a
= 381
M = 286 kNm
500
760
380
254
A = 380.0 10 mm
3 2
´
I = 182.9 10 mm
8 4
´
Figure 13: Prestressed concrete considered as a type of reinforced concrete.
16 INTRODUCTION
Horizontal equilibrium yields T = C = 751 kN. The internal couple provided by the compression in
the concrete C and the tension in the steel T must be equal to the external moment M = 286 kN.m
to satisfy moment equilibrium. The lever arm at which these forces are acting is given by
l
a
=
286
751
× 10
3
= 381 mm
Therefore C is acting at an eccentricity e
C
= 381  254 = 127 mm. The stress distribution in the
concrete is obtained by considering the compression C = 751 kN acting on the concrete at an
eccentricity of 127 mm. Using elastic theory
f = −
C
A
−
+
C e
C
y
I
= −
751 × 10
3
380 × 10
3
−
+
751 × 10
3
× 127 × 380
182.9 × 10
8
= − 1.98
−
+ 1.98
So that f
top
= – 3.96 MPa (top fibre, compression)
f
bot
= 0 (bottom fibre)
These results are shown in Fig. 13 and are the same as obtained before in Fig. 12e.
Third approach: Prestressing balances a part of the applied load.
In this approach the view is adopted that the forces exerted by the prestressed reinforcement
(tendons) on the concrete balances the applied loads to some desired degree. Consider the simply
L / 2 L / 2
L
h
P
w
b
P
(a) Parabolic tendon profile
(b) Tendon forces acting on the concrete
Figure 14: Simply supported beam with parabolic tendon.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES 17
supported beam shown in Fig. 14a which has a parabolically curved tendon. It can be seen from
Fig. 14b that the tendon applies the following forces to the concrete:
• The prestressing force P at each end of the beam where the tendon is anchored.
• An upward uniformly distributed load w
b
acting over the span of the beam. This load arises
because the concrete prevents the tendon from straightening under the action of the prestressing
force. It can be shown that for the tendon profile considered here
w
b
=
8 P h
L
2
where h = sag of the tendon
L = span of the beam
If the beam is subjected to a downward uniformly distributed load w, it is clear that the portion of
the load which is not balanced by the action of the prestress is given by (w – w
b
). Using this
approach, the beam is subsequently analysed by considering it as being subjected to the prestressing
force P applied at the anchor positions at the ends of the beam and the unbalanced load (w – w
b
)
acting over its span.
As an example of how this approach can be used to analyse a prestressed concrete beam, consider
the simply supported beam shown in Fig. 15a, which is subjected to a uniformly distributed load
w = 42.9 kN/m. The prestressing force P = 751 kN and the tendon profile is parabolic, with an
eccentricity e = 254 mm at midspan and zero eccentricity at the ends. Since the bending moment
at midspan M = 42.9 ´ 7.3
2
/8 = 286 kN.m, it is clear that this example is the same as that shown
in Fig. 12e if the midspan section is considered.
The upward uniformly distributed load applied by the tendon is given by
w
b
=
8 P h
L
2
=
8 × 751 × 0.254
7.3
2
= 28.6 kN/m
The loads and forces acting on the concrete are shown in Fig. 15b, from which it is clear that the
unbalanced load is (42.9 – 28.6) = 14.3 kN/m acting downward. The midspan bending moment
induced by this unbalanced load is
M =
(w − w
b
) L
2
8
=
14.3 × 7.3
2
8
= 95.3 kN.m
The stress produced by this moment in the extreme fibres of the midspan section is given by
f =
M y
I
=
95.3 × 10
6
× 380
182.9 × 10
8
= 1.98 MPa
18 INTRODUCTION
3650 3650
7300
7300
h = 254
380
254
760
760
500
500
–1.98 MPa –1.98 MPa –3.96 MPa
+1.98 MPa
Stress due to
unbalanced load
(= 14.3 kN/m)
Stress due to
prestressing force
applied at ends of
beam
Total stress
–1.98 MPa 0
Section at midspan
380
P = 751 kN
w
b
= 28.6 kN/m
w = 42.9 kN/m
w = 42.9 kN/m
P = 751 kN
(a) Simply supported beam
(b) Loads and forces acting on the concrete
(c) Concrete stress in midspan section
A = 380.0 10 mm
3 2
´
I = 182.9 10 mm
8 4
´
Figure 15: Analysis using load balancing approach.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES 19
So that f
top
= – 1.98 MPa (top fibre, compression)
f
bot
= + 1.98 MPa (bottom fibre, tension)
The stress induced by the prestressing force acting at the ends of the beam is, with negligible error,
calculated from
f = −
P
A
= −
751 × 10
3
380 × 10
3
= – 1.98 MPa (compression)
Finally, the total stress in the top and bottom fibres of the midspan section are given by
f
top
= – 1.98 – 1.98 = – 3.96 MPa (top fibre, compression)
f
bot
= – 1.98 + 1.98 = 0 (bottom fibre)
These results are shown in Fig. 15c and are the same as obtained before in Fig. 12e.
1.4 BASIC DEFINITIONS
Some of the most commonly encountered prestressing techniques and features of construction of
prestressed concrete structures are introduced in the following (Ref. 11). The descriptions are brief
because the techniques and procedures covered here are more expansively dealt with in subsequent
Chapters.
The most commonly used prestressing method is to tension highstrength reinforcement against the
concrete. Hence the definition of tendon:
• Tendon: A tendon is the prestressed reinforcement used to apply the prestress to the concrete.
This steel reinforcement may either be highstrength wires, bars or strand.
Prestressing methods can be classified either as being a pretensioning method or as being a
posttensioning method, depending on whether the concrete has not been placed or whether it has
been placed at the time of tensioning of the reinforcement. Although the terms pretensioning and
posttensioning have been adequately defined in Section 1.1, their definitions are repeated here for
convenience:
• Pretensioning: In these prestressing methods, the prestressed reinforcement is tensioned before
the concrete is placed.
• Posttensioning: In these prestressing methods, the prestressed reinforcement is tensioned after
the concrete has been placed and has developed sufficient strength to sustain the induced stresses.
The definitions given in the following are all concerned with special features or attributes related
to the construction of prestressed concrete structures.
Internal and External Prestressing
Internal prestressing refers to prestressed concrete structures in which the tendons are contained
within the concrete, while external prestressing implies that the prestressing force is applied
externally. External prestressing can be achieved either by placing the tendons outside the member
or by applying external prestressing forces using jacks. Internal prestressing is by far the most
110 INTRODUCTION
commonly used method, although external prestressing by means of external tendons has recently
gained some popularity for use in bridge construction, particularly in Europe.
Jacks can be used to externally prestress a simply supported beam, as shown in Fig. 16. If the
jacks are properly placed, the precompression which they produce can neutralise any tension caused
by the applied load. However, this procedure is of little practical importance because the
timedependent strains resulting from shrinkage and creep of the concrete soon reduce the strains.
Hence, the stresses induced by the prestressing force are reduced to levels at which the prestressing
becomes ineffective, unless the jacks can be readjusted. Shrinkage can be viewed as the
timedependent strain which develops in the absence of load, while creep may be seen as the
timedependent strain which develops in the presence of load. These phenomena are more
expansively dealt with in Section 2.1.5.
Linear and Circular Prestressing
Linear prestressing refers to elongated elements such as beams and slabs, even though the tendons
may be curved and not straight. Circular prestressing, on the other hand, refers to circular structures
such as silos, pressure vessels, tanks and pipes where the circular shape of the tendons is dictated
by the shape of the structural element.
Bonded and Unbonded Tendons
When tendons are bonded to the surrounding concrete, they are referred to as bonded tendons. A
pretensioned tendon is bonded to the concrete by virtue of the construction method, although it can
be debonded over a portion of its length by taking appropriate steps to accomplish this.
Posttensioned tendons are encased in a duct so that they can be tensioned after the surrounding
concrete has hardened sufficiently. Bonding is subsequently accomplished by injecting grout into
the duct.
Tendons not bonded to the concrete over their entire length are referred to as unbonded tendons,
and can only be accomplished with posttensioning. Unbonded tendons require corrosion protection,
which is commonly provided by placing them in grease filled plastic tubes.
Stage Stressing
It sometimes happens that, by the nature of the construction procedure, the dead load is applied in
stages. In such cases the prestressing may also be applied in appropriate stages to avoid overstressing
the concrete. This technique is referred to as stage stressing.
Jack Jack
Figure 16: External prestressing using jacks.
BASIC DEFINITIONS 111
Partial and Full Prestressing
When a prestressed concrete member is designed in compliance with the zero tensile stress criterion,
i.e. not to develop any tensile stress under service loads, it is referred to as being fully prestressed.
On the other hand, tension and cracking are allowed to develop in partially prestressed members at
service load levels. Additional ordinary nonprestressed reinforcement is usually provided in partially
prestressed members to control the cracking and to ensure adequate ultimate strength.
1.5 PRESTRESSED VERSUS REINFORCED CONCRETE
One of the major differences between prestressed concrete and reinforced concrete, with regard to
their physical attributes, is that higher strength materials (for both concrete and steel) are used for
prestressed concrete. In prestressed concrete the highstrength steel is tensioned and anchored against
the concrete, which produces a number of desirable effects:
• The high strength of the steel can be properly used, even at service load levels.
• The prestressing tends to neutralise tensile stresses and strains induced by the load, so that
cracking of the section is eliminated and, as a result, the full concrete section becomes active in
resisting the load. This mechanism is much more effective than is the case for reinforced concrete
where only the uncracked part of the section in the compression zone participates in resisting
the load.
• The deformations induced by the prestressing serve to offset those produced by the load, and
can be used by the designer to control deflections.
Higher strength concrete may be used to obtain more economic sections than with reinforced
concrete.
The following advantages of prestressed concrete are often put forward when compared to reinforced
concrete (Ref. 12):
• Prestressed concrete requires smaller quantities of material than reinforced concrete because
highstrength materials are efficiently and effectively used and because it uses the entire section
to resist the load. This means that prestressed concrete members are lighter and more slender
than their reinforced concrete counterparts.
• The fact that members are lighter and more slender if prestressed concrete rather than reinforced
concrete is used, leads to other advantages:
 Savings can be realised in the reduced cost of lighter supporting structures and, in the case
of precast elements, in the reduced handling and transportation costs.
 Aesthetically pleasing structures are more readily provided.
 Longer spans are possible because of the reduced self weight.
 Innovative construction methods are facilitated.
 Thinner slabs result in reduced building heights and consequent savings in the cost of finishes.
These advantages are particularly evident in the case of long span bridges and multistorey
buildings.
• Prestressed concrete generally provides better corrosion protection to the reinforcement than does
reinforced concrete. This advantage is significant for structures subjected to aggressive environ
ments and for fluidretaining structures.
• Improved deflection control is possible with prestressed concrete.
• Prestressed concrete members will require less shear reinforcement than reinforced concrete
members. This follows from the fact that the shear capacity of a prestressed member is increased
112 INTRODUCTION
by curved tendons, which carry some of the shear, and by the precompression, which reduces
the principal tension.
• It often happens that the worst service load condition for a prestressed concrete structure occurs
during the prestressing operation. In such a case, it can be claimed that the safety of the structure
has been partially tested: If the structure successfully withstands the effects of the prestressing
operation, chances are good that it will perform well during its service life.
A comparison of the economic advantages or disadvantages of prestressed concrete with those of
reinforced concrete is complicated by the fact that each has a range of applicability, depending on
the type of structure and the specific design requirements. However, if such a comparison is made
where the ranges of applicability overlap, care must be taken to include not only the cost of the
materials but also to include the additional costs associated with prestressed concrete, such as the
use of specialised equipment and hardware, greater design effort, more supervision and the use of
specialised personnel. Such a comparison should also reflect the relative performance and cost
advantages inherent in each type of structure. For example, since the decking for posttensioned
slabs can be stripped after tensioning, shorter construction times are realized together with all the
related savings in construction and financing costs.
If the view is taken that prestressed concrete and reinforced concrete represent the two boundaries
of the range of possibilities which exist for partially prestressed concrete, they form part of the
same system and cannot be considered as being in competition with each other. A comparison, as
given above, can therefore be seen to be inappropriate because a specific prestressing level can
always be found within the spectrum of possibilities to yield the best solution to a given problem.
From this viewpoint, it would seem much more appropriate to compare prestressed reinforced
concrete to structural steel.
1.6 HISTORY OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
A brief overview of the history of the development of prestressed concrete, as taken from Refs. 11
to 17, is presented in the following. It is interesting to note that the development of prestressed
concrete is characterised by its individualistic nature, even though it took place simultaneously in
several countries. A possible reason for this is the lack of communication which existed between
the countries during World War II.
The first application of the principle of prestressing to concrete is credited to P. H Jackson, of San
Francisco, who in 1886 applied for a patent for Constructions of Artificial Stone and Concrete
Pavements in which steel tie rods, passed through concrete blocks and concrete arches, were
tightened by nuts. These structures served as slabs and roofs. An application for a patent, which
can also be related to prestressing, was made in 1888 by the German C. E. W. Doehring. This patent
covered the manufacture of mortar slabs containing tensioned wires.
The purpose of the work done by the Austrian engineer J. Mandl was aimed at using the strength
of the concrete in a beam as effectively as possible. To achieve this he, in 1896, became the first
person to clearly articulate the purpose of prestressing as the need to counteract the tension produced
by the load with compression induced by an applied prestressing force. The German engineer
M. Koenen developed this idea and in 1907 derived an expression from which the required
prestressing force could be calculated. The loss of prestressing force resulting from elastic shortening
was accounted for in these proposals.
In 1907 the Norwegian J. G. F. Lund suggested the construction of prestressed vaults using
prefabricated concrete blocks jointed in mortar. The prestressing was applied by tensioned tie rods
which transmitted the compression to the blocks by bearing plates at the ends. Bond between the
tie rods and the mortar was destroyed at stretching. A similar prestressing procedure was suggested
by the American engineer G. R. Steiner in the following year. This procedure consisted of initially
tightening the reinforcing rods against the green concrete to destroy bond and to subsequently
HISTORY OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 113
complete the tensioning operation once the concrete has hardened. These two procedures appear to
be the first applications of posttensioning.
In the procedures outlined above mild steel was tensioned to the permissible stress prescribed at the
time (i.e. approximately 110 MPa), which corresponds to a strain of 0.00055 in the steel. Because
this strain is comparable to the magnitude of the strain induced by shrinkage and creep of the
concrete, most of the prestressing would have been lost with time. Therefore, these early attempts
were bound to give unsatisfactory results because shrinkage and creep of the concrete were not
accounted for.
The American engineer R. H. Dill appears to have been the first, in 192325, to suggest that full
prestressing can be provided by posttensioning highstrength steel, instead of mild steel. Dill coated
the reinforcement with a plastic substance to prevent bond, and tensioned the reinforcement after
most of the shrinkage in the concrete had taken place. The effects of creep were accounted for by
occasionally tightening the nuts used for stretching the reinforcement. However, it should be noted
that Dill did not actually say that highstrength steel was required for maintaining full prestress
after losses. In 1922, W. H. Hewett, also of America, successfully applied prestressing to circular
concrete tanks using an idea similar to that used by Dill.
E. Freyssinet of France was the first engineer to fully grasp the importance of the effects of shrinkage
and creep of the concrete, and is credited with the development of prestressed concrete as we know
it today. In 1928, he introduced the use of highstrength steel bonded to the concrete, together with
the requirement that a high tensioning stress be applied to the steel. The significance of these
proposals is demonstrated by the fact that shrinkage and creep can together induce a strain of
approximately 0.001 in the concrete, while a strain of approximately 0.007 can be induced in
highstrength steel reinforcement during the prestressing operation. This means that, in this case,
shrinkage and creep will reduce the prestressing force only by about 14%. Thus, by using
highstrength steel for prestressing, it is still possible to completely neutralise any tension induced
by the load in the concrete, even after losses. Freyssinet also demonstrated that a considerable saving
in the required quantity of steel may be achieved by using highstrength reinforcement.
The large scale use of prestressed concrete only became possible after the development of reliable
and economical methods of carrying out the tensioning operation. The first practical implementation
of pretensioning was made by E. Hoyer of Germany who, in 1938, introduced a procedure whereby
piano wire was tensioned over a large distance, after which the concrete was cast. The prestress
was transferred to the concrete by cutting the wires after hardening of the concrete. Although Hoyer
was granted a patent for the longline pretensioning method, it should be pointed out that the idea
did not originate with him, but rather with Freyssinet, whose proposal for the longline process he
combined with Wettstein’s (1919) experience with the use of piano wire. The large scale use of
posttensioning started with the introduction, in 1939, of Freyssinet’s system whereby a doubleact
ing jack was used to tension and to anchor 12 wire cables in conical wedges, which served as
anchors.
Since this time prestressed concrete has been widely accepted and used, as revealed by the fact that:
• Many prestressing systems and techniques have been developed.
• A large number of books covering the design and construction of prestressed concrete structures
have been published.
• Numerous technical societies have been established who, through their activities and publications,
have greatly contributed to the progress of prestressed concrete.
Some of the engineers and researchers who have made significant contributions to the subsequent
development of prestressed concrete include: G. Magnel of Belgium (Ref. 18), Y. Guyon of France
(Ref. 19), P. W. Abeles of England (Ref. 14 and 15), F. Leonhardt of Germany (Ref. 110),
V. V. Mikhailov of Russia, and T. Y. Lin of America (Ref. 11 and 111).
114 INTRODUCTION
F. V. Emperger is credited with being the first to use the concept of partial prestressing when, in
1939, he suggested that pretensioned wires be added to conventionally designed nontensioned
reinforcement to reduce the extent of cracking. This idea was further developed by Abeles who, in
1940, suggested the use of nontensioned highstrength steel together with pretensioned or
posttensioned tendons. Apart from the recommendation that solely highstrength steel be used, this
proposal also differed from Emperger’s in that a prestressing force of a definite designed magnitude
be applied. The acceptance of partial prestressing was at first retarded, perhaps by the opposition
to this concept by Freyssinet (Ref. 112), who stated (Ref. 113) “... there is no halfway house
between reinforced and prestressed concrete; any intermediate systems are equally bad as reinforced
or prestressed structures, and are of no interest.” However, partial prestressing has made enormous
progress through the efforts and contributions of many eminent engineers and researchers, and is
commonly used today.
1.7 REFERENCES
11 Lin, T. Y., and Burns, N. H., Design of Prestressed Concrete Structures, 3rd ed., John Wiley
& Sons, New York, 1981.
12 Naaman, A. E., Prestressed Concrete Analysis and Design: Fundamentals, McGrawHill Book
Company, New York, 1982.
13 Abeles, P. W., The Principles and Practice of Prestressed Concrete, Crosby Lockwood &
Son, London, 1949.
14 Abeles, P. W., An Introduction to Prestressed Concrete, Volume I, Concrete Publications Ltd.,
London, 1964.
15 Abeles, P. W., An Introduction to Prestressed Concrete, Volume II, Concrete Publications
Ltd., London, 1966.
16 Collins, M. P., and Mitchell, D., Prestressed Concrete Structures, PrenticeHall, Englewood
Cliffs, New Jersey, 1991.
17 Khachaturian, N., and Gurfinkel, G., Prestressed Concrete, McGrawHill Book Company, New
York, 1969.
18 Magnel, G., Prestressed Concrete, Concrete Publications Ltd., London, 1948.
19 Guyon, Y., Prestressed Concrete, John Wiley & Sons, New York, Vol. 1, 1953, Vol. 2, 1960.
110 Leonhardt, F., Prestressed Concrete Design and Construction, English translation, Wilhelm
Ernst und Sohn, Berlin 1964, (1st ed., 1955, 2nd ed., 1962 in German).
111 Lin, T. Y., Design of Prestressed Concrete Structures, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1955.
112 Cohn, M. Z., “Some Problems of Partial Prestressing,” Partial Prestressing, from Theory to
Practice. Volume I: Survey Reports, Edited by M. Z. Cohn, Chapter 2, NATO ASI Series,
Series E, No. 113a, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht, 1986, pp. 1563.
113 Freyssinet, E., “Prestressed Concrete, Principles and Applications,” ICE Proceedings, Vol. 33,
No. 4, February 1950, pp. 331380.
REFERENCES 115
2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Prestressed concrete combines high quality concrete and prestressed steel, as well as nonprestressed
ordinary reinforcing steel. Before considering the behaviour of the materials in combination, it is
essential that the designer is familiar with the relevant properties of each of these materials. This
topic is extensively covered in the technical literature and this chapter summarizes the most important
properties required for the design of prestressed concrete structures.
2.1 CONCRETE
The mechanical properties of concrete under uniaxial stress are considered in this Section. Although
concrete is usually subjected to a three dimensional state of stress in practical structures, the
assumption of a uniaxial stress condition can very often be justified. Where the effects of a
multiaxial state of stress are significant, these will be dealt with in the appropriate Chapters.
Concrete technology is not considered here. This topic is extensively covered in many textbooks,
e.g. Ref. 21.
2.1.1 Compressive strength
The single most important mechanical property of concrete is its compressive strength because it is
extensively used in quality control and because many other mechanical properties required for the
design of prestressed concrete structures can be expressed in terms of this property. The compressive
strength can be obtained from standard tests using either cubes or cylinders loaded to failure
(Refs. 22 to 24). The maximum load sustained during such a test, divided by the cross sectional
area of the specimen yields the compressive strength.
It is extremely important to note that the compressive strength must be determined in strict
compliance with the requirements of a standard testing procedure because the measured results
depend on the test method and also because it is primarily used as an index of strength in its
application in structural design. The standard specification generally used in South Africa is
SABS 863 (Ref. 22), according to which 150 mm cubes are loaded to failure in a calibrated testing
machine at a loading rate of approximately 15 MPa/min.
Apart from intrinsic factors, which cover the composition of the concrete, the following external
factors influence the compressive strength:
• Age of concrete: The compressive strength increases with time, provided the concrete is properly
cured. The development of strength with time is shown in Fig. 21 (Ref. 25) for a typical concrete
using ordinary Portland cement, where it may be seen that the rate at which the strength develops
reduces with time. As a percentage of the value at 28 days, the strength will generally vary
between 33 and 50%, and between 60 and 75% after 3 and 7 days, respectively (Ref. 26). The
values listed in Table 21 for the characteristic strength at various other ages are suggested by
TMH7 (Ref. 27) for use in structural design.
It is common practice to base the design of reinforced concrete structures on the 28day strength,
and to ignore any subsequent strength increase. However, in prestressed concrete, high stresses
may be induced prior to 28 days, e.g. high anchor zone stresses and high flexural stresses which
occur at transfer. For such cases, the time dependence of strength must properly be accounted
for in the design.
• Shape and size of the specimens: Standard testing procedures which use 150 mm diameter and
300 mm long cylinders are also used to determine the compressive strength (Ref. 24).
Unfortunately, the magnitude of the compressive strength obtained from cylinders differs from
CONCRETE 21
values obtained from tests on cubes. This directly stems from the fact that the measured
compressive strength is dependent on the shape of the specimen.
The cylinder strength is generally between 70 and 90% of the cube strength, and an average
value of 80% is widely accepted. Research has also shown that the ratio of cylinder strength to
cube strength tends to increase as the strength of the concrete increases (Ref. 28). This trend is
clearly demonstrated in Table 22 and Fig. 22, which show the relationship between cylinder
strength and cube strength. Note that the data shown in Fig. 22 applies to concretes with very
high strength, also referred to as high performance concrete.
The size of the specimen also has an influence on the magnitude of the measured compressive
strength as shown in Figs. 23 and 24 for cubes and cylinders, respectively. The general trend
is that larger specimens yield lower compressive strengths. It should be noted that the data
shown in Fig. 24 was obtained from cylinders with a height to diameter ratio of 2, which is the
value normally used.
Among the various reasons put forward to explain the trend that the strength of a specimen
increases as it becomes smaller, the following seems reasonable for the size of specimens
normally tested. The testing machine provides some lateral restraint to the specimen because of
30
20
10
40
0
C
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
v
e
s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
(
M
P
a
)
Age of concrete (Log scale)
1 day 7 days 28 days 3 months 1 year 5 years
Figure 21: Increase of concrete strength with time. Typical curve for concrete made with
ordinary Portland cement (Ref. 25).
Grade Characteristic
strength f
cu
(MPa)
Characteristic strength at
other ages
(MPa)
28 days 7 days 2 months 3 months 6 months 1 year
20 20.0 13.5 22.0 23.0 24.0 25.0
25 25.0 16.5 27.5 29.0 30.0 31.0
30 30.0 19.0 32.0 34.0 35.0 36.0
40 40.0 27.0 42.5 44.0 46.0 48.0
50 50.0 35.0 52.5 54.0 56.0 58.0
Table 21: Characteristic strength of concrete (ordinary Portland cement) at other ages
(Ref. 27).
22 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
friction which develops between the platen plates and the contact faces of the specimen. For
smaller specimens, the restraint will be effective over a larger portion of its total height than
will be the case for larger specimens, where its effect will be limited to the end regions. Since
the stress field induced by the restraint tends to confine the concrete and hence, increase the
strength of the concrete, smaller specimens tend to be stronger than larger specimens.
An alternative explanation for this trend, which should be mentioned, is based on the assumption
that failure is caused by the propagation of small cracks and that the largest crack is responsible
for complete failure and fracture, similar to the weakest link in a chain. Since the probability
that such a flaw, which will induce failure at a given load, is contained in a specimen can
reasonably be expected to increase with specimen size, the compressive strength of a larger
specimen tends to be smaller than that of a smaller specimen (see Ref. 21).
• Applied load rate: By increasing the loading rate beyond that prescribed by a standard test (15
MPa/min, Ref. 22), the measured compressive strength can be increased by up to 20%. On the
other hand, the compressive strength can be reduced by as much as 20% if the load is applied
over several months (Ref. 213).
The reduction of strength caused by the longterm loading is usually ignored in design because
the unconservative consequence of this assumption is more than offset by the usual design practice
according to which a design is based on the 28 day strength, which ignores the significant
timedependent strength increase.
Cylinder strength (MPa)
150 × 300 mm
12 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Cube strength (MPa)
150 mm cubes
15 25 37 50 60 70 85 95
Table 22: Relationship between cylinder and cube strengths (Ref. 29).
30 50 70 90 110 130
Cube strength (MPa) 100 mm cubes f
cu
C
y
l
i
n
d
e
r
s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
(
M
P
a
)
1
5
0
3
0
0
m
m
c
y
l
i
n
d
e
r
s
f
c
¢
´
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
Held (Ref. 210)
f f
c cu
¢ = 0.8
Smeplas (Ref. 211)
Figure 22: Influence of the specimen shape on the compressive strength (Ref. 212).
CONCRETE 23
Experience has shown that the measured compressive strengths obtained from specimens taken from
the same mix can show a significant variation, even if the specimens are made under strict laboratory
control. It is therefore not a practical approach to specify a single precise value for compressive
strength. Instead, a statistical approach is followed by most of the modern design codes of practice
(Refs. 27 and 214) whereby the strength is specified in terms of the characteristic strength f
cu
,
which is defined as the strength below which not more than 5% of the measured results may be
expected to fall. If it is assumed that the measured values of strength are normally distributed, this
definition can be expressed as follows:
(21)
f f
cu m
= 164 . s
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
110
105
100
95
90
Nominal cube size (mm)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
(
%
)
Akroyd
Harman
Neville
Figure 23: Influence of the cube size on the compressive strength (Ref. 215).
Nominal diameter of cylinder (in)
Nominal diameter of cylinder (mm)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
(
%
)
0 10 5
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 0
20 15 25 30 40 35
110
100
105
90
95
80
85
Figure 24: Influence of the cylinder size on the compressive strength (Ref. 215).
24 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
where f
cu
· characteristic compressive strength
f
m
· mean compressive strength
s = standard deviation
Note that f
m
and s are obtained from test results.
High strength concrete is usually specified for prestressed concrete because of its improved
performance, not only with regard to compressive strength but also with regard to increased tensile
strength, increased modulus of elasticity and reduced creep. Concrete strengths which range between
30 to 60 MPa are usually specified for prestressed concrete in South Africa, while strengths of up
to 70 MPa can be used in precast pretensioned applications. When specifying concrete it is important
to bear in mind the strength requirements at transfer, which can be the governing consideration.
The minimum characteristic strengths recommended by SABS 0100 (Ref. 214) for prestressed
concrete are shown in Table 23, while both SABS 0100 and TMH7 (Ref. 27) require that only
concrete with a characteristic strength of 30, 40, 50, or 60 MPa be used. When specifying the
minimum compressive strength of the concrete at transfer in the case of posttensioning, proper
information must be obtained from the supplier of the system because this value depends on the
particular system being used and can be higher than the values listed in Table 23.
2.1.2 Stressstrain relationship
The stressstrain behaviour of concrete loaded in uniaxial compression is shown in Fig. 25
(Ref. 213) together with the stressstrain curves for the constituent materials of the concrete, namely
aggregate and the hardened cement paste. A comparison of these curves reveal the following:
• The stressstrain response of the aggregate and the paste are both more or less linear up to failure,
whereas the concrete has a nonlinear response over the entire load spectrum.
• The stressstrain response of the concrete falls between that of the aggregate and that of the
cement paste.
The nonlinear response of the concrete is caused by microcracking which occurs at the
aggregatepaste interfaces (Ref. 216). These cracks are often only visible close to failure when
considerable lateral expansion occurs.
Figure 26 shows typical experimentally obtained stressstrain curves for normal weight concrete
having strengths which vary from 20 to approximately 85 MPa. Each curve is characterized by an
ascending portion followed by a descending portion.
The ascending portion is initially almost straight, becoming flatter, and hence progressively more
nonlinear, with increasing load. The slope of this portion also tends to increase with an increase in
compressive strength (this property is more expansively covered under Section 2.1.3).
At 28 days (f
cu
) At transfer
Pretensioned 40 MPa Bonded 25 MPa
Posttensioned 30 MPa Unbonded 18 MPa
Table 23: Minimum recommended characteristic strength according to SABS 0100 (Ref. 214).
CONCRETE 25
The maximum stress, which separates the ascending and descending portions of the curve, is defined
as the compressive strength. The strain corresponding to this stress is about 0.002 for normal strength
concrete, while indications are that it increases with an increase in strength, particularly in the case
of high strength concrete. The transition from the ascending portion to the descending portion
becomes sharper as the compressive strength increases, thus indicating that a more brittle behaviour
is associated with stronger concrete.
The slope of the descending portion of the stressstrain curve as well as the strain corresponding
to failure of the specimen (often referred to as the ultimate strain) both change with a change in
compressive strength, the slope becoming steeper and the ultimate strain becoming smaller with an
increase in strength. This reduction of the ultimate strain, once again, indicates that the uniaxial
compressive behaviour of concrete becomes more brittle with increasing strength. It should be noted
Coarse
aggregate
rock
Concrete
Hardened
cement
paste
S
t
r
e
s
s
f
c
Strain e
c
Cracks at interface
of aggregate
Figure 25: Uniaxial stressstrain response of concrete and its constituent materials (Ref. 213).
0
0
0
30
20
10
2
40
4
50
6
60
8
70
10
80
90
12
0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004
Strain e
c
C
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
v
e
s
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
P
a
)
f
c
(
k
s
i
)
Figure 26: Typical stressstrain curves for normal weight concrete in uniaxial compression (Ref.
217).
26 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
that it is very difficult to experimentally determine the descending portion of the stressstrain curve
because the failure mode of a compressive specimen is brittle. Consequently, special experimental
techniques need to be resorted to for determining this portion of the curve.
The influence of load rate on the compressive stressstrain behaviour of concrete is shown in
Fig. 27 (Ref. 218), which reveals the following trends for a decrease in load rate:
• the strength decreases (see Section 2.1.1),
• the slope of the ascending portion is decreased, and
• the descending portion becomes flatter.
It is important to note that the stressstrain curve for concrete in uniaxial compression differs from
that in flexure because the stress distribution in the specimens are different. This aspect is covered
in Chapter 4.
2.1.3 Modulus of elasticity
A material is defined as being elastic when the deformations induced by an applied load is completely
recovered immediately after the load is removed. In the case of a linear elastic material, the
relationship between the applied stress and the resulting strain can be expressed as follows:
f = E e (22)
where f · applied stress
e = resulting strain
E · modulus of elasticity (Young’s modulus) of the material
Inspection of Fig. 26 clearly shows that the stressstrain relationship for concrete is nonlinear over
the complete load spectrum. However, the initial portion of the ascending branch may be seen to
be approximately linear. This feature makes it possible to approximate concrete as a linear elastic
0.001 0
0
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007
Concrete strain e
c
R
a
t
i
o
o
f
c
o
n
c
r
e
t
e
s
t
r
e
s
s
t
o
c
y
l
i
n
d
e
r
s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
/
f
f
c
c
¢
Cylinder strength
= 20.7 MPa (3000 psi)
at 56 days
f
c
¢
Strain rate
0.001 per 100 days
0.001 per day
0.001 per hr.
0.001 per min.
Figure 27: Influence of the loading rate on the stressstrain curve (Ref. 218).
CONCRETE 27
material at service load levels, because the magnitude of the induced stress generally falls within
this quasilinear range of the stressstrain curve.
The modulus of elasticity of concrete can be defined in various ways because linear elasticity is an
approximation of the actual nonlinear behaviour in this range. Three possible definitions are
presented in Fig. 28:
• The initial tangent modulus E
ci
is defined as the slope of the tangent to the stressstrain curve
at its origin, and is often used as a parameter for the mathematical description of the stressstrain
curve.
• The slope of a tangent at an arbitrary point P is defined as the tangent modulus E
ct
at that point.
• The secant modulus E
c
is defined as the slope of a straight line drawn from the origin of the
stressstrain curve to a specified point P on the curve.
The secant modulus is commonly used in prestressed concrete design, whereas the initial tangent
modulus and the tangent modulus are not commonly used in daytoday design.
The modulus of elasticity of concrete must be determined in strict accordance with standard testing
procedures which have been developed for this purpose. These procedures include both static
methods (Ref. 219) and dynamic methods (Ref. 220). The testing procedure prescribed by BS 1881:
Part 121 (Ref. 219) requires that the static modulus be determined from tests on standard 150 mm
diameter by 300 mm high cylinders loaded at a rate of 0.6 ± 0.4 MPa/min. This test defines the
static modulus as the secant modulus corresponding to a stress equal to a third of the strength.
Dynamic methods for determining the modulus of elasticity have been developed in recent years.
In these methods the magnitude of the stresses induced by the dynamically applied loads are very
small so that the dynamic modulus is often taken as an approximation of the initial tangent modulus.
The effects of any creep are also negligible in these tests because loads are rapidly applied and
released. SABS 0100 (Ref. 214) suggests that the following expression can be used to obtain an
estimate of the static secant modulus E
c
from the dynamic modulus E
cq
to within 5 GPa:
E
c
· 1.25E
cq
− 19 GPa
(23)
Strain ε
c
S
t
r
e
s
s
f
c
P
1
1
1
E
ct
E
c
E
ci
= Initial tangent modulus
= Secant modulus
= Tangent modulus at point P E
ct
E
c
E
ci
Figure 28: Definitions of the modulus of elasticity of concrete.
28 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
The type of aggregate used for the concrete appears to be the most important factor influencing the
modulus of elasticity. Other factors which can also have an influence are mix proportions, shape of
the aggregate, age of the concrete and moisture condition.
For a given aggregate type, the modulus of elasticity increases with an increase in compressive
strength. This finding, together with the fact that the compressive strength is often the only property
of the concrete available at the design stage, has led to many attempts being made to correlate the
modulus of elasticity with the compressive strength. This approach has often been questioned and
recent research (Refs. 221 and 222) has shown that no single expression can be used to relate the
modulus of elasticity to the compressive strength only. The relationships between the modulus of
elasticity and the compressive strength for various South African aggregates shown in Fig. 29 (Ref.
222) clearly illustrate this point, because they show that, for a given strength, the modulus of
elasticity varies widely depending on the aggregate type used.
The values for the static modulus of elasticity recommended by SABS 0100 (Ref. 214) for concrete
using normaldensity aggregates are given in Table 24. SABS 0100 also suggests that the following
expression may be used to estimate the magnitude of the static modulus from the 28day cube
strength:
(24)
where E
c
= static secant modulus of elasticity
K
o
= a constant closely related to the modulus of elasticity of the aggregate
f
cu
= characteristic cube strength at 28 days, in MPa
When the properties of the aggregate are unknown, SABS 0100 suggests that K
o
can be taken as
20 GPa for normal weight concrete. In the case of lowdensity aggregate concrete, with a density
of between 1400 to 2300 kg/m
3
, the values in Table 24 should be multiplied by (r/2300)
2
, where
r is the density of the concrete in kg/m
3
.
E K f
c o cu
= +0 2 . GPa
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
20 30 40 50 60 65
Dolomite
(Olifantsfontein)
Dolerite
(Ngagane) (Newcastle)
Andesite (Eikenhof) (Jhb)
Greywacke
(Malmesbury shale) (Peninsula)
Wits Quartzite (Vlakfontein)
Granite (Jukskei) (Midrand)
Siltstone
(Leach & Brown)
(Ladysmith)
Cube strength (MPa)
S
t
a
t
i
c
e
l
a
s
t
i
c
m
o
d
u
l
u
s
(
G
P
a
)
Figure 29: Relationship between static modulus of elasticity and compressive strength for ages
from three days to 28 days (Ref. 222).
CONCRETE 29
The recommended values for the static modulus E
c
given in Table 24 are the same as those given
by TMH7 (Ref. 27). References 222 to 224 recommend that more accurate estimates of E
c
can
be obtained from E
c
= K
o
+ a f
cu
, where K
o
and a are coefficients depending on the aggregate type.
These references list values of K
o
and a for a fairly wide range of South African aggregates.
SABS 0100 (Ref. 214) recommends the following expression for estimating modulus of elasticity
at any time t ≥ 3 days:
E
c, t
· E
c, 28
¸
0.4  0.6
f
cu, t
f
cu, 28
(
(
¸
(25)
where E
c, t
· modulus of elasticity at time t
E
c, 28
· modulus of elasticity at 28 days, obtained from Table 24
f
cu, t
· characteristic strength at time t
f
cu, 28
· characteristic strength at 28 days
t · time in days, ≥ 3 days
The ratio f
cu, t
/ f
cu, 28
can be estimated from Table 21.
It should be kept in mind that the expressions given above yield results which, at best, must be
viewed as being approximate. It is therefore recommended that the modulus of elasticity should be
determined from tests on concrete specimens made from the actual aggregates to be used in cases
where structural deformations are important. Where such tests are not feasible, a reasonable approach
to be followed in design would be to consider a range of values (as given in Table 24) which
would bracket the expected deformations.
It is generally assumed that the modulus of elasticity in tension before cracking is the same as in
compression. However, it should be pointed out that some researchers question the validity of this
assumption.
2.1.4 Tensile strength
The stressstrain diagram given in Figure 210 (Ref. 225) was obtained from a direct tensile test,
and shows that the response is almost linear up to cracking. This diagram also shows that the tensile
strength of concrete is considerably smaller than its compressive strength.
Characteristic
cube strength,
f
cu
(MPa)
Static modulus E
c
(GPa)
Dynamic modulus E
cq
(GPa)
Mean value Typical range Mean value Typical range
20 25 21  29 35 31  39
25 26 22  30 36 32  40
30 28 23  33 38 33  43
40 31 26  36 40 35  45
50 34 28  40 42 36  48
60 36 30  42 44 38  50
Table 24: Modulus of elasticity of concrete (Ref. 214).
210 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Standard testing procedures from which the tensile strength may be indirectly measured have been
developed because of the practical difficulties associated with the direct tensile test. Two methods
are commonly used: The split cylinder test and the modulus of rupture test.
The split cylinder test, also known as the indirect tension test, is described in BS 1881: Part 117
(Ref. 226). According to this test a 150 mm diameter cylinder, 300 mm long, is loaded across a
diameter until failure occurs (see Fig. 211). If it is assumed that the cylinder behaves as an elastic
body, the resulting horizontal stress across the vertical diameter will be found to be uniformly
distributed over most of the depth of the cylinder, as shown in Fig. 211. The magnitude of this
stress at splitting is defined as the splitting tensile strength f
ct
, and is given by:
(26)
where P = the measured compression force at splitting
L = length of cylinder (300 mm)
D = diameter of cylinder (150 mm)
The modulus of rupture test is described by SABS Method 864 (Ref. 227) (also BS 1881: Part 118
(Ref. 228)) and consists of loading a simply supported beam of square cross section to failure. The
dimensions of the beam cross section are 100 × 100 mm (or 150 × 150 mm) while the span length
f
P
L D
ct
=
2
p
0
0 0.01 0.02
C
o
n
c
r
e
t
e
s
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
P
a
)
f
c
Elongation (mm) D
e ´
cr
= 0.12 10
3
0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07
1
2
3
4
Specimen:
76 19 305 mm
= 43.9 MPa
max. aggregate size = 10 mm
water cured 28 days
´ ´
¢ f
c
13 mm
notch
D
8
3
m
m
g
a
u
g
e
76 mm
Figure 210: Stressstrain response of concrete in uniaxial tension (Ref. 225).
P
P
L
D
f
ct
f
ct
Figure 211: Split cylinder (indirect tension) test.
CONCRETE 211
is 300 mm (or 450 mm). The load is applied at the thirdspan points (see Fig. 212). The flexural
tensile stress in the bottom fibre of the section at failure, calculated on the basis of ordinary beam
theory, is defined as the modulus of rupture f
r
and is given by:
f
r
·
P L
b h
2
(27)
where P · the measured load at failure
b · width of the section (100 or 150 mm)
h · height of the section (100 or 150 mm)
L · span (300 or 450 mm)
The modulus of rupture will overestimate the actual flexural tensile strength of concrete and should
be viewed as a hypothetical strength to be used as a comparative measure for practical purposes
only.
Figure 213 (Ref. 229) shows typical relationships between the various measures of tensile strength
and the compressive strength. From this figure it may be seen that the tensile strength can be related
to the compressive strength and that the modulus of rupture is approximately 1.65 times the splitting
tensile strength.
P / 2
L / 3 L / 3 L / 3
P / 2
b
h
L h = 3
f
r
Figure 212: Modulus of rupture test.
2
4
6
8
0
0 10 20 30
Compressive strength (MPa) f
cu
T
e
n
s
i
l
e
s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
(
M
P
a
)
40 50 60 70
Modulus
of rupture f
r
Split cylinder f
ct
Direct tension
Figure 213: Relationships between tensile and compressive strengths of concrete (Ref. 229).
212 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
SABS 0100 (Ref. 214) and TMH7 (Ref. 27) do not give explicit characteristic values for the
splitting tensile strength nor the modulus of rupture. Where these properties are required for design
they are included as allowable stresses. The ACI code (Ref. 230) suggests the following relationship
between modulus of rupture f
r
and cylinder strength:
f
r
· 0.63√f
c
′ MPa
(28)
where f
c
′ · Cylinder strength in MPa
Naaman (Ref. 28) gives the following expression for the splitting tensile strength f
ct
:
f
ct
· 0.5 √f
c
′ MPa
(29)
It is important to note that, because the splitting tensile strength and the modulus of rupture differ
not only from each other but also from the direct tensile strength, these quantities represent different
measures of tensile strength. As such, care should be exercised to ensure that they are properly used
in design. Equations 28 and 29 should also be used with care because it appears that there is no
simple relationship between tensile and compressive strength, the reason being that factors such as
watercement ratio, curing conditions, age, mix proportions and properties of the aggregate do not
affect these properties to the same degree (see Ref. 21).
2.1.5 Timedependent behaviour
Definitions
When concrete is subjected to a sustained stress, the resulting strain can be divided into the following
three components:
• Instantaneous elastic strain: When the stress is applied to the concrete it causes an instantaneous
elastic strain, which can be expressed as follows (see Section 2.1.3):
ε
c
·
f
c
E
c
(210)
where f
c
· applied stress
ε
c
· instantaneous elastic strain
E
c
· Young’s modulus of the concrete
• Shrinkage strain: In the absence of temperature variations, shrinkage is defined as that part of
the timedependent strain which is independent of stress. Shrinkage therefore corresponds to the
timedependent strain which occurs in the absence of stress.
• Creep strain: Creep is defined as the component of the timedependent strain which is dependent
on the applied stress. Although this definition has been used for many years, it is important to
point out that, strictly speaking, it is not correct because it implies that creep and shrinkage are
independent phenomena which are additive when they occur simultaneously (Ref. 231). It is
well known that creep and shrinkage are not independent, the effect of shrinkage on creep being
to increase its magnitude. In order to use the mass of experimental data obtained on the basis
of the assumption that creep and shrinkage are independent, Neville (Ref. 231) suggests that
creep should be defined as the timedependent strain which takes place in excess of shrinkage.
The consequence of this definition is that the total creep must be considered as consisting of
two components:
 Basic creep, which is the component of creep which occurs under conditions where there is
no moisture exchange with the ambient medium.
CONCRETE 213
Shrinkage
from t
0
Shrinkage of an
unloaded specimen
Shrinkage
Nominal elastic
strain
Nominal elastic
strain
Nominal elastic
strain
True elastic strain
Creep on the basis of
additive definition
Drying creep
Creep
Basic creep
t
0
t
0
t
0
t
0
1
1
1
2
3
3
Total
creep
2
Age t
Time ( ) t t 
0
Time ( ) t t 
0
Time ( ) t t 
0
S
t
r
a
i
n
S
t
r
a
i
n
S
t
r
a
i
n
S
t
r
a
i
n
(a) Shrinkage of an unloaded companion specimen
(b) Change in strain of a loaded and drying specimen
(c) Creep of a loaded specimen in hygral equilibrium with the ambient medium
(d) Change in strain of a loaded and drying specimen
Figure 214: Definition of timedependent deformations of concrete (Ref. 231).
214 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
 Drying creep, which is the component of creep influenced by the drying process.
These definitions are illustrated in Fig. 214, in which the various components of strain are shown
for a concrete specimen subjected to a sustained lowlevel compressive stress (i.e. less than 40% of
its shortterm compressive strength). It should be noted that the elastic strain of the concrete reduces
with time because the elastic modulus increases with age. Strictly speaking, creep should be
determined on the basis of the elastic strain at the time under consideration and not the time at
which the load is applied. Although both methods can be used, the change in elastic strain is not
accounted for under normal circumstances because the difference is usually small and because this
approach is more convenient for structural analysis.
Factors which Influence Creep and Shrinkage
Creep and shrinkage of concrete can be ascribed to the movement of water within the crystalline
structure of the cement paste and loss of water to the surrounding environment by evaporation. The
factors which influence creep and shrinkage can be grouped into two broad categories: Intrinsic
factors, which deal with the actual composition of the concrete as well as the influence of stress,
and extrinsic factors, which account for the state of the environment to which the concrete is exposed.
A partial list of these factors includes (Ref. 232):
• Watercement ratio: Both creep and shrinkage are increased by an increase in the watercement
ratio, partially because the evaporable water is increased, and because of more and larger capillary
pores.
• Aggregate: Since the seat of creep and shrinkage is to be found in the cement paste, the aggregate
tends to restrain the deformation of the paste induced by creep and shrinkage. Hence, an increase
in the aggregatecement ratio will lead to lower values of creep and shrinkage. Aggregates which
have higher values for the modulus of elasticity can offer greater restraint to potential creep and
shrinkage of the paste and therefore tend to yield concrete which creeps and shrinks less. The
use of more porous aggregates leads to increased creep and shrinkage, possibly because an
increase of porosity can facilitate moisture transfer within the concrete. However, it should be
noted that aggregates with higher porosity tend to have a lower modulus of elasticity.
• Cement type: The influence of the type of cement on creep appears to be related in part to its
effect on the rate of strength development which, in turn, depends on the composition and fineness
of grinding (Ref. 21). The magnitude of the creep of concrete made with the following cements
occurs in an increasing order: highaluminium, rapidhardening, ordinary Portland, Portland
blastfurnace, lowheat and Portlandpozzolana.
Reference 21 suggests that the type of cement affects shrinkage mainly through variations in
C
3
A content, and that fineness of grinding has a negligible effect on shrinkage, except when the
cement is extremely fine or extremely coarse. It appears that concretes containing Portland blast
furnace cement (PBFC) and rapidhardening Portland cement generally tend to shrink more than
concrete containing ordinary Portland cement.
• Admixtures: The effect of admixtures on creep and shrinkage appears to be highly variable,
depending on the specific admixture and cement used, as well as a number of other factors which
include exposure conditions, age at loading and time under load (Ref. 21). It is important to
note that the use of certain admixtures can significantly increase the creep and shrinkage of
concrete.
• Member size and shape: The volume to exposed surface ratio of a member can be used as a
general parameter for describing the influence of the size and shape of the member on creep and
shrinkage. A larger value of this ratio represents a thicker (larger) member which has a longer
diffusion path for moisture loss. Consequently, creep and shrinkage reduce with an increase in
the volume to surface ratio, i.e. as the member becomes larger, with creep approaching the value
of basic creep for very large members. As far as creep is concerned, it is most probably only
drying creep which is affected by a variation of the size and shape of the member because basic
creep remains unaffected by loss of moisture from the concrete and, as such, is independent of
CONCRETE 215
the size and shape of the member. Evidently shrinkage is affected to a greater extent than creep
by the size and shape of the member.
• Magnitude of the applied stress: Creep strains are approximately proportional to the magnitude
of the applied sustained stress for values less than 50% of the cube strength. For most practical
structures, creep may therefore be considered to be linearly related to stress within the service
load range.
• Age of loading: The age of the concrete when it is loaded has an important influence on the
magnitude of creep, the effect being to increase creep with earlier ages at loading. The manner
in which the age at loading influences creep seems to be related to the manner in which it affects
the development of strength and the degree of hydration. For these reasons, creep has been found
to correlate well with maturity.
• Temperature: Creep is apparently not a monotonic function of temperature and passes a maximum
in the vicinity of 50°C. Beyond this point creep reduces with temperature up to about 120°C
after which it, once again, increases with temperature (Ref. 21). It also appears that the creep
of specimens heated just prior to loading is more significantly influenced by temperature than
that of specimens cured at the test temperature, because of improved hydration in the latter case.
Tests by England and Ross (Ref. 233) indicated that the effect of temperature on creep is greater
in the range of 2060°C than in the range 100140°C. Shrinkage is also increased at higher
temperatures during drying.
• Relative humidity: Both creep and shrinkage are increased with a decrease of the ambient relative
humidity. It appears that it is not the relative humidity which is the influencing factor with regard
to creep, but rather the process of drying while under load. This is confirmed by the fact that
the effect of relative humidity is much smaller if the concrete has already reached hygral
equilibrium before loading and, furthermore, that creep is strongly dependent on relative humidity
when the concrete is allowed to dry while under load. At 100% relative humidity the concrete
absorbs water and swells slightly (as opposed to shrinking).
Creep: behaviour and prediction
The development of creep with time is shown in Fig. 215, which shows that most of the creep
develops within a fairly short time period after the application of the load. SABS 0100 (Ref. 214)
suggests that, under conditions of constant relative humidity, 40, 60 and 80% of the final creep
develops during the first month, the first 6 months and the first 30 months under load, respectively.
It should be noted that the final creep is defined by SABS 0100 as the creep strain after 30 years.
Evidently creep continues for a very long time, and even at ages of the order of 30 years small,
but measurable, creep rates have been reported (Ref. 234).
Instantaneous
recovery
Creep recovery
Residual
deformation
Strain on application
of load
Creep
Time since application of load (days)
Specimen under constant load Load removed
S
t
r
a
i
n
(
1
0
)

6
500
0
0 50 100 150 200
1000
1500
Figure 215: Creep and creep recovery of concrete (Ref. 231).
216 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Removal of the sustained stress is accompanied by an instantaneous strain recovery in the concrete,
which is normally smaller than the instantaneous elastic strain associated with the application of the
stress. As shown in Fig. 215, the instantaneous recovery is followed by a timedependent recovery
of strain, termed creep recovery, which tends to a finite value. The magnitude of the creep recovery
is usually smaller than that of the creep at the time of removal of the stress. An exception occurs
if the concrete is old when the stress is applied, in which case the creep recovery can have the same
magnitude as the creep.
Linear creep theory can be applied to most practical structures within the service load range. This
theory leads to the conclusion that creep strain is linearly related to the instantaneous elastic strain
under constant sustained stress and under constant environmental conditions. Using this approach,
the creep strain is given by
(211)
where e
cr
(t) = creep strain, as a function of time t
e
c
= instantaneous elastic strain, given by Equation (210)
f(t) = creep coefficient, as a function of time t
t = time, measured from the time at which the sustained stress is applied t
0
For most practical cases, the longtime value of f(t) can vary between 1.5 and 3.5. The 30 year
creep coefficient f
30
can be obtained from Fig. 216, which is taken from SABS 0100 (Ref. 214).
This figure gives f
30
as a function of the ambient relative humidity, the age at loading and the
effective thickness of the section which, for the purposes of Fig. 216, is defined as twice the
crosssectional area of the member divided by the exposed perimeter. More comprehensive
procedures for determining f(t), which explicitly include a greater number of factors that influence
creep, are given in Ref. 27 and Refs. 235 through 237.
e f e
cr c
t t ( ) ( ) =
20 30
150 300
A
i
r
c
o
n
d
i
t
i
o
n
e
d
a
r
e
a
(
o
f
f
i
c
e
s
)
C
o
a
s
t
a
l
a
r
e
a
I
n
l
a
n
d
3.0
3.0
4.0
3.5
2.0
2.0
2.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
600
40 50 60
Ambient relative humidity (%)*
70 80 90 100
* Relevant values for outdoor exposure may be determined through
the Weather Bureau, Department of Environmental Affairs
30 Year creep
coefficient for an
effective section
thickness (mm) of
Age of loading
(days)
1
3
7
28
90
365
Figure 216: Effects of relative humidity, age of concrete at loading and section thickness on the
creep coefficient (Ref. 214).
CONCRETE 217
Equation 211 expresses the creep strain as a linear function of the instantaneous elastic strain which,
in turn, is dependent on the magnitude of the modulus of elasticity E
c
of the concrete (see Eq. 210).
It is therefore clear that f(t) is implicitly defined in terms of E
c
. Because some of the procedures
for estimating f(t) base the calculation of the instantaneous elastic strain on the magnitude of E
c
at
the time at which the concrete is loaded (Refs. 214 and 237) while others base it on the magnitude
at 28 days (Refs. 235 and 236), great care should be exercised to determine exactly which value
of E
c
should be used. This observation also emphasizes the fact that different procedures should
never be combined to estimate creep strains.
The creep strain is often expressed in terms of specific creep (defined as the creep strain per unit
stress) as follows:
(212)
where C (t) · specific creep, as a function of time t
f
c
· sustained concrete stress
The specific creep can be expressed in terms of the creep coefficient by equating Equations (211)
and (212), and using Eq. (210). Thus
so that
(213)
Shrinkage: behaviour and prediction
The development of shrinkage with time is shown in Fig. 217 where it may be seen that, as in the
case of creep, the rate of shrinkage reduces with time, and that a measurable rate can still be obtained
after 20 years. The rate at which shrinkage develops depends on the conditions of drying: Most of
the shrinkage can take place within a period of 3 months under adverse drying conditions, while
the concrete may not shrink at all if it always remains wet. It is reported in Ref. 234 that for
concrete stored in air at 50% relative humidity and at 21°C (70°F) there are indications that creep
and shrinkage develop at similar rates. For the purpose of estimating prestressing losses, SABS 0100
(Ref. 214) suggests that 50% and 75% of the total shrinkage takes place within the first month and
within the first six months after the transfer of prestress, respectively. Note that the total shrinkage,
referred to by SABS 0100 above, excludes the shrinkage which takes place before transfer. Although
the time period associated with the total shrinkage is usually illdefined, it appears reasonable to
take it as the design life of the structure.
For the types of concrete generally used for prestressed concrete, the magnitude of the shrinkage
strain will normally vary between 0.0002 and 0.0006. Figure 218 gives the shrinkage strain after
6 months and after 30 years as function of the ambient relative humidity and the effective section
thickness (defined as for creep, see Fig. 216), as recommended by SABS 0100. These values apply
to concrete with an original water content of 190 l/m
3
. If the concrete has a water content which
differs from this value, but which lies within the range 150 to 230 l/m
3
, then the shrinkage obtained
from Fig. 218 must be adjusted in proportion to the water content.
More comprehensive procedures for determining the shrinkage strain are presented in Ref. 27 and
Refs. 235 through 237. These procedures explicitly include a greater number of factors which
influence shrinkage.
e
cr c
t C t f ( ) ( ) =
C t f t
t f
E
c c
c
c
( ) ( )
( )
= = f e
f
C t
t
E
c
( )
( )
=
f
218 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
1200
800
400
10 28 90
100%
70%
50%
1
Time (log scale)
Days
Years
S
h
r
i
n
k
a
g
e
1
0
´
6
2 5 10 20 30
 400
0
Relative humidity:
Time reckoned since end of wet curing
at the age of 28 days
Figure 217: Development of shrinkage with time for concretes stored at different relative
humidities (Ref. 21).
20
0 0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
0
12.5
25.0
37.5
50.0
62.5
75.0
87.5
100
200
175
150
125
100
75
50
25
300
600 600
30 Year shrinkage 10
for an effective
section thickness
(mm) of
´
6
6 Month shrinkage 10
for an effective
section thickness
(mm) of
´
6
300 300 150 150
250
200
150
100
50
0
–200
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
–200
350
400
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
–200 –100 –100 –100
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Ambient relative humidity (%)
I
n
l
a
n
d
C
o
a
s
t
a
l
a
r
e
a
A
i
r
c
o
n
d
i
t
i
o
n
e
d
a
r
e
a
(
o
f
f
i
c
e
s
)
Shrinkage
Swelling
Figure 218: Drying shrinkage for normal density concrete (Ref. 214).
CONCRETE 219
2.1.6 Thermal properties of concrete
As is the case for most materials, concrete will expand when heated and shrink when cooled. The
strain in unconfined concrete induced by a change in temperature is expressed as follows:
(214)
where e
cth
= strain in concrete induced by a change in temperature
a
c
= coefficient of thermal expansion
∆ T · change in temperature
The coefficient of thermal expansion for concrete a
c
is strongly dependent on the aggregate type
and can vary from 7.5 to 11.5 × 10
− 6
/ °C for South African aggregates (Ref. 222). SABS 0100
(Ref. 214) recommends an average value of 10 × 10
− 6
/°C.
At temperatures in excess of 300°C, the strength of concrete can be significantly reduced, while
indications are that the stiffness can be reduced at temperatures as low as 100°C (Ref. 213). There
is some evidence that E
c
at 400°C can be as low as onethird the value at 20°C. However, it is
important to note that the effect of temperature on the mechanical properties of concrete is strongly
dependent on the aggregate type.
2.1.7 Poisson’s ratio
When concrete is uniaxially loaded, strains develop both in the direction of the applied load and in
a direction perpendicular to it. Poisson’s ratio is defined as the ratio of the perpendicular strain to
the strain in the direction of the load. For concrete in compression, Poisson’s ratio ranges between
0.15 and 0.2 (Ref. 28). SABS 0100 (Ref. 214) and TMH7 (Ref. 27) recommend a value of 0.2
for design.
2.1.8 Fatigue
In prestressed concrete members failure of the concrete in fatigue is not very common because the
stress range and number of load cycles to which such members are subjected to in practice are
normally less than that which causes failure. It appears that, in direct compression, concrete can
sustain about ten million cycles of load which fluctuate between 0 and 50% of its static compressive
strength (Ref. 28).
2.2 STEEL REINFORCEMENT
In most applications, prestressed concrete members will contain nonprestressed reinforcement in
addition to the prestressed reinforcement. The nonprestressed reinforcement is normally included
as shear reinforcement, as supplementary reinforcement for crack control and, particularly in the
case of partially prestressed concrete, to satisfy strength requirements. Hence, the following types
of reinforcement may be found in a prestressed concrete member:
• nonprestressed reinforcement, which consists of hotrolled mild steel bars, hotrolled high yield
stress bars, coldworked high yield stress bars or welded steel fabric.
• prestressed reinforcement, which consists of high strength wires, strand or alloy bars.
The properties of the various types of reinforcement mentioned above are described in the following
Sections. It should be noted that the material properties to be used for design can be determined
from tests on axially loaded specimens because the steel reinforcement in prestressed concrete
members is usually subjected to an almost uniaxial state of stress.
e a
cth c
T = D
220 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
2.2.1 Nonprestressed reinforcement
Typical stressstrain curves for hotrolled mild steel and hotrolled high yield steel reinforcing bars
tested in tension are presented in Fig. 219a. For the sake of clarity, Fig. 219b shows the initial
portion of these stressstrain curves with the strain axis enlarged.
The characteristics of the stressstrain behaviour are subsequently discussed with reference to the
curve for mild steel bars. Initially the response is linearly elastic up to point a, beyond which a
yield plateau develops. There is little or no increase in stress for a corresponding increase in strain
on the yield plateau, which is bounded by the onset of a region of strain hardening at point c. The
strain hardening region is characterized by an increase in stress with an increase in strain until a
maximum value of stress is reached at point d. Any subsequent increase in strain beyond this point
is accompanied by a stress reduction until fracture finally occurs at point f.
The slope of the initial linear elastic portion gives the modulus of elasticity, which generally varies
between 200 and 210 GPa. The stress at which yielding occurs is referred to as the yield stress and
is an important property of steel reinforcement. A sudden reduction of stress, from point a to point
b, often occurs immediately after first yielding. In such a case point a is referred to as the upper
yield point and point b as the lower yield point. The upper yield point is strongly dependent on the
speed of testing, the section shape and form of the specimen and is usually of little interest. Hence,
the lower yield point is taken as the yield strength of the material. The yield plateau for mild steel
extends to a strain approximately equal to 10 times the strain at first yield. The maximum stress
sustained by the specimen at point d is referred to as the ultimate stress.
A comparison of the stressstrain curve for the hotrolled high yield bars with the curve for the
mild steel bars (see Fig. 219) reveals that, apart from the obvious difference of having higher yield
and ultimate strengths, the behaviour of the high yield bars is significantly less ductile than that of
the mild steel bars. This feature is characterized by the smaller extent of the yield plateau as well
as the smaller elongation at fracture.
Typical stressstrain curves for coldworked and hotrolled high yield reinforcing bars are shown in
Fig. 220. It should be noted that these curves were taken from Ref. 239 and apply to Dutch steel
with a specified yield stress of 400 MPa. This figure clearly shows that the stressstrain behaviour
of coldworked reinforcement does not exhibit a definite yield point as in the case of hotrolled
bars, but rather shows a gradual transition from linear elastic to nonlinear behaviour. Because of
0.10 0.010 0 0 0.20 0.020
100 100
200 200
300 300
400 400
500 500
0 0
0.30 0.030
a
a a
a
b
b
b
c
c
c
c
d
d
f
f
Strain e
s
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
P
a
)
f
s
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
P
a
)
f
s
Strain e
s
Mild steel bars
Mild steel bars
Hotrolled high yield stress bars
Hotrolled
high yield stress bars
(a) (b)
Figure 219: Stressstrain curve for normal reinforcing bars (Ref. 238).
STEEL REINFORCEMENT 221
this feature, the yield stress for coldworked reinforcement must be defined. This is generally done
in one of two ways, as shown in Fig. 221:
• The yield stress f
y1
can be defined as the stress corresponding to a specified strain ε
y1
under load.
• The yield stress f
y2
can also be defined as the stress corresponding to a specified plastic strain
ε
offset
. This method is referred to as the offset strain method and the yield stress so determined
is known as the proof stress.
Another important feature of the stressstrain response of coldworked reinforcement is that it is
significantly less ductile than that of hotrolled reinforcement, as revealed by the reduced elongation
at fracture (see Fig. 220).
In South Africa, the nominal sizes in which reinforcing bars can be supplied are listed in Table 25.
Other geometric properties as well as the mass of the bars are also presented herein. The
reinforcement must also conform to the requirements of SABS 920 (Ref. 240), of which the required
tensile properties are summarized in Table 26. The strength of the reinforcing bars is specified in
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16
FeB 400HK
(coldworked)
FeB 400HWL (hotrolled)
Strain e
s
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
P
a
)
f
s
Figure 220: Stressstrain curve for coldworked and hotrolled reinforcing bars (Ref. 239).
Stress f
s
f
y2
f
y1
Strain e
s
e
y1
e
offset
E
s
E
s
1 1
Figure 221: Definitions of yieldstrength for gradual yielding steel.
222 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
terms of the characteristic strength, which is defined as the value of the yield stress or the proof
stress, as appropriate, below which not more than 5% of the measured results may be expected to
fall (Ref. 240). The reasons for following this approach corresponds to those given for concrete
strength (see Section 2.1.1). It should be noted that SABS 920 (Ref. 240) does not explicitly specify
the offset strain which defines the proof stress. However, an offset strain of 0.2% seems appropriate.
The stressstrain curve recommended by SABS 0100 (Ref. 214) for use in design is presented in
Fig. 222 and the following aspects should be noted:
• The recommended design value for the modulus of elasticity is 200 GPa.
• The actual stressstrain behaviour is approximated by a bilinear relationship which ignores strain
hardening. In most cases this approximation will lead to a conservative result in reinforced
concrete and partially prestressed concrete members. However, in cases where large strains can
occur in the steel, ignoring the effect of strain hardening may change the intended failure mode
to one which is undesirable. Consider, for example, the case of a beam in which large strains
develop in the flexural reinforcement at failure: In such a case the effects of strain hardening
Diameter
(mm)
Area
(mm
2
)
Perimeter
(mm)
Mass
(kg/m)
6 28.27 18.85 0.222
8 50.27 25.13 0.395
10 78.54 31.42 0.617
12 113.1 37.70 0.888
16 201.1 50.27 1.578
20 314.2 62.83 2.466
25 490.9 78.53 3.853
32 804.2 100.5 6.313
40 1256.6 125.7 9.865
Table 25 : Nominal geometric properties of normal reinforcing bars (Refs. 240 and 241).
Type of steel Identifying
symbol
(Refs. 242
and 243)
Characteristic
strength
f
y
(MPa)
Minimum
ultimate
tensile strength
(MPa)
Minimum
elongation
at fracture*
(%)
Min. Max.
Hot rol l ed mi l d
steel
R 250 400 15% greater
than the
measured yield
stress or 0.2%
proof stress, as
appropriate
22
Hotrolled high
yield steel and
c o l d  w o r k e d
highyield steel
Y 450 – 14
* Measured on a gauge length of 5.65 √S
o
, where S
o
is the original equivalent crosssectional area.
Table 26: Tensile properties of reinforcement to SABS 920 (Ref. 240).
STEEL REINFORCEMENT 223
can increase the flexural capacity to such an extent that the accompanying increase in shear force
may lead to an undesirable brittle shear failure in the actual structure, rather than the intended
ductile flexural failure.
• A maximum strain at fracture is not given.
• Although it is commonly accepted that the stressstrain response of steel in compression is similar
to that in tension, the design curve indicates a smaller yield strength in compression than in
tension. Evidently the reason for this is that the restraint offered by the concrete to buckling of
the reinforcing bar is significantly reduced under conditions of yielding in compression.
• The design curve includes a partial safety factor for material strength g
m
. This aspect is discussed
in Section 4.4.1.
Steel reinforcement is normally detailed in compliance with the recommendations of SABS 82
(Ref. 242) and SABS 0144 (Ref. 243).
Welded steel fabric, which consists of a grid of colddrawn steel wire placed at right angles and
welded at the intersections, can often be used advantageously because of improved crack control
and a reduction in fixing time. Wires can either be smooth or deformed, and standard dimensions
are listed in Table 27 (Ref. 244). If required for a particular design, fabric can be supplied with
a pitch and wire diameter different from the standard sizes.
Welded steel fabric used in South Africa must conform to the requirements of SABS 1024
(Ref. 244) according to which the minimum required tensile properties are as follows:
• The yield stress measured at 0.43% total elongation under load should be at least 485 MPa.
• The tensile strength should be at least 510 MPa.
• In addition, the tensile strength must be at least 5 % greater than the yield stress, or the elongation
at fracture must be at least 12 % measured on a gauge length of , where S
o
is the initial
crosssectional area.
It is interesting to note that the test specimen must contain at least one welded intersection within
its length. The reason for this most probably follows from the fact that the wire fabric is not
stressrelieved, which can lead to the occurrence of a failure near welded intersections at relatively
small strains (Refs. 213 and 239). This fact must be kept in mind if significant ductility is a
primary design requirement.
565 . S
o
E
s
= 200 GPa
E
s
Tension
Actual
Compression
1
1
f
y
g
m
ε
y
=
f
y
g
m s
E
ε
yc
=
f
yc
E
s
f
yc
=
f
y
g
m y
+ / 2000 f
Stress f
s
Strain e
s
f
y
= Characteristic yield strength
(in MPa)
Figure 222: Design shortterm stressstrain relationship for nonprestressed reinforcement
(Ref. 214).
224 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Standard diameters and pitch of welded steel fabric commonly available in South Africa are given
in Table 27. Fabric with a pitch other than that specified in the Table is also available on request.
2.2.2 Prestressed reinforcement
The material almost universally used for prestressing is high tensile strength steel, and an obvious
approach to producing this material is by alloying. The tensile strength of the steel can be further
increased by colddrawing, usually followed by a stressrelieving process.
Prestressing tendons take the form of either wires, strand or bars:
• Wires are typically manufactured by colddrawing hightensile steel bars through successive dies
to obtain the required strength characteristics. Subsequent mechanical processes can be used to
indent or crimp the wire. Finally, the wire is stressrelieved by a suitable heat treatment, carried
out either in the absence or presence of an applied tension.
Fabric
reference
number
Nominal pitch
of wires
(mm)
Nominal diameter
of wires
(mm)
Nominal cross
sectional area
of wires
(mm
2
/m of width)
Nominal
mass per
unit area
(kg/m
2
)*
Longitu
dinal
Cross Longitu
dinal
Cross Longitu
dinal
Cross
617 200 200 10.0 10.0 393 393 6.17
500 200 200 9.0 9.0 318 318 5.00
395 200 200 8.0 8.0 251 251 3.95
311 200 200 7.1 7.1 197 197 3.11
245 200 200 6.3 6.3 156 156 2.45
193 200 200 5.6 5.6 123 123 1.93
100 200 200 4.0 4.0 63 63 1.00
772 100 200 10.0 7.1 786 197 7.72
655 100 200 9.0 7.1 636 197 6.55
517 100 200 8.0 6.3 503 156 5.17
433 100 200 7.1 6.3 396 156 4.33
341 100 200 6.3 5.6 312 123 3.41
289 100 200 5.6 5.6 246 123 2.89
278 100 300 6.3 4.0 312 42 2.78
226 100 300 5.6 4.0 246 42 2.26
133 100 300 4.0 4.0 126 42 1.33
* For information only. These values are based on the wires having a mass of 0.00785 kg/mm
2
per metre length.
Table 27: Standard dimensions of welded steel fabric (Refs. 243 and 244).
STEEL REINFORCEMENT 225
• In the manufacturing process of 7wire strand, six similar peripheral wires are spun over a central
wire which has a slightly larger diameter. The complete process is summarized in Fig. 223 where
it may be seen that there are two possibilities with regard to stressrelieving, as in the case of
the manufacture of wire. The impact of the stressrelieving process on the properties of the steel
are discussed later in this Section. In South Africa three types of 7wire strand are commonly
produced: standard, super and drawn. The tensile strength of super strand is higher than that of
standard strand, while the mechanical properties of drawn strand are enhanced by an additional
drawing process.
• Prestressing bars are generally manufactured from alloy steel heat treated to obtain the required
properties, and can be supplied either as smooth bars or as bars with a ribbed surface which
serves as a continuous screw thread.
Typical stressstrain curves for prestressing wire, strand and bar are given in Fig. 224 together with
a typical curve for a hotrolled high yield reinforcing bar. The following observations can be made
from this figure:
• Prestressing steel has a much higher tensile strength than the reinforcing bar. This is accompanied
by a significant reduction in the elongation at fracture.
• The stressstrain response of prestressing steel does not show a definite yield point, so that the
yield strength must be defined in terms of either a proof stress or a stress corresponding to a
total strain under load, as for coldworked reinforcing bars (see Section 2.2.1). However, it should
be noted that some high strength prestressing bars may have a short, but detectable, yield plateau.
• The stressstrain curve for prestressing steel can conveniently be divided into three portions: an
initial linear elastic portion, followed by a region containing a fairly sharp nonlinear transition
to the final almost linear strainhardening portion, which is bounded by fracture.
Significant residual stresses arise in wire and strand because of the various mechanical processes
involved in their manufacture. The presence of these residual stresses leads to a very rounded
stressstrain curve as shown in Fig. 225. Stressrelieving has the effect of removing the residual
stresses and also of increasing the proportional limit of the steel. By carrying out stressrelieving
under tension (strain tempering), the proportional limit is increased even more. It is very important
to note that strain tempering has the additional benefit of substantially reducing the relaxation loss
even more than with ordinary stressrelieving.
Although the modulus of elasticity of steel is independent of strength, the values for prestressing
steels can vary slightly depending on the form of the steel:
• Wires generally have the highest value.
• The modulus of elasticity for strand will be lower than for wire because they consist of spun
wire.
• Prestressing bars usually have a lower modulus than wire because of alloying.
Although typical values for the modulus of elasticity to be used for design are presented later in
this Section, care should be taken because their magnitude can be influenced by the manufacturing
process, and data supplied by the manufacturer should be used when available.
In South Africa, prestressing wire and strand must conform to the requirements of BS 5896 (Ref.
245) while prestressing bars must conform to those of BS 4486 (Ref. 246). The dimensions and
required minimum tensile properties of the standard prestressing wires, strand and bars, as given by
these specifications, are listed in Tables 28 to 211. It should be noted that the characteristic loads
listed in these tables are defined as the value of the appropriate load below which not more than
5% of the measured results may be expected to fall.
226 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Cold drawing:
Pull through
successively smaller
dies to increase
strength
Stranding:
Spin 6 helical wires
around a straight
central wire
Patenting:
Heat to about
800°C (1470 °F) then
cool slowly to make
homogeneous
Base material:
Round, plain,
hotrolled,
nonalloyed,
high carbon steel rod
Stress relieving: Heat to about
350°C and cool slowly
STRESSRELIEVED STRAND
Strain tempering: Heat to about
350°C while strand is under tension
LOW RELAXATION STRAND
Figure 223: Production of sevenwire strand (Ref. 213).
STEEL REINFORCEMENT 227
2000
1500
1000
500
0.05 0.10 0.15 0
0
Stress relieved wire (1620 MPa)
High strength prestressing bars (1103 MPa)
Hotrolled high yield reinforcing bars (450 MPa)
Assuming same elastic modulus
Prestressing Strand (1860 MPa)
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
P
a
)
f
p
Strain e
p
Figure 224: Stressstrain curves for prestressed reinforcement (Ref. 28).
Strain e
p
S
t
r
e
s
s
f
p
Stress relieved
Untreated
Strain tempered
(Low relaxation)
Figure 225: Stressrelieving and strain tempering of prestressing wire (Ref. 213).
228 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Nominal
diameter
Nominal
tensile
strength
Nominal
0.1%
proof
stress
Nominal
cross
section
Nominal
mass
Specified
charac
teristic
breaking
load
Specified
charac
teristic
0.1%
proof load
Load at
1%
elongation
(mm) (MPa) (MPa) (mm
2
) (g/m) (kN) (kN) (kN)
7 1570 1300 38.5 302 60.4 50.1 51.3
7 1670 1390 64.3 53.4 54.7
6 1670 1390 28.3 222 47.3 39.3 40.2
6 1770 1470 50.1 41.6 42.6
5 1670 1390 19.6 154 32.7 27.2 21.8
5 1770 1470 34.7 28.8 29.5
4.5 1620 1350 15.9 125 25.8 21.4 21.9
4 1670 1390 12.6 98.9 21.0 17.5 17.9
4 1770 1470 22.3 18.5 19.0
Note: Minimum elongation at maximum load must be 3.5% measured on a gauge length of 200 mm
Table 28: Dimensions and properties of colddrawn wire to BS 5896 (Ref. 245).
Nominal di
ameter
Nominal
tensile
strength
Nominal
cross
section
Nominal
mass
Specified
characteristic
breaking
load
Specified
characteristic
load at 1%
elongation
(mm) (MPa) (mm
2
) (g/m) (kN) (kN)
5 1570 19.6 154 30.8 24.6
5 1670 32.7 26.2
5 1770 34.7 27.8
4.5 1620 15.9 125 25.8 20.6
4 1670 12.6 98.9 21.0 16.8
4 1720 21.7 17.4
4 1770 22.3 17.8
3 1770 7.07 55.5 12.5 10.0
3 1860 13.1 10.5
Table 29: Dimensions and properties of colddrawn wire in mill coil to BS 5896 (Ref. 245).
STEEL REINFORCEMENT 229
Type of
strand
Nominal
diameter
Nominal
tensile
strength
Nominal
steel
area
Nominal
mass
Specified
charac
teristic
breaking
load
Specified
charac
teristic
0.1%
proof load
Load at
1%
elongation
(mm) (MPa) (mm
2
) (g/m) (kN) (kN) (kN)
7wire
Standard
15.2 1670 139 1090 232 197 204
12.5 1770 93 730 164 139 144
11.0 1770 71 557 125 106 110
9.3 1770 52 408 92 78 81
7wire
Super
15.7 1770 150 1180 265 225 233
12.9 1860 100 785 186 158 163
11.3 1860 75 590 139 118 122
9.6 1860 55 432 102 87 90
8.0 1860 38 298 70 59 61
7wire
Drawn
18.0 1700 223 1750 380 323 334
15.2 1820 165 1295 300 255 264
12.7 1860 112 890 209 178 184
Note: Minimum elongation at maximum load must be 3.5% measured on a gauge length ≥ 500 mm
Table 210: Dimensions and properties of sevenwire strand to BS 5896 (Ref. 245).
Type of
bar
Nominal
size
Nominal
tensile
strength
Nominal
0.1%
proof
stress
Nominal
cross
sectional
area
Nominal
mass
Specified properties
Charac
teristic
breaking
load
Charac
teristic
0.1%
proof
load
Min.
elonga
tion at
fracture*
(mm) (MPa) (MPa) (mm
2
) (kg/m) (kN) (kN) (%)
Hot
rolled or
hot
rolled
and proc
essed
26.5 1030 835 522 4.33 568 460 6
32 804 6.31 830 670
36 1018 7.99 1048 850
40 1257 9.86 1300 1050
* Measured on a gauge length of 5.65 √S
o
, where S
o
is the original crosssectional area.
Table 211: Dimensions and properties of hotrolled and hotrolled and processed high tensile
alloy steel bars to BS 4486 (Ref. 246).
230 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Wire and strand which satisfy the requirements of ASTM Specification A421 (Ref. 247) and ASTM
Specification A416 (Ref. 248), respectively, are also produced in South Africa.
The design stressstrain diagram for prestressing steel acting in tension, as recommended by SABS
0100 (Ref. 214), approximates the actual behaviour by the trilinear curve shown in Fig. 226. It
should further be noted that a maximum strain at fracture is not given and that the design curve
includes a partial safety factor for material strength g
m
. This partial safety factor is discussed in
Section 4.4.1.
SABS 0100 suggests the following design values for the modulus of elasticity of prestressing
tendons:
E
p
· 205 GPa for high tensile steel wire (wire to Section 2 of BS 5896: 1980)
· 195 GPa for 7wire strand (strand to Section 3 of BS 5896: 1980)
· 165 GPa for high tensile alloy bars.
It is important to note that the recommended value of 165 GPa for the modulus of elasticity of high
tensile alloy bars most probably only applies to asrolled and stretched bars conforming to BS 4486
(Ref. 246). In the case of asrolled and asrolled stretched and tempered bars, the value of 205
GPa recommended by BS 4486 seems more appropriate. However, it is strongly recommended that,
whenever possible, values supplied by the manufacturer should be used because the magnitude of
the modulus of elasticity can be significantly influenced by the manufacturing process.
2.2.3 Relaxation of prestressing steel
The timedependent loss of tensioning force required for maintaining a constant strain in a highly
stressed steel tendon is defined as relaxation. Creep, which is defined as the timedependent change
in strain under constant stress may be considered as another consequence, under different conditions,
of the same phenomenon described by relaxation. Although the strain in a prestressing tendon
continually changes with time because of shrinkage and creep of the concrete, it is generally
acknowledged that these conditions approach those to be found in a relaxation test rather than in a
creep test.
As discussed in Section 2.2.2, the relaxation properties of prestressing steel is significantly
influenced by the particular stressrelieving process used. The ordinary stressrelieving process,
E
p
E
p
1 1
0.8 / f
pu m
g
f
pu m
/ g
Stress f
p
Strain e
p
0.005
f
pu
= Characteristic strength
Figure 226: Design stressstrain relationship for prestressed reinforcement acting in tension
(Ref. 214).
STEEL REINFORCEMENT 231
which involves a heat treatment only, yields normal relaxation steel while straintempering, which
involves heat treatment under tension, yields low relaxation steel.
Relaxation appears to be primarily influenced by the ratio of initial stress to yield stress, the type
of steel, temperature and time. Magura, Sozen and Siess (Ref. 249) proposed the following
expression for predicting the stress in stressrelieved wire and strand at any time:
f
s
(t)
f
si
· 1 −
log t
10
¸
¸
f
si
f
y
− 0.55
¸
(
,
(215)
where f
s
(t) · steel stress at time t
f
si
· initial steel stress immediately after tensioning
f
y
· yield stress of the steel, measured at an offset strain of 0.001
log t · logarithm of time to the base 10
t · time after tensioning, in hours
The above equation is based on data obtained from 501 relaxation tests on stressrelieved wire. It
has been suggested that this expression can also be applied to lowrelaxation strand and prestressing
bars if the denominator 10 under the log t term is replaced by 45 (see Refs. 28, 213 and 250).
Typical relaxation curves are shown in Fig. 227 for normal relaxation and low relaxation South
African prestressing strand.
Both Fig. 227 and Eq. 215 clearly show that a large part of the relaxation loss occurs within a
relatively short time period after application of the load and that relaxation proceeds with time, but
at a decreasing rate. It is also evident that the relaxation loss of low relaxation steel is significantly
smaller than that of normal relaxation steel, it being generally accepted that the relaxation loss of
low relaxation steel is 20 to 25% that of normal relaxation steel.
The effect of initial stress on the relaxation loss after 1000 hours is shown in Fig. 228 for low
relaxation strand tested at various temperatures. The figure clearly demonstrates that the relaxation
loss is increased if the initial stress is increased. This trend is confirmed by Eq. 215, which predicts
zero relaxation loss for values of the initial stress smaller than or equal to 55 percent of the yield
1 10 100 1000 10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
Hours (log scale)
1 year 10 years 50 years 6 months
%
S
t
r
e
s
s
r
e
l
a
x
a
t
i
o
n
(
l
o
g
s
c
a
l
e
)
0.1
1
10
100
Normal relaxation
Low relaxation
Test temperature: 20°C
Initial load: 70% of nominal breaking load
Figure 227: Relaxation of prestressing strand (courtesy Haggie Rand Ltd.).
232 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
stress. It is generally accepted that relaxation losses are insignificant for initial stresses smaller than
50 percent of the yield stress.
The magnitude of relaxation is strongly influenced by the temperature of the steel, the effect being
that it is increased by an increase in temperature. This trend is demonstrated in Fig. 229 which
gives relaxation curves for normal relaxation and low relaxation strand tested at various temperatures.
Care should therefore be taken to make proper allowance for the increased relaxation which will
occur in cases where the prestressing tendons are subjected to temperatures significantly higher than
20°C for extended periods of time.
50 60
20°C
40°C
60°C
80°C
70 80 90
Initial Load (as % of nominal breaking load)
%
S
t
r
e
s
s
r
e
l
a
x
a
t
i
o
n
(
l
o
g
s
c
a
l
e
)
0.1
1
10
100
1000 Hour tests
Low relaxation strand
Test temperature:
Figure 228: Effect of initial stress on relaxation of low relaxation prestressing strand at various
temperatures (courtesy Haggie Rand Ltd.).
1 10 100 1000 10 000
Hours (log scale)
%
S
t
r
e
s
s
r
e
l
a
x
a
t
i
o
n
(
l
o
g
s
c
a
l
e
)
0.1
1
10
100
1000 Hour tests
Initial load: 70% of nominal breaking load
20°C
20°C
40°C
40°C
60°C
60°C
80°C
80°C
100°C
100°C
Test temperature:
Low relaxation
Normal relaxation
Figure 229: Effect of temperature on the relaxation of strand (courtesy Haggie Rand Ltd.).
STEEL REINFORCEMENT 233
In practice, the relaxation loss is usually experimentally determined after 1000 hours at 20°C and
multipliers are subsequently used to estimate the longterm values required for design. The maximum
relaxation loss after 1000 hours for various prestressing tendons as specified by BS 5896 and BS
4486 (Refs. 245 and 246), are listed in Table 212.
It is important to note that a prestressing tendon in a prestressed concrete member will not be
subjected to a constant strain because the member, and hence the tendon, will shorten as a result
of the effects of creep and shrinkage of the concrete. This has the effect of reducing the initial
stress level of the tendon, so that the relaxation loss in an actual member is less than the loss which
would be obtained in a relaxation test where a constant strain is maintained in the steel for the
duration of the test. This effect must be accounted for in design and must therefore be reflected in
the magnitude of the multipliers used for estimating longterm relaxation losses from experimental
data obtained from relaxation tests at 1000 hours.
SABS 0100 (Ref. 214) recommends that the relaxation loss to be allowed for in design should be
taken as twice the loss at 1000 hours for an initial force taken equal to the tendon force at transfer.
In the absence of experimental data, SABS 0100 suggests that the relaxation loss for normal
relaxation strand or wire may be assumed to vary linearly from 10% for an initial stress of 80% of
the characteristic strength of the tendon to 3% for an initial stress of 50% of the characteristic
strength. If the creep plus shrinkage strain of the concrete is greater than 500 × 10
6
then the loss
for an initial stress of 80% of the characteristic strength should be taken as 8.5%. The relaxation
loss for low relaxation strand may be taken as half the above values. Although TMH7 (Ref. 27)
also requires that the relaxation loss to be allowed for in design should be estimated from the loss
at 1000 hours for an initial force taken equal to the tendon force at transfer, no guidance is given
on how this is to be done.
It is of some interest to note that the multiplying factors specified by BS 8110 (Ref. 251) for
estimating the longterm relaxation loss from the 1000 hour test value account for the reinforcement
type (wire and strand, or bar), the relaxation properties of the steel (normal or low relaxation) and
the prestressing procedure (pre or posttensioning). This code explicitly states that the recommended
multiplying factors account for the effects of creep and shrinkage of the concrete and, in the case
of pretensioning, the effects of elastic shortening of the concrete at transfer. It also carefully defines
the initial force for posttensioning as the prestressing force immediately after transfer and for
pretensioning as the force immediately after tensioning.
Initial load
as % of
breaking
load
Maximum relaxation after 1000 hours
Colddrawn wire 7Wire strand Colddrawn
wire in
mill coil
High tensile
alloy
steel bars
Normal
relaxation
Low
relaxation
Normal
relaxation
Low
relaxation
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
60 4.5 1.0 4.5 1.0 8 1.5
70 8.0 2.5 8.0 2.5 10 3.5
80 12 4.5 12 4.5 – 6.0
Table 212: Maximum specified relaxation at 1000 hours, BS 5896 (Ref. 245) and BS 4486 (Ref.
246).
234 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
2.2.4 Fatigue characteristics of reinforcement
When steel is subjected to a fluctuating stress its mechanical properties will deteriorate, depending
on the minimum and maximum values of the fluctuating stress, by a process known as fatigue. The
resistance of reinforcement to fatigue is often defined in terms of a SN curve, in which the stress
range S is plotted as a function of the corresponding number of load cycles N required to cause
failure. Figure 230 shows several experimentally obtained SN curves for deformed reinforcing bars
(Ref. 213). Inspection of this figure will reveal that the numbers of cycles which the reinforcing
bars can sustain without failure increases as the stress range is decreased until a limiting value of
the stress range is reached, below which it can be assumed that the bars can sustain an indefinite
number of cycles of load. This region is characterized by the almost horizontal portion of the SN
curve which, for the reinforcing bars considered here, commences after about one to two million
cycles. The stress range corresponding to the horizontal portion of the SN curve is known as the
fatigue limit or the endurance limit.
TMH7 (Ref. 27) recommends that the stress range should be limited to 250 MPa for mild steel
reinforcing bars, and to 300 MPa for highyield strength bars. These values apply to a maximum of
2 ´ 10
5
cycles of load, while the stress range should be limited to 60% of these values for 2 ´ 10
6
cycles. The CEBFIP code (Ref. 236) limits the characteristic fatigue strength to 250 MPa for
smooth bars, and to 150 MPa for deformed bars. In this code, the characteristic fatigue strength is
defined as the stress range which nine reinforcing bars out of ten can resist for 2 ´ 10
6
cycles if
the maximum stress is 70% of the yield strength.
The various types of prestressing steel do not appear to have a fatigue limit (Ref. 28). A single
SN curve cannot show the effect of the magnitude of the minimum stress on fatigue failure. Instead,
a modified Goodman diagram, which represents the relationship between the maximum and minimum
cyclic stress at a particular number of cycles corresponding to failure, can be used for this purpose.
For design, it is common to consider a minimum of 2 ´ 10
6
cycles, while a maximum of 10 ´ 10
6
can be considered in exceptional cases. A typical modified Goodman diagram corresponding to
2 ´ 10
6
cycles is given in Fig. 231 for prestressing wires and strand (Ref. 28). This figure shows
that for the minimum stress normally encountered in prestressed members (50% to 60% of the
ultimate tensile strength) a stress range of approximately 13% of the ultimate tensile strength can
be resisted for 2 ´ 10
6
cycles. This stress range is substantially larger than that encountered in
uncracked fully prestressed members, with the result that fatigue is not normally critical for design
in this case. It should, however, be noted that the stress range in cracked partially prestressed
500
400
300
200
100
0
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
10
8
S
t
r
e
s
s
r
a
n
g
e
(
M
P
a
)
S
Cycles to failure N
Figure 230: SN curves for deformed reinforcing bars (Ref. 213).
STEEL REINFORCEMENT 235
members can be significantly larger than in fully prestressed members so that fatigue can become
an important design consideration in such cases.
TMH7 (Ref. 27) recommends the following maximum values for the stress range in prestressing
tendons in partially prestressed members, provided that the minimum stress does not exceed 50%
of the ultimate tensile strength:
• Tendons, not deformed 200 MPa
• Tendons, deformed 150 MPa
• Strand 200 MPa
• Highstrength bars 200 MPa
These values apply to a maximum of 2 × 10
5
cycles of load, while 60% of these values should be
used for 2 × 10
6
cycles.
The FIP Recommendations (Ref. 252) suggest that the characteristic fatigue strength of wires and
strand may be taken as 200 MPa, and that it may be taken as 80 MPa for highstrength bars. This
document defines the characteristic fatigue strength of prestressing steel as the stress range which
can be resisted for 2 × 10
6
cycles, with a probability of failure of 0.01, if the maximum stress is
85% of the yield strength.
It is important to note that although there is ample experimental evidence of the fatigue life of
tendons in beams being shorter than that of similar tendons tested in air, the recommendations related
to fatigue strength made by the majority of the codes of practice are based on data obtained from
tendons tested in air. A designer is therefore well advised to exercise caution and to take a
conservative approach when considering fatigue.
0
0 0.5 1.0
0.5
1.0
Minimum stress ( ) / Strength f f
ps min pu
M
a
x
i
m
u
m
s
t
r
e
s
s
(
)
/
S
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
f
f
p
s
m
a
x
p
u
Stress
range
Maximum
stress limit
Minimum
stress limit
2 10 cycles ´
6
Usual stress
range for
prestressed
concrete
Figure 231: Typical Goodman diagram for prestressing wires and strand (Ref. 28).
236 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
2.2.5 Thermal properties of reinforcement
The strain induced by a change in temperature in unconfined steel reinforcement can be expressed
as follows:
(216)
where e
sth
= strain in steel induced by a change in temperature
a
s
= coefficient of thermal expansion
DT = change in temperature
Evidently, the actual value of the coefficient of expansion for steel is about 11.5 ´ 10
6
/°C
(Ref. 213). However, a value of 10 ´ 10
6
/°C is usually taken for design, which is equal to the
value taken for concrete (see Section 2.1.6).
Although the mechanical properties of the reinforcement are not significantly affected by normal
variations of the ambient temperature, they can be significantly affected by extreme temperature
conditions. If the temperature is increased beyond a value of approximately 200°C both the stiffness
and strength will be substantially reduced. More specifically, the tensile strength of wire or strand
at 400°C is about 50% of its value at room temperature (Ref. 213). Reducing the temperature
produces opposite effects, with stiffness and strength being increased. However, these improvements
are accompanied by a reduction in ductility. If the temperature is reduced from 20°C to 200°C
the yield and tensile strengths will be increased by about 20% (Ref. 28).
2.3 REFERENCES
21 Portland Cement Institute, Fulton’s Concrete Technology, 7th ed., Edited by B. J. Addis, PCI,
Midrand, South Africa, 1994.
22 South African Bureau of Standards, “Compressive Strength of Concrete (Including Making
and Curing of the Test Cubes),” SABS Method 863, SABS, Pretoria, 1976.
23 British Standards Institution, “Method for Determination of Compressive Strength of Concrete
Cubes,” BS 1881: Part 116: 1983, BSI, London, 1983.
24 American Society for Testing Materials, “Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of
Cylindrical Concrete Specimens,” ASTM C 3986, ASTM, Philadelphia, 1986.
25 Mosley, W. H., and Bungey, J. H., Reinforced Concrete Design, 4th ed., MacMillan Education
Ltd., London, 1990.
26 Portland Cement Institute, Cement and Concrete, 9th ed., PCI, Midrand, South Africa, 1992.
27 Committee of State Road Authorities, “Code of Practice for the Design of Highway Bridges
and Culverts in South Africa,” TMH7 Part 3, CSRA, Pretoria, 1989.
28 Naaman, A. E., Prestressed Concrete Analysis and Design: Fundamentals, McGrawHill Book
Company, New York, 1982.
29 CEBFIP, “Model Code for Concrete Structures,” First Draft, Bulletin d’Information No.195,
Comité EuroInternational du Béton  Fédération Internationale de la Précontrainte, Paris,
March, 1990.
210 Held, M., “Research Results Concerning the Properties of High Strength Concrete,” Darmstadt
Concrete, Vol. 5, Technishe Hochschule Darmstadt, Alexanderstrasse 5 Darmstadt, Germany,
1990.
211 Smeplass, L., “High Strength Concrete,” SP4  Material Design, Report 4.4, Mechanical
properties  normal density concrete, STF65 F89020  FCBSINTEF 7034, Trondheim, Norway.
e a
sth s
T = D
REFERENCES 237
212 FIPCEB, High Strength Concrete  State of the Art Report, Fédération Internationale de la
Précontrainte  Comité EuroInternational du Béton Bulletin d’Information No. 197, Chame
leon Press, London, 1990.
213 Collins, M. P., and Mitchell, D., Prestressed Concrete Structures, PrenticeHall, Englewood
Cliffs, New Jersey, 1991.
214 South African Bureau of Standards, “The Structural Use of Concrete,” SABS 0100: 1992,
Parts 1 and 2, SABS, Pretoria, 1992.
215 Neville, A. M., “Some Aspects of the Strength of Concrete,” Civil Engineering and Public
Works Review, Vol. 54, Part 2, No. 640, Nov. 1959, pp. 13081310.
216 Carrasquillo, R. L., Slate F. O., and Nilson A. H., “Micro Cracking and Behaviour of High
Strength Concrete Subject to Shortterm Loads,” ACI Journal, Vol. 78, No. 3, MayJune 1981,
pp. 179186.
217 Nilson, A. H., “High Strength Concrete  An Overview of Cornell Research,” Proceedings of
the Symposium “Utilization of High Strength Concrete”, Stavanger, Norway, June 1987, Tapir,
Trondheim, 1987, pp. 2738.
218 Rüsch, H., “Researches Toward a General Flexural Theory for Structural Concrete,” ACI
Journal, Vol. 57, No. 1, July 1960, pp. 128.
219 British Standards Institution, “Methods for Determination of Static Modulus of Elasticity in
Compression,” BS 1881: Part 121: 1983, BSI, London, 1983.
220 British Standards Institution, “Recommendations for the Measurement of Dynamic Modulus
of Elasticity,” BS 1881: Part 209: 1990, BSI, London, 1990.
221 Alexander, M. G., “Prediction of Elastic Modulus for Design of Concrete Structures,” The
Civil Engineer in South Africa, Vol. 27, No. 6, June 1985, pp. 313324.
222 Alexander, M. G., and Davis, D. E., “The Influence of Aggregates on the Compressive Strength
and Elastic Modulus of Concrete,” The Civil Engineer in South Africa, Vol. 34, No. 5,
May 1992, pp. 161170.
223 Alexander, M. G., and Davis, D. E., Properties of Aggregates in Concrete, Part 1, Hippo
Quarries Technical Publication, 1989.
224 Alexander, M. G., and Davis, D. E., Properties of Aggregates in Concrete, Part 2, Hippo
Quarries Technical Publication, 1992.
225 Gopalaratnam, V. S., and Shah, S. P., “Softening Response of Plain Concrete in Direct
Tension,” ACI Journal, Vol. 82, No. 3, MayJune, 1985, pp. 310323.
226 British Standards Institution, “Method for Determination of Tensile Splitting Strength,”
BS 1881: Part 117: 1983, BSI, London, 1983.
227 South African Bureau of Standards, “Flexural Strength of Concrete (Including Making and
Curing of the Test Specimens),” SABS Method 864, SABS, Pretoria, 1980.
228 British Standards Institution, “Method for Determination of Flexural Strength,” BS 1881:
Part 118: 1983, BSI, London, 1983.
229 Illston, J. M., Construction Materials: Their nature and behaviour, Second ed., Edited by
J. M. Illston, E & FN Spon, London, 1994.
230 ACI Committee 318, “Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 31889) and
Commentary  ACI 318 R89, ” American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1989.
231 Neville, A. M., Dilger, W. H., and Brooks, J. J., Creep of Plain and Structural Concrete,
Construction Press, London, 1983.
232 Marshall, V., and Gamble, W. L., “TimeDependent Deformations in Segmental Prestressed
Concrete Bridges,” Structural Research Series No. 495, Civil Engineering Studies, University
of Illinois, Urbana, October 1981.
238 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
233 England, G. L., and Ross, A. D., “Reinforced Concrete under Thermal Gradients,” Magazine
of Concrete Research, Vol. 14, No. 40, March 1962, pp. 212.
234 Troxell G. D., Raphael J. M., and Davis R. E., “Long Time Creep and Shrinkage Tests of
Plain and Reinforced Concrete,” Proc. ASTM, Vol. 58, 1958, pp. 11011120.
235 CEBFIP, “International Recommendations for the Design and Construction of Concrete
Structures  Principles and Recommendations,” Comité European du Béton  Fédération
Internationale de la Précontrainte, FIP Sixth Congress, Prague, June 1970; published by
Cement and Concrete Association, London, 1970.
236 CEBFIP, “Model Code for Concrete Structures,” Comité EuroInternational du Béton 
Fédération Internationale de la Précontrainte, Paris, 1978.
237 ACI Committee 209, “Prediction of Creep, Shrinkage, and Temperature Effects in Concrete
Structures,” ACI Report 209R82 (Reapproved 1986), ACI, in ACI Manual of Concrete
Practice, Part 1.
238 Case, J., and Chilver A. H., Strength of Materials and Structures, 2nd ed., Edward Arnold
Publishers Ltd., 1971.
239 Bruggeling, A. S. G., Structural Concrete: Theory and its Application, A. A. Balkema,
Rotterdam, 1991.
240 South African Bureau of Standards, “Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement,” SABS 920:
1985, SABS, Pretoria, 1985.
241 ISCOR Ltd., Data Sheet: Availability and Properties, Reinforcing Steel Bars. ISCOR Ltd.,
Pretoria, 1993.
242 South African Bureau of Standards, “Bending Dimensions of Bars for Concrete Reinforce
ment,” SABS 82:1976, SABS, Pretoria, 1976.
243 South African Bureau of Standards, “Detailing of Steel Reinforcement for Concrete,” SABS
0144: 1978, SABS, Pretoria, 1978.
244 South African Bureau of Standards, “Welded Steel Fabric for Reinforcement of Concrete,”
SABS 1024: 1991, SABS, Pretoria, 1991.
245 British Standards Institution, “Specification for High Tensile Steel Wire and Strand for the
Prestressing of Concrete,” BS 5896:1980, BSI, London, 1980.
246 British Standards Institution, “Specification for Hot Rolled and Hot Rolled and Processed
High Tensile Alloy Steel Bars for the Prestressing of Concrete,” BS 4486:1980, BSI, London,
1980.
247 American Society for Testing and Materials, “Standard Specification for Uncoated StressRe
lieved Steel Wire for Prestressed Concrete,” ASTM A42180, ASTM, Philadelphia, 1980.
248 American Society for Testing and Materials, “Specification for Uncoated 7wire StressRe
lieved Steel Strand for Prestressed Concrete,” ASTM A41685, ASTM, Philadelphia, 1985.
249 Magura D. D., Sozen M. A., and Siess C. P., “A Study of Stress Relaxation in Prestressing
Reinforcement,” PCI Journal, Vol. 9, No. 2, April 1964, pp. 1357.
250 OHBDC, “Ontario Highway Bridge Design Code,” 2nd ed., Ontario Ministry of Transportation
and Communications, Toronto, 1983.
251 British Standards Institution, “Structural Use of Concrete, Part 1, Code of Practice for Design
and Construction,” BS 8110: Part 1: 1985, BSI, London, 1985.
252 FIP Commission on Practical Design, FIP RecommendationsPractical Design of Reinforced
and Prestressed Concrete Structures, Thomas Telford Ltd., London, 1984.
REFERENCES 239
3 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES
3.1 INTRODUCTION
A designer must be familiar with the technology and techniques associated with prestressed concrete
not only to ensure that the design requirements are properly satisfied, but also to ensure that members
are detailed to satisfy the practical requirements associated with the construction of such members.
The importance of the latter consideration is emphasised by the fact that, in the interests of
competitive tendering, it is common practice in South Africa to dimension members in such a way
that several prestressing systems can be accommodated.
Almost all the commonly used prestressing systems involve the tensioning of highstrength steel
tendons and can be classified either as being pretensioning or posttensioning systems. In
pretensioning systems the tendons are tensioned before the concrete is placed, while in posttension
ing systems the tendons are tensioned after the concrete has been placed and has developed sufficient
strength to sustain the induced loads. By the nature of the procedure, pretensioned elements are
always precast and the method usually requires a substantial capital investment in prestressing
equipment and stressing beds. Posttensioned elements can either be precast or cast in situ, and the
prestressing operation requires much less equipment and facilities than is the case for pretensioning.
Structures and structural elements which cannot feasibly be prefabricated in a precasting yard and
transported to site, such as shells, building slabs, large building frames, large bridge decks and
continuous bridge decks, can only be prestressed by posttensioning.
The purpose of this Chapter is to give a brief description of the types of prestressing systems most
commonly used, including some detail regarding procedure. Because of the large number of systems
available, it is not feasible to present specific details of each system here. Complete details may be
obtained from suppliers. The descriptions are limited to linear prestressing systems commonly used
because linear systems for special applications, circular prestressing systems, electrical prestressing
and chemical prestressing fall beyond the scope of the work covered herein. References 31 to 33
may be consulted for information on these specialized prestressing systems and procedures.
3.2 PRETENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES
3.2.1 Basic principle and procedure
The basic principle of pretensioning involves the tensioning of the tendons to a predetermined level,
after which the concrete is placed (see Fig. 31a). The resulting elongation of the tendons is
maintained at a constant level while the concrete hardens. After the concrete has developed sufficient
strength the tendons are released and, because they are now bonded to the concrete, their shortening
is resisted by the concrete. In this way the concrete is prestressed by the action of bond when the
tendons are released (see Fig. 31b).
It is important to ensure that the elongation of the tendons is maintained at a constant level while
the concrete is allowed to harden, and this can be achieved by each of the following two methods
(Refs. 31, 32 and 34):
• Pretensioning with individual moulds: According to this method the tendons are anchored directly
to the individual steel moulds in which the concrete is cast. In this case, the moulds must be
designed and constructed to withstand the additional forces induced by the tendons.
• Pretensioning on stressing beds: When pretensioning on a stressing bed, the tendons are tensioned
between and subsequently anchored to the rigid vertical steel anchor columns, called uprights,
placed at each end of the bed (see Fig. 31a). In this manner the tension is maintained in the
INTRODUCTION 31
tendons while the concrete is placed and cured. The stressing bed also serves as a casting and
curing bed.
With the exception of railway sleeper production, pretensioning with individual moulds is not
commonly used (Refs. 31, 32 and 34). An apparent advantage of this method is that, in the case
of small products, the individual moulds can be can be moved through the plant on a mass production
line instead of having to move the materials and the process to the moulds, as is the case when
stressing beds are used (Refs. 31 and 32). Because of its limited use, this method is not discussed
here in any further detail.
Pretensioning on stressing beds is by far the most common method used today, and a typical
arrangement is shown in Fig. 31a. This method, often referred to as the longline or Hoyer method,
lends itself to efficient mass production because a number of similar elements can be manufactured
in a single tensioning operation if the bed is made long enough. The length of stressing beds varies
between 25 m and 200 m, and long beds can be provided with removable intermediate uprights (see
Fig. 31a) so that shorter tendons can also be tensioned (Refs. 32 and 35).
Tendons are tensioned by means of hydraulic jacks, and can either be stressed individually or
simultaneously from one end of the stressing bed. Special jacks with a ram stroke of at least 750
to 1200 mm must be used if the strands are to be tensioned in a onestep operation (Ref. 31). After
being tensioned, wires and strand are usually anchored by means of frictional splitcone wedges.
Efficient quickrelease grips are also available for this purpose (see Fig. 32).
Tendons can be released individually or simultaneously. Tendons are released individually either by
flame cutting, sawing or by hydraulic cutters, and a strict cutting sequence which minimises eccentric
loading on the concrete, must be adhered to when carrying out this operation. It is also important
to avoid the situation where too many tendons are cut at a single location because this can result
in the failure of the remaining tendons at that location. Tendons must be cut gradually and as close
to the ends of the members as possible to avoid large impact loads from being imparted to the
concrete. These precautions will prevent excessive damage to the concrete at the ends of the
members, and so will ensure that the bond between the concrete and the tendons in this zone is not
impaired.
Stressing
jack Original length = L
L – ∆
Removable
intermediate
upright
Formwork
Upright Upright
(a) Tendons tensioned between uprights
(b) Tendons detensioned (elastic shortening = ) D
Stressing bed
Figure 31: Pretensioning on a stressing bed (adapted from Ref. 35).
32 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES
Tendons are released simultaneously by making use of hydraulic rams. The principle advantages of
this method are that the prestressing force is gradually transferred to the concrete so that impact
loading is avoided, and that the tendons can subsequently be cut between the members without
following a strict cutting sequence. A disadvantage of this method is that the precast members close
to the releasing end will experience relatively large movements away from the releasing end because
all the strain is released at that end.
In pretensioned construction, the prestress is transferred to the concrete by bond and, therefore,
particular care must be taken to ensure that the bond strength of the concrete is not exceeded. It
can be shown that the bond stress induced by a tendon will decrease as its diameter decreases, for
a given stress in the tendon. For this reason smalldiameter wires and strand are used in
pretensioning. Wire is often indented or crimped to improve its bond properties while, in the case
of strand, 12.9 mm sevenwire strand is most commonly used.
It is often necessary to deflect some of the tendons to obtain the desired cable profile, particularly
in the case of long span members (see Fig. 33). These deflected tendons are often referred to as
draped or harped tendons, and are held in their deflected position by special holddown devices at
the lower deflection points (also called holddown or draping points) and by holdup devices at the
high positions. Depending on the design requirements, deflected tendons can be provided with either
one or two holddown points, as shown in Fig. 33. Tendons can only be deflected if the stressing
bed has been properly reinforced to sustain the vertical forces imposed by the holddown devices.
Chuck
Sevenwire strand
Retaining ring
Jaw assembly
Spring
Cap
Body
Figure 32: Typical quick release grip (adapted from Ref. 32).
Holdup
device Double holddown point Single holddown point
Figure 33: Pretensioning with deflected tendons (Ref. 35).
PRETENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 33
Deflected tendons are usually tensioned straight and then deflected by a hydraulic ram, after which
the holddown devices are installed to keep them in their deflected shape. Two methods of deflecting
tendons in this way are shown in Figs. 34 and 35. In the method shown in Fig. 34, which is
commonly used for the manufacture of doubletee beams, the deflected tendons are pushed down to
their lower position by means of a temporarily installed hydraulic ram. These tendons are
subsequently held in position by the holddown pins which bear against the holddown reaction
beam. After the concrete has developed the required strength, the holddown pins are removed and
the tendons are released. The method shown in Fig. 35 makes use of a centre hole jack to deflect
the tendons, while a strand chuck bearing against the holddown anchors is used to anchor the
tendons in their deflected positions. In this procedure, the strand chuck and the holddown anchors
cannot be recovered (Ref. 31).
The actual length of a deflected tendon, measured along its deflected path, can be significantly
greater than the horizontal distance between its ends, particularly in the case of deeper members
such as bridge girders. If such a tendon is initially tensioned straight, the subsequent deflecting
operation will increase the tension in the tendon and, hence, the prestressing force. It is important
to consider this effect when determining the initial tension to be applied to the tendons, particularly
if the increase in tension is significant.
Deflected tendons can also be tensioned in their deflected shape, in which case the holddown devices
must be capable of permitting the tendons to move longitudinally during the tensioning operation
and provision must be made to reduce the friction between the tendons and the holdup and
holddown devices. The various techniques which have been used to reduce the effects of friction
include tensioning the tendons from both ends, using rollers with needle bearings at the holdup
and holddown points, and vibrating the tendons while they are being tensioned (Ref. 31).
As previously mentioned, the precast members will move longitudinally when the tendons are
released so that it is essential to release the holddown devices before releasing the tendons.
However, when the holddown devices are released before releasing the tendons, the undesirable
situation arises in which concentrated upward vertical forces are imposed on the beam at the positions
of the holddown points before any prestress has been transferred to the beam. If these effects are
not properly accounted for in the design or in the releasing procedure (e.g. by partially releasing
the tendons to transfer some prestress to the beams before releasing the holddown devices) cracks
can develop in the top of the beam.
Tendons in beams are deflected to reduce the cable eccentricity in the support regions which, in
turn, prevents flexural cracks from developing at the top of the beam in these regions. This objective
can also be achieved by debonding some of the tendons over a distance at the ends of the beam.
Such tendons are referred to as blanketed tendons (see Fig. 36).
Hydraulic ram
pushes pin down
Holddown pin
(removed from
hardened concrete)
Holddown
reaction beam
Doubletee form
Holddown
device
Ratchet
adjustment
Figure 34: Deflecting tendons in a doubletee beam (Ref. 35).
34 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES
12.5 mm diameter strand
Strand chuck
Strand chuck
Center hole
hydraulic jack
Holddown
anchors
Deflected strand
group
Strand chuck
Figure 35: Tendon holddown device for use with a centre hole jack (Ref. 31).
Plastic tube
over strands
in bottom
Blanketed strand length
(debonded by plastic tubes)
Figure 36: Blanketed strands (Ref. 35).
PRETENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 35
Typically, a stressing bed must allow a daily production cycle so that members can be produced in
large numbers. Under such conditions the use of steel forms or moulds is preferable for the following
reasons: Steel forms are durable and perform well under repeated use; they can be manufactured to
a high degree of precision; they are easy to handle when being erected or stripped; they can be
made adjustable to easily accommodate variations in member shape; and they can easily be made
strong enough to allow form vibration (Refs. 31 and 34). Figure 37 shows a steel mould with
removable side forms and a form vibrator for a bridge girder.
The forms are removed after curing the concrete and before releasing the tendons. They should be
loosened or stripped in such a way that they do not restrain any longitudinal movement or vertical
deflection of the member which may take place when the tendons are released.
To maintain a daily production cycle, the concrete must develop sufficient strength to allow the
tendons to be released within about 16 hours after casting. This high early strength can be obtained
either by using high early strength cement, by curing the concrete at an elevated temperature, or by
combining these two options (Refs. 31 and 35). Curing at an elevated temperature is often done
by steam curing, which involves the application of wet heat in the form of live steam under a
confining cover. Steam curing generally commences 2 to 3 hours after casting and continues for 12
to 14 hours (Ref. 34). Other processes which can also be used to apply heat during curing include
electricalresistance heating and heating by circulating hot fluids through pipes contained in the
forms or in the stressing bed (Ref. 35).
The longline method is also used for the production of hollow core slab units. In this method, low
slump concrete is extruded around the pretensioned tendons by an extruding machine which travels
along the stressing bed to form a long hollow core strip. The tendons are released once the concrete
has developed sufficient strength, after which the long hollow core strip is sawed into the required
lengths. References 32 and 35 can be consulted for further information on this procedure.
Transverse sleepers
Form underties
External vibrator
sled and track
Figure 37: Steel mould for a bridge Ibeam (Ref. 35).
36 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES
3.2.2 Stressing beds
Several different types of stressing bed are available, each with its own range of application
depending on the product being produced, the site conditions and the requirements of the production
process. The following types are generally used (Ref. 31):
• Column type.
• Independentabutment type.
• Abutmentandstrut type.
• Tendondeflecting type.
• Portable benches.
It is possible to make a further distinction between stressing beds on the basis of whether they have
been designed to produce one specific product or to produce many different types of product. The
former are referred to as fixed beds while the latter are termed universal beds. The brief description
of each type of bed given below is a summary of the material presented in Ref. 31 on this topic.
Column beds
In a column bed the prestressing force is carried directly by the bed acting as a column. The principle
is illustrated by Fig. 38, which shows an example of a columntype bed used for manufacturing
doubletee beams. Clearly this type of bed can only be used as a fixed bed and, in the interests of
economy and efficiency, can only accommodate small eccentricities of the prestressing force with
respect to the bed. The primary considerations for the design of a columntype bed are crushing of
the concrete and buckling of the bed.
Columntype stressing beds are primarily used for producing singletee beams, doubletee beams
and piles.
Stressing mechanism
Section  A A
Elevation
Stessing end Releasing end
A
A
Metal form liners
Pipes for hotwater curing
Figure 38: Columntype stressing bed used for producing doubletee beams (Ref. 31).
PRETENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 37
Independentabutment beds
The primary components of an independentabutment bed are two large structurally independent
abutments, together with the paved casting surface between the abutments. The abutments can either
be embedded in soil, supported on piles or founded on rock (see Fig. 39). The manner in which
stability against sliding and overturning of the abutments is provided depends on the founding
conditions as follows:
• Embedded in soil: In this case, stability is exclusively provided by the self weight of the abutment
and passive soil pressure (see Fig. 39a).
• Supported on piles: The structural action of the piles provides the required stability in this case
(see Fig. 39b).
• Founded on sound rock: In this case, stability against sliding can be provided by keying into the
rock while the stability against overturning can be enhanced by anchoring the abutments to the
rock with ties or prestressed anchors, as shown in Fig. 39c.
Independentabutment beds are commonly used and can provide a fairly cheap solution in the case
of long beds.
Abutmentandstrut beds
An abutmentandstrut stressing bed basically consists of an abutment at each end joined by a
concrete slab or strut, as shown in Fig. 310. It is clear from this figure that the overturning action
of the prestressing force on the abutments is counteracted by the self weight of the abutments, and
that its sliding action is resisted by the slab acting as a strut. It should also be noted that the
concrete hinges provided between the abutments and the slab ensure that no bending is induced in
the slab. In this way, the slab is subjected to an axial load only. Evidently, the abutmentandstrut
bed is the type most commonly used for short beds.
Prestressing
force
Prestressing
force
W
Passive soil
pressure
Tension
piling
Compression
piling
Prestressing
force
Soil overburden
Rock
Concrete
Steel dowels anchored
in drilled holes or
prestressed anchors
(c) Founded on rock
(a) Embedded in soil
(b) Supported on piles
Figure 39: Independent abutments (Ref. 31).
38 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES
Tendondeflecting beds
After tensioning, deflected tendons are held in position by holddown devices, anchored to the bed
at the holddown points, and by holdup devices which bear on the bed at the high positions (see
Section 3.2.1). Consequently, the slab component of the bed is subjected to large vertical loads in
addition to the axial load associated with the structural action of an abutmentandstrut bed. Because
of this loading condition, tendondeflecting stressing beds, of which a typical layout is given in
Fig. 311, differ from abutmentandstrut beds as follows:
• The use of concrete hinges between the abutments and slab is no longer feasible.
• The slab must be reinforced or prestressed to sustain the combined flexure and thrust to which
it is subjected.
• Tendondeflecting beds are much more expensive than abutmentandstrut beds of equal capacity.
Portable beds
Portable beds are usually made of structural steel, but are seldom used.
The efficiency of a universal stressing bed, with regard to the waste of pretensioning reinforcement
or with regard to the production process, can be improved by providing some means by which its
length can be adjusted. This can be done either by providing the deadend abutment with removable
uprights which can be fitted in several positions (see Fig. 312a), or by providing an intermediate
abutment with removable uprights (see Fig. 312b). When fitted with an intermediate abutment, the
potential efficiency of the stressing bed can be improved even more by designing the bed so that
the prestressing force can be applied from either end. An alternative solution, which is often simpler
and cheaper, is to splice the strand at the required length.
3.2.3 Structural frames
The hardware used for prestressing the products can conveniently be viewed as consisting of the
structural frame together with the hydraulic rams and pumping unit. Whereas rams are used to apply
the prestressing force, structural frames are required to transfer this force to the abutments and to
Strut Abutment
P
Concrete hinge
Recess to accomodate stressing mechanism
Prestressing
force P
Figure 310: Abutmentandstrut stressing bed (Ref. 31).
P
This portion of bed is subjected to
combined axial load and bending
Vertical forces induced by
deflected tendons
Prestressing
force P
Figure 311: Tendondeflecting stressing bed (Ref. 31).
PRETENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 39
maintain a constant strain in the tendons during the production cycle. They also provide the means
of tensioning and anchoring the tendons and, depending on the design of the system, of releasing
them.
Although the specific details of the structural configuration of frames will differ, the following
structural steel components can usually be identified: Uprights, pull rods, cross beams and templates.
The design of a structural frame for a particular situation must reflect the requirements of the
installation and should, at least, cover the following considerations (Ref. 31):
• The capacity of the bed.
• The range and types of product to be manufactured on the bed. This consideration also covers
the aspect of whether the bed is fixed or universal.
• The method to be used for tensioning the tendons.
• The method to be used for releasing the prestressing force.
3.3 POSTTENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES
3.3.1 Basic principle and procedure
In posttensioning systems the concrete is first cast and allowed to harden, after which the tendons
are tensioned and anchored. The prestressing force is transferred to the concrete by the anchorage
assemblies which bear against the concrete. Obviously, the prestressing operations are carried out
only after the concrete has developed sufficient strength to sustain the induced loads.
The most common method of tensioning the tendons in posttensioning systems is the mechanical
prestressing by means of hydraulic jacks which react against the concrete. The required capacity of
the jack depends on the type, size and number of wires, strand or bars in each tendon and
consequently shows a large variation, from as low as 40 kN to as high as 10000 kN. It is essential
that jacks can easily accommodate the specific technical requirements of the prestressing system,
particularly with regard to the details of the anchorages and the tendons. Consequently, specially
designed jacks are usually supplied with each particular type of posttensioning system.
After a tendon has been tensioned, it is anchored to the concrete by a purpose made anchorage
supplied with the system. Although the specific details of anchorages vary from system to system,
essentially two types of anchorage are commonly used for anchoring the tendon at its stressing end:
Alternate upright positions
Fixed upright
Fixed upright Fixed upright
Stressing end
Stressing end Alternate stressing end
Dead end
Removable upright
Removable uprights
(a) Stressing bed with removable uprights
Intermediate abutment
(b) Stressing bed with intermediate abutment
Figure 312: Stressing beds with adjustable length (Ref. 31).
310 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES
• Those which produce a frictional grip on the individual wires, strand or bar by means of wedges.
• Those which anchor the tendon by direct bearing. In the case of wires, this is achieved by means
of cold formed rivet heads or socalled buttonheads while, in the case of a bar, a nut which
threads onto the end of the bar is used.
The anchorages used in South Africa usually conform to the requirements of BS 4447 (Ref. 36).
Tendons can only be posttensioned if they are not bonded to the concrete at the time of tensioning.
This is usually accomplished by placing mortartight metal or plastic tubes (also referred to as ducts
or sheaths) along the intended profiles of the tendons before the concrete is cast. Thus, ducts are
formed in the hardened concrete through which the tendons can be passed and subsequently
tensioned. The tendons can either be preplaced in the sheath prior to casting, or can be threaded
through the ducts after the concrete has hardened, depending on the system being used.
After the tendons have been anchored, the completion of the posttensioning operation depends on
whether the tendons are bonded or unbonded. In the case of bonded tendons, cement grout is injected
into the duct to fill the void between each tendon and its duct (see Fig. 313a). Upon hardening,
the grout effectively bonds the tendon to the surrounding concrete and also provides protection
against corrosion of the prestressing steel.
In the case of unbonded tendons, the anchoring of the tendons represents the final step in the
posttensioning operation because the ducts are not subsequently filled with grout. A typical single
strand unbonded tendon is shown in Fig. 313b and consists of a grease coated single sevenwire
strand encased in a plastic sheath. This type of tendon is prefabricated in the factory by extruding
the plastic sheath over the strand after the strand has been coated with a layer of grease, which
provides corrosion protection for the strand. Unbonded tendons remain unbonded over their entire
length for the service life of the structure, and it is important to note that they are attached to the
concrete only at their ends by the anchorages. These tendons are primarily used in the posttensioned
slab systems found in building construction because of the considerable economies offered by this
technique under these circumstances.
Strand Grease Plastic tube
Filled with grout
Corrugated metal or plastic sheath
(a) Bonded multistrand tendon
(b) Unbonded monostrand tendon
Figure 313: Bonded and unbonded tendons (Ref. 35).
POSTTENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 311
3.3.2 Posttensioning systems
Several posttensioning systems are available in South Africa. Although the basic principle used in
these systems are essentially similar, they differ in the type of tendon which is used, the details of
the anchorages and the method used for tensioning the tendons.
Posttensioning systems can conveniently be divided into four general categories (Refs. 31 and 35):
Multistrand systems, multiwire systems, monostrand systems and high strength bar (including
multibar) systems. The tendon forces that can be achieved with each of these types of system are
compared in Fig. 314.
It is usual for designers in South Africa to furnish designs which can reasonably accommodate a
number of the available posttensioning systems, to encourage competitive tendering. For this reason,
a designer must be familiar with the available posttensioning systems to ensure that members are
detailed to satisfy the practical requirements of these systems in terms of housing the tendons and
anchorages, and receiving the jacks used for tensioning the tendons. Since a detailed description of
all the available posttensioning systems is beyond the scope of this book, a generalised description
of the typical features of posttensioning systems which fall within each of the abovementioned
categories is given in the following. It is strongly recommended that the details of a particular
system should be obtained from the pamphlets issued by the company or to consult its repre
sentatives.
1 000
2 000
3 000
4 000
5 000
6 000
7 000
8 000
9 000
10 000
11 000
T
e
n
d
o
n
f
o
r
c
e
,
0
.
7
(
k
N
)
A
f
p
s
p
u
M
o
n
o
s
t
r
a
n
d
1
2
.
9
m
m
a
n
d
1
5
.
7
m
m
T
h
r
e
a
d
b
a
r
1
5
m
m
t
o
3
6
m
m
M
u
l
t
i

w
i
r
e
7
m
m
M
u
l
t
i

s
t
r
a
n
d
1
2
.
9
m
m
M
u
l
t
i

s
t
r
a
n
d
1
5
.
7
m
m
1 Wire 1 Strand 1 Strand
19 Strands
15 Strands
55 Strands
55 Strands
13 Wires
55 Wires
A
ps
≡ Area of prestressing steel
f
pu
≡ Characteristic tensile strength
Figure 314: Ranges of tendon force for various tendon types.
312 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES
Multistrand systems
The details of a typical multistrand system are shown in Fig. 315. In these systems each tendon
is made up of a number of strands, either 12.9 mm or 15.7 mm sevenwire strand usually being
used. Some systems of this type offer tendons with up to 55 strands.
The most commonly used anchorages make use of the principle of wedge action, with the strands
usually being individually gripped by two or threepiece conical wedge grips which seat in tapered
holes contained in the anchorage block (see Fig. 315). When a tendon is tensioned the wedge grips
are inserted in the tapered holes around each strand and, upon release of the jack, the subsequent
pullin of the strand seats the grips which anchor the strand. The effects of the loss of tendon
elongation resulting from seating of the anchorage must be accounted for in design. Some systems
include special devices for ramming the grips to reduce the anchorage seating loss as well as the
scatter of the individual anchorage pullin values for the strands contained in the tendon.
Tendons can be tensioned from one end only or, in the case of long or appreciably curved tendons,
from both ends to reduce friction losses. When tensioned from one end only, a tendon is anchored
at its other end by a deadend anchorage which can either be cast directly into the concrete or
Tendon
Sheath
Grout injection point
Grey cast iron
or fabricated cone
Permanent anchorage block/head
Rubber springs
Pressure plate
Jack foot
Hydraulic ports
Jack piston
Temporary wedge grips
Wedge grips
Steel anchorage block
Figure 315: Typical multistrand posttensioning system.
POSTTENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 313
Block Guide
Duct
Swage holder plate
Swages
Wire ties
(a) Swaged anchorage
Spiral
(b) Splayed strand anchorage
Splayed end
Grout tube
Spiral
Reinforcement grid
Top view
Side view
(c) Looped anchorage
Grout tube
Spiral
Side view
Top view
Uplate
Duct
Tension ring
Figure 316: Typical deadend anchorages for multistrand posttensioning systems.
314 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES
mounted on the surface of the concrete. Typical examples of deadend anchorages for multistrand
tendons are shown in Fig. 316.
The jacks used for the tensioning operations are supplied by the manufacturer and are designed to
suit the tendons and anchorages of the particular system. Most systems use hydraulic centrehole
jacks capable of simultaneously tensioning all the strands in a particular tendon. Purpose made
multiuse jaws, which are self releasing after completion of the tensioning operation, are used to
attach the strand to the jack (see Fig. 315).
Some types of construction procedure, such as the segmental construction of a boxgirder bridge,
require that tendons be joined to form a continuous tendon even though the member is constructed
and posttensioned in a number of phases or segments. This can be achieved by making use of
couplers of which a typical example for a multistrand system is shown in Fig. 317. In this figure
phase 1 of the construction contains the tendons which have already been tensioned and anchored,
while phase 2 contains the coupled tendons which are still to be tensioned.
In South Africa, multistrand systems are by far the most commonly used systems for bonded
construction because of their versatility and economy.
Multiwire systems
The components and basic principle of a typical multiwire system which anchors the wires by means
of buttonheads are illustrated in Fig. 318. These systems use tendons which each consist of a number
of smooth highstrength steel wires. The specific system shown in Fig. 318 uses 7 mm wire and
can be supplied with tendons containing up to 55 wires each.
The wires are anchored by buttonheads, formed at their ends, which bear directly onto the anchorhead
(see Figs. 318a and b). The buttonheads are coldformed with a special headforming machine after
the wires have been threaded through the anchorheads at each end. Tendons can either be completely
prefabricated in a factory or they can be made up on site with field buttonheading equipment.
All wires in a tendon are tensioned simultaneously using a hydraulic jack attached to the anchorhead.
After the required elongation has been reached, the anchorhead is locked in the stressed position
with packing pieces inserted between the anchorhead and the bearing plate (see Fig. 318d). It is
essential that the length of the tendon as well as its elongation be estimated as accurately as possible
to ensure that the tendon elongation at anchoring corresponds to the desired prestressing force. Thin
shims are usually available, in addition to the packing pieces, for making fine adjustments to the
anchoring force to accommodate discrepancies between the estimated and measured elongations. One
of the advantages of this type of anchorage is that the anchorage seating loss is negligible. Dead
end anchorages and couplers are available for these systems.
Phase 1 Phase 2
Figure 317: Typical tendon coupler for multistrand posttensioning systems.
POSTTENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 315
The hydraulic jacks used for tensioning the tendons of these systems are supplied with the hardware
required for attaching them to the anchorhead. The particular system shown in Fig. 318 uses a
centrehole hydraulic jack to apply the tensioning force to the anchorhead by means of a pull rod
which threads into a stressing sleeve which, in turn, threads onto the anchorhead. The jack bears
on a stressing bridge which transfers the jack reaction to the concrete (see Figs. 318c and e).
It is important to note that multiwire systems are usually not used in South Africa any more because
of their higher cost. These systems are only used in situations where multistrand systems or any
of the other available systems cannot offer a satisfactory solution.
Monostrand systems
The distinguishing feature of monostrand posttensioning systems is the fact that each tendon
comprises a single sevenwire strand, with 12.9 mm and 15.7 mm being the most commonly used
sizes. These systems are usually unbonded and a typical tendon is shown in Fig. 313b.
The details of a typical monostrand system are shown in Fig. 319 together with the construction
sequence for a posttensioned slab. As in the case of multistrand systems, the anchorages used in
monostrand systems make use of two or threepiece conical wedge grips which seat in tapered holes
Figure 318: Typical multiwire posttensioning system (Ref. 35).
7 mm
diameter
wire
Coldformed buttonhead
(a) Buttonhead anchor
(b) Multiwire tendon
Buttonhead
Threaded
anchorhead
Stressing bridge
Stressing sleeve
Pull rod
Bearing plate
(c) Tendon tensioned by pull rod
(d) Locking the anchorhead into position
Packing
pieces
Pull rod
Cylinder
Stressing bridge
Sleeve
Bearing plate
(e) Jack details
316 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES
in the anchorage body to anchor the strand (see Figs. 319a and c). However, the anchorages are
designed to anchor only one strand and are therefore small. Plastic elements, referred to as grommets,
are usually supplied with the anchorages for fastening them to the forms and for forming tensioning
voids, or pockets, in the concrete (see Fig. 319).
(1) Placement of monostrand and
anchorage nailed to formwork
(2) Remove grommet
Tendon profile support
(3) Place wedge grips
(4) Tension and anchor strand
Hydraulic pump
(c) Construction sequence for posttensioned slab
(5) Cut excess strand,
cap end and fill in
hole with weather
resistant grout
Figure 319: Typical monostrand posttensioning system (Ref. 35).
Plastic former
(grommet)
Wedge grips
Anchorage body
(a) Anchorage details
(b) Monostrand system for slab posttensioning
Deadend anchorage Intermediate anchorage Stressing anchorage
Form
Corrosion protection cap
Corrosion protection sleeve
Corrosion protection sleeve
Grommet
Monostrand
POSTTENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 317
The various steps involved in installing and tensioning a monostrand tendon is summarised in
Fig. 319, which is self explanatory. It is to be noted that the hydraulic jacks used for tensioning
the tendons are small and light so that the tensioning equipment can usually be operated by one
person.
Couplers are not required for monostrand systems because tendons can be supplied to almost any
required length, while successive sections of the same continuous tendon can be tensioned separately
by using an open throat jack to stress at intermediate points between partial slabs. Deadend
anchorages are normally installed in the factory and, in the case of wedge anchorages, the wedges
are hydraulically seated in the factory.
Unbonded monostrand systems are particularly well suited for the posttensioning of thin slabs and
narrow members because the small tendon diameter allows optimum eccentricities and because the
compact anchorages can be accommodated by such thin members. These factors, together with the
elimination of the grouting operation as well as the simplicity and efficiency of the tensioning
operation all offer considerable economies. Hence, practically all castinplace prestressed slabs, flat
plates and flat slabs, encountered in building structures in South Africa, are posttensioned by
unbonded monostrand systems.
Bar systems
Bar systems are characterized by the fact that high strength bar is used for the tendons. The bar
can be supplied in most of the standard sizes (see Table 211) either as smooth bar or as threadbar,
which has deformations rolled on over the entire length of the bar to form a continuous screw thread.
Although single bar tendons are most commonly used, multiple bar tendons are possible. Bar systems
usually use bonded tendons, but unbonded tendons provided with a corrosion protection system are
available.
A typical single bar posttensioning system is shown in Fig. 320. The bar is anchored by a nut
which threads onto the end of the bar and seats into either a bellshaped or plate anchorage. The
Figure 320: Typical threadbar posttensioning system.
(a) Bell and plate anchorages
Grout tube
Sheathing
Grout sleeve
Bell anchorage
(b) Tendon assembly at stressing end
End shutter Removable pocket former
Removable plastic nut
Ratchet
(c) Jack Details
318 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES
seat is spherical to prevent the development of significant bending moments in the bar when the
axis of the bar is not perpendicular to the anchor plate (Ref. 31). The prime advantage of the bell
anchorage is that the anchor ring contains the splitting forces induced by the anchorage after the
tendon is tensioned. Both anchorage types shown in Fig. 320a exhibit negligible anchorage seating
losses when properly installed.
When smooth bar is used, threads must be provided at the ends of the bar for the anchor nuts. It
is important to note, in this regard, that the elongation of the tendon must be estimated as accurately
as possible to ensure that the threaded length is such that the nut is turned to its end at anchorage,
after tensioning, so that the full strength of the bar can be developed (Ref. 32). This difficulty, of
course, does not exist for threadbar, in which case the thread runs over the complete length of the
bar. It should be noted that wedge anchorages have been developed for use with smooth bar tendons.
A centrehole hydraulic jack is commonly used for the tensioning operation. In some systems, the
jack is provided with a ratchet which is used to tighten the anchor nut against the anchor plate
while the bar is being tensioned (see Fig. 320c). Any special hardware required for attaching the
jack to the tendon, such as pulling bars and pulling nuts, is supplied with the jack.
The length in which the bar can be supplied is often limited by production practice as well as
transportation and storage requirements. However, couplers can be used to provide tendons of almost
any length. These couplers, of which an example for a threadbar system is shown in Fig. 321a, are
usually of the sleeve type which simply screw onto each of the bars to be spliced. The couplers can
also be used to extend a previously tensioned bar, a situation which, for example, arises in segmental
and phase construction. When bars need to be coupled, the use of threadbar is particularly attractive
because the continuous thread makes it possible to cut the bar to any required length, and also
because the coupling hardware and operation are simple and relatively low in cost. It is important
to note that when these sleeve couplers are used to splice bars, sufficient space must be provided
in the concrete surrounding the couplers to allow the movement which takes place during tensioning.
An example of a deadend anchor for a threadbar system is shown in Fig. 321b.
Grout tube
Sheathing
Bell anchorage
(b) Bell anchorage
Anchor nut
Figure 321: Typical deadend anchorage and coupler for a threadbar posttensioning system.
(a) Coupler
POSTTENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 319
Choice of system
Since the basic principle of the available posttensioning systems is essentially the same, the
fundamental difference between the various systems lies in the type of tendon which is used, the
details of the anchorages and the method used for tensioning the tendons. Consequently the selection
of a specific system for a particular application will depend on how well these features of the system
will meet the requirements of the job. It often happens that a number of systems will work equally
well for a particular application. Hence, the choice is often an economic one, that is, which system
will be the cheapest in terms of the cost of the materials, equipment and the labour required to
install, tension and grout the tendons.
3.3.3 Posttensioning operations
After the concrete has reached the specified strength the tendons can be tensioned but, as a general
rule, the full prestressing force should be applied as late as is practically feasible to minimise the
effects of shrinkage and creep of the concrete (Ref. 33). However, certain conditions which induce
significant tensile stresses in the concrete at an early age may prevail, particularly in larger members.
Examples of such conditions are the development and subsequent decrease of the heat of hydration,
temperature differentials induced by variations in the external temperature, and shrinkage of the
concrete. These tensile stresses can lead to the development of visible cracks. A possible remedy
for this problem is to apply a moderate prestress at a very early age and then to apply the full
prestress at a later age when the specified concrete strength has developed. It is important to ensure
that the compressive stress permitted in the concrete when it is initially prestressed, is based on its
strength at the time of tensioning (Ref. 33).
It is essential that all side forms and other obstructions which may restrain the deflections and
shortening of the member, induced by prestressing, be removed or loosened before tensioning the
tendons. It is particularly important in this regard to ensure that, if present, sliding bearings are
cleaned and that any devices used for temporarily fixing the bearings are released prior to tensioning.
When a member contains a number of tendons, the sequence in which they are tensioned must ensure
that severe eccentric loading is avoided at all stages of the tensioning operation. Sometimes it may
be necessary to tension some of the tendons in two steps to meet this requirement (Ref. 32). The
following aspects regarding the sequence of tensioning should also be noted (Ref. 33):
• Tensioning should commence with tendons which are not located close to the edge of the section.
• When a member is to be prestressed transversely as well as longitudinally, the transverse tendons
should be tensioned first.
• Before a tendon, which does not extend over the full length of a member is tensioned, the concrete
surrounding its internal anchorage must first be subjected to compression. This is achieved by
first tensioning a sufficient number of tendons which extend over the entire length of the member.
The tensioning force applied to a tendon is monitored in two ways: Firstly, by measuring the
hydraulic pressure applied to the jack using a pressure gauge and, secondly, by measuring the
elongation of the tendon. The measured elongations are used to check the pressure gauge readings
and to give an indication of the average force over the length of the tendon. The pressure gauge,
on the other hand, provides the tendon force at the anchorage.
The theoretical hydraulic pressure required for a given applied force (as obtained by dividing the
force by the ram area) will always be less than the measured pressure because of the internal friction
of the jack. For this reason, and to ensure that the measurements of pressure taken from the gauge
are accurately translated into force, the stressing equipment must be calibrated. Jack calibration is
usually accomplished by jacking against a laboratory calibrated load cell or proving ring, placed in
the load path of the jack, to produce a calibration curve of hydraulic pressure versus applied force.
The stressing equipment should be calibrated to an accuracy of at least ± 2% (Ref. 37) before
320 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES
tensioning any of the tendons. When a large number of tendons are to be tensioned, the calibration
of the stressing equipment should, at least, be repeated after completion of the tensioning operations
while, on very large projects, the calibration should be repeated at regular intervals. It should be
noted that some posttensioning systems supply dynamometers which work in series with the jack,
so that the tendon force can be directly monitored during the tensioning operation.
It is difficult to establish the zero point for the measurement of tendon elongation because of slack,
which has to be taken up before a tension is induced in the tendon. However, this problem can be
solved by making use of the fact that the material behaviour of both the concrete and steel remains
linear elastic at the stress levels induced by the prestress (Ref. 33). The normal procedure is to
stress the tendon to between 5 and 10% of the full tensioning force and to use this position as the
starting point for measuring the elongation (Ref. 37). A loadelongation diagram can be constructed
by plotting measurements of load against elongation, taken at regular load increments as tensioning
proceeds. Because the material behaviour is essentially linear elastic, these points should plot as an
almost straight line, so that the zero point can be obtained by extrapolating the loadelongation
diagram to the value of zero load (see Fig. 322). An alternative approach, which is often followed
in practice, is simply to consider the calculated and measured increments of elongation beyond the
initially applied prestress, used as the starting point for measuring elongation.
Tendon elongations recorded during the tensioning operation provide a check on the applied
tensioning force by plotting them as a loadelongation diagram, which can be directly compared to
the calculated diagram. It is generally required that the measured tendon elongation should agree
with the calculated value to within ± 5% (Refs. 35 and 38). Specifically, Ref. 37 requires that
the measured elongation of an individual tendon must agree with the calculated value to within
± 6%, while the average difference between the measured and calculated elongations for all the
tendons in a member must be less than ± 3%. Note that the calculated tendon elongation should
include a correction which accounts for the elongation of the length of the tendon that extends from
the anchor to the jack grip position.
Any of the following causes will individually, or in combination, result in the measured tendon
elongation being larger than the calculated value (Ref. 33):
• The assessment of the effects of tendon friction is too conservative.
• The value assumed for the modulus of elasticity of the prestressing steel for the calculation of
elongation is larger than the actual value.
• The actual steel crosssectional areas are smaller than assumed for the calculations.
P
1
P
2
∆
1
∆
2
∆
3
P
3
T
e
n
s
i
o
n
i
n
g
f
o
r
c
e
P
Measured points
Tendon elongation
Zero point for
measuring elongation
Initial starting point for
measuring elongation
Extrapolation of loadelongation
diagram to = 0 P
Figure 322: Determining the zero point for measuring tendon elongation.
POSTTENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 321
• An anchorage or the concrete surrounding the anchorage has failed. This event is usually
characterised by an increase in elongation without the associated increase in tensioning force.
• A wire or strand in the tendon has fractured. This event is identified by a loud cracking sound
and a sudden drop in the applied tendon force.
The calculated tendon elongation may not be achieved during tensioning for the following reasons
(Ref. 33):
• The actual tendon friction is higher than assumed in the calculations because of, for example,
rust or the ingress of grout into the duct during casting of the concrete. In extreme cases of grout
ingress, the tendon can actually be jammed in the duct so that only the portion of the tendon
which extends from the obstruction to the point of tensioning is stressed. In this event, the
tensioning force should not simply be increased to obtain the required elongation because of the
danger of overstressing the tendon in the tensioned portion, while the level of the tensioning
force in the remainder of the tendon is essentially unknown. It is far better practice to overcome
the obstruction by repetitively releasing and reapplying the tensioning force. During such an
operation, care must be taken to ensure that the permissible tendon stress is not exceeded. In
some cases, excessive friction can be overcome by injecting watersoluble oil into the duct. If
this step is taken, the oil must be removed after tensioning by flushing the duct with water.
• The value assumed for the modulus of elasticity of the prestressing steel for the calculations is
smaller than the actual value.
• The actual steel crosssectional areas are larger than assumed for the calculations.
It is generally recommended that tendon elongation be measured to an accuracy of ± 2%. Reference
37 requires that the elongation be measured to an accuracy of ± 2% or 2 mm, whichever is the
most accurate.
After the prescribed tensioning force has been reached, the tendons are anchored when the hydraulic
pressure on the jack is released. If wedgetype anchorages are being used, a loss of elongation takes
place because of the pullin of the strand when the wedge grips are seated. It is important to note
that when the tensioning force is transferred from the jack to the anchorage, a further loss of
elongation takes place because of the resulting deformation of the anchorage components. The
magnitude of the anchorage deformation, which can be appreciable for some systems, appears to be
dependent not only on the anchorage type, but also on the quality of workmanship (see Refs. 31
and 33).
The total loss of elongation which takes place when a tendon is anchored is often referred to as the
anchorage set (also pullin or anchorage seating), and must be considered in design. For strand
anchored by wedge grips, the anchorage set is of the order of 6 mm, while the anchorages commonly
used for threadbar systems do not show appreciable anchorage set if properly installed. Clearly,
posttensioning systems using anchorages which yield a significant anchorage set are not suitable
for use with short tendons. Note that anchorage set can be compensated for by installing shims
behind the anchorhead.
Anchorage set must be recorded in the field to ensure that the values being obtained agree with
those assumed for design. Reference 37 specifies that the anchorage set should be measured to an
accuracy of ± 2 mm and requires that the measured values must agree with the values assumed for
design to within ± 2 mm.
When a long or appreciably curved tendon is tensioned from one end only, the effects of friction
will lead to a considerable loss of force along its length. This loss of force can be reduced by
tensioning the tendon from both ends. An additional, or alternative, procedure which can be followed
is to retension the tendon after it has been temporarily overstressed (see Refs. 32, 33 and 35).
When overstressing a tendon, the temporary tension thus applied must not exceed 80% of its specified
322 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES
characteristic tensile strength and, after anchoring, the tension in the tendon must not exceed 70%
of its characteristic tensile strength (Refs. 39 and 310).
It is essential that the tensioning operation be supervised and carried out by experienced personnel
who are familiar with the posttensioning system, equipment and the procedures to be used. It is
also strongly recommended that the tensioning equipment be power driven, and that provision be
made for an alternative power source which can be used in the case of a breakdown. The tensioning
equipment must be capable of applying the load in a controlled manner without imposing significant
secondary stresses on the tendon, anchorage or the concrete. The schedule which gives the sequence
in which the tendons are to be tensioned, as well as those which give the tensioning forces and
corresponding anticipated pressure gauge measurements, the calculated elongations, and the antici
pated anchorage set for each tendon must be available before commencing the tensioning operation
(Refs. 37 and 38).
A considerable amount of strain energy is stored in the tendon during the tensioning operation and
failure of the tendon, jack or an anchorage can lead to a sudden uncontrolled release of this energy.
Such an occurrence may cause serious injury to any person standing in line with the jack or the
anchorage at the opposite end of the tendon. It is therefore important to exercise extreme caution
when tensioning the tendons by taking a number of safety precautions, such as:
• Making sure that personnel are kept away from the back of the tensioning equipment and the
anchorage at the opposite end of the tendon.
• Ensuring that the tensioning equipment is properly maintained and assembled, and ensuring that
it is not misused.
• Immediately stopping the tensioning operation in the event of an unusual occurrence such as, for
example, a sharp noise being heard or a bearing plate receding into the concrete.
The list given above is by no means exhaustive, and further information regarding safety precautions
in posttensioning can be obtained from Refs. 311 and 312.
3.3.4 Ducting for bonded construction
In posttensioned construction, the tendons are tensioned after the concrete has been cast and after
it has developed the specified strength. This is accomplished by placing ducts along the specified
tendon profiles to form conduits in the hardened concrete through which the tendons can be passed
and subsequently tensioned. Therefore, ducts must satisfy the following requirements (Refs. 37, 38
and 313):
• They must be of a type that does not permit the ingress of cement paste during casting.
• They must be flexible enough to be placed on the required profile without buckling.
• They must be rigid enough to maintain the profile on which they are placed during casting.
• They must be strong enough to resist damage during handling and casting, and to maintain their
shape under the weight of the fresh concrete.
In bonded construction, the shape of the ducts must be of a type which will enhance the transfer
of bond from the grout to the surrounding concrete, and the material used for the duct must not
have any adverse chemical reaction with the concrete, tendons or grout. In South Africa, the ducts
most commonly used are made of spirally wound steel strip which forms flexible corrugated
sheathing (see Fig. 313a). The corrugations are required for bond strength, while the thickness of
the strip steel generally ranges between 0.2 mm, for small tendons, and 0.6 mm, for large tendons
(Ref. 313). Although not commonly used in South Africa, polyethylene and polypropylene tubing
has successfully been used in Europe for many years. A primary advantage of the polyethylene and
polypropylene ducts is that they offer improved corrosion protection when compared to ducts made
POSTTENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 323
of strip steel. The internal diameter of the duct is generally required to be large enough to yield a
duct area of at least 2.5 times the area of the prestressing steel.
The ducts must be installed to the specified alignment by securely tying them to closely spaced
suppports. If the tendons are preplaced in the ducts prior to casting, the supports and ties must be
able to support the tendon weight. When only the duct is placed before casting, with the tendon
being installed prior to tensioning, the supports and ties must adequately resist the bouyancy forces
which arise during casting.
It is important that ducts are installed on smooth curves without kinks to minimize the friction
losses which arise during tensioning. This requirement can be satisfied by spacing the duct supports
closely enough to prevent the ducts from sagging between them. A further consideration, which
requires the use of closely spaced supports, is that the ducts must not be displaced during casting.
It is difficult to give a general rule for the maximum spacing of supports because it depends on
whether or not the tendons are preplaced prior to casting as well as on the rigidity of the duct, the
type and size of the duct, and the tendon profile. Reference 37 recommends that a spacing of
between 1.0 m and 1.5 m should generally not be exceeded.
It is essential that each duct be fixed to its anchorage in such a way that the tendon axis is
perpendicular to the bearing surface of the anchorage. Each anchorage must also be installed in such
a way that it will not be displaced during casting, and steps must be taken to ensure that the bearing
plate is uniformly supported over its complete surface by the concrete onto which it bears.
The ducts must be carefully inspected after installation to ensure that they have been securely tied
into position, that they have not been damaged during installation, and that grout cannot leak into
them during casting. Particular care should be taken to ensure that all joints in, and connections to
the ducts are completely grouttight. The importance of this inspection is underscored by the fact
that the cost associated with clearing the areas affected by the ingress of grout into the ducts often
exceeds the cost of properly sealing the ducting before casting.
When casting the concrete, care must taken to ensure that the ducts are not damaged by, for example,
internal vibrators. Such damage can lead to the ingress of grout into the duct or to a reduction of
the duct diameter to such an extent that the tendons cannot be inserted. Areas congested by
reinforcement and other embedded materials are particularly prone to this problem. Since voids in
the concrete behind the anchorage bearing plates, or insufficient concrete strength can lead to failure
of the concrete in these regions during tensioning, the concrete at the anchorages must be properly
vibrated to ensure maximum density, free of voids.
When a tendon is grouted, air tends to be trapped at positions where there is a sudden change in
the crosssection of the duct and, if it is draped, at the high points of the duct (see Fig. 323).
Water and bleed water which can accumulate in the resulting air pockets can lead to corrosion of
the prestressing steel and, in so doing, seriously impair the durability of the structure. This situation
can be prevented by providing vents, through which trapped air and water can escape, at the
following positions:
• At the high points of the duct if the drape of the tendon, measured from the highest point to the
lowest point exceeds 500 mm (see Fig. 324c) (Ref. 313). Reference 38 suggests that in cases
where the tendon curvature is small, such as in continuous slabs, high point vents are not required.
• At significant changes in the duct crosssection, such as at anchorages and at couplers where the
duct is enlarged in the region of the anchorage (see Figs. 324a and b).
The recommended minimum size of the inner diameter of the vent tubes ranges between 20 mm and
25 mm (Refs. 37, 313 and 314). It is also recommended that the vent tubes should extend a
distance of at least 500 mm above the surface of the concrete (Ref. 37).
324 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES
Anchorages are provided with grout holes or grout tubes which serve as inlets or outlets for the
grout. In the case of long tendons, provision should be made for intermediate inlets which can be
used if difficulties or blockages should develop at the main inlet (Ref. 313).
The ducts cannot be grouted if the temperature of the concrete falls below about 5ºC. If freezing
temperatures are likely to occur when the tendons are to be tensioned, the situation can arise where
ducts, containing tensioned tendons, are left ungrouted for a considerable period of time. It is
essential to ensure that water should not be allowed to collect in the ducts under such conditions,
and drain tubes should be installed at all the low points of the ducts to ensure that they are properly
drained (Refs. 31 and 35).
3.3.5 Grouting
In bonded construction the ducts containing the tendons are filled with cement grout as soon as
possible after tensioning. The primary reasons for grouting the ducts are to provide corrosion
protection for the prestressing steel and to provide a means of bonding the prestressing steel to the
surrounding concrete. If these objectives are borne in mind, it should be clear that a suitable grout
must comply with the following requirements:
• Since the grout must flow over long distances in a fairly confined space, it must maintain its
fluidity during the grouting operation to ensure that all voids in the duct are completely filled.
1
1
Section 11
Tendon profile near high point
Air pocket
Grout
Figure 323: Air pocket at tendon high point resulting from inadequate venting (Ref. 35).
(a) Ref. 313 (b) Ref. 313
(c) Ref. 35
Grout outlet Vent
Duct
Grout inlet
Figure 324: Placing of vents.
POSTTENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 325
• The amount of sedimentation as well as the resulting contraction of the grout must be kept as
small as possible. It is generally recommended that the contraction be limited to 2% (Refs. 33
and 313).
• The grout should exhibit minimum bleeding and, after setting, all bleed water must be
reabsorbed. The amount of bleed water should not exceed 2% by volume 3 hours after the grout
has been mixed, and it should be completely reabsorbed after 24 hours (Refs. 37 and 313).
• The hardened grout must have adequate bond and shear strength. This requirement is deemed to
be satisfied if the compressive strength of 100 mm cubes, tested at 20ºC, exceeds 20 MPa after
7 days and 30 MPa after 28 days (see Refs. 37 and 313).
• The grout should not contain excessive quantities of chlorides, nitrates, sulfides, or other
ingredients harmful to the grout itself or to the prestressing steel (Refs. 35, 37 and 313).
• In freezing climates it is essential that steps be taken to ensure that the grout is resistant to frost
so that it does not lose strength nor fracture as a result of freezing. Further information on this
aspect may be obtained from Refs. 33 and 313.
Cement and water are the primary constituents of grout, and admixtures are sometimes used to
improve its properties. Fine aggregate may be added under special circumstances such as, for
example, when grouting large diameter ducts.
Ordinary Portland cement is most commonly used for grout but, if conditions require their use, other
types of cement can be used provided their suitability has been established by tests. It is important
that the cement must be fresh and that it should not contain lumps or any other indications of
hydration (Ref. 38) and, for this reason, Ref. 37 recommends that the cement should not be older
than one month. The water used for grout must not contain deleterious quantities of substances
harmful to the grout or to the prestressing steel and, therefore, should not contain more than 500
mg of chloride ions per litre (Refs. 37 and 313). The minimum value of the watercement ratio is
usually controlled by the required fluidity of the grout while the maximum value is usually governed
by the fact that the grout should not exhibit excessive bleeding. The watercement ratio must be
kept as low as possible within a range of 0.38 to 0.43, bearing in mind the above considerations.
Aggregates are usually not added to the mix and are only used under special circumstances, such
as when grouting ducts which contain large cavities. Fine aggregate can consist of siliceous granules,
finely ground limestone, trass or very fine sand, all of which must be fine enough to pass through
a 0.600 mm sieve (Ref. 37). It is recommended that the aggregate content should not exceed 30%
of the weight of the cement (Ref. 37).
Admixtures are used only when the desired properties of the grout cannot be obtained by a suitable
mixture of cement and water. Therefore, the objectives of adding admixtures are to improve the
properties of the grout such as improved fluidity, reduced bleeding and retarded setting time, and
to impart other properties to the grout such as expansion, to compensate for contraction, and air
entrainment, to improve freeze resistance. Only wellproven admixtures, which do not contain
chemical substances in quantities which are liable to damage the grout or the prestressing steel,
should be used (Refs. 37 and 313). When using an expanding agent, the unrestrained expansion
of the grout should be limited to 5% (Ref. 313).
The grouting equipment usually consists of a mixer, a holding reservoir and a pump together with
all the connection hoses and valves. Mechanical mixers are used to consistently produce a
homogeneous and stable grout which is free of lumps. The two types of mixers used are: vane
mixers, having a speed of approximately 1000 rev/min, and high speed compulsory mixers, with a
speed of about 1500 rev/min (Ref. 313). After mixing, the grout is usually passed through a screen
with openings not exceeding 5 mm into a holding reservoir equipped with an agitator, which
maintains the colloidal condition of the grout during the grouting operation. The capacity of the
mixer and the reservoir must be sufficient to allow the duct to be filled without interruption at the
specified speed. The grout is delivered at the duct, from the reservoir, by a pump capable of
providing a steady flow of grout. The pump must be able to maintain a pressure of at least 1.0 MPa
326 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES
on a completely filled duct, and it should be equipped with a pressure gauge as well as a safety
device which will prevent pressures exceeding 2.0 MPa from developing. The system should also
be capable of recirculating the grout if pumping is interrupted. Grouting hoses and all hose
connections must be airtight and must be of a size and type which will prevent the buildup of
pressure during grouting (Refs. 37 and 313). Further information on grouting equipment may be
obtained from Refs. 33, 37, 313 and 314.
Equipment required for providing compressed air and for flushing grout out a duct, if the grouting
operation is interrupted for some reason (e.g. if a blockage is encountered or if a breakdown of the
grouting equipment occurs during grouting), must be at hand. It is extremely important that all
grouting equipment must be in good working order.
The ducts should be grouted within 7 days after tensioning, and should the grouting operation be
delayed for a longer period, specific steps must be taken to protect the prestressing steel from
corrosion. Before grouting, the ducts should be checked for obstructions by water injection and all
excess water should afterwards be displaced by the grout.
The grouting operation begins by adding the constituent materials of the grout to the mixer. The
sequence in which this takes place depends on the type of mixer, and the following is recommended
by Ref. 313:
• For vane mixers: all the water, approximately two thirds of the cement, the admixture (if used),
the remaining cement.
• For high speed compulsory mixers: Water, cement, admixture (if used).
The mixing time of the grout also depends on the type of mixer being used and should not exceed
4 minutes for vane mixers or 2 minutes for high speed compulsory mixers (Ref. 313).
The grout is usually injected at the lowest inlet and, in the initial stages of the grouting operation,
is wasted at the vents and at the outlet. Grouting should proceed continuously in one direction at
a rate which is slow enough to prevent segregation of the grout. Reference 313 suggests that a rate
of between 5 and 15 m per minute should be used. The first vent tube after the inlet is closed once
the grout flowing out of it does not contain visible slugs of water or air, and is of the same
consistency as at the inlet. The remaining vent tubes and the outlet are closed in sequence in the
same manner, while the duct progressively fills. After the outlet has been closed, the final grouting
pressure or a pressure of at least 0.5 MPa, whichever is the greater, must be maintained on the grout
for at least 5 minutes before closing the inlet (Ref. 37). If an expanding agent is included in the
grout mix, the vent tubes must be reopened shortly after grouting to allow bleed water to escape,
after which the tubes must be closed. In all cases, the vent tubes should be opened after the grout
has hardened and inspected to establish the extent of the grout fill. If such an inspection reveals
the presence of voids, the problem can be remedied by topping up the vent tubes with grout or by
undertaking a regrouting operation, depending on the specific circumstances (see Refs. 313 and
314).
If a blockage is encountered in a duct, the grouting operation must immediately be stopped to prevent
a large pressure, which can damage the structure, from developing in the duct. The grout should
also immediately be flushed out of the duct by injecting water, against the direction of grouting,
into the nearest vent tube. After removing the obstruction which caused the blockage, the grouting
operation can be restarted. It should be noted that excessive pressures which develop during grouting
can lead to water segregation and can also cause cracking or damage to the structural element, and
should be avoided.
The grout should be discarded after 30 minutes unless a retarder is used. Grouting should not be
undertaken if the ambient temperature drops below 5ºC, and care should be taken to ensure that the
ducts are free from ice or frost before grouting commences in cold weather (Ref. 37).
POSTTENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 327
The fluidity of the grout should be tested immediately after mixing and at regular intervals during
the grouting operation. A flow cone test is normally used for testing fluidity on site (Ref. 37).
Sufficient quantities of grout must be taken during grouting, usually at each vent, to enable testing
of the other properties of the grout such as bleeding, strength and volume change. Appropriate
testing procedures for determining these properties are described in Refs. 33, 37, 38, 313 and
314.
It is extremely important to ensure that the grouting operation is carried out properly because the
durability of a bonded posttensioned structure depends on how sucessfully this operation has been
completed. It is, therefore, strongly recommended that this highly specialised and critical operation
be carried out only by appropriately trained and experienced personnel.
3.4 PRETENSIONING VERSUS POSTTENSIONING
Pretensioning and posttensioning systems each have specific theoretical and practical advantages
and disadvantages. These must be considered in conjunction with the particular technical require
ments and the prevailing economic considerations for a specific job, before a decision can be made
regarding which method of prestressing is to be used. It is useful to remember, in this regard, that
although pretensioning is generally perceived as being limited to permanent precasting factories, it
can be economically feasible for the contractor to set up a temporary prestensioning yard at, or
close to, the site on projects where a large number of pretensioned elements are to be used. On the
other hand, posttensioned members, which are usually constructed and tensioned in situ, can be
manufactured in a precasting plant and subsequently transported to site (e.g. precast segmental
posttensioned bridges).
Some of the differences between pretensioning and posttensioning, which should also be considered
when comparing the two methods of prestressing a member, are listed in the following:
• The capital investment in the equipment and facilities required for posttensioning is considerably
less than for the equipment and industrial layout needed for pretensioning.
• The efficiency of pretensioning, measured in terms of cost per unit of tensioning load, is greater
than that of posttensioning because of the additional material and labour costs associated with
the ducts, anchorages and grouting required for posttensioning.
• Structural elements can be prestressed in situ only by posttensioning.
• It is impractical to posttension very short elements because any anchor set will lead to a large
percentage loss of tensioning force, and also because the small elongation of the short tendon
requires a high accuracy of measurement. Clearly these difficulties are nonexistent if the
longline method of pretensioning is used.
• Long and very large members may be more conveniently and economically cast in place and
posttensioned, because the cost of transporting and handling large pretensioned members, which
are cast off site, can become excessive. When the precasting plant is situated too far away from
the site, the transportation cost can also become prohibitive.
• The tendons in posttensioned elements can easily be placed on smooth curves along the desired
profile. Although pretensioned tendons can be deflected, the procedure remains costly and limited.
In the case of continuous elements, such as continuous bridge beams, pretensioning becomes
impractical.
• The loss of prestressing force associated with tendon friction during tensioning is significant in
posttensioned tendons and must be considered in design as well as during construction.
328 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES
3.5 REFERENCES
31 Libby, J. R., Modern Prestressed Concrete: Design Principles and Construction Methods, 4th
ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1990.
32 Lin, T. Y., and Burns, N. H., Design of Prestressed Concrete Structures, 3rd ed., John Wiley
& Sons, New York, 1981.
33 Leonhardt, F., Prestressed Concrete Design and Construction, English translation, Wilhelm
Ernst & Sohn, Berlin, 1964.
34 Khachaturian, N., Gurfinkel, G., Prestressed Concrete, McGrawHill Book Company, New
York, 1969.
35 Collins, M. P., and Mitchell, D., Prestressed Concrete Structures, PrenticeHall, Englewood
Cliffs, New Jersey, 1991.
36 British Standards Institution, “British Standard Specification for The Performance of Prestress
ing Anchorages for PostTensioned Construction,” BS 4447:1973 (1990), BSI, London, 1973,
reaffirmed 1990.
37 Committee of State Road Authorities, “Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Works,”
1st ed., The CSRA Secretariat: Division of Roads and Transport Technology, Council for
Scientific and Industrial Reseach, Pretoria, 1987.
38 PostTensioning Manual, PostTensioning Institute, Glenview, Illinois, 1976.
39 South African Bureau of Standards, “The Structural Use of Concrete,” SABS 0100: 1992,
Part 1, SABS, Pretoria, 1992.
310 British Standards Institution, “Structural Use of Concrete, Part 1, Code of Practice for Design
and Construction,” BS 8110: Part 1: 1985, BSI, London, 1985.
311 FIP Commission on Practical Construction, FIP Guide to good practicePrestressed Concrete:
Safety Precautions in PostTensioning, Thomas Telford Ltd, London, 1989.
312 Recommendations for Safety Precautions in PostTensioning Operations, Concrete Society of
Southern Africa, Halfway House.
313 FIP Commission on Practical Construction, FIP Guide to good practiceGrouting of Tendons
in Prestressed Concrete, Thomas Telford Ltd, London, 1990.
314 "Grouting Specifications," CONCRETE, The Concrete Society Journal, Vol. 27, No. 4,
July/August 1993.
REFERENCES 329
4 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
4.1 INTRODUCTION
It is important that the difference between analysis and design for flexure be clearly understood.
Analysis includes the processes required for assessing the response of the section to the applied
loadings and, therefore, implies that the configuration of the section and the properties of the
materials used are known. Design, on the other hand, involves the selection of a suitable section
and suitable materials out of many possibilities. The process of design is more complex than that
of analysis because, on the one hand, it deals with unknowns while, on the other hand, a large
number of combinations of possibilities exist. Analysis usually forms an integral part of the design
process because once a section has been designed it must be analysed to check if it satisfies the
specified design criteria.
In this Chapter, the flexural behaviour of a prestressed concrete beam section over the complete
loading spectrum, from zero load to failure, is first discussed. This is followed by a presentation of
methods of analysis, after which various design procedures are dealt with. Sections subjected to
flexure only are considered here, that is, only the effects of moment are considered. The material
presented in this Chapter covers pretensioned and posttensioned members, and includes both
composite and partially prestressed concrete sections. In the case of posttensioned members, both
bonded and unbonded construction are considered.
4.2 SIGN CONVENTION
Any systematic structural analysis requires a consistent sign convention. The analysis of prestressed
concrete sections for flexure is no exception to this rule, even though the sense of some variables,
such as stress and strain, can easily be determined by inspection. It is also important to realise that
a computer implementation of any of the analytical procedures considered here should not be
contemplated without the use of such a sign convention.
The sign convention followed in these notes conforms to that commonly used in structural mechanics,
and is defined by the rules listed below. Any deviation from these rules is either self evident or
clearly indicated in the text.
• Stress and force: Stress and force are both taken positive when tensile and negative when
compressive. It should be noted that many authors use the opposite convention, i.e. tension
negative and compression positive, the reason being that since prestressed concrete beams are
normally under compression the sense of the stress which occurs most often is positive.
• Bending moment: Ordinary beam convention is applied to bending moment, according to which
positive moment corresponds to a concave deflected shape of the beam while negative moment
corresponds to a convex deflected shape, as shown in Fig. 41.
Positive bending moment
+M +M
M M
Negative bending moment
Figure 41: Sign convention for bending moment.
INTRODUCTION 41
• Section properties: The dimensions, area A and the second moment of area about the centroidal
axis I of the section are always taken positive. The eccentricity e of the prestressing force is
always measured from the centroid of the section and is taken positive below the centroidal axis
(see Fig. 42). The sign of the section modulus Z=I/y with respect to a particular fibre is
determined by the distance y of the fibre measured from the centroidal axis. This distance is
taken positive for fibres located below the centroidal axis (see Fig. 42).
4.3 ANALYSIS
4.3.1 Basic assumptions
The following basic assumptions are required for the analysis of a prestressed concrete beam section:
• Plane sections before bending remain plane after bending.
• The stressstrain relationships of the materials are known.
• The relationship between the strain in the steel and the strain in the surrounding concrete is
known.
Each of the three basic assumptions are discussed in the following with regard to their impact on
the analysis of prestressed concrete beam sections.
Plane sections before bending remain plane after bending.
The strain distribution over the depth of a beam in bending varies as a function of the distance from
the neutral axis. The first assumption implies that a linear relationship exists between the strain at
a fibre in the concrete and its distance from the neutral axis as shown in Figure 43. A large number
x
e, y
Centroidal axis
Figure 42: Axial system for section properties.
M M
e
c
y
k
Neutral
axis
(a) Beam subjected to flexure (b) Strain distribution with depth
Figure 43: Plane sections remain plane during bending.
42 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
of tests on reinforced concrete members (Ref. 41) indicate that this assumption is very nearly correct
at all stages of loading up to failure, provided that good bond exists between the concrete and the
steel.
The assumption proves to be accurate for the concrete in the compression zone even at high loads
close to the ultimate load. After cracks have developed in the tension zone, the tensile strain in the
uncracked concrete between cracks is known to vary from zero at the crack to some nonzero value
at positions located some distance away from the crack because of the action of bond between the
steel and the surrounding concrete. Consequently the assumption that plane sections remain plane
cannot be true in a cracked member when considering individual sections. However, if the gauge
length for measuring strain is large enough to include a number of cracks, this assumption will hold
for this “average” tensile strain (Ref. 41).
The first assumption does not hold for deep beams and regions of high shear. According to
SABS 0100 (Ref. 42) a simply supported beam should be considered as being deep when the ratio
of the height of the section to the effective span length exceeds ½.
Note that the validity of the first assumption has often been questioned for a number of reasons
(Ref. 43):
• Most of the conclusions were derived from the results of tests on beams with rectangular cross
sections and measurements were made in a region of constant moment.
• The strains are usually measured on the outside of the beam and it could be argued that this
situation is not representative of conditions inside the beam.
• For nonrectangular sections, disturbances occur at points where the width of the member abruptly
changes.
In spite of these objections, application of this assumption by many researchers has shown that a
good correlation can be obtained between calculated and measured results so that it can be considered
to be accurate enough for design purposes. In lieu of an alternative, this assumption will be used.
The stressstrain relationships of the materials are known.
The stressstrain relationships of both the prestressed and nonprestressed steel, as presented and
discussed in section 2.2, can be used. However, it is important to note that the concrete is acting
in flexure and not in direct compression or tension, and the relationship used for the purposes of
flexural analysis must therefore take this into account.
A great deal of research has been carried out to determine the stressstrain relationship of concrete
flexural elements. The most notable research was carried out by Hognestad et al (Ref. 44) and
Rüsch (Ref. 45), and the following results were obtained:
• A similarity exists between the stressstrain relationships for concentrically loaded cylinders and
the stressstrain relationship for eccentrically loaded beam specimens.
• The maximum stresses reached in the beam specimens were lower than the cylinder strengths,
with the difference increasing with an increase in cylinder strength.
• The stressstrain relationship for beam specimens could be determined for strains much larger
than the strain at which the maximum stress occurs. The determination of the stressstrain
relationship for concentrically loaded cylinders beyond the cylinder strength is complicated by
the fact that special testing equipment is required.
• The maximum strain e
cu
reached in the extreme compression fibre in bending is a function of
the concrete strength, decreasing with an increase in cylinder strength. Rüsch (Ref. 45) has
shown that the strain at the extreme compression fibre at maximum moment is also a function
of the shape of the crosssection.
ANALYSIS 43
If the above points are kept in mind, the stressstrain relationships obtained for concrete in direct
compression can be applied to beams in bending. The parabolicrectangular stressstrain relationship
recommended by the design codes of practice commonly used in South Africa (Refs. 42, 46, 47
and 48) is shown in Figure 44. The purpose of the 0.67 factor is to take into account the differences
between the cube strength f
cu
and the experimentally obtained results for beams in bending. A
constant value of 0.0035 is recommended for e
cu
and the partial factor of safety g
m
is discussed
later.
Because the stressstrain relationship is usually difficult to determine and to deal with computation
ally, much research has been carried out to represent the stress distribution in the compression zone
of a beam at ultimate as an equivalent rectangular stressblock. The recommendations given by
SABS 0100 (Ref 42) and BS 8110 (Ref. 47) are summarized in Figure 45. It should be noted that
the equivalent rectangular stressblock is only valid at ultimate, and not when considering flexural
response at other levels of loading.
When calculating the response of the section at ultimate, the tensile strength of the concrete is
usually ignored because its influence on the moment of resistance is small. This follows because
the concrete in the tension zone is usually cracked at ultimate, so that the remaining area in tension
is small with a correspondingly small leverarm. The tensile strength becomes more important when
calculating deformations at loadings appropriate to the serviceability limit state, and its influence
on behaviour should be accounted for at these load levels.
Parabolic
curve
Stress
Strain
e
c0
E
ci
g
m
0. 67 f
cu
e
cu
= 0.0035
e
g
c
cu
m
f
0
4
2 4 10 = ´

.
E
f
ci
cu
m
=55 .
g
GPa
f
cu
in MPa
Figure 44: Parabolicrectangular stressstrain relationship for concrete in flexure (Refs. 42, 46,
47 and 48).
e
c0
e
cu
= 0.0035
g
m
0. 67 f
cu
g
m
0. 67 f
cu
s x = 0.9
x
Parabolicrectangular
stress block
Equivalent rectangular
stress block
Strain
distribution
Neutral axis
Figure 45: Rectangular stressstrain relationship for concrete in flexure (Refs. 42 and 47).
44 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
The relationship between the strain in the steel and the strain in the surrounding concrete is known.
The strain in the concrete at the level of the steel is calculated by making use of the assumption
that plane sections remain plane, and the change in strain in the steel is subsequently obtained by
assuming that it is equal to the calculated strain in the concrete at the level of the steel. This
approach applies to all bonded steel.
The distribution of the strain in unbonded tendons is assumed to be uniform along the length of the
member, even though it actually varies to some degree because of the effects of friction. Under
these conditions, the total change in length of the concrete at the level of the prestressing steel is
assumed to be equal to the change in length of the prestressing steel. The implications of this
assumption are discussed in Section 4.3.6.
4.3.2 Flexural response
By making use of equilibrium and the basic assumptions (see Section 4.3.1), the momentcurvature
relationship of a given beam section can be calculated over the full range of loading. This is a
particularly useful relationship because it only considers the response at a section and is independent
of the response of the member as a whole.
Curvature k is defined as the angle between two faces of an element of unit length after deformation,
and is determined by the following expression (see Fig. 43)
(41)
where e
c
is the strain in the concrete at a distance y from the neutral axis. The curvature is positive
when the bottom of the section has an algebraically larger strain than the top of the section, and it
is zero when y tends to infinity, i.e. the strains at the top and bottom of the section are equal.
Consider a typical beam section as shown in Figure 46a. The prestressing tendons are bonded to
the concrete and have material properties as shown in Figure 46b. A bilinear stressstrain
relationship is assumed for the concrete as shown in Figure 46c. It is interesting to note that the
exact shape of the concrete stressstrain relationship has little influence on the behaviour of a
underreinforced section (see Section 4.3.5 for definition), as is considered in this example.
The calculated momentcurvature diagram is shown in Figure 46e with the initial portion of the
diagram enlarged in Figure 46d. As the externally applied moment increases from zero to failure,
several important points can be identified and are denoted by capital letters A to H. At each of these
points the corresponding stress distribution is also shown. It should be noted that the shape of this
diagram may differ according to the choice of material properties and level of prestressing.
Point A on the momentcurvature relationship indicates the point of zero moment where only the
effective prestressing force, including all losses, is acting on the section with no applied loading.
This case corresponds to the fictitious case of a weightless beam. However, it is a convenient point
from which to start the calculations and the self weight will be taken into account as an external
moment applied to the section.
As the externally applied moment increases, the strain at the top of the section will change from
tension to compression until point B is reached where the stress at the top of the section will be
equal to the stress at the bottom of the section, i.e. a point of zero curvature. With a further increase
in moment the stress decreases at the bottom until a point C is reached where it is zero, and the
corresponding moment is often refered to as the decompression moment.
When point D is reached the strain in the concrete at the level of the prestressing steel is zero.
With a further increase in moment the tensile stress at the bottom of the section will increase until
point E is reached where the tensile strength of the concrete f
r
is exceeded and the concrete cracks.
At this stage, a point of instability is reached where the curvature will increase with an accompanying
k
e
=
c
y
ANALYSIS 45
Curvature ( ) ´
 
10
3 1
m
0 2 2 4 6 8 10
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
M
o
m
e
n
t
(
k
N
.
m
)
A
B
C
D
E
(d) Initial moment curvature response
f
r
Concrete
cracks
Decompression
Zero
curvature
Only
prestressing
force
Zero concrete strain
at level of steel
10 10 0 30 20 50 40 70 60 90 80
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
M
o
m
e
n
t
(
k
N
.
m
)
Curvature ( ) ´
 
10
3 1
m
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
(e) Complete moment curvature response
Steel yields
Concrete becomes
plastic ( = 0.0015) e
c
Concrete fails
Enlarged above
in Figure (d)
Elastic
Cracked
Elastic
Uncracked
Range of
service load
Plastic
Cracked
(c) Idealized concrete material properties
41.4 MPa
4.14 MPa
(= ) f
r
0.0015 0.003
0.00015
Strain e
c
S
t
r
e
s
s
f
c
E
c
= 27.6 GPa
155
307
230
A
ps
f
se
= 813.6 MPa
A
ps
= 100.6 mm
2
(a) Crosssection (b) Idealized prestressing steel material properties
e
p
u
=
0
.
0
6
E
p
= 207 GPa
f
pu
= 1710 MPa
f
py
= 1489 MPa
S
t
r
e
s
s
f
p
Strain e
p
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Figure 46 : Moment curvature response of an underreinforced beam with bonded tendons
(Ref. 43).
46 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
reduction of moment. Stability is subsequently regained once an increase in curvature is accompanied
by an increase in moment, and beyond this point the section can sustain moments larger than the
cracking moment.
At point F the stress in the prestressing steel is equal to the yield stress, and at point G the stress
in the concrete will reach the end of its elastic range. The maximum moment that the section can
resist corresponds to the moment at point H where the concrete fails in compression. Failure of the
concrete is defined as the point where the maximum concrete strain e
cu
is reached in the top fibre.
As indicated in Fig. 46e, the section behaves as an elastic uncracked section between points A and
E, and as an elastic cracked section between points E and F. Beyond point F, up to failure at point
H, the response corresponds to that of a cracked plastic section.
The theoretical momentdeflection curve presented in Fig. 47 was calculated on the basis of the
moment curvature relationship of Fig. 46 which, in turn, makes use of the basic assumptions
discussed in Section 4.3.1. The excellent agreement with the experimentally obtained curve clearly
shows that the basic assumptions can provide reasonable results.
4.3.3 Analysis of the uncracked section
A prestressed concrete beam section usually remains uncracked over a wide range of moment (see
Fig. 46e). As discussed in Section 4.3.2, the material response remains essentially linear elastic
within this range. If the Bernoulli/Navier hypothesis that plane sections remain plane is combined
with the assumption that the material behaviour is linear elastic, stresses and strains in the uncracked
section may be calculated on the basis of ordinary engineering beam theory.
Following this approach, the tensile force P in the tendon is taken to induce an equal and opposite
compressive force P in the concrete acting at the same position. The stresses induced in the concrete
by the prestressing force alone are subsequently calculated by considering the section to be subjected
0 10 30 50 20 40 60
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Deflection calculated from moment curvature relationship
Deflection from experimental results (Ref. 49)
Deflection D (mm)
M
i
d
s
p
a
n
m
o
m
e
n
t
(
k
N
.
m
)
914 914 914
2 742
D
Figure 47: Momentdeflection response of an underreinforced beam with bonded tendons (Ref.
43).
ANALYSIS 47
to an axial load P acting at its centroid together with a moment Pe acting about its centroidal axis,
where e is the eccentricity of the tendon measured from the centroid of the section. Hence, the stress
induced by prestressing only on a fibre located a distance y from the section centroid is given by
(see Fig. 48a)
(42)
where A = area of the section
I = second moment of area of the section about its centroidal axis
When applying the above equation, the sign convention must be carefully observed: The force P
will carry a negative sign because it acts as a compressive force on the concrete. The moment Pe
will also be negative (indicating a negative moment) if the cable is located below the centroidal
axis of the section because e carries a positive sign in this case. Also note that y is positive for
fibres located below the centroidal axis while it is negative for fibres located above the centroidal
axis.
The stress induced by an externally applied moment M in the uncracked concrete section is also
calculated by ordinary beam theory. Using this approach, the stress induced by M on a fibre located
a distance y from the section centroid is given by (see Fig. 48a)
(43)
f
P
A
P e y
I
P
= +
f
M y
I
M
=
P
M
e
P e M
M P e
Prestressing only
c.g.s.
Centroidal
axis
Beam
section
Prestressing force
and externally
applied moment
(a) At a fibre distance from the section centroid y
(b) At the outer fibres of the section
External loadings Total stresses
P
Z
top
Z
top
Z
bot
Z
bot
A
P e
+
P
Z
bot
A
P e
+
P
Z
top
A
P e M
+ +
P
Z
top
Z
top
A
P e M
+ +
P
Z
bot
Z
bot
A
+ + = =
P
y
M
e
M y M y P e y
Prestressing only
Beam
section
c.g.s.
Centroidal
axis
Prestressing force
and externally
applied moment
External loadings Total stresses
P
I I
I
A
+
P e y P
I
A
+
P e y P
I
A
+
+ + = =
y
top
y
bot
Figure 48: Calculation of stresses in the concrete due to prestressing and an externally applied
moment.
48 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
It must be noted that Eq. 43 is applicable to any externally applied moment, irrespective of whether
it arises from the beam self weight or an externally applied load. As in the case of Eq. 42, the
sign convention must be properly observed.
The total concrete stress resulting from both the prestressing force and the loads is subsequently
obtained by superimposing the stresses induced by each of these effects acting on their own (see
Fig. 48a). Thus, by combining Eqs. 42 and 43
(44)
Specifically, the extreme top and bottom fibre stresses are given by (see Fig. 48b)
(45)
(46)
where
f
top
, f
bot
= stress in the extreme top and bottom fibres, respectively
Z
top
= I/y
top
= section modulus with respect to the extreme top fibre, located a distance y
top
from
the section centroid
Z
bot
= I/y
bot
= section modulus with respect to the extreme bottom fibre, located a distance y
bot
from the section centroid
Note that Z
top
carries a negative sign because the extreme top fibre lies above the centroidal axis
so that y
top
is negative. On the other hand, Z
bot
can be shown to be positive because the extreme
bottom fibre lies below the centroidal axis, which means that y
bot
is positive.
EXAMPLE 41
The posttensioned simply supported concrete beam shown in Fig. 49 is subjected to a uniformly
distributed load of 15 kN/m, including self weight. Calculate the extreme top and bottom fibre
stresses at midspan if the tendon force is 1334 kN.
The beam section properties are calculated below. Please note the use of the sign convention.
f f f
P
A
P e y
I
M y
I
P M
= + = + +
f
P
A
P e
Z
M
Z
top
top top
= + +
f
P
A
P e
Z
M
Z
bot
bot bot
= + +
A b h
I b h
y
h
y
h
top
bot
= = ´ = ´
= = ´ ´ = ´
= = =
= = =
300 600 180 10
1
12
1
12
300 600 54 10
2
600
2
300
2
600
2
300
3 2
3 3 9 4
mm
mm
mm
mm
.
L = 12000
300
180
h = 600
b = 300
Section at midspan
Centroidal axis
c.g.s.
300
w = 15 kN/m
Figure 49: Example 41.
ANALYSIS 49
The bending moment at the midspan section is given by and
the prestressing force P = 1334 kN acts at an eccentricity e = 300  180 = 120 mm. Equations 45
and 46 are subsequently used to calculate the stresses in the extreme top and bottom fibres of the
midspan section, respectively:
The section properties used in the above example for calculating the stresses were based on the
gross concrete section. Although this approach is convenient from a practical point of view, it is
not theoretically correct. Consider, for example, the case of a posttensioned bonded prestressed
concrete beam: At transfer and up to the time at which the grout has hardened and become effective
the tendons are not bonded to the concrete so that any loads applied to the beam at this stage, such
as the prestressing force and self weight, will act on the net concrete section. Hence, the stresses
induced by these loads in the concrete should be calculated on the basis of the properties of the net
concrete section which take the presence of the preformed ducts, within which the tendons are
contained, into account. After the grout has hardened, the tendons are effectively bonded to the
concrete so that the transformed section properties must be used for calculating the stresses induced
in the concrete by loads applied at this stage, such as the superimposed dead load and the live load.
By the nature of the procedure, the tendons in pretensioned beams will always be bonded to the
concrete. This means that the transformed section properties should be used for calculating the
stresses in the concrete induced by all the loads, including the prestressing force. On the other hand,
the properties of the net concrete section should be used for all stress calculations in the case of
unbonded construction because, in this case, the tendons are never bonded to the concrete.
The correct section to be used in the various situations described above are summarised in Table 41.
It should also be noted that a distinction must be made between the transformed section properties
used for calculating the stresses induced by shortterm loadings and those used for calculating the
stresses induced by the longterm loads. In the case of longterm loads, the transformed section
properties should, in some way, reflect the effects of creep of the concrete. This is commonly done
by making use of an effective modulus of elasticity for the concrete, which includes creep strain,
for assessing the modular ratio used in the calculation of the transformed section properties.
Although it is theoretically more correct to base the calculation of stress on the section properties
as outlined above, this is not frequently done in practice. Stress calculations are usually carried out
using the properties of the gross concrete section only. This approach greatly simplifies the
calculations and, under normal circumstances, provides a close approximation. However, in
circumstances where the area of the ducts forms a significant part of the crosssection and/or if a
large quantity of steel is contained in the section, the section properties should be based on the
sections as indicated in Table 41 to ensure that stresses are estimated with sufficient accuracy.
It is important to note that the magnitude of the prestressing force used for a stress calculation must
reflect the loss of prestress appropriate to the age of the beam at the time under consideration. The
total loss of prestress can conveniently be divided into instantaneous losses, which take place at
Z
I
y
Z
I
y
top
top
bot
bot
= =
´

= ´
= =
´
= ´
54 10
300
18 10
54 10
300
18 10
9
6 3
9
6 3
.
.
mm
mm
M wL = = ´ =
2 2
8 15 12 8 270 / / kN. m
f
P
A
Pe
Z
M
Z
f
P
A
Pe
Z
M
Z
top
top top
bot
bot bot
= + + =
 ´
´
+
 ´ ´
 ´
+
´
 ´
=
= + + =
 ´
´
+
 ´ ´
´
+
´
´
=
1334 10
180 10
1334 10 120
18 10
270 10
18 10
1352
1334 10
180 10
1334 10 120
18 10
270 10
18 10
130
3
3
3
6
6
6
3
3
3
6
6
6
.
.
MPa
MPa
410 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
the time of transfer, and timedependent losses, which gradually develop with time. The instantaneous
losses are attributed to the following sources:
• Elastic shortening of the concrete. When the prestressing force is transferred to the concrete, the
concrete shortens so that tendons already bonded or anchored to the concrete also shorten by the
same amount. This leads to a reduction of the stress in the tendons and, hence, a loss of
prestressing force. Although this loss occurs in both pretensioned and posttensioned members,
they are not affected to the same degree.
• Friction. When a tendon in a posttensioned member is tensioned, friction is induced between
the sliding tendon and the surrounding duct material. This friction reduces the tensioning force,
and the magnitude of the reduction, which increases for sections further away from the jacking
end, represents the friction loss.
• Anchorage seating. When a posttensioned tendon is anchored to the concrete after tensioning,
the components of the anchorage will deform slightly and, if the anchorages make use of wedge
grips, a certain amount of slip must take place to seat the grips. The resulting loss of elongation
of the tendon, termed anchorage seating, leads to a reduction of the tensioning force. This loss
occurs only in posttensioning systems.
The timedependent losses, which occur in both pretensioned and posttensioned members, develop
with time and are attributed to the timedependent behaviour of the concrete and the steel as follows:
• Relaxation of the tendons. Because the tensioned tendons in a prestressed concrete member are
continuously subjected to a large strain over the life of the member, a timedependent loss of
tensioning force, and hence prestress, takes place as a result of relaxation of the steel.
• Creep and shrinkage of the concrete. Creep and shrinkage of the concrete in a prestressed concrete
member each induce a timedependent shortening in the concrete which, in turn, leads to a
shortening of the attached tendons. This action results in a timedependent reduction of the stress
in the tendons and, hence, a loss of prestressing force.
4.3.4 Cracking moment
The moment at which the section first cracks is referred to as the cracking moment. It is usually
taken as the moment which, by elastic theory, induces a tensile stress in the extreme fibre equal to
the modulus of rupture f
r
. Although this approach has often been questioned, available experimental
data indicate that it is sufficiently accurate (Ref. 410). The cracking moment M
cr
with respect to
the bottom fibre is therefore determined by setting f
bot
= f
r
and M = M
cr
in Eq. 46, and solving
the resulting expression for M
cr
. Hence,
so that
(47)
f f
P
A
P e
Z
M
Z
bot r
bot
cr
bot
= = + +
M f Z P
Z
A
e
cr r bot
bot
=  +
F
H
G
I
K
J
Load Pretensioned
bonded
Posttensioned
bonded
Posttensioned
unbonded
Prestress Transformed Net Net
Self weight Transformed Net Net
Superimposed dead load Transformed Transformed Net
Live load Transformed Transformed Net
Table 41: Correct sections for stress calculations.
ANALYSIS 411
The modulus of rupture, used in this way, merely serves as an index for measuring the load at which
hair cracks, often invisible to the naked eye, start to develop. A higher load is usually necessary
for visible cracks to form. However, it is important to note that once the section has cracked it can
no longer be analysed as an uncracked elastic section, but that the cracked section must be considered
instead. The cracking moment is usually used to mark the end of uncracked section behaviour and
the onset of cracked section behaviour. Note that if the section has already been cracked in a previous
loading, the cracking moment can no longer be used as the limit of uncracked section behaviour.
In such a case, the decompression moment, defined as the moment which induces a zero stress in
the extreme fibre, must be used.
EXAMPLE 42
Consider the posttensioned concrete beam of example 41. Determine the cracking moment of the
section at midspan if the cube strength of the concrete is f
cu
= 45 MPa.
According to the SABS 0100 (Ref. 42) the modulus of rupture is given by
= 4.360 MPa. The cracking moment M
cr
is calculated using Eq. 47. Note the proper use
of the sign convention and, in particular, that f
r
is assigned a positive value because it represents
a tensile stress.
4.3.5 Ultimate moment: Sections with bonded tendons
The ultimate moment of a prestressed concrete beam section is, by definition, the maximum moment
which it can resist. In the case of the section considered in Fig. 46 it is represented by point H on
the momentcurvature diagram. The mode in which a given prestressed concrete section with bonded
tendons fails in flexure depends on the amount of steel provided, and one of the three types
illustrated in Fig. 410 is possible:
• Failure induced by fracture of the steel immediately after the concrete has cracked. This failure
mode is brittle and occurs in very lightly reinforced sections in which insufficient steel is
provided to carry the additional tensile force which is transferred from the concrete to the steel
upon cracking. This type of failure is highly undesirable and such sections are not commonly
encountered in practice.
• Failure induced by crushing of the concrete compression zone after the steel has yielded and
undergone a large nonlinear elongation. Sections which fail in this manner are referred to as
underreinforced sections. This failure mode is ductile because the section can sustain a moment
close to the ultimate moment over a wide range of deformations. Because of its ductility, this
type of failure is highly desirable and most sections encountered in practice are proportioned as
underreinforced sections.
• Failure induced by crushing of the concrete prior to yielding of the steel. Sections which fail in
this manner are heavily reinforced and are referred to as overreinforced sections. This failure
mode is brittle and takes place suddenly because, once the ultimate moment has been reached,
the section suddenly loses its ability to sustain moment with any further increase in deformation.
Because of their brittle nature, overreinforced sections are undesirable and should be avoided.
Because the stressstrain response of prestressing steel does not show a definite yield point as in
the case of hotrolled steel reinforcing bars (see Fig. 224), it is not possible to define a precise
f f
r cu
= 0 65 .
= 0 65 45 .
M f Z P
Z
A
e
cr r bot
bot
=  +
F
H
G
I
K
J
= ´ ´   ´ ´
´
´
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
= ´ =
4 360 18 10 1334 10
18 10
180 10
120
372 0 10 372
6 3
6
3
6
. ( )
. N. mm .0 kN. m
412 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
limit to the percentage of reinforcement required for underreinforced failure as is possible for
ordinary reinforced concrete beam sections.
The most general approach to calculating the ultimate moment of a prestressed concrete beam section
is to directly apply the basic assumptions listed in Section 4.3.1. In the following, this approach is
developed for the calculation of the ultimate moment of a rectangular bonded prestressed concrete
beam section. Figure 411 shows the assumed strain distribution as well as the stress distribution
in such a section when the ultimate moment has just been reached, and the following important
aspects must be noted:
• The ultimate condition is defined in terms of a limiting strain e
cu
being reached in the concrete
at the extreme compression fibre.
• Although the compressive stress distribution in the concrete at ultimate is approximated by an
equivalent rectangular stress block, the principle of the analytical procedure remains unaltered if
a more exact, but more complicated, approximation is used. The codes of practice commonly
used in South Africa (Refs. 42, 46, 47 and 48) set a = 0.45 or 0.4 and b = 0.9 or 1.0 (Note
that the values of a given here include a partial safety factor g
m
= 1.5).
• The tensile strength of the concrete is neglected. This means that any concrete which falls below
the neutral axis is assumed to offer no resistance to bending.
Moment
Curvature k
cr
Amount of
reinforcement
increases
Ultimate
( ) f f
ps py
£
Underreinforced
( ) f f f
py ps pu
< £
Ultimate moment
less than cracking moment
( = ) f f
ps pu
Overreinforced
Cracking
Steel yields
f
f
f
pu
py
ps
= Characteristic strength
of the prestressing steel
= Defined yield stress of the
prestressing steel
= Stress in the prestressing steel
at ultimate
Figure 410: Momentcurvature behaviour for increasing reinforcement.
e
cu
e
s
a f
cu
f
c
( ) x
b x
A
ps
x
b
d
h
Assumed strain
distribution
Assumed stress
distribution
Neutral axis x
C
T
z
Figure 411: Analysis of a rectangular bonded prestressed concrete beam section at ultimate.
ANALYSIS 413
• Because the tendons are bonded to the concrete, the changes in strain in the steel are taken to
be the same as in the adjacent concrete after bonding.
The total strain in the steel must include the strain induced by the effective prestress, including all
losses which have taken place at the time under consideration. Figure 412a shows that the initial
strain induced by the effective prestress alone (i.e. no moment from external loads acting on the
section) consists of two components:
• A tensile strain e
se
induced in the steel by the effective tensioning stress f
se
acting in the tendon,
including all losses.
• A compressive strain e
ce
in the concrete at the level of the steel, induced by the effective prestress
acting on its own.
Hence the total strain in the prestressing steel is given by
(48)
The various components of strain are calculated as follows:
• e
se
is simply taken as the elastic extension of the steel acting under the effective prestress f
se
.
Thus
(49)
where E
p
= Modulus of elasticity of the steel
• e
ce
is calculated by considering the prestress to be acting on the elastic uncracked section. Hence,
at the level of the steel
(410)
where E
c
= Modulus of elasticity of the concrete
Note that because e
ce
is a compressive strain, it will carry a negative sign if the sign convention
is properly applied to Eq. 410. This means that when e
ce
is substituted into Eq. 48 it will be
e e e e
ps s ce se
=  +
e
se
se
p
f
E
=
e
ce
c
P
A
P e
I E
= +
L
N
M
M
O
Q
P
P
2
1
e
cu
e
ce
e
ce
e
se
e
s
e
se
e e  e e
ps s ce se
= +
A
ps
x
b
d
e
h
(a)
Strain induced by
effective prestress
only (i.e. zero moment)
(b)
Strain distribution
at ultimate conditions
Centroidal
axis
Figure 412: Strain in the steel.
414 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
added to the other strain components, as expected (see Fig. 412b). It is also important to note
that the value for P in Eq. 410 must include all prestress losses at the time under consideration.
• The change in strain e
s
induced by the ultimate moment is obtained by applying the compatibility
assumption that plane sections remain plane and that, since the steel is bonded to the concrete,
the change in strain in the steel is the same as in the concrete at the level of the steel. Thus,
considering similar triangles (see Figs. 411 and 412b),
(411)
where d = effective depth of the steel, always taken positive
x = depth to the neutral axis, always taken positive
e
cu
= limiting strain in the concrete at the extreme compression fibre, specified as
0.0035 by the codes of practice commonly used in South Africa (Refs. 42, 46,
47 and 48)
Once the total strain e
ps
in the prestressing steel has been determined by Eq. 48, used in conjunction
with with Eqs. 49 through 411, the steel stress at ultimate f
ps
is obtained from the stressstrain
relationship of the steel as the stress corresponding to the strain e
ps
(see Fig. 413). The design
stressstrain curve recommended by SABS 0100 (Ref. 42) for prestressed reinforcement is shown
in Fig. 226, and the other design codes of practice commonly used in South Africa also prescibe
similar design stressstrain curves. Although actual, experimentally determined stressstrain diagrams
may be used instead, care must be taken to properly include the partial safety factor g
m
, depending
on whether a nominal or design value of the ultimate moment is being calculated.
The total tensile force T acting in the steel at ultimate is subsequently calculated from (see Fig. 411)
(412)
where A
ps
= crosssectional area of the prestressing steel
The total compressive force acting in the uncracked compression zone of the concrete at ultimate
is calculated simply by evaluating the volume of the compressive stress prism (see Fig. 411). Thus,
(413)
where f
c
(x) = compressive stress in the fibre located a distance x from the neutral axis
b = width of the section
e e
s cu
d x
x
=
 F
H
G
I
K
J
T A f
ps ps
=
C f b d
c
x
=
z
( ) x x
0
Stress
f
ps
Strain
e
ps
Figure 413: Determining f
ps
from the stressstrain curve for the steel with e
ps
known.
ANALYSIS 415
Note that f
c
(x) is negative because it represents a compressive stress and that, as for Eq. 411, x is
taken positive. This means that C will carry a negative sign, which is consistent with the sign
convention.
Equation 413 is general and can be applied to any assumed stressstrain relationship for the concrete.
If an equivalent rectangular stress block is used, Eq. 413 can be simplified as follows (see
Fig. 411):
(414)
where f
cu
= characteristic compressive strength of the concrete, taken negative because it
represents a compressive stress
a, b = stress block parameters
The ultimate moment is calculated by considering moment equilibrium of the section. Taking
moments either about the line of action of C or T yields the following expressions for the ultimate
moment M
u
(see Fig. 411):
(415)
where z = internal lever arm
The position of the line of action of C must first be determined before the internal lever arm z can
be calculated. Considering the compressive stress distribution (see Fig. 414), the following
expression can be written:
Substituting for C from Eq. 413 and rearranging terms yields the following expression for the
distance from the neutral axis to the line of action of C:
From Figs. 411 and 414 it is clear that the internal lever arm z is given by
(416)
C f b x
cu
= a b
M T z C z
u
= =
C f b d
c
x
x x x x =
z
( ) b g
0
x
x x x
x x
=
z
z
f bd
f bd
c
x
c
x
( )
( )
b g
0
0
z d x d x
f bd
f bd
c
x
c
x
=  + =  +
z
z
x
x x x
x x
( )
( )
b g
0
0
f
c
( ) x
x
C
Neutral axis
x
x
Figure 414: Line of action of resultant compression force C.
416 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
Thus, to summarize:
These expressions are general and can be applied to any assumed stressstrain relationship for the
concrete. If an equivalent rectangular stress block is used they can be simplified by substituting
Eq. 414 for C in Eq. 415 and by recognising that, in this case, z = d  b x / 2 (see Fig. 411).
Hence,
(417)
An inspection of Eqs. 48 and 411 through 417 will reveal that all the quantities represented by
these equations, which includes the ultimate moment, can be directly calculated if the value of the
neutral axis depth x at ultimate is known. Any solution technique should therefore initially be aimed
at calculating x, after which T, C, z and M
u
can be calculated. The iterative procedure presented
below follows this approach, and is recommended for use when more complicated approximations
of the stressstrain relationships for the concrete and steel are used.
(a) Assume a value for the depth to neutral axis x.
(b) Calculate the total strain in the prestressing steel e
ps
using Eqs. 48 to 411.
(c) Obtain the magnitude of the steel stress f
ps
corresponding to the strain e
ps
using the stressstrain
relationship for the steel.
(d) Calculate the magnitude of T using Eq. 412.
(e) Determine the magnitude of C from Eqs. 413 or 414, as appropriate.
(f) The correct value of x will ensure that horizontal equilibrium is satisfied. Therefore, if the
relationship T + C = 0 is satisfied, the value of x currently selected is correct and the ultimate
moment M
u
can be calculated as indicated in the next step. However, if this expression is not
satisfied, a revised value must be selected for x and steps (b) through (f) repeated.
(g) Calculate the ultimate moment M
u
using Eqs. 415 and 416 together with the current values
of T, C and x, or by using Eq. 417 together with the current value of x, as appropriate.
If an equivalent rectangular stress block is used for the concrete together with a simple approximation
of the stressstrain curve for the steel, then it is possible to find a closed form solution for x.
However, it is important to note that the complexity of the resulting expression for x is dependent
on the complexity of the stressstrain curve assumed for the steel. Consider, for example, the case
where an equivalent rectangular stress block is used in conjunction with a trilinear approximation
M T z C z
T A f
C f bd
z d x d x
f bd
f bd
u
ps ps
c
x
c
x
c
x
= =
=
=
=  + =  +
z
z
z
(
(
( ) (
( )
( )
(
from Eq. 415)
with from Eq. 412)
from Eq. 413)
from Eq. 416)
x x
x
x x x
x x
0
0
0
b g
M A f d
x
f b x d
x
u ps ps cu
= 
F
H
G
I
K
J = 
F
H
G
I
K
J b a b b
2 2
ANALYSIS 417
of the stressstrain curve for the steel (see Fig. 415). Horizontal equilibrium provides the following
expression
Substituting Eqs. 412 and 414 into the above expression yields
(418)
Inspection of Eq. 418 will reveal that if f
ps
is either known or expressed as a function of x, then
a closed formed solution can be found for x. It is also clear from Fig. 415 that the particular
expression to be used for f
ps
depends on whether e
ps
is smaller than e
p1
, whether it is larger than
e
py
, or whether it lies between e
p1
and e
py
, and that f
ps
can be expressed in terms of e
ps
as follows:
(419a)
(419b)
(419c)
where E
p
= Modulus of elasticity of the steel
E
p2
=
Equations 419b and 419c express f
ps
in terms of e
ps
and must therefore be expanded to express
f
ps
in terms of x. This is done by writing e
ps
as a function of x and substituting the result into each
of 419b and 419c. Combining Eqs. 48 and 411 yields
(420)
Substitution into 419b and 419c, and rearranging terms lead to
(421a)
(421b)
where
T C + = 0
A f f b x
ps ps cu
+ = a b 0
f
f
f E
E
ps
py ps py
p p ps p p ps py
p ps ps p
=
³
+  < <
£
R
S

T

for
for
for
e e
e e e e e
e e e
1 2 1 1
1
d i
f f
py p
py p


1
1
e e
e e e e e e e e e e e
ps s ce se se ce cu se ce cu cu
d x
x
d
x
=  + =  +
 F
H
G
I
K
J =   + c h
f
f E
d
x
f E
d
x
ps
s p cu p ps py
s p cu ps p
=
+
F
H
G
I
K
J < <
+
F
H
G
I
K
J £
R
S


T


1 2 1
1 1
e e e e
e e e
for
for
f
f E
E
s
p p se ce cu p p ps py
p se ce cu ps p
1
1 2 1 1
1
=
+    < <
  £
R
S

T

e e e e e e e
e e e e e
c h
b g
for
for
Stress, f
ps
f
py
E
p
f
p1
Strain, e
ps
e
py
e
p1
f = E
ps p ps
e
E
f f
p
py p
py p
2
1
1
=

 e e
f f E
ps p p ps p
= + 
1 2 1
e e
d i
Figure 415: Trilinear approximation of the stressstrain curve for the steel.
418 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
Since the expression to be used for f
ps
depends on the magnitude of e
ps
relative to e
p1
and e
py
, the
solution for x will also depend on the magnitude of e
ps
. Thus
For e
ps
³ e
py
Substituting Eq. 419a into Eq. 418 and solving for x yields
(422a)
For e
ps
< e
py
The following quadratic equation, which can be directly solved for x, is obtained if either of
Eqs. 421a or 421b is substituted into Eq. 418:
(422b)
where E = E
p2
for e
p1
< e
ps
< e
py
= E
p
for e
ps
£ e
p1
f
s1
is defined in Eq. 421a for e
p1
< e
ps
< e
py
and in Eq. 421b for e
ps
£ e
p1
Equations 422a and 422b are used as follows to calculate the correct value of x:
(a) Make an assumption about the range within which e
ps
lies and calculate x using either Eq. 422a
or 422b, as appropriate.
(b) Using this value of x calculate e
ps
(Eqs. 48 through 411).
(c) If e
ps
calculated in step (b) falls within the range assumed in step (a), then the calculated value
of x is correct. Otherwise, the assumption made in step (a) is incorrect and the process must
be repeated from step (a) with a revised assumption regarding the range within which e
ps
falls.
Once the correct value of x has been determined, as outlined above, the ultimate moment can be
directly calculated from the second part of Eq. 417.
EXAMPLE 43
The rectangular prestressed concrete beam section shown in Fig. 416 contains six 12.9 mm 7wire
super grade strand, the centre of gravity of which is located 60 mm above the beam soffit. The
material properties are:
Concrete: f
cu
= 50 MPa E
c
= 34 GPa
Steel: f
pu
= 1860 MPa E
p
= 195 GPa
The properties of the uncracked beam section are listed in Fig. 416 and A
ps
= 6 ´ 100 = 600 mm
2
.
At the time under consideration, f
se
= 1150 MPa. Make use of the equivalent rectangular stress block
as well as the design stressstrain curve for strand as prescribed by SABS 0100 (Ref. 42) to calculate
the design ultimate moment of the section using (a) the iterative procedure, and (b) the approach
whereby the depth to neutral axis x is directly calculated in closed form.
For the equivalent rectangular stress block prescribed by SABS 0100, a = 0.45 and b = 0.9, as
shown in Fig. 416, while the design stressstrain curve recommended for the strand considered here
is shown in Fig. 417 for g
m
= 1.15. Referring to Figs. 226 and 415,
x
A f
f b
ps py
cu
=
a b
a b
e
f b
A
x f x E d
cu
ps
s cu
F
H
G
I
K
J
+ + =
2
1
0 a f b g
f
f
py
pu
m
= = =
g
1860
115
1617
.
MPa
ANALYSIS 419
(a) Iterative approach.
Assume x = 300 mm
The magnitude of e
ce
is calculated on the basis of the effective prestress P =  f
se
A
ps
= 1150 ´
600 ´ 10
3
= 690 kN acting on the elastic uncracked section (including all losses at the time
under consideration). Therefore, from Eq. 410
The elastic extension of the steel acting under the effective prestress is given by
while the change in strain e
s
induced by the ultimate moment is obtained from Eq. 411
e
g
e
py
py
p
p
pu
m
p
p
p
f
E
f
f
f
E
= + =
´
+ =
= =
´
=
= =
´
=
0 005
1617
195 10
0 005 0 01329
08
08 1860
115
1294
1294
195 10
0 00664
3
1
1
1
3
. . .
.
.
.
.
MPa
e
ce
c
P
A
Pe
I E
= +
F
H
G
I
K
J
=

´
+
 ´
´
F
H
G
I
K
J
=
2
3
2
9
1 690
210 10
690 240
6 3 10
1
34
0 000282
.
.
e
se
se
p
f
E
= =
´
=
1150
195 10
0 005897
3
.
e e
s cu
d x
x
=
 F
H
G
I
K
J =
 F
H
G
I
K
J  =
540 300
300
0 0035 0 0028 . .
h = 600
d = 540
A
ps
= 600 mm
2
0.45 f
cu
0.9 x x
b = 350
Neutral axis
60
e
cu
= 0.0035
e
s
C
T
e
A
I
=
´
= ´
240
210 10
6 3 10
3 2
9 4
mm
= mm
mm .
Figure 416: Example 43.
Stress, f
ps
f
py
= 1617 MPa
f
p1
= 1294 MPa
Strain, e
ps
e
py
=
0.01329
e
p1
=
0.00664
Figure 417: Stressstrain curve for the steel.
420 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
Therefore, the total strain in the steel at ultimate is given by Eq. 48 as
The steel stress at ultimate is subsequently obtained from Fig. 417 as the stress corresponding to
a strain e
ps
= 0.00898. Hence, f
ps
= 1408 MPa. Note that, in this particular case, f
ps
could also have
been directly calculated from Eq. 419b.
T can now be determined by Eq. 412
Because an equivalent rectangular stress block is being used for the concrete, C is calculated by
Eq. 414
Therefore, T + C = 1281 kN ¹ 0 which means that horizontal equilibrium is not satisfied for the
selected value of x (= 300 mm). Because the magnitude of C is larger than that of T, a smaller
value of x should be selected and the above computations repeated.
Assume x = 100 mm
If the above calculations are repeated for x = 100 mm the following results are obtained:
These results show that horizontal equilibrium is not satisfied by the selected value of x (= 100 mm),
and that the magnitude of C is smaller than that of T. Consequently, a larger value must be selected
for x. The results obtained for various selected values of x are presented in Table 42 while Fig. 418
shows a plot of T, çCç and T + C versus x.
Inspection of Table 42 and Fig. 418 reveals that for x = 136.9 mm the condition T + C = 0 is
satisfied for all practical purposes, which means that this value of x is correct because it satisfies
horizontal equilibrium. Substituting x = 136.9 mm and f
ps
= 1617 MPa (see Table 42) into the
first of Eq. 417 finally yields the magnitude of the design ultimate moment. The reader should
verify that the second of Eq. 417 yields the same result.
(b) Using the closed form solution of x.
Assume e
p1
< e
ps
< e
py
For this case, x is calculated from Eq. 422b. Before this equation can be set up, E
p2
and f
s1
have
to be calculated from Eqs. 419 and 421a, respectively. Note that e
se
= 0.005897 and e
ce
= 0.000282,
as calculated in part (a) of this example. Thus
e e e e
ps s ce se
=  + =   ( ) + = 0 0028 0 000282 0 005897 0 00898 . . . .
T A f
ps ps
= = ´ ´ =

600 1408 10 844 8
3
. kN
C f b x
cu
= = ´  ´ ´ ´ ´ =

a b 0 45 50 10 350 0 9 300 2126
3
. .
d i
kN
e
ps
ps
f
T
C
T C
=
=
=
= 
=
0 02158
1617
970 4
7088
2617
.
.
.
MPa
kN
. kN
+ kN
M A f d
x
u ps ps
= 
F
H
G
I
K
J = ´ 
´ F
H
G
I
K
J ´ =

b
2
600 1617 540
0 9 136 9
2
10 464 3
6
. .
. kN. m
E
f f
p
py p
py p
2
1
1
3
1617 1294 10
0 01329 0 00664
4858 =
−
−
=
− ×
−
=
−
ε ε
b g
. .
. GPa
ANALYSIS 421
Substituting these results into Eq. 422b, the following expression is obtained:
f f E
s p p se ce cu p 1 1 2 1
3
1294 4858 10 0 005897 0 00028 0 0035 0 00664
1102
= +   
= + ´   ( ) 
=
e e e e c h
b g . . . . .
MPa
0
0 45 50 350 0 9
600
1102 4858 10 0 0035 540
1181 1102 91814
2
1 2
2 3
2
=
F
H
G
I
K
J
+ +
=
´  ´ ´ F
H
G
I
K
J + + ´ ´ ´
= + +
a b
e
f b
A
x f x E d
x x
x x
cu
ps
s p cu
a f c h
c h
. ( ) .
( ) . .
.
x
(mm)
e
ps
f
ps
(MPa)
T
(kN)
C
(kN)
T + C
(kN)
100.0 0.02158 1617 970.4 708.8 261.7
150.0 0.01528 1617 970.4 1063 92.69
125.0 0.01780 1617 970.4 885.9 84.50
138.0 0.01638 1617 970.4 978.1 7.640
136.9 0.01649 1617 970.4 970.3 0.1560
Table 42: Calculation of x.
100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300
1500
1000
500
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
T
T C +
  C
x (mm)
I
n
t
e
r
n
a
l
f
o
r
c
e
s
(
k
N
)
x = 136.9 mm
Figure 418: Variation of the internal forces as a function of x.
422 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
Solving for x yields x = 146.4 mm. Check if e
ps
corresponding to this value of x falls within the
range assumed. Using Eqs. 48 and 411
This value of e
ps
is larger than e
py
= 0.01329. The assumption that e
ps
is less than e
py
is therefore
incorrect,which means that the calculated value of x is also incorrect.
Assume e
ps
> e
py
If e
ps
> e
py
then x can be directly calculated from Eq. 422a. Thus
As before, e
ps
corresponding to this value of x must be checked. Hence,
This value of e
ps
is larger than e
py
= 0.01329, as assumed, and therefore the calculated value of x
is correct. The ultimate moment is subsequently calculated from the second of Eq. 417.
Note that these results are exactly the same as obtained in part (a) of this example. It should also
be noted that a substantial amount of numerical work can be avoided if these calculations are started
by assuming e
ps
to be larger than e
py
, because this condition is often satisfied by the beam sections
encountered in practice. The solution presented here initially considered the case where
e
p1
< e
ps
< e
py
simply to give a more complete illustration of the solution procedure.
Example 43 amply demonstrates that the computational effort required for the calculation of the
ultimate moment capacity M
u
of a prestressed concrete beam section can be significantly reduced if
the procedure for determining the steel stress at ultimate f
ps
can be simplified because once f
ps
is
known, the depth to neutral axis x and, hence, M
u
can be directly calculated. Most design codes of
practice provide a simplified approximate procedure for estimating f
ps
, and the procedure recom
mended by SABS 0100 (Ref. 42), which is the same as that recommended by BS 8110 (Ref. 47),
is presented in the following and illustrated by example 44. The method uses the equivalent
rectangular stress block prescribed by SABS 0100 and assumes that the effective prestress f
se
does
not exceed 0.6f
pu
. It is directly applicable to sections of which the compression zone, measured to
a depth of 0.9x, is rectangular. The design ultimate moment is calculated by the following expression
(given in the notation used in these notes):
(423)
where d
n
= 0.45x
x = depth to neutral axis, as obtained from Table 43
f
ps
= design tensile stress in the tendons at failure, as obtained from Table 43
e e e e
ps cu ce se
d x
x
=
 F
H
G
I
K
J  +
=
 F
H
G
I
K
J    +
=
540 146 4
146 4
0 0035 0 00028 0 005897
0 01559
.
.
. ( . ) .
.
x
A f
f b
ps py
cu
=
F
H
G
I
K
J
=
´
´  ´ ´
F
H
G
I
K
J
=
a b
600 1617
0 45 50 350 0 9
136 9
. ( ) .
. mm
e e e e
ps cu ce se
d x
x
=
 F
H
G
I
K
J  + =
 F
H
G
I
K
J    +
=
540 136 9
136 9
0 0035 0 00028 0 005897
0 01648
.
.
. ( . ) .
.
M f b x d
x
u cu
=  
F
H
G
I
K
J
=  ´  ´ ´ ´ 
´ F
H
G
I
K
J ´ =

a b
b
2
0 45 50 350 0 9 136 9 540
0 9 136 9
2
10 464 2
6
. ( ) . .
. .
. kN. m
M A f d d
u ps ps n
=  b g
ANALYSIS 423
EXAMPLE 44
Use the approximate method recommended by SABS 0100 to calculate the design ultimate moment
of the prestressed concrete beam section of example 43.
For the beam of example 43 , which is slightly larger than 0.6.
Therefore, when using Table 43 f
se
/f
pu
is set to 0.6, which is the maximum value provided for by
the method. Also,
Interpolating between the values given in Table 43 for f
pu
A
ps
/ f
cu
b d equal to 0.1 and 0.15 at
f
se
/f
pu
= 0.6, the following results are obtained:
Therefore, f
ps
= 1.0 (0.87 ´ 1860) = 1618 MPa and x = 0.26 ´ 540 = 140.4 mm. The design ultimate
moment is calculated from Eq. 423
This result is very close to the ultimate moment M
u
= 464.3 kNm obtained by the more elaborate
procedures employed in example 43.
So far, only rectangular sections have been considered. In the analysis of flanged sections (I or
Tsections) a distinction is made between the case where the compression zone falls entirely within
the flange and the case where it extends down into the web (see Fig. 419). If the compression zone
f f
se pu
/ / . = = 1150 1860 0 6183
f A
f bd
pu ps
cu
=
´
 ´
=
1860 600
50 350 540
01181 .
f
f
x
d
ps
pu
087
10 0 26
.
. . = = and
M A f d x
u ps ps
=  = ´  ´ ( )´ =

0 45 600 1618 540 0 45 140 4 10 4630
6
. . . . a f kN. m
Design stress in tendons as a
proportion of the design strength,
Ratio of depth of neutral axis to that
of the centroid of the tendons in the
tension zone, x/d
0.6 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.4
0.05 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.11 0.11 0.11
0.10 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.22 0.22 0.22
0.15 0.99 0.97 0.95 0.32 0.32 0.31
0.20 0.92 0.90 0.88 0.40 0.39 0.38
0.25 0.88 0.86 0.84 0.48 0.47 0.46
0.30 0.85 0.83 0.80 0.55 0.54 0.52
0.35 0.83 0.80 0.76 0.63 0.60 0.58
0.40 0.81 0.77 0.72 0.70 0.67 0.62
0.45 0.79 0.74 0.68 0.77 0.72 0.66
0.50 0.77 0.71 0.64 0.83 0.77 0.69
f A
f bd
pu ps
cu
f f
ps pu
0 87 .
f f
se pu
= f f
se pu
=
Table 43: Conditions at the ultimate limit state for rectangular beams with pretensioned
tendons or posttensioned tendons having effective bond (Ref. 42).
424 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
is entirely contained within the flange (see Fig. 419a), then the analysis is exactly the same as for
a rectangular section of the same width b and the equations developed above for a rectangular section
apply without modification. This follows because the tensile strength of the concrete is neglected,
which means that the concrete which falls below the neutral axis is ignored in the analysis and can
be of any shape.
However, if the compression zone extends into the web the analysis must account for the fact that,
in this case, the compression zone is no longer rectangular. Since the principles on which the analysis
is based remain unaltered, the equations developed above for a rectangular section, which do not
involve the assumption that the compression zone is rectangular, remain valid. Specifically, Eqs. 48
to 412, 415 and 419 to 421 remain valid because their derivation is not dependent on the shape
of the compression zone. The remaining expressions must be modified to account for the
nonrectangular compression zone. The solution procedure, which is illustrated by example 45, is
exactly the same as for a rectangular section: The depth to neutral axis x is initially determined,
after which the ultimate moment is calculated.
It should be noted that, when working with an equivalent rectangular stress block, the situation may
arise where the depth to neutral axis x is larger than the flange thickness h
f
, but that the depth of
the stress block bx is less than h
f
. It is suggested that such cases be analyzed as rectangular sections,
even though the magnitude of x indicates that the compression zone extends into the web. This
approach implies that the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block bx is taken as the depth
of the compression zone for the purpose of calculating the compressive force in the concrete at
ultimate.
EXAMPLE 45
Determine the design ultimate moment of the Ishaped prestressed concrete beam section shown in
Fig. 420. The section contains eight 12.9 mm 7wire super grade strand, of which the centre of
gravity is located 60 mm above the beam soffit. The material properties are:
Concrete: f
cu
= 50 MPa E
c
= 34 GPa
Steel: f
pu
= 1860 MPa E
p
= 195 GPa
Use the equivalent rectangular stress block as well as the design stressstrain curve for strand as
prescribed by SABS 0100 (Ref. 42), and assume that f
se
= 1060 MPa at the time under consideration.
The properties of the uncracked beam section are listed in Fig. 420 and A
ps
= 8 ´ 100 = 800 mm².
For the equivalent rectangular stress block prescribed by SABS 0100, a = 0.45 and b = 0.9, as
shown in Fig. 420. Since f
pu
and E
p
of the strand considered here are the same as for that used in
example 43, the stressstrain curve for the steel is also the same, and is as shown in Fig. 417.
x
x
b b
h
f
b
w
b
w
bx
bx
(a)
Rectangular section
behaviour
(b)
Flanged section
behaviour
Figure 419: Flanged section at ultimate.
ANALYSIS 425
Assume e
ps
> e
py
If e
ps
> e
py
(= 0.01329) then, from Fig. 417, f
ps
= f
py
= 1617 MPa, and the total tensile force acting
in the steel at ultimate T is given by Eq. 412:
In order to check whether or not the compression zone extends into the web, the maximum
compression force C
fmax
which can be supplied by the flange only is calculated and compared to T.
Therefore, the magnitude of C
fmax
is less than that of T, which means that the compression zone
must extend into the web to satisfy horizontal equilibrium. For convenience, the total compressive
force acting in the concrete is divided into a part C
f
which acts in the overhanging portion of the
flange and a part C
w
which acts in the web, as shown in Fig. 420. Thus,
(424)
The following condition must be satisfied to ensure horizontal equilibrium:
Solving for x yields x = 203.8 mm. Therefore s = b x = 0.9 ´ 203.8 = 183.4 mm is greater than
h
f
= 150 mm, as expected. Before the ultimate moment can be calculated, the validity of the initial
assumption that e
ps
is greater than e
py
must be checked. e
ps
is calculated by combining Eqs. 48
through 411, and by noting that the effective prestress acting on the section (including all losses
at the time under consideration) is given by P =  A
ps
f
se
=  800 ´ 1060 ´ 10
3
=  848 kN.
Hence,
T A f
ps ps
= = ´ ´ =

800 1617 10 1294
3
kN
C f bh
fmax cu f
= = × − × × × = −
−
α 0 45 50 10 350 150 1181
3
.
e j
kN
C f b b h
f cu w f
= − = × − × × − × = −
−
α
c h e j
b g 0 45 50 10 350 150 150 675
3
. kN
C f b x
x
x
w cu w
=
= ´  ´ ´ ´
= 

a b
0 45 50 10 150 0 9
3038
3
. .
.
d i
T C C x
f w
+ + = − − = 1294 675 3038 0 .
e
e
se
se
p
ce
c
f
E
P
A
Pe
I E
= =
´
=
= +
F
H
G
I
K
J
=

´
+
 ´
´
F
H
G
I
K
J
=
1060
195 10
0 005436
1 848
165 10
848 290
8 938 10
1
34
0 000386
3
2
3
2
9
.
.
.
x
150
60
e
cu
= 0.0035
e
s
Neutral axis
d = 640
h =
700
A
ps
= 800 mm
2
h
f
=
150
b
w
= 150
C
f
C
w
0.45 f
cu b = 350
350
s x = 0.9
T
e
A
I
=
= − =
= ×
= ×
eccentricity of the tendon
mm
mm
mm
700
2
60 290
165 10
8 938 10
3 2
9 4
.
Figure 420: Example 45.
426 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
This value of e
ps
is larger than e
py
= 0.01329, as assumed, and therefore the calculated value of x
is correct. The ultimate moment is subsequently calculated by considering moment equilibrium about
the line of action of T. Thus,
The magnitude of C
w
to be used in the above expression is found by substituting x = 203.8 mm
into Eq. 424, while the magnitude of C
f
=  675 kN remains unchanged. Therefore,
If the section contains nonprestressed reinforcement A
s
(often referred to as slack reinforcement),
the procedure for calculating the ultimate moment remains exactly the same as for the sections
considered above, the only difference being that the two types of steel are considered separately as
shown in Fig. 421. When calculating the tension in the prestressing steel T
ps
and in the
nonprestressed steel T
s
, the difference in the strain histories of the two types of steel must be
accounted for in the analysis. Equation 412 can be used for calculating T
ps
, where f
ps
corresponds
to the total strain e
ps
= e
s1
 e
ce
+ e
se
(see Fig. 421 and Eq. 48). On the other hand, T
s
is calculated
from the stress f
s
, corresponding to the strain e
s2
(see Fig. 421), acting on the area A
s
. Therefore,
(425)
It is important to note that f
ps
and f
s
cannot be obtained from the same stressstrain relationship,
but that they must be determined from the stressstrain curves which apply to the prestressing steel
and to the nonprestressed steel, respectively. Figure 222 shows the design stressstrain relationship
prescribed by SABS 0100 (Ref. 42) for nonprestressed reinforcement. The procedure for calculating
the ultimate moment of a prestressed concrete beam section containing nonprestressed reinforcement
is illustrated by example 46.
e e
e e e e
s cu
ps s ce se
d x
x
=
 F
H
G
I
K
J =
 F
H
G
I
K
J  =
=  + =   ( ) + =
640 2038
2038
0 0035 0 007493
0 007493 0 000386 0 005436 0 01332
.
.
. .
. . . .
M C d
h
C d
x
u f
f
w
= 
F
H
G
I
K
J
 
F
H
G
I
K
J
2 2
b
M
u
=  ( ) 
F
H
G
I
K
J ´   ´ ( ) 
´ F
H
G
I
K
J ´
=
 
675 640
150
2
10 3038 2038 640
0 9 2038
2
10
720 7
3 3
. .
. .
. kN. m
T A f
s s s
=
x
b
d
1 d
2
bx
Strain distribution Resultant forces
e
cu
e
s2
e
s1
e  e
se ce
Neutral axis
A
ps
A
s
C
T
ps
T
s
a f
cu
Figure 421: Analysis at ultimate of a prestressed concrete beam section containing non
prestressed reinforcement.
ANALYSIS 427
EXAMPLE 46
Determine the design ultimate moment of the Ishaped prestressed concrete beam section shown in
Fig. 422. The dimensions of the section as well as the material properties of the concrete and the
prestressing steel are exactly the same as for the section of example 45. However, this section
contains two Y20 nonprestressed reinforcing bars in addition to five 12.9 mm 7wire super grade
strand, the position of which is shown in Fig. 422. Take f
y
= 450 MPa and E
s
= 200 GPa for the
nonprestressed reinforcement. Use the equivalent rectangular stress block as well as the design
stressstrain curves for strand and for nonprestressed reinforcement as prescribed by SABS 0100
(Ref. 42), and assume that f
se
= 1116 MPa at the time under consideration. A
ps
= 5 ´ 100 = 500 mm²
and A
s
= 628 mm².
As for example 45, a = 4.5 and b = 0.9 while the stressstrain curve for the prestressing steel is
as shown in Fig. 417. The design stressstrain curve for the nonprestressed reinforcement is shown
in Fig. 423, and is obtained by setting f
y
= 450 and g
m
= 1.15 MPa in Fig. 222. Therefore,
Assume e
ps
> e
py
and e
s2
> e
sy
If e
ps
> e
py
(= 0.01329) then f
ps
= f
py
= 1617 MPa (see Fig. 417), while f
s
= f
sy
= 391.3 MPa for
e
s2
> e
sy
(= 0.00196) (see Fig. 423). T
ps
and T
s
are subsequently calculated from Eqs. 412 and
425, respectively:
f
f f
E
sy
y
m
sy
sy
s
= = = = =
´
=
g
e
450
115
3913
3913
200 10
0 00196
3
.
.
.
. MPa and
x
d
1
=
6
4
0
d
2
=
6
5
0
e
s2
e
s1
Neutral axis
T
ps
T
s
150
50 60
e
cu
= 0.0035
h
=
7
0
0
A
ps
= 500 mm
2
A
s
= 628 mm
2
h
f
=
150
b
w
= 150
b = 350
350
C
0.45 f
cu
0.9 x
e
A
I
=
= − =
= ×
= ×
eccentricity of the tendon
mm
mm
mm
700
2
60 290
165 10
8 938 10
3 2
9 4
.
Figure 422: Example 46.
Stress, f
s
f
sy
= 391.3 MPa
Strain, e
s
e
sy
=
0.00196
Figure 423: Stressstrain curve for the nonprestressed reinforcement.
428 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
The magnitude of the maximum compression force which can be supplied by the flange
is larger than the total tensile force which can be provided by the prestressed and nonprestressed
reinforcement . This means that the entire compression zone
is contained in the flange, and that C can be expressed as a function of x as follows (see Eq. 414):
As in the previous examples, x is calculated by considering horizontal equilibrium, according to
which the following condition must be satisfied:
Solving for x yields x = 148.8 mm. Therefore s = 0.9 x = 0.9 ´ 148.8 = 133.9 mm is less than
h
f
= 150 mm, as expected. Before the ultimate moment can be calculated, the validity of the initial
assumption that e
ps
> e
py
and that e
s2
> e
sy
must be checked. e
ps
is calculated by combining Eqs. 48
through 411, and by noting that the effective prestress acting on the section (including all losses
at the time under consideration) is given by . Hence,
e
s2
is calculated by considering the strain distribution (see Fig. 422). Thus, considering similar
triangles:
From the above it is clear that e
ps
is larger than e
py
= 0.01329 and that e
s2
is larger than e
sy
=
0.00196, as assumed, and therefore the calculated value of x is correct. The ultimate moment is
finally calculated by considering moment equilibrium about the line of action of C. Thus,
The magnitudes of T
ps
and T
s
to be used in the above expression are as calculated above. Upon
substitution of these values:
As previously discussed in this Section, underreinforced sections are desirable because they exhibit
a gradual ductile failure with large accompanying deformations, as opposed to overreinforced
sections which fail suddenly in a brittle manner with small accompanying deformations. Ductile
T A f
T A f
ps ps ps
s s s
= = ´ ´ =
= = ´ ´ =


500 1617 10 808 7
628 3913 10 2457
3
3
.
. .
kN
kN
C f bh
fmax cu f
= = × − × × × = −
−
α 0 45 50 10 350 150 1181
3
.
e j
kN
T T T
ps s
= + = + = 808 7 2457 1054 . . kN
C x f b x x x
cu
( ) . . . = = ´  ´ ´ ´ ´ =

a b 0 45 50 10 350 0 9 7 088
3
d i
kN
T C x x + =  = ( ) . 1054 7 088 0
P f A
se ps
= = ´ ´ =

1116 10 500 558
3
kN
e
e
e e
e e e e
se
se
p
ce
c
s cu
ps s ce se
f
E
P
A
Pe
I E
d x
x
= =
´
=
= +
F
H
G
I
K
J
=

´
+
 ´
´
F
H
G
I
K
J
=
=
 F
H
G
I
K
J
=
 F
H
G
I
K
J  =
=  + =   ( ) + =
1116
195 10
0 005723
1 558
165 10
558 290
8 938 10
1
34
0 000254
640 1488
1488
0 0035 0 01156
0 01156 0 000254 0 005723 0 01753
3
2
3
2
9
1
1
1
.
.
.
.
.
. .
. . . .
e e
s cu
d x
x
2
2
650 1488
1488
0 0035 0 01179 =
 F
H
G
I
K
J
=
 F
H
G
I
K
J  =
.
.
. .
M T d
x
T d
x
u ps s
= 
F
H
G
I
K
J + 
F
H
G
I
K
J
1 2
2 2
b b
M
u
= 
´ F
H
G
I
K
J ´ + 
´ F
H
G
I
K
J ´
=
 
808 7 640
0 9 1488
2
10 2457 650
0 9 1488
2
10
606 7
3 3
.
. .
.
. .
. kN. m
ANALYSIS 429
behaviour is generally characterised by a large curvature at failure k
u
relative to the curvature at
first yielding of the steel k
y
(see Fig. 410). The conditions under which a prestressed concrete beam
section will exhibit a large value of k
u
and, hence, a more ductile behaviour, can be identified by
realising that the magnitude of k
u
is increased if the magnitude of x is reduced. This trend becomes
apparent when considering the expression k
u
= çe
cu
ç / x: If x is decreased, then k
u
must increase
provided e
cu
is taken to remain constant. Figure 424 illustrates this effect and also demonstrates
that the change in strain e
s
induced by the ultimate moment and, therefore, that the total strain in
the steel at ultimate is increased when x is decreased. Note that although e
cu
generally does not vary
much for normal strength concrete, its magnitude can vary significantly in the case of very high
strength concrete.
The manner in which the steel content, the strength of the steel and the concrete strength influence
the magnitude of x can, in turn, be demonstrated by considering Eq. 422a (which was derived by
considering horizontal equilibrium):
(422a)
Note that although this equation was derived on the basis of an equivalent rectangular stress block
and on the assumption that the stressstrain relationship of the steel shows a definite yield plateau,
the trends identified below remain true in general. It should also be noted that the equation assumes
that stress in the steel at ultimate is equal to the yield stress and, hence, that the strain in the steel
at ultimate exceeds the yield strain. Inspection of Eq. 422a reveals that:
• The magnitude of x is increased if the amount of steel A
ps
is increased.
• The magnitude of x is increased if the strength of the steel, as reflected by f
py
, is increased.
• The magnitude of x is decreased if the concrete strength f
cu
is increased.
Bearing these trends in mind, together with the fact that the magnitude of k
u
is increased if the
magnitude of x is reduced, it follows that the steel content, strength of the steel and the concrete
strength influence the magnitude of k
u
as summarised below:
• If either the steel content or the strength of the steel is increased, x is increased and k
u
is
decreased. Therefore, the ductility of the section is reduced under these conditions.
• If the concrete strength is increased, x is decreased and k
u
is increased. Under these conditions
the ductility of the section is, therefore, increased.
The importance of providing a section which is ductile cannot be overemphasised and, for this
reason, ductility should always be a prime design consideration. The manner in which provision is
x
A f
f b
ps py
cu
=
a b
e
sa
k
ua
k
ub
e
cu
e
sb
x
a
x
b
x x
a b
ua ub
sa sb
>
k <k
e <e
Figure 424: Influence of depth to neutral axis x on the curvature at ultimate k
u
.
430 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
made for sufficient ductility of a prestressed concrete beam section in design is covered in
Section 4.4.4.
4.3.6 Analysis of beams with unbonded tendons
There is a significant difference between the behaviour of prestressed concrete beams with bonded
tendons and that of beams with unbonded tendons. It is instructive to investigate some of these
differences before presenting the procedures for analysing beams with unbonded tendons.
Since the tendons in an unbonded beam are not bonded to the concrete, the compatibility assumption
that the changes in strain in the steel are the same as in the adjacent concrete is no longer valid.
Instead, any change in strain in an unbonded tendon will be distributed over its entire length. The
change in steel strain resulting from an applied load can be calculated by making use of the fact
that the total change in the elongation of the steel and of the concrete adjacent to the steel must be
equal because the steel is anchored to the concrete at the ends of the beam (see Fig. 425). If the
beam remains uncracked, the change in strain in the concrete at the level of the steel at any section
along the span is given by (see Fig. 425)
where M(x) = moment at the section under consideration
e(x) = eccentricity of the tendon at the section under consideration
The total change in elongation of the concrete adjacent to the steel, which is equal to the total
elongation of the steel, is
If the effects of friction are ignored, then the steel strain must be uniformly distributed over the
length of the tendon. Therefore, the change in steel strain is given by
(426)
where L = original length of the tendon
The effect of bond, or the lack thereof, on the change in steel strain induced by external load in an
uncracked beam is illustrated by example 47.
e
c
c
M x e x
E I
=
( ) ( )
DL
M x e x
E I
dx
c
L
=
( ) ( )
z
0
e
s
c
L
L
L
M x e x
LE I
dx = =
( ) ( )
z
D
0
x
x
e x ( )
M x ( )
L
e, y
Centroidal axis
Bending moment
Figure 425: Change in steel strain in an unbonded prestressed concrete beam.
ANALYSIS 431
EXAMPLE 47
The simply supported prestressed concrete beam shown in Fig. 426 carries a uniformly distributed
load w over a span L. The cable is straight and is placed at an eccentricity e. Assume that the beam
remains uncracked to compare the change in steel strain induced by the load in the case where the
steel is unbonded to the change in strain in the case where the steel is bonded.
If the cable is unbonded and free to slip, the change in steel strain is the same over the entire length
of the cable, and is given by Eq. 426:
For the beam considered here:
Substitution into Eq. 426 yields
Therefore,
If the steel is bonded to the concrete, the maximum change in steel strain induced by the load will
occur at the midspan section, where the moment is given by M = wL²/8. Therefore, in this case, the
maximum change in steel strain is calculated from
Thus,
Therefore, it can be concluded that the change in steel strain in the unbonded beam is 2/3 of the
change in steel strain at the midspan section of the bonded beam, in the case considered here.
e
s
c
L
L
L
M x e x
LE I
dx = =
( ) ( )
z
D
0
e x e
M x
wx
L x
b g
b g b g
=
= −
2
e
s unbonded
c
L
c
L
e
LE I
wx
L x dx
we
LE I
Lx x
=  ( ) = 
L
N
M
M
O
Q
P
P
z
2 2 2 3 0
2 3
0
ε
s unbonded
c
wL e
E I
=
1
12
2
e
s bonded
c c
Me
E I
wL e
E I
= =
1
8
2
ε ε
s unbonded s bonded
=
2
3
x
w
e
L
e, y
Centroidal axis
Figure 426: Example 47.
432 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
Example 47 clearly demonstrates that if the beam remains uncracked the relative movement between
the unbonded steel and the concrete leads to a lower change in steel strain than is the case at the
critical section of a bonded beam. Inspection of Eq. 426 also reveals that the magnitude of this
difference is dependent on the shape of the bending moment diagram and on the cable profile.
It should be noted that since the change in steel stress, which arises from the change in steel strain,
is normally small and therefore ignored in stress calculations before cracking, the relative movement
between the unbonded steel and the concrete is not of much practical significance at this stage.
However, after the section cracks the magnitude of this relative movement appears to increase
significantly with increasing load so that the steel strain and, hence, the steel stress increases much
more gradually than would be the case at the critical section of a bonded beam. Because of this
behaviour, the situation often arises in unbonded beams that the steel stress f
ps
is much less than
its ultimate strength f
pu
when the limiting crushing strain e
cu
is reached in the concrete.
Bearing in mind that the ultimate moment is calculated from M
u
= A
ps
f
ps
(d  bx/2), it is clear that,
all other things being equal, a reduction in f
ps
will reduce the flexural capacity of the section. Since
the stress in the steel at ultimate f
ps
is significantly less in an unbonded beam than in a bonded
beam, it is reasonable to expect the ultimate moment of resistance M
u
of an unbonded beam to be
less than that of the corresponding bonded beam. This is indeed the case, and the difference appears
to range between 10 and 30% (Ref. 410).
Another major difference between the postcracking behaviour of a beam containing no bonded steel
and a bonded beam is illustrated in Fig. 427. If the beam contains only properly detailed bonded
steel, many evenly distributed cracks will develop in the region of maximum moment (see
Fig. 427a). At flexural failure none of the cracks will be particularly wide and the concrete
compression zone will tend to fail over a relatively large length of the member, often at least equal
to the effective depth of the prestressing steel (Ref. 412). This type of failure is ductile with large
accompanying curvatures, rotations and deflections.
If, on the other hand, the beam contains no bonded reinforcement then there is a tendency for it to
develop a single large crack, or only a few large cracks (see Fig. 427b). Major stress and strain
concentrations occur at the top of these large cracks so that flexural failure tends to be localized at
a section. This behaviour reduces the ultimate moment capacity of an unbonded beam and leads to
smaller average concrete strains at failure than is the case in bonded beams.
The presence of nonprestressed bonded reinforcement tends to spread the flexural cracks and to
limit their size, and can therefore significantly improve this undesireable behaviour. Such non
prestressed reinforcement will increase the flexural capacity of an unbonded beam, not only because
of its contribution to the tensile force in the ultimate resisting couple, but also because of the
advantages to be gained from the resulting improved crack control. Some design codes of practice
specify minimum amounts of nonprestressed bonded reinforcement to be included in unbonded
prestressed concrete beams.
Many small, evenly distributed cracks
Single large crack
Crushing Crushing
{
(b) Unbonded (a) Bonded
{
Figure 427: Flexural failure of bonded and unbonded prestressed concrete beams.
ANALYSIS 433
Analysis of the uncracked section
Before cracking, the change in stress induced in the tendons of an unbonded beam by the external
load is usually small: In fact, this stress change is even smaller than in the case of a bonded beam,
as illustrated by example 47. Since, in the case of uncracked bonded sections, the change in steel
stress resulting from the application of external load is normally small enough to be safely ignored
in the calculation of concrete stresses, there is usually no reason why this change in steel stress
should be accounted for in the case of unbonded sections. Therefore, concrete stresses in uncracked
unbonded sections are calculated in exactly the same way as in uncracked bonded sections (see
Section 4.3.3). However, if the total area of the preformed ducts in which the unbonded tendons
are contained forms a significant part of the crosssection, the section properties to be used for the
calculation of concrete stress should be based on the net concrete section instead of the gross section,
as discussed in Section 4.3.3.
Ultimate moment
A rational procedure for the flexural analysis of a cracked unbonded prestressed concrete beam
section is complicated by difficulties associated with quantifying the various factors which influence
flexural behaviour after cracking, and is generally much more complex than that of a cracked bonded
section. It appears that the flexural strength of an unbonded section depends on the following factors
(Ref. 413):
• Magnitude of the effective stress in the tendons.
• Spantodepth ratio of the beam.
• Properties of the materials used in the member.
• Shape of the bending moment diagram.
• Cable profile.
• Coefficient of friction between the tendon and the duct.
• Amount of nonprestressed bonded reinforcement.
Because of the difficulties encounted in analytically treating the influence of these factors on the
magnitude of the stress f
ps
in the steel at ultimate, the tendency has been to make use of empirical
and semiempirical expressions for estimating f
ps
. These expressions are usually of the following
general form:
where f
se
= effective prestress in the steel, including all losses
Df
s
= additional stress induced in the steel by bending of the beam under the ultimate
load
Examples of such expressions may be found in SABS 0100 (Ref. 42), BS 8110 (Ref. 47) and
ACI 31889 (Ref. 411). The expression prescribed by SABS 0100, which is the same as that
recommended by BS 8110, is an example of a semiempirical equation, and is presented below in
the notation used here:
(427)
where l is normally taken as the length of the tendon between end anchorages. This equation applies
to rectangular sections and flanged sections in which the compression zone is entirely contained in
the flange, and was derived on the basis of an assumed length of the zone of inelasticity within the
concrete of 10x. Further guidance on the reduction of l in the case of continuous multispan members
can be found in SABS 0100. If the section contains nonprestressed bonded reinforcement A
s
,
f f f
ps se s
= + ∆
f f
d
f A
f bd
f
ps se
pu ps
cu
pu
= + −
L
N
M
O
Q
P
≤
7000
1 17 0 7
l /
. . MPa
434 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
SABS 0100 suggests that the effect of this reinforcement can be approximately accounted for by
adding to A
ps
an equivalent area of prestressing steel equal to A
s
f
y
/ f
pu
.
Once f
ps
is known, the depth to neutral axis x is calculated by considering horizontal equilibrium
of the section, and the ultimate moment M
u
is subsequently calculated by considering moment
equilibrium. The procedure is illustrated by example 48. It is extremely important to realize that
when an expression for f
ps
recommended by a particular design code of practice is used, the
subsequent calculations for estimating the ultimate moment must be based on the provisions of that
code. Simply mixing the provisions of various codes can lead to totally misleading results.
EXAMPLE 48
The simply supported concrete beam shown in Fig. 428 is posttensioned by unbonded tendons.
The properties of the materials and the section at midspan are exactly the same as the section
considered in example 46 (see Fig. 422), the only difference being that the tendons are unbonded
in this case. Make use of the appropriate provisions of SABS 0100 to calculate the design ultimate
moment of the midspan section.
The stressstrain curve for the nonprestressed steel is as shown in Fig. 423 while a = 0.45 and
b = 0.9 for the equivalent rectangular stress block. The effect of the nonprestressed reinforcement
on the magnitude of f
ps
is accounted for by converting A
s
to an equivalent area of prestressing steel
Recognizing that the length of the tendon between the end anchorages l is virtually equal to the
span of the beam (= 12 m), f
ps
can be directly calculated from Eq. 427:
which is greater than 0.7 f
pu
= 1302 MPa. Therefore f
ps
= 1302 MPa.
Assume e
s2
> e
sy
(= 0.00196) so that, from Fig. 423, f
s
= f
sy
= 391.3 MPa. With f
ps
and f
s
known,
the magnitudes of T
ps
and T
s
can be calculated from Eqs. 412 and 425, respectively:
¢ = =
´
= A
A f
f
ps
s y
pu
628 450
1860
1519
2
. mm
f f
d
f A A
f bd
ps se
pu ps ps
cu
= + 
+ ¢
L
N
M
M
O
Q
P
P
= + 
´ + ( )
 ´ ´
L
N
M
O
Q
P
=
7000
1 17
1116
7000
12000 640
1 17
1860 500 1519
50 350 640
1421
1 1
l /
.
/
.
.
d i
MPa
MPa
T A f
T A f
ps ps ps
s s s
= = ´ ´ =
= = ´ ´ =


500 1302 10 6510
628 3913 10 2457
3
3
.
. .
kN
kN
12 m
Centroidal axis
w
e = 290
6 m 6 m
Figure 428: Example 48.
ANALYSIS 435
The entire compression zone is contained in the flange because the magnitude of the maximum
compression force is larger than the
total tensile force which can be provided by the prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement
. Therefore C is given by Eq. 414 as
The depth to neutral axis is subsequently calculated by considering horizontal equilibrium, from
which
Solving for x yields x = 126.5 mm. Therefore s = 0.9 x = 0.9 ´ 126.5 = 113.9 mm is less than
h
f
= 150 mm, as expected. The validity of the assumption that e
s2
> e
sy
must also be checked. As
for example 46, e
s2
is calculated by considering the strain distribution (see Fig. 422). Thus,
It is therefore clear that e
s2
is larger than e
sy
= 0.00196, as assumed, so that the calculated value
of x is correct. The ultimate moment is finally calculated by considering moment equilibrium about
the line of action of C. Thus,
The magnitudes of T
ps
and T
s
to be used in the above expression are as calculated above. Upon
substitution of these values:
Note that the ultimate moment is less than M
u
= 606.7 kN.m obtained for the bonded beam section
of example 46, as expected.
4.3.7 Flexural analysis of composite sections
A composite structure is defined as a structure composed of structural elements using materials with
different material properties. Composite structures in prestressed concrete typically consist of precast
concrete beams with an in situ concrete slab. The beams would normally be prestressed and the slab
would be of reinforced concrete. Although both elements are made of concrete, their material
properties are likely to differ: The precast beams can be manufactured in a casting yard where high
control of quality is possible and a strength of 50  60 MPa is feasible, while a strength higher than
30 MPa is probably not economical for the slab.
A crosssection of the precast beam and the slab is called a composite section and several examples
are shown in Fig. 429. It is also possible to posttension the composite element longitudinally as
shown in Fig. 429f, or transversely to increase the flexural resistance in that direction.
Making use of composite construction can result in savings in both construction cost and time. A
typical application is that of a road over rail bridge where the interruption of the railway line must
be limited. The precast beams are erected first and can be used to support the formwork for the
slab. Once the beams are in place, permanent formwork can be placed and the slab can be cast with
minimum interruption to the rail traffic since scaffolding is not required for these stages of
construction.
C f bh
fmax cu f
= = ´  ´ ´ ´ =

a 0 45 50 10 350 150 1181
3
.
d i
kN
T T T
ps s
= + = + = 651 2457 896 7 . . kN
C x f b x x x
cu
( ) = = ´  ´ ´ ´ ´ =

a b 0 45 50 10 350 0 9 7 088
3
. . .
d i
T C x x + ( ) =  = 896 7 7 088 0 . .
e e
s cu
d x
x
2
2
650 1265
1265
0 0035 0 01448 =
 F
H
G
I
K
J
=
 F
H
G
I
K
J  =
.
.
. .
M T d
x
T d
x
u ps s
= 
F
H
G
I
K
J + 
F
H
G
I
K
J
1 2
2 2
b b
M
u
= 
´ F
H
G
I
K
J ´ + 
´ F
H
G
I
K
J ´
=
 
651 640
0 9 1265
2
10 2457 650
0 9 1265
2
10
5253
3 3
. .
.
. .
. kN. m
436 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
The analysis of a composite section can be carried out as for noncomposite sections if the following
four main differences are taken into account (Ref. 414):
1. The loading stage under consideration will determine if it is the precast section only or the
composite section resisting the loads.
2. A transformed effective flange width must be determined for the composite section to account
for the difference in the stiffnesses of the materials used for the slab and for the beam.
3. The analysis of the composite section is based on the assumption that the horizontal shear
resistance at the interface between the precast beam and the in situ slab is sufficient to ensure
composite action.
4. Differential shrinkage takes place between the precast beam and the in situ slab, and the tensile
stresses induced at the bottom of the precast member may need to be accounted for.
These differences will be addressed in each of the following sections as they arise.
Analysis of the uncracked section
Consider a composite section consisting of a precast beam section supporting an in situ slab as
shown in Fig. 430. Assume that no temporary supports are used during construction so that the
beams support the formwork for the slab as well as the slab itself. The different loading stages and
the corresponding section resisting the loads can best be determined by considering the construction
procedure (see Table 44):
(a) At transfer, when only the initial prestressing force P
t
and the moment induced by the self
weight of the beam M
b
are acting on the precast beam section.
In situ concrete
slab
Precast prestressed
concrete beam
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
Posttensioned
tendon
Figure 429: Typical cross sections of composite beams (Ref. 414).
ANALYSIS 437
(b) After the prestress losses have taken place, when the effective prestressing force P
e
together
with the moment induced by the self weight of the beam M
b
are acting on the precast beam
section.
(c) Directly after the slab has been cast, when the slab self weight moment M
f
(including the weight
of any formwork), the beam self weight moment M
b
and the effective prestressing force P
e
are
acting on the precast beam section.
(d) After the concrete in the slab has hardened any additional loads, such as live loads, act on the
composite section. The stresses caused by the additional loads must be added to the existing
stresses in the precast beam.
The stress distributions at each of these load stages are shown in Fig. 430, from which it can be
seen that the critical stages are (a) and (d). Loading stage (a) occurs at transfer when the maximum
prestressing force acts together with minimum loading to induce maximum compressive and tensile
stresses in the bottom and top fibres of the precast beam, respectively. This loading stage has been
discussed in Section 4.3.3. Loading stage (d), where the minimum prestressing force is present
together with the maximum external loading, is the other critical stage. Here, the top and bottom
fibres of the precast beam are subjected to maximum compressive and tensile stresses, respectively.
At this loading stage the in situ slab will also be subjected to high compressive stress.
Although several different combinations of composite construction exist, as shown in Fig. 429, only
the simple case shown in Fig. 429a using unpropped construction is considered here. In certain
cases the precast beam and the in situ portions can overlap (see Fig. 429c), with the result that
two different stresses can occur at the same level in the composite section, as shown in Fig. 431.
However, the principles of analysis, as presented in this Section, can still be applied.
When a flanged beam is subjected to an applied loading, the compressive stresses in the flange will
vary over the width of the flange, as illustrated in Fig. 432 for a simply supported beam. The
variation is caused by shear lag effects and is dependant on several factors such as the type of
loading, dimensions of the crosssection and time dependant properties of the concrete (including
In situ
concrete slab
Precast prestressed
concrete beam
P M
t b
+ P M
e b
+
(a) (b) (c) (d)
P M M
e b f
+ + M
f
+
=
P M M M
e b f L
+ + + M
L
+
=
Figure 430: Distribution of stress in a composite section during service (Ref. 410).
Loading stage Loads Resisting section
(a) Tensioning of precast beam P
t
+ M
b
Precast beam
(b) Precast beam after losses P
e
+ M
b
Precast beam
(c) Casting of slab P
e
+ M
b
+ M
f
Precast beam
(d) Live and superimposed dead load P
e
+ M
b
+ M
f
+ M
L
Composite section
Table 44: Loading stages on a composite section during service.
438 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
creep and shrinkage). Since an exact theoretical analysis is usually not justified, the following
simplified approach is followed. The actual flange is replaced by a fictitious flange having an
effective flange width b
e
so that it carries the same load as the actual flange. The following values
for b
e
are recommend by local design codes (Ref. 42, 46, 47 and 48)
where L
z
= distance between points of zero moment. For continuous beams L
z
may be taken
as 0.7 times the effective span.
S = the spacing of the webs, i.e. the actual flange width (See Fig. 433a)
It should be noted that TMH7 (Ref. 46) places the point of zero moment at a distance of 0.15 times
the effective length of the span from the support. This implies that for the end span of a continuous
beam, as shown in Fig. 433b, the distance between points of zero moment L
z
= 0.85 L.
For the analysis, the plane sections assumption is used to determine the distribution of strain in the
section. The difference between the modulus of elasticity of the concrete used for the precast beam
b
b L S
b L S
e
w z
w z
=
+ £
+ £
R
S

T

0 2
01
.
.
b g
b g
for T  sections
for L  sections
(428a)
(428b)
In situ
concrete slab
Precast prestressed
concrete beam
P M
t b
+
(a) (b) (c)
P M M
e b f
+ + P M M M
e b f L
+ + +
Precast
beam
In situ
slab
Figure 431: Stress distribution for overlapping a composite section.
L
Bending moments
Figure 432: The effects of shear lag on the distribution of compressive stress in a flanged beam.
ANALYSIS 439
and that used for the in situ slab leads to different stresses being induced in the section by equal
strain. It is recommended that this difference be taken into account when the concrete strength differs
by more than 10 MPa (Ref. 42 and 46). The calculations can be simplified by transforming one
material to the other and it is generally more convenient to transform the slab material to the beam
material. This is accomplished by replacing the effective width b
e
of the slab by a transformed width
b
ft
as follows:
(429)
where n
c
= modular ratio =
E
c,f
= modulus of elasticity of the concrete in the in situ slab
E
c,b
= modulus of elasticity of the concrete in the precast prestressed beam
After the section has been transformed to one material, a Tsection is used for the analysis, which
proceeds as discussed in previous Sections. It is important to note that the stresses calculated in the
slab on the basis of the transformed section must be transformed back to the slab material to obtain
the actual stresses in the slab. This is done by multiplying the stresses in the transformed slab by
the modular ratio n
c
.
At transfer, the stresses in the concrete can be calculated by Eqs. 45 and 46 using the beam section
properties because all the loads, including prestress, are resisted by the beam section only. However,
at loading stage (d) (Fig. 430), superimposed loads applied after the slab concrete has hardened
are resisted by the composite section, and this fact must be accounted for in the calculation of stress.
Hence, the concrete stresses at this stage can be calculated as follows (see Fig. 438):
(430a)
(430b)
where
A
b
= Area of the precast beam
Z
top,b
= I
b
/ y
top,b
= Section modulus of the beam section with respect to the extreme top fibre
of the precast beam, located a distance y
top,b
from the centroid of the precast
beam
Z
bot,b
= I
b
/ y
bot,b
= Section modulus of the beam section with respect to the extreme bottom
fibre of the precast beam, located a distance y
bot,b
from the centroid of the
precast beam
b n b
ft c e
=
E
E
c f
c b
,
,
f
P
A
Pe
Z
M M
Z
M
Z
f
P
A
Pe
Z
M M
Z
M
Z
top b
b top b
b f
top b
L
top cb
bot b
b bot b
b f
bot b
L
bot cb
,
, , ,
,
, , ,
= + +
+
+
= + +
+
+
b
e
b
w
Actual stress
distribution
Equivalent stress
distribution
L
L = L
z
0.85
(a) (b)
S
S
Figure 433: Effective flange width b
e
.
440 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
I
b
= Second moment of area of the precast beam
Z
top,cb
= I
c
/ y
top,cb
= Section modulus of the composite section with respect to the extreme top
fibre of the precast beam, located a distance y
top,cb
from the centroid of the
composite section
Z
bot,cb
= I
c
/ y
bot,cb
= Section modulus of the composite section with respect to the extreme bottom
fibre of the precast beam, located a distance y
bot,cb
from the centroid of the
composite section
I
c
= Second moment of area of the composite section
EXAMPLE 49
A simply supported composite beam has a span of 15 m and the cross section shown in Fig. 434.
The precast prestressed beams are spaced at a distance of 1200 mm. In addition to self weight, the
beam must support an additional uniformly distributed load of 16 kN/m. Assume unpropped
construction and determine the elastic stresses at the following stages:
(a) At transfer of prestress. Take P
t
= 1500 kN.
(b) Just before the slab is cast, with P
1
= 1350 kN (assuming some loss has taken place).
(c) Just after the slab has been cast, with P
2
= 1350 kN.
(d) After a long time with no additional loads. Take P
3
= 1200 kN (assuming all the losses have
taken place).
(e) After a long time with additional loads. Take P
4
= 1200 kN.
The loading and corresponding maximum midspan moments are calculated in the following table:
Beam selfweight Slab selfweight Additional load
w (kN/m) 5.88 4.32 16.0
M (kN.m) 165.4 121.5 450.0
The effective flange width can be calculated from
This is greater than the actual flange so that b
f
= 1 200 mm is used.
b b L
e w z
= + = + ´ = 0 2 350 0 2 15000 3350 . . mm
h
b
= 700
h
f
= 150
d = 630
b
f
= 1200
b
b
= 350
70
Concrete material properties:
f
cu,b
= 50 MPa E
c,b
= 34 GPa
E
c,f
= 28 GPa f
cu,f
= 30 MPa
Precast beam
In situ slab
Unit weight g
c
= 24 kN/m
3
Cross section at midspan
In situ slab
Precast beam
Figure 434: Composite cross section for Example 49.
ANALYSIS 441
To determine the section properties of the composite section the modular ratio is required
The transformed flange width is calculated from
The distances to the various fibres of importance, measured from the centroid of the transformed
section are given in Fig. 435.
The eccentricity of the prestressing force with regard to the precast beam e = 630 −700/2 = 280 mm,
and the section properties are summarized as follows:
In situ slab
(transformed)
Precast beam Composite
section
Area (´ 10
3
mm
2
) 148.2 245.0 393.2
Second moment of area (´ 10
9
mm
4
)  10.00 26.96
(a) Stresses at transfer:
(b) Stresses in the beam just before casting the slab:
n
E
E
c
c f
c b
= = =
,
,
.
28
34
08235
b n b
ft c e
= = ´ = 08235 1200 988 2 . . mm
f
P
A
Pe M h
I
top bt
t
b
t b b
b
,
/
.
. . .
= +
+ 
=

+
 ´ ´ + ´  ( )
´
=  + =
b gb g
d i
2
1500
245
1500 10 280 1654 10 350
10 10
6122 8 908 2 79
3 6
9
MPa
f
P
A
Pe M h
I
bot bt
t
b
t b b
b
,
/
. . . = +
+
=  =
b gb g 2
6122 8 908 1503 MPa
f
P
A
Pe M h
I
top b
b
b b
b
,
/
.
. . .
1
1
1
3 6
9
2
1350
245
1350 10 280 1654 10 350
10 10
551 7 439 193
= +
+ 
=

+
 ´ ´ + ´  ( )
´
=  + =
b gb g
d i
MPa
y
top,b
= 350 
y
top,cf
= 339.8 
y
top,cb
= 189.8 
y
bot,cb
= 510.2
y
bot,b
= 350
Centroid of
composite
section
Centroid
of beam
section
Figure 435: Locations of section centroids for Example 49.
442 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
(c) Stresses in the precast beam when slab is cast:
(d) Stresses in the composite section after a long time without additional load:
(e) Stresses in the composite section after a long time with additional load:
In the slab
In the beam
f
P
A
Pe M h
I
bot b
b
b b
b
,
/
. . .
1
1
1
2
551 7 439 12 95 = +
+
=  =
b gb g
MPa
f
P
A
P e M M h
I
top b
b
b f b
b
,
/
. .
. . .
2
2
2
3 6
9
2
1350
245
1350 10 280 1654 1215 10 350
10 10
551 3188 2 32
= +
+ + 
=

+
 ´ ´ + + ( )´  ( )
´
=  + =
d ib g
d i
MPa
f
P
A
P e M M h
I
bot b
b
b f b
b
,
/
. . .
2
2
2
2
551 3188 8 70 = +
+ +
=  =
d ib g
MPa
f
P
A
P e M M h
I
top b
b
b f b
b
,
/
. .
. . .
3
3
3
3 6
9
2
1200
245
1200 10 280 1654 1215 10 350
10 10
4 898 1719 318
= +
+ + 
=

+
 ´ ´ + + ( )´  ( )
´
= + =
d ib g
d i
MPa
f
P
A
P e M M h
I
bot b
b
b f b
b
,
/
. . .
3
3
3
2
4 898 1719 6 62 = +
+ +
=  =
d ib g
MPa
f
M y
I
n
top f
L top cf
c
c ,
,
.
.
.
. . .
4
6
9
450 10 339 8
26 96 10
08235
5671 08235 4 67
=
F
H
G
I
K
J
=
´  ( )
´
F
H
G
I
K
J
´
= ´ = MPa
f
M y
I
n
bot f
L top cb
c
c ,
,
.
.
.
. . .
4
6
9
450 10 189 8
26 96 10
08235
3167 08235 2 61
=
F
H
G
I
K
J
=
´  ( )
´
F
H
G
I
K
J
´
=  ´ = MPa
f
P
A
P e M M h
I
M y
I
top b
b
b f b
b
L top cb
c
,
,
/
.
.
.
. . .
4
4
4
6
9
2
3179
450 10 189 8
26 96 10
3179 3167 6 35
= +
+ + 
+
=  +
´  ( )
´
=   =
d ib g
MPa
ANALYSIS 443
The calculated stresses are summarized in Fig. 436.
Differential shrinkage
If the precast beam is relatively old when the in situ slab is cast, much of the creep and shrinkage
of the precast beam has already taken place. Therefore, the shrinkage of the in situ slab is greater
than the magnitude of the remaining creep and shrinkage of the precast beam. The resulting
shortening of the slab relative to the precast beam is called differential shrinkage.
Figure 437 shows the strains and stresses caused by differential shrinkage in the composite section.
These can be determined by making use of compatibility and equilibrium (Ref. 416). Assume that
the beam and the slab act independently since casting of the in situ concrete, and that the following
strains have occurred (see Fig. 437a):
e
sf
= unrestrained shrinkage of the in situ slab
e
top,b
e
bot,b
= unrestrained creep and shrinkage at the top and bottom of the precast beam
A position is required where compatibility can initially be established. Since any position may be
chosen that will correspond to the deformed shape of the beam, a vertical position is selected, as
shown in Fig. 437b, to simplify the problem. To achieve this position of compatibility, a moment
M
b
must be applied to the beam, and a tensile force F must be applied to the in situ slab. The
moment M
b
can be calculated as follows:
(431)
where k
b
= curvature of the beam section =
h
b
= height of the precast beam section
f
P
A
P e M M h
I
M y
I
bot b
b
b f b
b
L bot cb
c
,
,
/
.
.
.
. . .
4
4
4
6
9
2
6 617
450 10 510 2
26 96 10
6 617 8515 190
= +
+ +
+
=  +
´ ( )
´
=  + =
d ib g c h
MPa
M E I
b b c b b
= −k
,
1
h
b
bot b top b
e e
, ,

d i
y
top,c
=
339.8
y
bot,c
=
510.2
b
ft
= 988.2
b
f
= 1200
Centroid of
composite
section
2.79
15.03
1.93
12.95
2.32
8.70
3.18
6.62
4.67
2.61
6.35
1.90
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)
Figure 436: Stress distribution (in MPa) in the composite section of Example 49.
444 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
The force in the slab required to take up the differential strain can be determined from
(432)
where A
f
= cross sectional area of the in situ slab
e
diff
= differential shrinkage strain
= e
sf
 e
avg,b
e
avg,b
= average strain in the beam
= for a symmetric beam
The beam and the slab can now be joined and the applied force F and moment M
b
cancelled by
applying equal and opposite forces and moments to the composite section, as shown in Fig. 437c.
It is customary to use a set of equivalent forces as shown in Fig. 437d, where
(433)
F E A
diff c f f
=e
,
e e
bot b top b , ,
/ +
d i
2
M F y
h
M
c top c
f
b
= 
F
H
G
I
K
J

,
2
In situ slab
Precast
prestressed
beam
e
sf
e
sf
e
diff
e
top,b
e
bot,b
e
avg,b
Position
at casting
(b)
Forces required for
compatibility
(a)
Positions following unrestrained
shrinkage and creep
F
M
b
Final position
(c)
Forces on composite
section
F
M
b
y
top,c
h
f
/2
Centroidal axis
of the composite
section
h
f
(d)
Equivalent forces
on composite section
F
M
c
Figure 437: Differential shrinkage in a composite section.
ANALYSIS 445
The resulting stresses can now be determined as follows
(434a)
(434b)
(434c)
(434d)
where A
ft
= transformed cross sectional area of the in situ slab
A
c
= cross sectional area of the composite section
The notation used for the distances to extreme fibres used in these equations are defined in Fig. 4 38.
It is important to note the sign convention assumed for determining these stresses. For a beam
prestressed by a tendon located below the centroidal axis of the section, as shown in Fig. 437, the
creep and shrinkage strains will be negative with the corresponding curvature k
b
negative and
moment M
b
(Eq. 431) positive. The differential shrinkage will usually be a negative value as this
would indicate a shortening of the slab relative to the beam. The force F (Eq. 432) must reverse
this shortening and is therefore a tensile (positive) force.
Creep itself tends to relieve the stresses caused by differential shrinkage, and the following reduction
factor y can be applied to these stresses to account for this effect (Ref. 46 and 48):
(435)
where b
cc
= ratio of creep strain to the elastic strain
The value of b
cc
can range between 1.5 and 2.5 and an average value of 2, which results in a
reduction factor of 0.43, is often used for design. However, if high creep is expected because of,
for example, a very dry environment, this value of b
cc
must be increased to reflect the increased
creep.
f
F
A
F
A
M y
I
n
f
F
A
F
A
M y
I
n
f
M y
I
F
A
M y
I
f
M y
I
F
A
M y
I
top f
ft c
c top cf
c
c
bot f
ft c
c bot cf
c
c
top b
b top b
b c
c top cb
c
bot b
b bot b
b c
c bot cb
c
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
, ,
=  +
F
H
G
I
K
J
=  +
F
H
G
I
K
J
=  +
=  +
y
b
b
=


1 e
cc
cc
y
top,c
y
bot,c
y
bot,cb
y
bot,b
y
top,b
y
top,cb
y
bot,cf
y
top,cf
Centroid of the
composite section
Centroid of
the precast beam
(b)
Stresses caused by
differential shrinkage
(a)
Definition of symbols
f
top,f
f
top,b
f
bot,f
f
bot,b
Figure 438: Definition of symbols and stresses for differential shrinkage in a composite section.
446 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
EXAMPLE 410
Calculate the differential shrinkage stresses in the composite section of example 49. Because the
in situ slab is cast 6 months after the beam is cast, assume that 60% of the creep and shrinkage
have already taken place in the beam at the time of casting of the slab. The following values for
creep and shrinkage apply:
e
cr
= 48 ´ 10
6
MPa
1
for creep of the precast beam
e
sh
= 310 ´ 10
6
for shrinkage of both the beam and slab
b
cc
= 1.6
Assume that the remaining creep in the precast beam takes place under the stresses present at the
time the slab is cast. The stresses in the top and bottom of the beam are 2.322 MPa and
8.698 MPa, respectively. The creep strains in the top and bottom fibres of the beam will then be
The total strain in the precast beam including the remaining portion of the shrinkage is
The curvature of the beam caused by these strains is
while the moment required to rotate the beam through this curvature is
The average strain in the precast beam is given by
so that the differential shrinkage strain is
The tension force applied to the slab for compatibility is given by
The moment M
c
is determined from
Finally, the reduction factor for creep is
e e
e e
cr top cr top b
cr bot cr bot b
f
f
, ,
, ,
. . . .
. . . .
= = ´ ´  ( ) = ´
= = ´ ´  ( ) = ´
 
 
0 4 0 4 48 10 2 322 44 58 10
0 4 0 4 48 10 8 698 167 0 10
2
6 6
2
6 6
e e e
e e e
top b cr top sh
bot b cr bot sh
, ,
, ,
. . . .
. . . .
= + = ´ + ´  ´ = ´
= + = ´ + ´  ´ = ´
  
  
0 4 44 58 10 0 4 310 10 168 6 10
0 4 167 0 10 0 4 310 10 2910 10
6 6 6
6 6 6
d i
d i
k e e
b
b
bot b top b
h
=  =    ( ) ´ = ´
  
1 1
0 7
2910 168 6 10 174 9 10
6 6 1
, ,
.
. . . c h b g m
M E I
b b c b b
= = ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ =
 
k
,
( . ) . . 174 9 10 34 10 10 00 10 59 49
6 6 3
kN. m
e e e
avg b bot b top b , , ,
. . . = + =   ( )´ = ´
 
1
2
1
2
2910 168 6 10 229 8 10
6 6
d i
e e e
diff sf avg b
=  = ´   ´ = ´
  
,
. . 310 10 229 8 10 80 21 10
6 6 6
d i
F E A
diff c f f
= = ´ ´ ´ ´ =

e
,
. . 80 21 10 28 1200 150 404 2
6
d i
kN
M F y
h
M
c top c
f
b
= 
F
H
G
I
K
J
 =  
F
H
G
I
K
J ´  =

,
. . . .
2
404 2 339 8
150
2
10 59 49 47 56
3
kN. m
y
b
b
=

=

=
 
1 1
16
0 4988
1 6
e e
cc
cc
.
.
.
ANALYSIS 447
The stresses caused by differential shrinkage can now be calculated as follows
These stresses must be added to those caused by all the loadings after losses, as shown in Fig. 439.
It can be seen from the final stresses that it is the tensile stress in the bottom of the precast beam
that is most significantly affected by differential shrinkage from the point of view of design.
f
F
A
F
A
M y
I
n
top f
ft c
c top cf
c
c ,
,
.
.
.
.
. .
.
.
.
=  +
F
H
G
I
K
J
=  +
´  ( )
´
F
H
G
I
K
J
´
=
y
404 2
148 2
404 2
3933
47 56 339 8
26 96 10
28
34
0 4988
0 45
3
MPa
f
F
A
F
A
M y
I
n
bot f
ft c
c bot cf
c
c ,
,
.
.
.
.
. .
.
.
.
=  +
F
H
G
I
K
J
=  +
´  ( )
´
F
H
G
I
K
J
´
=
y
404 2
148 2
404 2
3933
47 56 189 8
26 96 10
28
34
0 4988
056
3
MPa
f
M y
I
F
A
M y
I
top b
b top b
b c
c top cb
c
,
, ,
. .
.
. .
.
.
.
=  +
F
H
G
I
K
J
=
´  ( )
´
 +
´  ( )
´
F
H
G
I
K
J
´
= 
y
59 49 350
10 10
404 24
3933
47 56 189 8
26 96 10
0 4988
172
3 3
MPa
f
M y
I
F
A
M y
I
bot b
b bot b
b c
c bot cb
c
,
, ,
. .
.
. .
.
.
.
=  +
F
H
G
I
K
J
=
´
´
 +
´
´
F
H
G
I
K
J
´
=
y
59 49 350
10 10
404 2
3933
47 56 510 2
26 96 10
0 4988
0 97
3 3
MPa
4.67
2.61
6.35
1.90
(a)
Stresses caused
by all loadings
after losses
(b)
Stresses caused
by differential
shrinkage
(c)
Total stress
0.45
0.56
1.72
0.97
4.22
2.05
8.07
2.87
+
=
Figure 439: Total stresses Example 410.
448 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
Ultimate moment
The flexural capacity of a composite section can be determined in the same way as for a flanged
section if provision is made for the difference in strength f
cu
of the concrete in the precast beam
and in the in situ slab. This difference is generally only considered if it is more than 10 MPa.
The only way that the difference between f
cu
for the slab and for the beam impacts on the analysis
of flexural strength is that it influences the calculation of the compressive force in the concrete.
This can be accounted for either by transforming the slab concrete to the beam concrete on the basis
of the strength ratio n
cu
(transformed section) or by making use of basic principles (untransformed
section) (see Fig. 440).
Consider the case where the compression zone extends into the precast beam, as shown in Fig. 440.
The compression force in the slab C
f
and in the beam C
w
can be determined from the following:
(436a)
(436b)
where b
ft
= transformed slab width = n
cu
b
e
n
cu
= strength ratio = f
cu,f
/ f
cu,b
f
cu,f
, f
cu,b
= characteristic concrete strength of the slab and beam, respectively
For the case where the compression zone is entirely contained in the slab (bx < h
f
), Eq. 436 becomes
(437a)
(437b)
Horizontal shear
In both the preceding sections dealing with the analysis of the uncracked section and with the
ultimate strength of the composite section, the assumption was made the the section acts compositely.
However, composite action is only possible if the induced horizontal shear can be transmitted across
the interface between the precast beam and the in situ slab.
C
f h b
f h b
C f x h b
f
cu f f e
cu b f ft
w cu b f b
=
R
S
T
= 
a
a
a b
,
,
,
for an untransformed slab width
for a transformed slab width
c h
C
f xb
f xb
C
f
cu f e
cu b ft
w
=
R
S
T
=
a b
a b
,
,
for an untransformed slab width
for a transformed slab width
0
(a)
Original slab width
(b)
Transformed slab width
b
b
b
ft
T
af
cu,b
C
f
C
w
h
f
b
b
b
e
x
T
bx
af
cu,f
af
cu,b
C
f
C
w
Figure 440: Flexural capacity of a composite section.
ANALYSIS 449
There are two commonly used methods of calculating the horizontal shear stress at the precastin
situ concrete interface: The first method makes use of elastic theory while the second method
considers conditions at ultimate when plastic deformations have taken place in the section. It must
be noted that the restrictions on shear stresses as recommended by design codes are dependent on
the method used for obtaining the interface shear stresses.
Elastic theory yields the following equation for determining the horizontal shear stress v
he
at the
interface of an uncracked section
(438)
where V = shear force at the section where the shear stress is required
Q = first moment of area of the concrete on either side of the interface about the
neutral axis of the transformed composite section
I
c
= second moment of area of the transformed composite section
b
v
= width of the interface
The horizontal shear stress v
hu
at ultimate can be determined by dividing the horizontal force in the
slab that has to be transmitted across the interface by the area of the interface. Figure 441a shows
the case where the compression zone is entirely contained in the slab, in which case the horizontal
shear stress at the interface v
hu
is given by
(439)
where L
v
= distance over which the force must be transmitted
For the case shown in Fig. 441b, the distance L
v
extends from the section of maximum moment to
the point of zero moment, i.e. the support. In the case where the compression zone extends into
the precast beam, the compression force to be transmitted across the interface is taken as
.
It should be noted that the shear stress v
hu
is an average stress while the limiting values recommended
by design codes are given with regard to a maximum value. Recommendations exist (Refs. 47 and
423) which suggest that the maximum value of the horizontal shear stress can be obtained by
distributing the average shear stress v
hu
along the length L
v
in proportion to the vertical design shear
force diagram.
v
VQ
I b
he
c v
=
v
C
b L
f xb
b L
hu
f
v v
cu f e
v v
= =
a b
,
a f h b
cu f f e ,
(a)
Cross section at postion
of maximum moment
(b)
Beam elevation
h
f
b
v
L
v
b
e
x
T T
bx
af
cu,f
C
f C
f 0
Maximum
moment
section
Minimum
moment
section
v
hu
Figure 441: Horizontal shear in a composite beam.
450 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
4.4 DESIGN
4.4.1 Limit states design
All the design codes of practice normally used in South Africa for the design of prestressed concrete
structures (Refs. 42, 46, 47 and 48) are based on the so called limit states design approach,
which offers a rational and practical procedure for ensuring that there is an acceptable probability
that the structure will remain fit for its intended use during its design life. Any condition at which
a structure may become unfit for use constitutes a limit state, and the objective of the design
procedure is to ensure that such a limit state is not reached. Obviously, this approach requires that
each limit state must be examined separately to make sure that it has not been reached. These checks
can be made either on a deterministic or on a probabilistic basis, and the codes currently used in
South Africa for the design of prestressed concrete structures all adopt a probabilistic basis. This
means that if the provisions of these codes are followed, each limit state is examined to establish
if there is an acceptable probability of it not being reached (see Refs. 416, 417 and 424).
The various limit states can be placed in one of the two following categories:
• Ultimate limit states, which are concerned with the maximum loadcarrying capacity of the
structure.
• Serviceability limit states, which are concerned with the normal use and durability of the
structure.
The limit states listed below are those applicable to SABS 0100 (Ref. 42), and are essentially the
same as those applicable to BS 8110 (Ref. 47).
Ultimate limit states
• Stability: The structure must remain stable under all the critical combinations of the design
ultimate loads. This requirement implies that no ultimate limit state is to be reached by rupture
of any section, by overturning or by buckling.
• Robustness: The design must be robust, in the sense that the failure of a single element or damage
to a small area of the structure must not lead to the collapse of a major part of the structure.
The structure should, therefore, not be unreasonably susceptible to the effects of accidents.
• Special hazards: If a potential hazard exists due to the nature of the occupancy, location or use
of a structure (e.g. flour mill or chemical plant) the design must ensure that there is a reasonable
probability that the structure will survive an accident, even though it may be damaged.
Serviceability limit states
• Deflection: The deformation of the structure or any part thereof must be limited to ensure that
neither its appearance nor its performance is adversely affected. Possible damage to other
elements such as finishes, services, partitions, glazing and cladding, as well as to adjacent
structures is also a consideration in this regard.
• Cracking: The width of cracks must be controlled to ensure that the appearance, efficiency and
durability of the structure is not impaired.
• Vibration: Where there is a likelihood of the structure being subjected to excessive vibrations,
appropriate measures must be taken to prevent discomfort or alarm to occupants, damage to the
structure, or interference with its proper function.
DESIGN 451
Other considerations
In addition to the limit states listed above, the following aspects must be considered in the design:
• Fatigue: The effects of fatigue must be considered if the nature of the imposed load on the
structure is predominantly cyclic.
• Durability: The durability of the structure must be considered in terms of its conditions of
exposure and its design life. Compliance with code recommendations regarding minimum concrete
cover to the reinforcement, minimum concrete strength and permissible crack width is intended
to ensure that the durability requirements of most structures are satisfied.
• Fire resistance: When a structural element may be exposed to fire its retention of structural
strength, resistance to flame penetration and resistance to heat transmission must be considered.
• Lightning: Reinforcement may be used as part of a lightning protection system.
For a satisfactory design, the design resistance must exceed the design load effect at the ultimate
limit states and the design criteria must be satisfied at the serviceability limit states. In order to
carry out the necessary calculations to verify compliance with these requirements, the design material
strengths and the design loads must be known. The approach followed by the limit states design
method to determine these quantities, as implemented in the design codes of practice (Refs. 42,
46, 47 and 48) and loading codes (Refs. 418, 419, 420 and 424) commonly used in South
Africa, is briefly described in the following.
Design material strengths
Material strengths are specified in terms of their characteristic values, which are defined as the
strength below which not more than 5% of the test results may be expected to fall (see Section 2.1.1
for the specific case of the characteristic compressive strength of concrete). If it is assumed that
the measured values of strength are normally distributed, this definition can be expressed as follows:
(440)
where f
k
= characteristic strength
f
m
= mean strength
s = standard deviation
The design material strength applicable to each limit state is derived from the characteristic strength
by dividing it by a partial safety factor for material strength g
m
. Thus,
design strength = (441)
The factor g
m
is intended to account for the following (Ref. 42):
• Possible reductions in the strength of the materials used in the actual structure as compared with
the characteristic values obtained from laboratory tested specimens.
• Local weaknesses.
• Inaccuracies in the assessment of the resistance of sections.
The value of g
m
depends on the material: By the nature of its manufacturing process, concrete is a
more variable material than steel. It also depends on the importance of the limit state being
considered and, therefore, higher values are used for ultimate limit states than for serviceability
limit states. Values recommended by SABS 0100 (Ref. 42) for g
m
are listed in Table 45.
f f
k m
= 164 . s
f
k
m
g
452 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
Design loads
If sufficient statistical data were available, it would be possible to account for the variability of the
loads acting on a structure by defining them in terms of characteristic values which have a 5%
chance of being exceeded. Unfortunately, the data required to establish characteristic values for the
various loads are not available at the present time, so that values are usually based on experience
and, possibly, on forecasts of the implications of future developments. Therefore, the values usually
given in the various loading codes are not characteristic values but are nominal values.
A design load, applicable to a particular limit state, is obtained by multiplying the corresponding
nominal load by the appropriate partial safety factor g
f
. Thus,
design load = nominal load ´ g
f
(442)
The factor g
f
is intended to account for (Ref. 42):
• The possibility of unfavourable deviation of the loads from their nominal values.
• Inaccurate assesment of load effects.
• Unforeseen redistribution of stress within the structure.
• Variations in dimensional accuracy achieved during construction.
The value of g
f
depends on the following factors:
• Type of load: Higher values of g
f
are associated with loading types which, by their nature, are
more variable. Thus, for example, the value of g
f
for dead load will be less than the value for
superimposed live load, because the variability of the dead load is less than that of the live load.
• Number of loads acting together: As the number of loads acting together increase, the value of
g
f
for a particular load decreases because of the reduced probability that the various loads will
all reach their nominal values simultaneously.
• Importance of the limit state: Higher values of g
f
are used for ultimate limit states than for
serviceability limit states because of the requirement of having a smaller probability of the former
being reached.
Limit State Concrete Steel
Ultimate
Flexure or axial load 1.50 1.15
Shear 1.40 1.15
Bond 1.40
Others (eg. bearing stresses) ³ 1.50
Serviceability
Deflection 1.0 1.0
Cracking strength of prestressed concrete
elements using tensile stress criteria
1.3 1.0
Table 45: Partial safety factors for material strength g
m
as recommended by SABS 0100
(Ref. 42).
DESIGN 453
The combinations listed below for selfweight D
n
, imposed loads L
n
and wind loads W
n
comply with
the recommendations of SABS 0160 (Ref. 418) at the ultimate limit state:
1.5D
n
1.2D
n
+ 1.6L
n
1.2D
n
+ 0.5L
n
+ 1.3W
n
0.9D
n
+ 1.3W
n
The following combinations comply with recommendations of SABS 0160 at the serviceability limit
state:
1.1D
n
+ 1.0L
n
1.1D
n
+ 0.3L
n
+ 0.6W
n
It should be noted that if a particular load in a load combination has a relieving effect on the load
effect being considered, most loading codes will provide a reduced value of g
f
to be applied to that
particular load.
The descriptions of the material and load factors given above are, strictly speaking, only applicable
to the recommendations of SABS 0100 (Ref. 42) in this regard, which are, in principle, the same
as those of BS 8110 (Ref. 47). The codes for bridge loadings commonly used in South Africa
(Refs. 420 and 424), however, differ slightly from SABS 0100 and BS 8110 in the manner in
which the various factors which impact on the magnitude of the design material strengths and loads
are assigned to the material and load factors. The bridge loading codes also specify an additional
factor g
f3
with which the effects of the design loads must be multiplied to obtain the design load
effects. However, the factors which all the different loading codes, referred to above, provide for
in this regard are essentially the same. It is extremely important to note that the loads and load
factors to be used must be obtained from the particular loading code specified by the design code
of practice being followed because the provisions of a code of practice is always dependent on those
of a particular loading code.
The normal procedure followed in limit states design is to design on the basis of the expected critical
limit state and then to examine the remaining limit states to check that they are not reached. In the
flexural design of prestressed concrete members, the critical limit state depends on the limitations
imposed by the limit state of cracking, which also provides the basis on which prestressed concrete
elements are classified by the design codes of practice commonly used in South Africa. This
classification is essentially the same for all these codes of practice and is summarised below.
• Class 1 (full prestress): No tensile stress permitted.
• Class 2 (limited prestress): Tensile stresses permitted, but limited to the extent that no visible
cracks develop.
• Class 3 (partial prestress): Tensile stresses permitted, but with surface crack widths limited to
values prescribed by the particular code being used.
Generally, the design of class 1 and class 2 members is governed by the serviceability limit state
of cracking, while the design of class 3 members tends to be controlled by the ultimate limit state
or the serviceability limit state of deflection.
4.4.2 Design for the serviceability limit state
Since the serviceability limit state of cracking governs the flexural design of class 1 and class 2
members, the design procedure developed in this Section only covers class 1 and 2 pretensioned as
well as bonded and unbonded posttensioned members. The flexural design of class 3 (partially
prestressed) members is covered in Section 4.4.6.
454 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
The criteria which limit crack width are stated in terms of limiting concrete flexural tensile stresses
by the design codes of practice used in South Africa (Refs. 42, 46, 47 and 48). In addition to
the limiting tensile stresses, these codes also specify maximum compressive stresses in the concrete
which may not be exceeded at the serviceability limit state. Although the purpose of the compressive
stress limitations are not explicitly stated in the codes, it seems reasonable to assume that they are
intended to prevent the development of excessive creep strains in the concrete under serviceability
conditions, and to prevent microcracking and spalling of the concrete in the compression zone under
serviceability conditions. The concrete stress limitations specified by SABS 0100 (Ref. 42) are
listed in Table 46. It should be noted that the concrete stress limitations are divided into two sets:
One corresponding to conditions at transfer and another which applies to the serviceability limit
state. This follows because these conditions can normally be identified as being the most critical.
The design process for prestressed concrete members differs from that used for other construction
materials because a number of critical stages in the life of the structure, all related to the presence
of the prestressing force, can be identified. Of these, the stage corresponding to transfer of the
prestressing force and the stage corresponding to maximum load at the serviceability limit state,
after all the losses have occurred, generally appear to be the most important. These stages are
illustrated in Fig. 442 for a simply supported beam subjected to a uniformly distributed load:
• At transfer of prestress (Fig. 442a), the prestress will be acting at its maximum value because
the longterm losses have not yet taken place, while the applied external load will be acting at
its minimum value because only the self weight of the beam will be present at this stage. Under
these conditions the beam will tend to deflect upwards and the stress distribution at the midspan
Class 1 members Class 2 members
Pretensioned Posttensioned
At transfer
1. Compression
• Triangular or near triangu
lar distribution of prestress
0.45 f
ci
0.45 f
ci
0.45 f
ci
• Near uniform distribution
of prestress
0.3 f
ci
0.3 f
ci
0.3 f
ci
2. Tension 1.0 MPa
0.45√f
ci
0.36√f
ci
Serviceability limit state
1. Compression
• Design load in bending 0.33 f
cu
* 0.33 f
cu
* 0.33 f
cu
*
• Design load in direct com
pression
0.25 f
cu
0.25 f
cu
0.25 f
cu
2. Tension 0
0.45√ f
cu
** 0.36√ f
cu
**
f
ci
= Concrete compressive strength at transfer
* Within range of support moments in continuous beams and other statically indeterminate
structures this limit may be increased to 0.4 f
cu
** These stresses may be increased under certain conditions, as specified in SABS 0100
Table 46: Limiting concrete stresses in prestressed members, SABS 0100 (Ref 42).
DESIGN 455
section will show a small compression or even a tension in the top fibre and a large compression
in the bottom fibre.
• At the serviceability limit state the maximum service load will be acting together with the
effective prestressing force, which represents a minimum value because all the longterm losses
would have taken place at this stage. Under these conditions the beam will deflect downwards
and the stress distribution at the midspan section will show a large compression in the top fibre
and a small compression or tension in the bottom fibre.
Since the stages described above are usually critical they will serve as the point of departure for
developing a design procedure. The magnitude of the stress limitations imposed by the design codes
of practice also make it possible to assume a linear elastic uncracked section for purposes of analysis.
Therefore, the criteria for design at the serviceability limit state can be stated as follows:
• At transfer of prestress: Ensure that the top and bottom fibre concrete stresses under maximum
prestress and minimum applied moment M
min
do not exceed the allowable values for tension and
compression, respectively. The maximum prestressing force P
t
corresponds to the value directly
after transfer and includes all the instantaneous losses but excludes all timedependent losses.
The minimum moment is usually equal to the dead load moment.
• At the serviceability limit state: Ensure that the top and bottom fibre concrete stresses under
minimum prestress and maximum applied moment M
max
do not exceed the allowable values for
compression and tension, respectively. The minimum prestressing force hP
t
corresponds to the
final value after the all the losses (instantaneous and timedependent) have taken place. The factor
h is the ratio of the final prestressing force to the initial value P
t
which includes only the
instantaneous losses. It is also given by h = 1  %longterm loss/100.
(a) Transfer of prestress
(b) At the serviceability limit state
Minimum loading
Maximum loading
Prestress at a maximum (before losses)
Prestress at a minimum (after losses)


Stress distribution
at midspan section
Stress distribution
at midspan section
Figure 442: Critical stages for a simply supported prestressed concrete beam.
456 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
Equations 45 and 46 can be used to express these criteria in terms of the following four stress
inequality equations:
(443a)
(443b)
(443c)
(443d)
where
f
top,t
, f
bot,t
= stress in the extreme top and bottom fibres, respectively, at transfer
f
top,s
, f
bot,s
= stress in the extreme top and bottom fibres, respectively, at the serviceability
limit state
f
tt
, f
ct
= allowable tensile and compressive stresses, respectively, at transfer
f
ts
, f
cs
= allowable tensile and compressive stresses, respectively, at the serviceability limit
state
The design process basically involves a manipulation of these four stress inequality equations.
However, before the design process can be developed expressions and procedures must be devised
to
• estimate the minimum required section properties in terms of Z
top
and Z
bot
,
• establish the feasibility domain of P
t
and e, and
• determine the so called permissible cable zone which delimits the zone along the span in which
the cable may be placed.
Minimum required section properties
The purpose of the following derivation is to determine the minimum section properties which will
simultaneously satisfy the four stress inequality equations. This means that, from the design point
of view, the objective is to find the most efficient beam section. The derivation given here was
adapted from Ref. 414 and is credited to Guyon (Ref. 421).
Assume that the two allowable stresses f
tt
and f
ct
are both attained at the critical beam section at
transfer, as shown in Fig. 443a. If the effect of the prestress losses, which take place with the
passage of time, is superimposed on the stresses at transfer, then the stresses in the top and bottom
fibres will be reduced to s
1
and s
2
, respectively, as shown in Fig. 443b. It should, therefore, be
noted that s
1
and s
2
correspond to the combined action of hP
t
and M
min
. The stress changes Ds
top
and Ds
bot
induced in the top and bottom fibres by the application of an additional moment DM are
shown in Fig. 443c, and the final stress condition at the serviceability limit state (see Fig. 443d)
is reached when M
min
+ DM = M
max
. If any of the allowable stresses at the serviceability limit state
f
cs
or f
ts
is exceeded, then the corresponding section modulus Z
top
or Z
bot
is smaller than required
(Ds = DM / Z), and the opposite is true if an allowable stress is not attained. Therefore, the
magnitudes of Z
top
and Z
bot
for which the allowable stress requirements at the serviceability limit
state are exactly satisfied, as shown in Fig. 443d, represent minimum required values.
Referring to Fig. 443, the top fibre stress at transfer can be expressed as (Eq. 443a)
(444)
f
P
A
P e
Z
M
Z
f
f
P
A
P e
Z
M
Z
f
f
P
A
P e
Z
M
Z
f
f
P
A
P e
Z
M
Z
f
top t
t t
top
min
top
tt
bot t
t t
bot
min
bot
ct
top s
t t
top
max
top
cs
bot s
t t
bot
max
bot
t s
,
,
,
,
= + + £
= + + ³
= + + ³
= + + £
h h
h h
f
P
A
P e
Z
M
Z
tt
t t
top
min
top
= + +
DESIGN 457
The top fibre stress under the action of M
min
, after all the prestressing losses have developed, is
given by
which can be rewritten as
(445)
Substituting Eq. 444 into 445 yields
(446)
The stress increment induced by the additional moment DM in the top fibre is
(447)
The following condition must be satisfied to ensure that the allowable stress in the top fibre at the
serviceability limit state is not exceeded:
(448)
Note that in Eq. 448 f
cs
will appear as a negative quantity because it represents a compressive
stress. Substitution of Eqs. 446 and 447 into Eq. 448 yields
which, by noting that M
max
= M
min
+ DM, can be solved to yield the following expression for Z
top
:
(449)
A similar analysis of the state of stress in the bottom fibre will show that
(450)
Equations 449 and 450 can also be written in the following convenient form by using M
max
=
M
min
+ DM:
(451)
s
h h
1
= + +
P
A
P e
Z
M
Z
t t
top
min
top
s h
h
1
= + +
F
H
G
I
K
J
 +
P
A
P e
Z
M
Z
M
Z
M
Z
t t
top
min
top
min
top
min
top
s h h
1
1 = +  f
M
Z
t t
min
top
a f
D
D
s
top
top
M
Z
=
s s
1
+ ³ D
top cs
f
h h f
M
Z
M
Z
f
tt
min
top top
cs
+  + ³ 1 a f
D
Z
M M
f f
top
max min
cs tt
£


h
h
b g
d i
Z
M M
f f
bot
max min
t s ct
³


h
h
b g
d i
Z
M M
f f
top
min
cs tt
£
 +

1 h
h
a f
d i
D
(a) At transfer
( + ) P M
t min
(d) At the serviceability
limit state
( + ) hP M
t max
(b)
( + ) hP M
t min
(c)
( ) DM
f
tt
f
t s
f
ct
f
cs
+ = Time
s
1
Ds
top
Ds
bot
s
2
+
=
Figure 443: Evolution of stress in a prestressed concrete beam.
458 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
(452)
Equations 449 and 450 or, alternatively, Eqs. 451 and 452 can be used to find a beam section
which will satisfy the limiting stress criteria. Note, however, that these equations are functions of
M
min
which, itself, is dependent on the crosssection so that the procedure by which a suitable section
is found must involve some form of iteration. The process is usually started by assuming a value
for M
min
based on experience, after which the minimum required values for Z
top
and Z
bot
can be
calculated and a suitable section subsequently selected. The validity of the assumed value of M
min
can then be checked and, if required, an improved value of M
min
can be used to calculate revised
minimum required values for Z
top
and Z
bot
. This process normally converges rapidly, particularly as
the experience of the designer and, hence, the accuracy of the initial assumption for M
min
increases.
The following considerations are important when designing a beam section using the approach
outlined above:
• Although the section moduli may satisfy Eqs. 449 and 450, it is possible that the required
eccentricity of the prestressing force may be larger than y
bot
, which means that the cable falls
outside the section. In such a case the section must be revised to satisfy the practicality
consideration that the cable must fall inside the section.
• Practical considerations, such as for example a required type of shape, usually lead to a section
which can, at best, only satisfy one of Eqs. 449 and 450. Therefore, the normal situation is
that the section will have one section modulus which is approximately equal to the minimum
required value while the other one is larger than required.
It is, once again, emphasised that the objective of the design approach followed here is to provide
the most efficient crosssection and, hence, a least weight beam.
Magnel diagram
Once the section has been selected, the magnitude and corresponding eccentricity of the prestressing
force must be determined. Although numerous procedures for accomplishing this exist, the method
originally developed by Magnel (Ref. 422) still represents an extremely useful technique and is
presented here.
The procedure is basically a geometric interpretation of the four stress inequality equations,
Eqs. 443, which are rewritten in the following form:
(453a)
(453b)
(453c)
Z
M M
f f
bot
min
t s ct
³
 +

1 h
h
a f
d i
D
1
P
Z
A
e
f Z M t
top
tt top min
£
+
L
N
M
O
Q
P

d i
1
P
Z
A
e
f Z M t
bot
ct bot min
£
+
L
N
M
O
Q
P

d i
1
P
Z
A
e
f Z M
f Z M
Z
A
e
f Z M
f Z M
t
top
cs top max
cs top max
top
cs top max
cs top max
³
+
L
N
M
O
Q
P

<
£
+
L
N
M
O
Q
P

>
R
S




T




h
h
d i
d i
for
for
DESIGN 459
(453d)
At this stage of the design, the only two unknown quantities in the inequality Eqs. 453 are P
t
and
e if an a priori value has been taken for h. These equations can therefore be plotted at equality on
the e1/P
t
plane, in which case they will each plot as a straight line, as shown in Fig. 444. Each
line serves as a boundary which divides the plane into a part in which the inequality relationship
represented by the line is satisfied and another part in which it is not. Consider, for example, the
line in Fig 444 which represents the inequality 453a at equality and, therefore, the stress inequality
443a from which it was derived. All the points with coordinates e and 1/P
t
which fall below the
line will satisfy the stress inequality 443a while it is not satisfied by the points which lie above
the line. If all the lines are examined in the same way, it can be concluded that the region bounded
by the quadrilateral ABCD contains points with coordinates e and 1/P
t
which satisfy all four the
stress inequality equations and, therefore, represents a feasibility domain. It is important in this
regard to note that the so called Magnel diagram shown in Fig. 444 was constructed on the
presumption that f
cs
Z
top
< M
max
and f
ts
Z
bot
< M
max
. The maximum practical eccentricity e
pl
is also
plotted on the Magnel diagram as a vertical line (Ref. 414), and is shown to intersect the
quadrilateral ABCD. In this case the feasible domain is reduced to the region bounded by ABEFD
which contains points which have e and associated P
t
values satisfying not only the stress inequalities
but also the practicality requirements. If e
pl
lies to the left of point A then no practical solution
exists and a revised section with larger section moduli must be selected. If, on the other hand, e
pl
lies to the right of point C then any point contained in ABDC will yield practically feasible values
of e and P
t
.
1
P
Z
A
e
f Z M
f Z M
Z
A
e
f Z M
f Z M
t
bot
t s bot max
t s bot max
bot
t s bot max
t s bot max
³
+
L
N
M
O
Q
P

<
£
+
L
N
M
O
Q
P

>
R
S




T




h
h
d i
d i
for
for
e
1
P
t
Domain of
feasibility
A
O
B
D
E
F
C
e
pl
E
q
.
4
5
3
b
E
q
.
4

5
3
c
E
q
.
4

5
3
d
E
q
.
4

5
3
a

Z
A
bot

Z
A
top
Figure 444: The Magnel diagram.
460 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
Once the Magnel diagram has been constructed for a section, the required value of P
t
and
corresponding value of e can be selected. Usually the value which leads to the smallest possible
value of P
t
is selected. This point will correspond to the largest value of 1/P
t
at the largest practically
feasible value of e (point F, Fig. 444).
The number of strands required for the selected value of P
t
will depend on the maximum permissible
jacking force. The design codes of practice commonly used in South Africa (Refs. 42, 46, 47 and
48) all recommend that the jacking force should normally not exceed 75% of the characteristic
strength of the tendon, but that it may be increased to 80% provided that special consideration is
given to safety, to the stressstrain characteristics of the tendon, and to the assessment of the friction
losses. BS 8110 (Ref. 47) also requires that the initial prestress at transfer should normally not
exceed 70% of the characteristic strength of the tendon and that it must not exceed 75% under any
circumstances. The bridge codes (Refs. 46 and 48) specifically state that immediately after
transferring the prestress, the prestressing force must not exceed 70% of the characteristic strength
of the tendons for posttensioned tendons, or 75% for pretensioned tendons.
It should be noted that although the Magnel diagram is presented here as a design tool, it can also
serve as a powerful analytical tool.
Permissible cable zone
The design of a beam section as well as the calculation of the prestressing force and its eccentricity
is based on the conditions at the critical section, e.g. at the midspan section, in the case of a
symmetrically loaded simply supported beam. Since the bending moment varies over the span, the
eccentricity must normally be varied along the span to ensure that the stress limitations are not
exceeded at other sections, if the same prestressing force is to be used over the entire span. A
procedure is developed herein to determine the zone within which the cable can be placed so that
the stress inequality equations are satisfied at each section over the span. This feasibility zone is
often referred to as the permissible cable zone.
The development presented here assumes that all the quantities contained in the four stress inequality
equations (Eqs. 443) are known at all sections of the beam, with the exception of the eccentricity
e which is the variable to be determined. Equations 443 can be solved for e as follows:
(454a)
(454b)
(454c)
(454d)
These equations can be applied to any section of the beam to determine the permissible range of e
and, hence, the region in which the cable may be placed so that all the stress inequalities for that
particular section are satisfied. The maximum permissible value of e at a section, referred to as the
bottom cable limit, is given by the smallest value yielded by Eqs 454a and 454b at equality.
Similarly, the largest value of e obtained from Eqs. 454c and 454d at equality represents the
minimum permissible value of e, referred to as the top cable limit. It is interesting to note that the
bottom cable limit is governed by conditions at transfer while the top cable limit is determined by
the stress limitations imposed at the serviceability limit state.
The top and bottom cable limits can be determined at each section along the span and plotted on
an elevation of the beam, as shown in Fig. 445. The region between the two cable limits clearly
e
f
P A
Z
M
P
e
f
P A
Z
M
P
e
f
P A
Z
M
P
e
f
P A
Z
M
P
tt
t
top
min
t
ct
t
bot
min
t
cs
t
top
max
t
t s
t
bot
max
t
£ 
F
H
G
I
K
J

£ 
F
H
G
I
K
J

³ 
F
H
G
I
K
J

³ 
F
H
G
I
K
J

1
1
1
1
h h
h h
DESIGN 461
represents a feasibility zone within which the cable may be placed so that the stress inequality
equations are satisfied at each section over the entire span.
Figure 446 presents three types of cable zone which may be obtained during the course of a design
(Ref. 414). The cable zone shown in Fig. 446a is most commonly obtained and represents the case
where the bottom cable limit falls outside the maximum available eccentricity e
pl
, but the cable zone
is wide enough accommodate the cable. Figure 446b shows the cable zone which is obtained for a
optimum design where only one combination of P
t
and e is possible at the critical section. The cable
zone shown in Fig. 446c is characterised by the fact that a part of it lies outside the section, and
is obtained when an insufficient concrete section is used. This problem, which will not arise if the
Magnel diagram has been properly used in the design process, can only be overcome by using a
revised section with larger section properties.
Cable zone
Top cable limit (largest of Eqs. 454c and 454d)
Bottom cable limit (smallest of Eqs. 454a and 454b)
Centroidal axis
Figure 445: The permissible cable zone.
Cable zone
Cable zone
Cable zone
Centroidal axis
Centroidal axis
Centroidal axis
(a) Common design
(b) Optimum design
(c) Insufficient concrete section
e
pl
C
L
C
L
C
L
Figure 446: Typical types of cable zone (adapted from Ref. 414).
462 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
Design procedure
The objective of the flexural design of a prestressed concrete beam at the serviceability limit state,
as presented herein, is to find a least weight concrete section, together with the magnitude and
position of the minimum required corresponding prestressing force, which will ensure that the
specified concrete stress limitations are satisfied at transfer and at the serviceability limit state. This
aim can be achieved by the following design steps:
(a) Determine a satisfactory concrete section using Eqs. 449 and 450 or, alternatively, Eqs. 451
and 452.
(b) Use the Magnel diagram (Eqs. 453) to determine the magnitude of the prestressing force and
its eccentricity at the critical section.
(c) Calculate the permissible cable zone using Eqs. 454 and place the cable so that it falls within
this zone.
(d) All the calculations required for steps (a) through (c) require a value for h which must initially
be assumed because the prestress losses can only be evaluated after completing step (c). In this
step, the prestress losses are calculated at each section of interest, as described in Chapter 5.
(e) The concrete stresses must always be checked at a representative number of sections along the
span to ensure that none of the specified permissible values are exceeded. The prestress losses
calculated in step (d) must be used in these calculations.
(f) If the stress check of the previous step reveals that the design is unsatisfactory, either because
some of the permissible stress limitations are exceeded or because the design proves to be
unacceptably conservative, the design must be suitably revised and the appropriate previous
steps repeated. Otherwise the design can be accepted.
Although the procedure outlined above applies to the design of the section as well as the prestress,
it can easily be adapted to accommodate other circumstances. For example, if the section has already
been selected on the basis of other specific requirements, the design procedure will then simply
commence at step (b).
The design process can be greatly facilitated by assuming reasonable values for the various initially
unknown quantities, and many handbooks provide useful guidance in this regard. One of the most
important assumptions which must be made is that of the magnitude of h. Since the timedependent
losses in prestensioned members tend to be larger than in posttensioned members the magnitude of
h, which can be taken between 0.75 and 0.85, is usually smaller for pretensioned than for
posttensioned members. Another initially unknown quantity of which the magnitude must be
assumed is the area of the concrete crosssection A, and Lin (Ref. 410) suggests the following in
this regard:
(455)
where
Obviously, the quality of the initial assumptions made by a designer will improve with experience
over time.
A
A f
f
ps se
cs
»
05 .
A
M
h f
M M
M
h f
M M
M
h
ps
max
se
min max
L
se
min max
L
»
>
<
R
S


T


=
=
0 65
0 2 0 3
05
0 2 0 3
.
( . . )
.
( . . )
for to
for to
superimposed dead and live load moment applied to the section
depth of the section
DESIGN 463
EXAMPLE 411
Make use of the provisions of SABS 0100 (Ref. 42) for flexural design at the serviceability limit
state to design a class 2 pretensioned concrete Tbeam which is simply supported over a span of
21 m. The beam must be designed to support a uniformly distributed live load of 5.8 kN/m and a
superimposed dead load of 0.6 kN/m. Assume f
cu
= 45 MPa and f
ci
= 35 MPa.
The permissible stresses for f
cu
= 45 MPa and f
ci
= 35 MPa, as obtained from SABS 0100, are as
follows:
At transfer:
At the serviceability limit state:
For the purposes of these calculations h is assumed to be 0.83.
Select a suitable section at midspan
The midspan moment due to the design superimposed load Dw = 1.1 w
sdl
+ w
L
= 1.1 ´ 0.6 + 5.8
= 6.46 kN/m is given by . In order to obtain an initial
estimate of M
max
, it is assumed that M
min
= DM, so that M
min
= 356.1 kN.m and M
max
= 2DM
= 2 ´ 356.1 = 712.2 kN.m
Equations 449 and 450 can now be used to obtain an initial estimate of the minimum required
values for the section moduli. Hence,
Figure 447 shows the selected Tsection together with its section properties. If the self weight of
the concrete is g
c
= 24 kN/m
3
, the self weight of the beam is given by w
D
= g
c
A = 24 ´ 345 ´ 10
3
= 8.28 kN/m. Therefore, the design loadings are obtained from SABS 0160 as follows:
For calculating M
min
:
For calculating M
max
:
Using these design loads, the minimum and maximum moments at the midspan section are calculated
as
f f
f f
tt ci
ct ci
= =  =
= = ´  ( ) =
0 45 0 45 35 2 662
0 45 0 45 35 1575
. . .
. . .
MPa
MPa
f f
f f
ts cu
cs cu
= =  =
= = ´  ( ) =
0 45 0 45 45 3019
0 33 0 33 45 14 85
. . .
. . .
MPa
MPa
D D M wL = = ´ =
2 2
8 6 46 21 8 3561 / . / . kN. m
Z
M M
f f
Z
M M
f f
top min
max min
cs tt
bot min
max min
ts ct
,
,
. . .
. . .
.
. . .
. . .
.
=


=
 ´ ( )´
  ´
= ´
=


=
 ´ ( )´
 ´  ( )
= ´
h
h
h
h
712 2 083 3561 10
14 85 083 2 662
24 42 10
712 2 083 3561 10
3019 083 1575
2589 10
6
6 3
6
6 3
mm
mm
w w
min D
= = ´ = 10 10 8 28 8 28 . . . . kN/ m
w w w w
max D sdl L
= + + = + ( ) + ´ = 11 10 11 8 28 0 6 10 58 1557 . . . . . . . . b g kN/ m
M
w L
M
w L
min
min
max
max
= =
´
=
= =
´
=
2 2
2 2
8
8 28 21
8
456 4
8
1557 21
8
858 2
.
.
.
.
kN. m
kN. m
464 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
Revised minimum required values can now be calculated for the section moduli, based on the above
magnitudes of M
min
and M
max
.
Clearly, Z
top,min
> Z
top
= (99.77 ´ 10
6
mm
3
) and Z
bot,min
< Z
bot
(= 47.34 ´ 10
6
mm
3
) so that the
section should be satisfactory. Note that since the magnitudes of Z
top,min
and Z
bot,min
are almost
equal, a symmetric section such as, for example, an Isection would be more efficient. However, a
Tsection is specified as a design requirement in this case. It should also be noted that although the
section can be optimised to a further degree, limitations imposed by deflection control and practical
considerations influenced this choice.
Determine the prestressing force at the midspan section
The next step is to determine the magnitude of the prestressing force and its eccentricity at the
midspan section by making use of the Magnel diagram. This diagram is constructed by plotting
Eqs. 453 on the e1/P
t
plane. Since f
cs
Z
top
(= 1481 kN.m) > M
max
(= 858.2 kN.m) and
f
ts
Z
bot
(= 142.9 kN.m) < M
max
= 858.2 kN.m the second of Eqs. 453c and the first of Eqs. 453d
are applicable. Hence,
(456a)
(456b)
Z
M M
f f
Z
M M
f f
top min
max min
cs tt
bot min
max min
ts ct
,
,
. . .
. . .
.
. . .
. . .
.
=


=
 ´
( )
´
  ´
= ´
=


=
 ´
( )
´
 ´  ( )
= ´
h
h
h
h
858 2 083 456 4 10
14 85 083 2 662
2810 10
858 2 083 456 4 10
3019 083 1575
29 79 10
6
6 3
6
6 3
mm
mm
1
99 77 10
345 10
2 662 10 99 77 10 456 4 10
4005 10 1385 10
6
3
3 6 3
6 6
P
Z
A
e
f Z M
e
e
t
top
tt top min
£
+

=
 ´
´
+
´  ´  ´
= ´  ´

 
.
. . .
. .
d i
1
47 34 10
345 10
1575 10 47 44 10 456 4 10
114 2 10 08319 10
6
3
3 6 3
6 6
P
Z
A
e
f Z M
e
e
t
bot
ct top min
£
+

=
´
´
+
 ´ ´ ´  ´
=  ´  ´

 
.
. . .
. .
d i
1000
90
110
200
1200
A
I
y
y
Z
Z
top
bot
top
bot
= ´
= ´
= 
=
=  ´
= ´
345 10
3211 10
3218
678 2
99 77 10
47 34 10
3 2
9 4
6 3
6 3
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
.
.
.
.
.
Figure 447: Section for example 411.
DESIGN 465
(456c)
(456d)
where P
t
is in kN and e is in mm.
If the cover is taken as 35 mm and it is assumed that the tendons are placed in three evenly spaced
layers at a vertical centre to centre spacing of 40 mm, then the maximum possible eccentricity e
pl
is approximately 595 mm. The above four inequalities are plotted at equality in Fig. 448 together
with e
pl
. Selecting e = 570 mm, it is clear that values of 1/P
t
which range between 1/P
b
=
0.5884 ´ 10
3
kN
1
and 1/P
d
= 0.8206 ´10
3
kN
1
all fall within the feasibility domain and,
therefore, satisfy the four stress inequlity equations. These values correspond to permissible values
of P
t
which range between P
d
= 1219 kN and P
b
= 1700 kN, and a value of P
t
= 1280 kN is
selected.
Assume that 12.9 mm 7wire super grade strand, jacked to 75% of its characteristic strength, is
used. Since the characteristic strength per strand is 186 kN, the jacking force per strand is
0.75 ´ 186 = 139.5 kN. If the loss of prestress due to elastic shortening is assumed to be 8.0%,
1
083
99 77 10
345 10
14 85 10 99 77 10 858 2 10
3850 10 1331 10
6
3
3 6 3
6 6
P
Z
A
e
f Z M
e
e
t
top
cs top max
£
+
F
H
G
I
K
J

=
´
 ´
´
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
 ´  ´  ´
=  ´ + ´

 
h .
.
. . .
. .
d id i
1
083
47 34 10
345 10
3019 10 47 34 10 858 2 10
159 2 10 1160 10
6
3
3 6 3
6 6
P
Z
A
e
f Z M
e
e
t
bot
ts bot max
³
+
F
H
G
I
K
J

=
´
´
´
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
´ ´ ´  ´
=  ´  ´

 
h
.
.
. . .
. .
1
0
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.5884
0.8
1.2
1.4
0 1000 200 400 600 800 1200 200
Eq. 456a
Eq. 456b
Eq. 456d
Eq. 456c
Feasibility
domain
e
pl
= 595 mm e = 570 mm
e (mm)
P
t
(
1
0
k
N
)


3
1
´
1
0.8206
Figure 448: Magnel diagram for the midspan section.
466 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
then the initial force per strand at transfer is (1  0.08) 139.5 = 128.3 kN. Therefore, 1280/128.3
= 9.974, say 10 strands are required. Under these conditions 10 strands will provide P
t
= 1283 kN.
Determine the cable zone
Before the cable limits can be calculated, M
min
and M
max
must be expressed as functions of x. Thus,
Substitution of these expressions into Eqs. 454 give
(457a)
(457b)
(457c)
(457d)
Note that in Eqs. 457 e is in mm and x is in m. Comparing the right hand sides of Eqs. 457a and
457b clearly shows that Eq. 457b governs the bottom cable limit. A similar examination of
Eqs. 457c and 457d reveals that the top cable limit is controlled by Eq. 457d. The values of both
M
w x
L x x x
M
w x
L x x x
min
min
max
max
=  ( ) =  ( )
=  ( ) =  ( )
2
4140 21
2
7 784 21
.
.
kN. m
kN. m
e
f
P A
Z
M
P
x x
x x
tt
t
top
min
t
£ 
F
H
G
I
K
J

=
 ´

´
L
N
M
O
Q
P
 ´ 
´
 ´

( )
= +  ( )
1
2 662
1283 10
1
345 10
99 77 10
4140 10
1283 10
21
496 2 3226 21
3 3
6
6
3
.
.
.
. .
d i
d i
e
f
P A
Z
M
P
x x
x x
ct
t
bot
min
t
£ 
F
H
G
I
K
J

=
 ( )
 ´

´
L
N
M
O
Q
P
´ ´ 
´
 ´

( )
= +  ( )
1
1575
1283 10
1
345 10
47 34 10
4140 10
1283 10
21
4437 3226 21
3 3
6
6
3
.
.
.
. .
d i
e
f
P A
Z
M
P
x x
x x
cs
t
top
max
t
³ 
F
H
G
I
K
J

=
 ( )
´  ´

´
L
N
M
M
O
Q
P
P
´  ´ 
´
´  ´
 ( )
=  +  ( )
h h
1
14 85
083 1283 10
1
345 10
99 77 10
7 784 10
083 1283 10
21
1102 7 307 21
3
3
6
6
3
.
.
.
.
.
.
d i
d i
d i
e
f
P A
Z
M
P
x x
x x
ts
t
bt
max
t
³ 
F
H
G
I
K
J

=
´  ´

´
L
N
M
M
O
Q
P
P
´ ´ 
´
´  ´

( )
=  +  ( )
h h
1
3019
083 1283 10
1
345 10
47 34 10
7 784 10
083 1283 10
21
2714 7 307 21
3
3
6
6
3
.
.
.
.
.
. .
d i d i
To summarize: 10 @ 12.9 mm 7wire super grade strand are required.
P
t
= 1283 kN
e = 570 mm at midspan
DESIGN 467
cable limits are listed in Table 47 at span/12 points along the span of the beam, and the resulting
cable zone is drawn in Fig. 449a for the half span because of symmetry. Note that, since the central
region of the bottom cable limit falls outside the beam, the cable zone is also limited by the maximum
practical eccentricity e
pl
.
The cable profile is selected to lie within the cable zone and has draping points each located at a
distance of span/ 3 = 7.0 m from a support, as shown in Fig. 449a. The eccentricity of the resulting
cable profile can be expressed as follows for the half span:
where e(x) is in mm and x is in m. The magnitudes of the eccentricity at span/12 points are listed
in Table 47, while Figs. 449b and 449c show possible tendon layouts at midspan and at the
support, respectively.
The next step in the design process is the calculation of the prestress losses, after which a stress
check can be made. These steps are illustrated in example 51, where this example is concluded. It
is also important to check the ultimate moment of resistance of the critical section, which in this
e x
x x
x
( ) =
+ £ £
£ £
R
S
T
222 49 71 0 7 0
570 7 0 105
. .
. .
for m
for m
e
p
l
=
5
9
5
e = 570
e = 222
e x
b
( )
e x ( )
e x
d
( )
Centroidal axis
2
2
2
5
7
0
Cable zone
7.0 m 3.5 m
L/2 = 10.5 m
(a) Cable zone
(b) Tendon layout at midspan (c) Tendon layout at support
108
456
C.G.S
C.G.S
C.G.C C.G.C
60
60
430
150
150
60 60
60
x (m)
C
L
Figure 449: Cable zone.
468 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
case is located at midspan. The reader should verify that the approximate procedure recommended
by SABS 0100 yields M
u
= 1388 kN.m for the midspan section, and that a midspan moment of
1099 kN.m is induced by the ultimate design loads prescribed by SABS 0160, i.e. 1.2D
n
+ 1.6L
n
.
Consequently, the design is also satisfactory with respect to flexural strength.
4.4.3 Design for the ultimate limit state
Flexural design for the ultimate limit state essentially provides a means of determining the concrete
area under compression, the effective depth to the prestressing steel and the area of steel needed to
meet the requirements of flexural strength at the ultimate limit state. This follows because the
contribution of the tensile strength of the concrete is neglected, so that the tensile zone of the section
is of no importance with regard to flexural strength and merely serves to contain the tendons.
The design procedure is based on Eqs. 417 and 418, which are expressions of moment and
horizontal equilibrium, respectively, and the required computations can be simplified by making use
of a suitable approximate procedure for estimating the steel stress at ultimate f
ps
. Equations 417
and 418 can be restated in the following more general form, so that they apply to any crosssectional
shape:
(458)
(459)
where z = internal lever arm
= concrete area under compression at ultimate
These equations can be rearranged to the following forms, which are more useful for design:
(460)
(461)
The design process is summarised in the following:
(a) Assume values for f
ps
, z and for the overall section depth h.
• For bonded tendons it is suggested that f
ps
initially be taken equal to the design value of
f
pu
because the large steel strains associated with the flexural failure of an underreinforced
M A f z
u ps ps
=
A f f A
ps ps cu c
+ ¢ = a 0
¢ A
c
A
M
f z
A
A f
f
ps
u
ps
c
ps ps
cu
=
¢ = 
a
x
(m)
Bottom cable limit
e
b
(x)
(mm)
Top cable limit
e
d
(x)
(mm)
Selected eccentricity
e(x)
(mm)
0 444 271 222
1.750 552 25 309
3.500 641 176 396
5.250 710 333 483
7.000 760 445 570
8.750 789 512 570
10.500 799 534 570
Table 47: Cable limits and cable profile.
DESIGN 469
bonded section will result in these high steel stresses. However, the initial guess of f
ps
for
unbonded tendons must reflect the fact that it is normally significantly less than the design
value of f
pu
, and a maximum value of 0.7f
pu
is suggested in this case.
• Since z ranges between 0.6h and 0.9h, depending on the section shape, it seems reasonable
to accept a value of 0.8h as an initial guess (Ref. 410).
• The limitations imposed by deflection control at the serviceability limit state can be used
for guidance when selecting an initial value for h.
(b) Obtain an initial estimate of the required area of prestressing steel A
ps
from Eq. 460 using the
assumed values of f
ps
, z and h.
(c)
The required concrete compression area is subsequently calculated from Eq. 461. At this
stage sufficient information is available for selecting a suitable section.
(d) Once a preliminary section has been selected, the actual values of f
ps
and z corresponding to
this section can be determined either by the strain compatibility approach or by a suitable
approximate procedure, whichever is most convenient. These results can be used together with
Eq. 460 to calculate an improved value for A
ps
and, if required, Eq. 461 can be used to obtain
a revised value for A’
c
. This process is continued until a satisfactory section has been obtained.
Note that the calculation of f
ps
requires a value for the effective prestress f
se
including all
losses. This means that the magnitude of the prestress losses must be assumed.
(e) The final step in the design procedure is to verify that the ultimate moment of resistance of
the section is larger than the moment produced by the design ultimate loads.
After completing the flexural design at the ultimate limit state, the section must be examined to
check that the concrete flexural stress limitations are satisfied at transfer and at the serviceability
limit state.
When unbonded tendons are used, a minimum amount of bonded reinforcement should always be
placed to improve behaviour at ultimate (see Section 4.3.6). SABS 0100 (Ref. 42) and BS 8110
(Ref. 47) do not specifically require such reinforcement, but ACI 31889 (Ref. 411) requires that
a minimum amount of bonded reinforcement equal to 0.004A be provided for this purpose, where
A denotes the area of that part of the section which lies between the tension face and the centroid
of the gross concrete section.
EXAMPLE 412
Make use of the provisions of SABS 0100 (Ref. 42) for flexural design at the ultimate limit state
to design the midspan section of a 700 mm deep pretensioned concrete Ibeam which is simply
supported over a span of 14 m. The beam is subjected to an imposed nominal live load of 9.0 kN/m.
Assume f
cu
= 50 MPa and E
c
= 34 GPa for the concrete. Use 12.9 mm 7wire super grade strand,
for which f
pu
= 1860 MPa and E
p
= 195 GPa. For the equivalent rectangular stress block prescribed
by SABS 0100, a = 0.45 and b = 0.9.
Assume f
ps
= 0.87 f
pu
= 0.87 ´ 1860 = 1618 MPa and z = 0.8 h = 0.8 ´ 700 = 560 mm, so that an
initial estimate of A
ps
can be obtained from Eq. 460. However, before these calculations can be
made a value must be estimated for the ultimate design moment which, in turn, requires an assumed
value for the self weight of the beam. If it is assumed that the nominal self weight of the beam is
w
D
= 4.5 kN/m, the design ultimate load, using the load factors prescribed by SABS 0160, and the
design ultimate moment at the midspan section are given by
¢ A
c
12 16 12 4 5 16 9 0 19 8 . . . . . . . w w
D L
+ = ´ + ´ = kN/ m
M
wL
= =
´
=
2 2
8
19 8 14
8
4851
.
. kN. m
470 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
Using Eq. 460
The required concrete compression area is subsequently obtained from Eq. 461
Thus the preliminary section shown in Fig. 450 can be selected. It can be shown that this section
can accommodate the entire concrete compression zone within the top flange.
The self weight of this section is given by w
D
= g
c
A = 24 ´ 165 ´ 10
3
= 3.96 kN/m, so that the
design ultimate load is and the design ultimate
moment at the midspan section is .
The approximate procedure recommended by SABS 0100 for calculating the ultimate moment of
resistance of the section will be used to recalculate f
ps
and z for the preliminary section. In order
to do this it is assumed that f
se
= 1116 MPa.
For and
Table 43 gives and
Therefore, f
ps
= 1.0 (0.87 f
pu
) = 1618 MPa and x = 0.20 d = 0.20 ´ 640 = 128 mm. Since the
compression zone falls entirely within the flange, the internal lever arm is given by z = d  0.45x
= 640  0.45 ´ 128 = 582.4 mm. Substituting the revised values for M, f
ps
and z into Eqs. 460
and 461 yields the following values for A
ps
and :
These values are fairly close to the values obtained in the initial trial, so that the section can be
accepted as it stands and the minimum required value of A
ps
can be taken as 497.9 mm
2
. Since the
crosssectional area provided by one 12.9 mm 7wire super grade strand is 100 mm
2
, five strands
will provide an A
ps
= 500 mm
2
, which is sufficient.
As a final check, the ultimate moment of resistance of the section is calculated and compared with
the moment induced by the design ultimate loads.
A
M
f z
ps
ps
= =
´
´
=
4851 10
1618 560
5353
6
2
.
. mm
¢ A
c
¢ = =
´
´  ( )
= ´ A
A f
f
c
ps ps
cu
a
5353 1618
0 45 50
385 10
3 2
.
.
. mm
¢ = ´ A
c
385 10
3 2
. mm
12 16 12 396 16 9 0 1915 . . . . . . . w w
D L
+ = ´ + ´ = kN/ m
M wL = = ´ =
2 2
8 1915 14 8 469 2 / . / . kN. m
f
f
se
pu
= =
1116
1860
0 6 .
f A
f bd
pu ps
cu
=
´
 ´ ´
=
1860 5353
50 350 640
0 08890
.
.
f
f
ps
pu
087
10
.
. =
x
d
= 0 20 .
¢ A
c
A
M
f z
ps
ps
= =
´
´
=
469 2 10
1618 582 4
497 9
6
.
.
. mm
2
¢ = =
´
´  ( )
= ´ A
A f
f
c
ps ps
cu
a
497 9 1618
0 45 50
3581 10
3 2
.
.
. mm
150
60
d = 640
h =
700
A
ps
150
150
b = 350
350
e
A
I
=
= ´
= ´
290
165 10
8 938 10
3 2
9 4
mm
mm
mm .
Figure 450: Section for example 412.
DESIGN 471
For f
se
= 1116 MPa, and ,
so that and from Table 43.
Consequently, f
ps
= 1.0 (0.87 f
pu
) = 1618 MPa and x = 0.18 d = 0.18 ´ 640 = 115.2 mm. Since the
compression zone falls entirely within the flange, the internal lever arm is given by z = d  0.45x
= 640  0.45 ´ 115.2 = 588.2 mm and the ultimate moment of resistance is given by Eq. 458 as
which is larger than the applied moment M = 469.2 kN.m.
When prestressed concrete members are designed for the serviceability limit state, the situation often
arises where the ultimate moment of resistance of the section is less than the moment imposed by
the design ultimate loads. This problem can usually be rectified by providing a sufficient quantity
of additional nonprestressed reinforcement, which is designed as follows:
(a) Assume a value for the stress in the prestressing steel at ultimate f
ps
and set the sum of the
moments of the internal forces, taken about the position of the nonprestressed steel, equal to
the moment induced by the design ultimate loads. The resulting expression can be directly
solved for the depth to neutral axis x, because it will be the only unknown variable contained
in this expression.
(b) Using the value of x determined in step (a) together with an assumed value for the stress in
the nonprestressed steel at ultimate f
s
, the required area of nonprestressed steel A
s
can be
calculated directly by considering horizontal equilibrium of the section.
(c) At this stage the actual values of f
ps
and f
s
, corresponding to A
s
as determined in step (b), can
be calculated and compared to the assumed values. If the actual and assumed values differ
significantly, steps (a) and (b) must be repeated using improved assumptions for the magnitudes
of f
ps
and f
s
. This process is repeated until the assumed and calculated values of f
ps
and f
s
agree
to within an acceptable tolerance, and the corresponding magnitude of A
s
is then accepted.
This procedure is illustrated by example 413.
EXAMPLE 413
Provide suitable nonprestressed reinforcement for the section obtained in example 412 and shown
in Fig. 450 so that it can sustain a total applied ultimate design moment of 600 kN.m. Make use
of the provisions of SABS 0100 (Ref. 42) for flexural design, and take f
y
= 450 MPa and
E
s
= 200 GPa for the nonprestressed reinforcement. Assume f
se
= 1116 MPa.
For the equivalent rectangular stress block prescribed by SABS 0100, a = 0.45 and b = 0.9, while
the design stressstrain curves for the prestressed and nonprestressed steel are as shown in Figs. 4 17
and 423, respectively. The effective depth to the prestressing steel d
1
= 640 mm (see Fig. 450)
and the effective depth to the nonprestressed steel is taken as d
2
= 650 mm. The section now
corresponds exactly to that shown in Fig. 422 example 46, except that A
s
is unknown.
Assume f
ps
= f
py
and f
s
= f
sy
, so that the tensile force in the prestressing steel T
ps
and in the
nonprestressed steel T
s
can be calculated from Eqs. 412 and 425, respectively:
If it is assumed that the entire compression zone is contained in the flange, the compression force
in the concrete can be expressed as a function of x as follows (see Eq. 414):
f
f
se
pu
= 0 6 .
f A
f bd
pu ps
cu
=
´
 ´ ´
=
1860 500
50 350 640
0 08304 .
f
f
ps
pu
087
10
.
. =
x
d
= 018 .
M A f z
u ps ps
= = ´ ´ ´ =

500 1618 588 2 10 4759
6
. . kN. m
T A f
ps ps ps
= = ´ ´ =

500 1617 10 808 7
3
. kN
T A f A
s s s s
= = ´

3913 10
3
. kN
472 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
Moment equilibrium about the position of the nonprestressed steel provides the following expression
(see Fig. 422):
Solving for x yields x = 146.9 mm. Therefore s = b x = 0.9 ´ 146.9 = 132.2 mm is less than
h
f
= 150 mm, which means that the entire compression zone is contained in the flange, as assumed.
Horizontal equilibrium requires that the following condition must be satisfied:
Solving this expression for A
s
yields A
s
= 594.9 mm
2
.
The validity of the assumption that f
ps
= f
py
and f
s
= f
sy
must be checked. This is done by calculating
e
ps
and e
s2
using the strain compatibility approach. Accordingly, e
ps
is calculated by combining
Eqs. 48 through 411, and by noting that the effective prestress acting on the section is given by
. Hence,
The strain in the nonprestressed steel e
s2
is calculated by considering the strain distribution (see
Fig. 422). Thus, considering similar triangles:
Referring to Fig. 417, it is clear that since e
ps
is larger than e
py
(= 0.01329), f
ps
= f
py
(= 1617 MPa),
as assumed. Figure 423 also confirms that the assumed value of f
s
= f
sy
(= 391.3 MPa) is correct
because e
s2
is larger than e
sy
(= 0.00196). Therefore, the calculated value of A
s
= 594.9 mm
2
is
correct. This area of steel can be provided by 2 @ Y20 mm bars, for which A
s
= 628 mm
2
, so that
the section corresponds exactly to that shown in Fig. 422, as expected. It is of interest to note that
the ultimate moment of resistance of this section is M
u
= 606.7 kN.m (see example 46), which is
slightly larger than the required value of M = 600 kN.m.
Note that although only flanged sections in which the compression zone at ultimate is entirely
contained in the top flange were considered in the examples presented in this Section, the design
procedures presented herein apply equally to flanged sections in which the compression zone extends
into the web. The only difference lies in the formulation of the equations of equilibrium which must,
in the latter case, account for the nonrectangular shape of the compression zone. However, note
that Eqs. 458 through 461 are general because they apply to any crosssectional shape.
C f b x x x
cu
= = ´  ( )´ ´ ´ =

a b 0 45 50 350 0 9 10 7 088
3
. . . kN
M C d
x
T d d
x
x
ps
=  
F
H
G
I
K
J  
´ =  ( ) 
F
H
G
I
K
J   ( )
2 2 1
3
2
600 10 7 088 650
0 9
2
808 7 650 640
b
b g
.
.
.
T T C
A x
A
ps s
s
s
+ + =
+ ´  =
+ ´  ´ =


0
8087 3931 10 7 088 0
808 7 3913 10 7 088 146 9 0
3
3
. . .
. . . .
P f A
se ps
= = ´ ´ =

1116 500 10 558
3
kN
e
e
e e
e e e e
se
se
p
ce
c
s cu
ps s ce se
f
E
P
A
Pe
I E
d x
x
= =
´
=
= +
F
H
G
I
K
J
=

´
+
 ´
´
F
H
G
I
K
J
=
=
 F
H
G
I
K
J
=
 F
H
G
I
K
J  =
=  + =   ( ) + =
1116
195 10
0 005723
1 558
165 10
558 290
8 938 10
1
34
0 000254
640 146 9
146 9
0 0035 0 01174
0 01174 0 000254 0 005723 0 01772
3
2
3
2
9
1
1
1
.
.
.
.
.
. .
. . . .
e e
s cu
d x
x
2
2
650 146 9
146 9
0 0035 0 01198 =
 F
H
G
I
K
J
=
 F
H
G
I
K
J  =
.
.
. .
DESIGN 473
4.4.4 Limits on steel content
As discussed in Section 4.3.5, a given section can fail in flexure in one of three modes, depending
on the amount of steel provided:
• In very lightly reinforced sections, an extremely brittle type of flexural failure can occur in which
the steel fractures immediately after the concrete has cracked. This failure mode is highly
undesirable.
• In moderately reinforced (uderreinforced) sections, failure is induced by crushing of the concrete
compression zone after the steel has yielded and undergone a large nonlinear elongation. Because
of its ductility, this type of failure is highly desirable.
• In heavily reinforced (overreinforced) sections, failure is induced by crushing of the concrete
prior to yielding of the steel and takes place suddenly once the ultimate moment has been reached.
Because of its brittle nature, this type of failure is undesirable.
The steel content of a beam section must therefore be controlled to avoid the undesirable failure
modes. For this reason, any design code of practice should provide limits on the maximum and
minimum amounts of steel to be provided in a section to ensure ductile behaviour (see Section 4.3.5
for a more expansive discussion on flexural ductility).
SABS 0100 (Ref. 42) and BS 8110 (Ref. 47) both limit the minimum amount of prestressing steel
by requiring that the ultimate moment of resistance of a beam section must exceed its cracking
moment. According to SABS 0100 this requirement is deemed to be satisfied if the percentage of
reinforcement, calculated on an area equal to the width of the beam soffit multiplied by its overall
depth, is at least 0.15, while BS 8110 requires that the cracking moment be calculated on the basis
of an assumed value of the modulus of rupture equal to 0.6 √ f
cu
. The intention of this provision is
to ensure that cracking will precede flexural failure, thus avoiding the situation where the beam
suddenly fails when the concrete cracks. The bridge codes TMH7 (Ref. 46) and BS 5400 (Ref. 48)
do not have any specific recommendations regarding the minimum amount of prestressing steel.
The maximum steel content of a prestressed concrete beam section is limited by TMH7 and BS 5400
through the requirement that the strains in the outermost tendon must not be less than
0.005 + f
pu
/(E
p
g
m
). If the outermost tendon, or layer of tendons forms less than 25% of the total
tendon area, this requirement must also be satisfied within the outermost 25% of the tendon area.
As an alternative, the strain at the centroid of the outermost 25% of the tendon area must be greater
than the above value. This limitation is only applicable to cases where the ultimate moment of
resistance of the section is less than 1.15 times the required value. By limiting the steel strains
developed in such sections to values greater than the value at “yielding” (as defined by the design
stressstrain curve) it is obviously aimed at ensuring a ductile mode of flexural failure.
The maximum permissible values of the neutral axis depth x and steel ratio r = A
ps
/ bd correspond
ing to the steel strain limit prescribed by TMH7 are listed in Table 48 for f
pu
= 1860 MPa. Note
that these values were derived for rectangular compression zones on the basis of the design
stressstrain curves and material properties prescribed by TMH7, and on the assumption that all the
steel is concentrated at the centroid of the tendons.
Neither SABS 0100 nor BS 8110 contain any requirements which can obviously be related to limiting
the maximum steel content of a prestressed concrete beam. However, Ref. 425 infers that the code
provision which requires the ultimate moment of resistance of a beam section to exceed its cracking
moment may serve this purpose because it is possible for a heavily overreinforced beam to fail in
flexure before cracking. This inference is not really acceptable because the limitation on maximum
steel content is essentially related to the ductility of the section and must, therefore, be either
explicitly or implicitly expressed in terms of a limiting steel strain.
474 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
4.4.5 Flexural design of composite sections
The design of a composite section generally follows the same procedures used for noncomposite
sections. However, the design procedure must accomodate the following additional considerations,
which arise from the characteristics of the construction procedure:
• The analysis must reflect the construction procedure and possible differences which may exist
between the properties of the materials used in the in situ and precast components.
• The effects of differential shrinkage must be accounted for under certain circumstances.
• Sufficient shear capacity must be provided at the interface between the preast and in situ concrete
to ensure composite action.
In the following, the flexural design of composite prestressed beam sections at both the serviceability
and ultimate limit states are discussed.
Serviceability limit states
The following stages of loading were identified as being critical with regard to stress in the concrete
(see Section 4.3.7):
• At transfer of prestress when the minimum moment and the maximum prestressing force are
acting on the beam section only.
• At the serviceability limit state when the minimum prestressing force, including all losses, and
the total self weight (beam plus slab) are acting on the beam section only, and the maximum
superimposed loading is acting on the composite section.
A consideration of the stress conditions in the precast beam corresponding to these loading stages,
in terms of permissible stresses, will provide the following four stress inequality equations (similar
to Eqs. 443):
(462a)
(462b)
(462c)
(462d)
f
P
A
Pe
Z
M
Z
f
f
P
A
Pe
Z
M
Z
f
f
P
A
Pe
Z
M M
Z
M
Z
f
f
P
A
Pe
Z
M M
Z
M
Z
f
top b
t
b
t
top b
b
top b
tt
bot b
t
b
t
bot b
b
bot b
ct
top b
t
b
t
top b
b f
top b
L
top cb
cs
bot b
t
b
t
bot b
b f
bot b
L
bot cb
ts
,
, ,
,
, ,
,
, , ,
,
, , ,
= + + £
= + + ³
= + +
+
+ ³
= + +
+
+ £
h h
h h
f
se
/ f
pu
(x / d)
max
Values of r
max
for f
cu
=
30 MPa 40 MPa 50 MPa 60 MPa
0.4 0.2720 0.002018 0.002691 0.003364 0.004036
0.5 0.2932 0.002175 0.002901 0.003626 0.004351
0.6 0.3180 0.002359 0.003146 0.003932 0.004718
Table 48: Limiting values of x / d and r = A
ps
/ bd corresponding to steel strain limits of TMH7
for f
pu
= 1860 MPa.
DESIGN 475
As in the case of noncomposite sections, the design process basically involves the rational
manipulation of these four inequality equations. Following the same procedures outlined in
Section 4.4.2 the following expressions, which may be used for establishing the feasibility domain
of P
t
and e (Magnel diagram) as well as the permissible cable zone, can be derived.
Magnel diagram:
(463a)
(463b)
(463c)
(463d)
Cable zone:
(464a)
(464b)
(464c)
(464d)
where M
D
= M
b
+ M
f
1
P
Z
A
e
f Z M t
top b
b
tt top b b
£
+
L
N
M
O
Q
P

,
,
c h
1
P
Z
A
e
f Z M
t
bot b
b
ct bot b b
£
+
L
N
M
O
Q
P

,
,
b g
1
P
Z
A
e
f Z M M
Z
Z
f Z M M
Z
Z
Z
A
e
f Z M M
Z
Z
f Z M M
Z
Z
t
top b
b
cs top b D L
top b
top cb
cs top b D L
top b
top cb
top b
b
cs top b D L
top b
top cb
cs top b D L
top b
top cb
³
+
L
N
M
O
Q
P
 
L
N
M
M
O
Q
P
P
< +
F
H
G
I
K
J
£
+
L
N
M
O
Q
P
 
L
N
M
M
O
Q
P
P
> +
F
H
G
I
K
J
R
S





T





h
h
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
for
for
1
P
Z
A
e
f Z M M
Z
Z
f Z M M
Z
Z
Z
A
e
f Z M M
Z
Z
f Z M M
Z
Z
t
bot b
b
ts bot b D L
bot b
bot cb
ts bot b D L
bot b
bot cb
bot b
b
ts bot b D L
bot b
bot cb
ts bot b D L
bot b
bot cb
³
+
L
N
M
O
Q
P
 
L
N
M
O
Q
P
< +
F
H
G
I
K
J
£
+
L
N
M
O
Q
P
 
L
N
M
O
Q
P
> +
F
H
G
I
K
J
R
S





T





h
h
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
for
for
e
f
P A
Z
M
P
e
f
P A
Z
M
P
e
f
P A
Z
P
M M
Z
Z
e
f
P A
Z
P
M M
Z
Z
tt
t b
top b
b
t
ct
t b
bot b
b
t
cs
t b
top b
t
D L
top b
top cb
ts
t b
bot b
t
D L
bot b
bot cb
£ 
F
H
G
I
K
J

£ 
F
H
G
I
K
J

³ 
F
H
G
I
K
J
 +
F
H
G
I
K
J
³ 
F
H
G
I
K
J
 +
F
H
G
I
K
J
1
1
1 1
1 1
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
h h
h h
476 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
The discussion of the equivalent forms of these equations for noncomposite sections given in Section
4.4.2 are equally applicable here. Note that no equivalent forms of Eqs. 449 and 450 were derived
for estimating the minimum required values of the section moduli, because the usefulness of such
equations are limited by the fact that the ratio of the section modulus of the beam to the
corresponding section modulus of the composite section must also be known. Moreover, a number
of useful design aids are available for obtaining an initial estimate of the section, when using
standard precast sections.
After initially selecting a suitable section, the flexural design of a composite section at the
serviceability limit state proceeds as described in Section 4.4.2 for noncomposite sections, bearing
in mind that Eqs. 462 through 464 must be appropriately substituted. Note that although the effects
of differential shrinkage were not included in the expressions above, these effects can easily be
accommodated simply by reducing the magnitudes of f
cs
and f
ts
by the differential shrinkage stresses
(either calculated or assumed, as appropriate) at the top and bottom of the beam section, respectively.
In general, the effects of differential shrinkage are not important, and may be neglected. The
Handbook to BS 8110 (Ref. 425) recommends that it is only necessary to include the effects of
differential shrinkage if all of the following conditions exist:
• If the stress in the top fibre of the precast beam under prestressing and permanent load is small.
This condition leads to small creep in the precast beam and, hence, to large differential shrinkage.
• The difference between the strength of the concrete in the precast beam and in the in situ slab
is more than 10 MPa.
• The time interval between casting of the precast beam and casting of the in situ slab is more
than 8 weeks.
The type of cross section also influences the importance of differential shrinkage: The effects of
differential shrinkage are more significant for sections of the type shown in Fig. 451a than for
sections of the type shown in Fig. 451b.
Although the horizontal shear capacity is checked at the ultimate limit state, this check must always
be carried out to ensure composite action. This is true even if the flexural design was carried out
at the serviceablity limit state.
EXAMPLE 414
The composite section shown in Fig. 452 consists of precast pretensioned beams supporting an in
situ slab. The beams are simply supported, having a span of 15 m, and spaced at a distance of
1200 mm. Make use of the provisions of SABS 0100 for the flexural design at the serviceability
limit state to provide suitable class 2 prestressing for the beam. Assume unpropped construction and
design the beam to support a uniformly distributed live load of 12 kN/m.
In situ concrete slab
Precast prestressed
concrete beam
(a) (b)
Figure 451: Influence of cross section on differential shrinkage.
DESIGN 477
The permissible stresses prescribed by SABS 0100 for the concrete in the beam are as follows:
f
tt
= 2.846 MPa f
ct
= 18.00 MPa
f
ts
= 3.182 MPa f
cs
= 16.50 MPa
The design self weight of the beam and slab at the serviceability limit state is
The design midspan moment induced by the beam self weight at transfer is
The design midspan moment caused by the self weight of the beam and the slab at the serviceability
limit state is
and the design midspan live load moment is
The modular ratio yields a transformed flange width of
where the effective flange width .
The section properties of the beam and the transformed composite sections are as follows
y
top,b
= 350 mm y
top,cb
= −164.9 mm y
top,c
= 344.9 mm
y
bot,b
= 350 mm y
bot,cb
= 535.1 mm y
bot,c
= 535.1 mm
I
b
= 10 ´ 10
9
mm
4
Z
top,cb
= 184.6 ´ 10
6
mm
3
I
c
= 30.44 ´ 10
9
mm
4
Z
top,b
= 28.58 ´ 10
6
mm
3
Z
bot,cb
= 56.88 ´ 10
6
mm
3
Z
bot,b
= 28.58 ´ 10
6
mm
3
The Magnel diagram can now be constructed using Eqs. 463. To account for the loss of prestress
at the serviceability limit state, h is assumed as 0.8.
w w w
D b f
= + = + ( ) = 11 11 5880 5184 1217 . . . . .
d i
kN / m
M w L
b b
= = ´ ´ =
1
8
1
8
588 15 1654
2 2
. . kN. m
M w L
D D
= = ´ ´ =
1
8
1
8
1217 15 342 3
2 2
. . kN. m
M w L
L L
= = ´ ´ =
1
8
1
8
12 15 337 5
2 2
. kN. m
n E E
c c f c b
= = =
, ,
/ / . 28 34 08235
b n b
ft c e
= = ´ = 08235 1200 998 2 . . mm
b
e
= 1200 mm
h
b
= 700
h
f
= 180
b
f
= 1200
b
b
= 350
In situ slab
Precast beam
Concrete material properties:
f
cu,b
= 50 MPa
f
ci,b
= 40 MPa
E
c,b
= 34 GPa
E
c,f
= 28 GPa f
cu,f
= 30 MPa
Precast beam
In situ slab
Unit weight g
c
= 24 kN/m
3
Figure 452: Composite cross section for Example 414.
478 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
An eccentricity of 260 mm is selected, which is less than the practical limit e
pl
= 290 mm. The
prestressing force is taken as P
t
= 1500 kN, which falls between the limits of 1397 kN and
1721 kN at e = 260 mm.
1
472 9 10 4 053 10
6 6
P
Z
A
e
f Z M
e
t
top b
b
tt top b b
£
+
L
N
M
O
Q
P

= ´  ´
 
,
,
. .
c h
1
1716 10 1471 10
6 6
P
Z
A
e
f Z M
e
t
bot b
b
ct bot b b
£
+
L
N
M
O
Q
P

= ´  ´
 
,
,
. .
b g
1
1211 10 10 38 10
6 6
P
Z
A
e
f Z M M
Z
Z
e
t
top b
b
cs top b D L
top b
top cb
£
+
L
N
M
O
Q
P
 
L
N
M
M
O
Q
P
P
= ´ + ´
 
h
,
,
,
,
.
1
2217 10 1901 10
6 6
P
Z
A
e
f Z M M
Z
Z
e
t
bot b
b
ts bot b D L
bot b
bot cb
³
+
L
N
M
O
Q
P
 
L
N
M
O
Q
P
= ´  ´
 
h
,
,
,
,
. .
0.5
0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5809
0.6
0.7
0.7159
0.8
0.9
0 250 50 100 150 200 300 50
Eq. 463a
Eq. 463b
Eq. 463d
Eq. 463c
Feasibility
domain
e
pl
= 290 mm
e = 260 mm
e (mm)
P
t
(
1
0
k
N
)


3
1
´
1
Figure 453: Magnel diagram for Example 414.
DESIGN 479
Assuming the following conditions for the prestressing tendons
 12.9 mm 7wire strand (super grade)
 Tensioned to 75% of the characteristic strength (= 186 kN)
 Elastic losses of 7%
the force per strand at transfer is (1  0.07) ´ 0.75 ´ 186 = 129.7 kN. Therefore the number of
strands required is 1500/129.7 = 11.56. Selecting 12 strands yields a prestressing force of
P
t
= 12 ´ 129.7 = 1557 kN, which still falls within the limits calculated above. At midspan,
the strands can be placed as shown in Fig. 454.
The concrete stresses at the midspan section at the serviceability limit state are presented in
Fig. 455a, using the selected prestressing layout. The differential shrinkage stresses are also shown
in this figure together with the resulting final stresses, which all comply with the specified
permissible values. Note that the following information was assumed for calculating the differential
shrinkage stresses by the method described in Section 4.3.7:
e
cr
= 48 ´ 10
6
MPa
1
for creep of the precast beam
e
sh
= 310 ´ 10
6
for shrinkage of both the beam and slab
b
cc
= 1.6
h = 10% at the time the slab is cast
60 % of the creep and shrinkage of the beam has taken place at the time of casting the
slab
e = 260
y
top,b
= 350 
y
bot,b
= 350
90
C.G.S
C.G.B
60
60
Figure 454: Cable layout at midspan, Example 414.
3.15
1.51
7.56
1.50
(a)
Stresses caused
by external loading
plus prestressing
(b)
Stresses caused by
differential shrinkage
(c)
Total stress
0.31
0.27
1.22
0.71
2.84
1.24
8.78
2.20
+ =
Figure 455: Final stresses, Example 414.
480 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
Ultimate limit states
Since the flexural analysis of composite sections at ultimate is exactly the same as of noncomposite
sections, the design procedure is also the same. Therefore, the procedures of Section 4.4.3 also apply
to the flexural design of composite sections at the ultimate limit state. A slight difference arises
when the depth to neutral axis lies below the in situ slab, in which case the difference in strength
of the precast and in situ concrete must be accounted for as indicated in Section 4.3.7.
An additional consideration, perculiar to the design of a composite section, is the horizontal shear
capacity of the interface between the preast and in situ concrete. The general approach followed in
design is to calculate the magnitude of the horizontal shear stress at the interface as indicated in
Section 4.3.7. This shear stress is subsequently compared to a permissible value. According to the
procedure recommended by BS 8110 (Ref. 47) and SABS 0100 (Ref. 42), the average horizontal
shear stress at the interface is calculated by Eq. 439 and the maximum value is obtained by
distributing the average value in proportion to the vertical design shear force diagram. This maximum
value is subsequently compared to the permissible values listed in Table 49. BS 5400 (Ref. 48)
and TMH7 (Ref. 46) use Eq. 438 to calculate the horizontal shear stress at the interface. Obviously
Precast unit Surface type Design ultimate horizontal shear
stresses at interface
Grade of in situ concrete (MPa)
25 30 ³ 40
Without links Ascast or asextruded 0.4 0.55 0.65
Brushed, screeded or rough
tamped
0.6 0.65 0.75
Washed to remove laitance or
treated with retarder and
cleaned
0.7 0.75 0.80
With nominal links
projecting into in situ
concrete
Ascast or asextruded 1.2 1.8 2.0
Brushed, screeded or rough
tamped
1.8 2.0 2.2
Washed to remove laitance or
treated with retarder and
cleaned
2.1 2.2 2.5
NOTES:
1. The description “ascast” covers those cases where the concrete is placed and vibrated,
leaving a rough finish. The surface is rougher than would be required for finishes to be
applied directly without a further finishing screed but not as rough as would be obtained
if tamping, brushing or other artificial roughening had taken place.
2. The description “asextruded” covers those cases in which an opentextured surface is
produced direct from an extruding machine.
3. The description “brushed, screeded or roughtamped” covers those cases where some form
of deliberate surface roughening has taken place but not to the extent of exposing the
aggregate.
4. For structural assessment purposes, it may be assumed that the appropriate value of g
m
(included in the table) is 1.5.
5. Where nominal links are provided, they should be of a cross section at least 0.15% of the
interface contact area.
Table 49: Design ultimate horizontal shear stresses at interface to BS 8110 (Ref. 47) and
SABS 0100 (Ref. 42).
DESIGN 481
the permissible values prescribed by these codes also differ from those provided by BS 8110 and
SABS 0100. If the permissible value is exceeded, steel crossing the interface must be provided to
carry the horizontal shear. The required amount of steel is calculated by following the provisions
of the particular code being used.
EXAMPLE 415
Determine the horizontal shear stress at the interface of the precast beam and the in situ slab of the
composite section shown in Example 414.
The design load at the ultimate lmit state is given by
and the corresponding midspan moment is
It can be shown that the prestressing steel yields at ultimate, so that the stress in the steel
f
ps
= f
pu
/1.15 = 1617 MPa. The force in the prestressing steel will then be
The depth of the stress block s can be calculated from horizontal equilibrium
Since the stress block falls entirely in the slab, the horizontal force that has to be transmitted by
the interface C = T
ps
= 1941 kN. The average horizontal shear stress at the interface is therefore
(see Eq. 439)
The vertical design shear force diagram varies linearly over the span of the beam in such a manner
that it is zero at midspan and attains a maximum value at the support. Therefore, if the average
horizontal shear stress is distributed in proportion to the vertical shear force diagram, it is obvious
that v
hu,max
= 2 ´ v
hu
= 2 ´ 0.7394 = 1.48 MPa.
If nominal links crossing the interface are provided, the permissible horizontal shear stress is
2.0 MPa for a brushed, screeded or roughtamped surface, according to SABS 0100 (see Table 49).
Since this value is greater than v
hu,max
= 1.48 MPa, no additional links need to be provided under
these conditions.
4.4.6 Partial prestressing
Prestressed concrete members in which flexural tensile cracks are allowed to develop at service load
levels are referred to as being partially prestressed. A partially prestressed member is reinforced
by a combination of prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement, which both contribute to the
ultimate strength and serviceability behaviour of the member. Although the nonprestressed steel
can be either ordinary reinforcing bars or nonprestressed prestressing steel, the former is usually
used for this purpose.
w w w
u D L
= + = ´ + ´ = 12 16 12 1106 16 12 32 48 . . . . . . kN/ m
M w L
u
= = ´ ´ =
1
8
1
8
32 48 15 9134
2 2
. . kN. m
T f A
ps ps ps
= = ´ ´ =

1617 1200 10 1941
3
kN
s
T
f b
ps
cu f f
= =
´
´ ´
=
0 45
1941 10
0 45 30 1200
119 8
3
.
.
.
,
mm
v
C
Lb
hu
b
= =
´
´ ´
=
05
1941 10
05 15000 350
0 7394
3
. .
. MPa
482 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
When compared to ordinary reinforced concrete, partial prestress offers the advantage of improved
deflection control as well as the advantages to be gained from the fact that the member is usually
crack free under longterm loads, depending on the degree of prestress. Partial prestressing also
offers some advantages over full prestressing (Ref. 410):
• Improved control of camber.
• Savings in the cost of prestressing. Since a smaller prestressing force is required, the use of
partial prestressing usually leads to savings in the amount of prestressing steel required, the
anchorages required and the cost of the work associated with tensioning and grouting (in the
case of bonded posttensioning) the tendons.
• Economical use of ordinary reinforcing steel.
• Possible improved ductility.
The most often quoted disadvantage of partial prestressing, when compared to full prestressing, is
that such members can be cracked at service load levels. However, ample evidence exists that if
appropriate steps are taken to control flexural cracks in terms of crack width and spacing, the
presence of these cracks will not adversely effect the durability of a partially prestressed concrete
member (Ref. 426).
In addition to providing adequate flexural capacity, together with the prestressed steel, the
nonprestressed reinforcement performs the following functions (Ref. 410):
• Properly detailed nonprestressed steel can effectively control both crack width and spacing at
service load levels.
• In an unbonded member, some nonprestressed bonded reinforcement should be provided to
prevent the development of a single large crack at ultimate and, thereby, to increase the flexural
capacity of the member.
• If, at transfer, large tensile stresses are induced in the compression flange, nonprestressed
reinforcement can be provided to prevent possible fracture, e.g. in the top flange over the midspan
region of a simply supported beam in which the live load is large in comparison to the self
weight of the beam.
• In the case of precast beams, properly placed nonprestressed reinforcement will ensure that the
beam is sufficiently robust with regard to unexpected stresses which may arise during handling
and erection.
Numerous procedures have been developed for the flexural design of partially prestressed concrete
beams and a comprehensive discussion of a number of these can be found in Ref. 426. The various
methods can usually be grouped into one of the following three categories, depending on the limit
state which the design procedure initially satisfies:
• Methods which initially satisfy the serviceability limit state. The British design codes BS 8110
(Ref. 47) and BS 5400 (Ref. 48) as well as the South African code SABS 0100 (Ref. 42)
recommend a method which is based on a limiting hypothetical tensile stress. The hypothetical
tensile stress in a cracked prestressed concrete beam section is defined as the flexural stress
which would occur in the extreme tension fibre of the uncracked section. Leonhardt (Ref. 427)
and Menn (Ref. 428) each outline procedures which use a crack width limitation as the point
of departure for design.
• Methods which initially satisfy the ultimate limit state. The method proposed by Naaman
(Ref. 429) makes use of the partial prestressing ratio, while the procedure developed by
Bachmann (Refs. 430 and 431) employs the concept of the degree of prestress.
• Methods which simultaneously satisfy the ultimate and serviceability limit states. The procedure
proposed by Huber (Ref. 432) is an example of such a method.
DESIGN 483
Over the years, a number of indices have been developed for quantifying the extent of prestressing
in a partially prestressed concrete beam section (see Ref. 426). The partial prestressing ratio (PPR)
and the degree of prestress k are two such indices: The partial prestressing ratio is defined as the
ratio of the ultimate moment of resistance provided by the prestressing steel only to the ultimate
moment of resistance provided by all the steel (i.e. the prestressed plus nonprestressed steel). The
degree of prestress is defined as the ratio of the decompression moment (i.e. the moment which
induces a zero stress in the extreme tension fibre of the section) to the total service load moment
and therefore represents the fraction of the total service moment which is counteracted by
prestressing effects. Consequently, a value of zero for the degree of prestress corresponds to
reinforced concrete while a value of one applies to fully prestressed concrete.
A reasonable basis for any procedure for the flexural design of a partially prestressed concrete beam
section is to adopt a unified approach in the sense that the method must apply to the complete
spectrum of possible levels of prestress, from fully prestressed concrete through to reinforced
concrete. The method should also provide a smooth transition from fully prestressed concrete to
reinforced concrete. The design procedure proposed by Bachmann (Refs. 430 and 431) satisfies
these requirements and is presented in the following. The method assumes that all the dimensions
of the concrete section are known, that all the material properties are known, and that the bending
moments due to all dead and live loads can be determined. The section is initially designed to
provide the required ultimate strength and is subsequently checked for serviceability as follows:
(a) Select a suitable value for the degree of prestress k or, alternatively, the decompression moment.
This choice is strongly dependent on engineering judgment to suit a given consideration such
as durability, deflection, fatigue, crack control and cost. The decompression moment is
commonly chosen at least equal to the dead load moment (Ref. 431) and it is suggested that
in the case of bridges a value larger than the dead load moment is appropriate (Refs. 431 and
433). Wiessler (Ref. 433) recommends that the decompression moment should be taken equal
to the dead load moment plus 33% of the live load moment for bridges in South Africa.
(b) Determine the required amount of prestressing steel. The prestressing force P
t
required for
developing the decompression moment selected in step (a) is determined by making use of the
expression for calculating the flexural stress in an uncracked section. The following expression
for calculating P
t
is derived by setting f
bot,s
equal to zero and M
max
equal to the decompression
moment M
dec
in Eq. 443d, and solving the resulting expression for P
t
:
(465)
The required amount of prestressing steel can subsequently be determined from the calculated
value of P
t
.
(c) Determine the required amount of nonprestressed steel. Nonprestressed reinforcement must
be provided to ensure that the ultimate moment of resistance of the section exceeds the required
value. The procedure outlined in Section 4.4.3 can be used to design this reinforcement.
(d) Detail the nonprestressed reinforcement carefully. In addition to its contribution to the ultimate
strength, soundly detailed nonprestressed reinforcement can effectively control both crack
width and spacing at service load levels. This is often the last step in the design procedure
under normal circumstances.
(e) Check compliance with other limit states. Other limit states such as, for example, crack width,
fatigue and deflection can be specifically examined, as required. These aspects are covered in
later Chapters.
It should be noted that since design is essentially an iterative procedure, the section is usually
determined on a trial and error basis, bearing in mind any specific design requirements. Generally,
the number of iterations required for convergence to a solution rapidly reduces with experience.
P
M
Z
A
e
t
dec
bot
=
+
L
N
M
O
Q
P
h
484 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
More expansive discussions on this design procedure can be found in Refs. 426 and 434. It should
be noted that some of the practical advantages of the method are that it is code independent, that
it treats uncertainties in a rational manner and that it does not preclude any serviceability check.
The design procedure is illustrated by example 416.
EXAMPLE 416
The midspan section of a pretensioned partially prestressed concrete beam, which is simply supported
over a span of 14 m, is shown in Fig. 456. In addition to its self weight, the beam must support
a uniformly distributed superimposed dead load of 4.9 kN/m and a live load of 8.8 kN/m. Make use
of the provisions of SABS 0100 (Ref. 42) to design suitable prestressed and nonprestressed
reinforcement for the midspan section so that the decompression moment M
dec
is equal to the
permanent load moment. Use 12.9 mm 7wire super grade strand, for which f
pu
= 1860 MPa and
E
p
= 195 GPa, for the prestressed reinforcement and take f
y
= 450 MPa and E
s
= 200 GPa for the
nonprestressed reinforcement. Take f
cu
= 50 MPa and E
c
= 34 GPa for the concrete.
If the self weight of the concrete is taken as g
c
= 24 kN/m
3
, the self weight of the beam is given
by w
D
= g
c
A = 3.96 kN/m. Therefore the total permanent load is w
Perm
= w
D
+ w
sdl
= 3.96 + 4.9
= 8.86 kN/m. Using the load factors of SABS 0160, the design value of the permanent load moment
appropriate to the serviceability limit state is given by
Since the decompression moment M
dec
is taken to be equal to the permanent load moment, and the
total design moment at the serviceability limit state is given by
the degree of prestress k corresponding to this choice of M
dec
is
Assuming h = 0.84 (i.e. 16% losses), the prestressing force required for a decompression moment
M
dec
= 238.8 kN.m is subsequently obtained from Eq. 465
If 12.9 mm 7wire super grade strand, jacked to 75% of characteristic strength (= 186 kN per strand),
is used the jacking force per strand is 0.75 ´ 186 = 139.5 kN. Assuming the loss of prestress due
M
w L
Perm
Perm
= =
´
( )
´
=
11
8
11 886 14
8
2388
2 2
. . .
.
a f
kN. m
M
w w L
max
Perm L
=
+
=
´ + ´ ( )´
=
11 10
8
11 886 10 88 14
8
454 4
2 2
. . . . . .
.
a f
kN. m
k = = =
M
M
dec
max
2388
454 4
05255
.
.
.
P
M
Z
A
e
t
dec
bot
=
+
L
N
M
O
Q
P
=
´
´
´
+
L
N
M
O
Q
P
=
h
2388 10
084
2554 10
165 10
290
6391
3
6
3
.
.
.
. kN
d
1
=
6
4
0
d
2
=
6
5
0
150
50 60
h
=
7
0
0
A
ps
A
s
h
f
=
150
b
w
= 150
b = 350
350
e
A
I
Z
Z
top
bot
=
= ´
= ´
=  ´
= ´
290
165 10
8 938 10
2554 10
2554 10
3 2
9 4
6 3
6 3
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
.
.
.
Figure 456: Midspan section for example 416.
DESIGN 485
to elastic shortening to be 5.0%, the initial force per strand at transfer is (1  0.05) ´ 139.5
= 132.5 kN (= P
t,strand
). Therefore, 639.1/132.5 = 4.823, say 5 strands are required, for which
A
ps
= 500 mm
2
.
The nonprestressed reinforcement is designed by considering the required ultimate moment, in
exactly the same manner as in example 413. Following the requirements of SABS 0160, the design
l oad appropri at e t o t he ul t i mat e l i mi t st at e i s gi ven by w
u
= 1. 2 w
Perm
+ 1. 6 w
L
=
1.2 ´ 8.86 + 1.6 ´ 8.8 = 24.71 kN/m, so that the required ultimate moment of resistance of the
section is
For the equivalent rectangular stress block prescribed by SABS 0100, a = 0.45 and b = 0.9, while
the design stressstrain curves for the prestressed and nonprestressed steel are as shown in Figs. 4 17
and 423, respectively. Assuming f
ps
= f
py
= 1617 MPa, f
s
= f
sy
= 391.3 MPa and that the entire
compression zone is contained in the flange, the depth to neutral axis is determined by taking
moments about the position of the nonprestressed steel and solving the resulting expression for x.
Thus,
Solving for x yields x = 148.4 mm. Therefore s = bx = 0.9 ´ 148.4 = 133.6 mm is less than
h
f
= 150 mm, which means that the entire compression zone is contained in the flange, as assumed.
Horizontal equilibrium requires that the following condition must be satisfied:
Solving this expression for A
s
yields A
s
= 621.8 mm
2
. This area of steel can be provided by
2 @ Y20 mm bars, for which A
s
= 628 mm
2
.
The validity of the assumption that f
ps
= f
py
and that f
s
= f
sy
must be checked. This is done by
calculating e
ps
and e
s2
using the strain compatibility approach, as in example 413. Before this can
be done, f
se
must be estimated so that its value is consistent with the assumptions made with regard
to the various losses. Since the cross sectional area per strand A
ps,strand
= 100 mm
2
If the effective prestress acting on the section is taken as P = f
se
A
ps
= 1113 ´ 500 ´ 10
3
= 556.6 kN, it can be shown that e
ps
= 0.01752 and e
s2
= 0.01179. Since these values of e
ps
and
e
s2
are larger than e
py
= 0.01329 and e
sy
= 0.00196, respectively, f
ps
= f
py
and f
s
= f
sy
(see Figs 417
and 423) as assumed.
Note that any other limit state can now be examined, as required. For example, consider the stresses
in the concrete at transfer. For the losses assumed here, P
t
= 5 P
t,strand
= 5 ´ 132.5 = 662.6 kN,
while so that, at transfer, the stresses in the
top and bottom fibres of the section are given by
M
w L
u
= =
´
=
2 2
8
24 71 14
8
6054
.
. kN. m
M f b x d
x
A f d d
x
x
cu ps ps
=  
F
H
G
I
K
J
 
´ =  ´  ( ) ´ ´ 
F
H
G
I
K
J
 ´ ´  ( )
a b
b
b g b g
b g
2 2 1
6
2
6054 10 0 45 50 350 0 9 650
0 9
2
500 1617 650 640 . . .
.
A f A f f b x
A
ps ps s s cu
s
+ + =
´ + ´ + ´  ( )´ ´ ´ =
a b 0
500 1617 3913 0 45 50 350 0 9 148 4 0 . . . .
f
P
A
se
t strand
ps strand
= =
´ ´
=
h
,
,
. . 084 132 5 10
100
1113
3
MPa
M w L
min D
= = ´ ´ = 10 8 10 396 14 8 97 02
2 2
. / . . / . kN. m
To summarize: 5 @ 12.9 mm 7wire super grade strands tensioned to
75% of their strength are required together with
2 @ Y20 mm bars.
486 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
If the concrete strength at transfer is taken as f
ci
= 40 MPa then the permissible tensile and
compressive stresses at transfer are and f
ct
= 0.45 f
ci
= 0.45
´ (40) = 18 MPa, respectively. A comparison of the calculated concrete stresses with the
permissible values clearly demonstrates that the stress limitations prescribed by SABS 0100 are
satisfied at transfer.
4.5 REFERENCES
41 Park, R., and Paulay, T., Reinforced Concrete Structures, John Wiley & Sons, 1975.
42 South African Bureau of Standards, “The Structural Use of Concrete,” SABS 0100: 1992,
Parts 1 and 2, SABS, Pretoria, 1992.
43 Khachaturian, N., Gurfinkel, G., Prestressed Concrete, McGrawHill Book Company, New
York, 1969.
44 Hognestad, E., Hanson N. W. and McHenry D., “Concrete Stress Distribution in Ultimate
Strength Design”. ACI Journal, Vol. 52, No. 6, December 1955.
45 Rüsch, H., “Researches Toward a General Flexural Theory for Structural Concrete”. ACI
Journal, Vol. 57, No. 1, July 1960.
46 Committee of State Road Authorities, “Code of Practice for the Design of Highway Bridges
and Culverts in South Africa,” TMH7 Part 3, CSRA, Pretoria, 1989.
47 British Standards Institution, “Structural Use of Concrete, Part 1, Code of Practice for Design
and Construction,” BS 8110: Part 1: 1985, BSI, London, 1985.
48 British Standards Institution, “Steel, Concrete and Composite Bridges. Part 4: Code of Practice
for Design of Concrete Bridges,” BS 5400: Part 4: 1984, BSI, London, 1984.
49 Warwaruk, J., Sozen, M. A., and Siess, C. P., “Strength Behaviour in Flexure of Prestressed
Concrete Beams,” University of Illinois Engineering Experiment Station, Bulletin No. 464,
1962.
410 Lin, T. Y., and Burns, N. H., Design of Prestressed Concrete Structures, 3rd ed., John Wiley
& Sons, New York, 1981.
411 ACI Committee 318,"Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 31889) and
Commentary  ACI 318 R89," American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1989.
412 Gamble, W. L., “Prestressed Concrete,” Lecture Notes for Prestressed Concrete: CE 368,
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, Urbana, October
1991.
f
P
A
Pe
Z
M
Z
top t
t t
top
min
top
,
. .
.
.
.
.
= + +
=
 ´
´
+
 ´ ´
 ´
+
´
 ´
=
662 6 10
165 10
662 6 10 290
2554 10
97 02 10
2554 10
0 2901
3
3
3
6
6
6
MPa
f
P
A
Pe
Z
M
Z
bot t
t t
bot
min
bot
,
. .
.
.
.
.
= + +
=
 ´
´
+
 ´ ´
´
+
´
´
= 
662 6 10
165 10
662 6 10 290
2554 10
97 02 10
2554 10
7 742
3
3
3
6
6
6
MPa
f f
tt ci
= =  = 0 45 0 45 40 2 846 . . . MPa
REFERENCES 487
413 Libby, J. R., Modern Prestressed Concrete: Design Principles and Construction Methods,
4th ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1990.
414 Naaman, A. E., Prestressed Concrete Analysis and Design: Fundamentals, McGrawHill Book
Company, New York, 1982.
415 Kajfasz, S., Somerville, G., and C., Rowe, R. E., “An investigation of the behaviour of
composite concrete beams,” Cement and Concrete Association, Research Report 15, November
1963.
416 Clark, L. A., Concrete Bridge Design to BS 5400, Construction Press, London, 1983.
417 Kong, F. K., and Evans, R. H., Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete, 3rd ed., Van Nostrand
Reinhold (UK), Workingham, 1987.
418 South African Bureau of Standards, “The General Procedures and Loadings to be Adopted in
the Design of Buildings,” SABS 0160: 1989, SABS, Pretoria, as amended 1990.
419 British Standards Institution, “Dead and Imposed Loads,” CP 3: Chapter V: 1967. Loading.
Part I, BSI, London, 1967.
420 British Standards Institution, “Steel, Concrete and Composite Bridges. Part 2: Specification
for Loads,” BS 5400: Part 2: 1978, BSI, London, 1978.
421 Guyon, Y., Prestressed Concrete, John Wiley & Sons, New York, Vol. 1, 1960.
422 Magnel, G., Prestressed Concrete, 3rd ed., revised and enlarged, Concrete Publications Ltd.,
London, 1954.
423 FIP “Shear at the interface of precast and in situ concrete,” Technical Report FIP/9/4, August
1978.
424 Committee of State Road Authorities, “Code of Practice for the Design of Highway Bridges
and Culverts in South Africa,” TMH7 Parts 1 and 2, CSRA, Pretoria, 1989.
425 Handbook to British Standard BS 8110: 1985: Structural Use of Concrete, Palladian
Publications Ltd., London, 1987.
426 Olivier, J. J., The Use of Partial Prestressing for Road Bridges in South Africa, MEng Thesis,
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, May 1993.
427 Leonhardt, F., “To New Frontiers for Prestressed Concrete Design and Construction,” PCI
Journal, Vol. 19, No. 5, September 1974, pp. 5469.
428 Menn, C., “Partial Prestressing from the Designer’s Point of View,” Concrete International,
Vol. 5, No. 3, March 1983, pp. 5259.
429 Naaman, A. E., “Partially Prestressed Concrete: Review and Recommendations,” PCI Journal,
Vol. 30, No. 6, November/December 1985, pp. 3071.
430 Bachmann, H., “Partial Prestressing of Concrete Structures,” IABSE Surveys S11/79,
International Association for Bridge an Structural Engineering, Zürich, 1979.
431 Bachmann, H., “Design of Partially Prestressed Concrete Structures based on Swiss Experi
ences,” PCI Journal, Vol. 29, No. 4, July/August 1984, pp. 84105.
432 Huber, A., “Practical Design of Partially Prestressed Concrete Beams,” Concrete International,
Vol. 5, No. 4, April 1983, pp. 4954.
433 Wiessler, H. H., “Partial Prestress for Bridges,” International Concrete Symposium, Concrete
Society of Southern Africa, Portland Park, Halfway House, May 1984.
434 Marshall, V., Wium, D. J. W., and Olivier, J. J., “Use of Partial Prestressing for Road
Bridges,” Annual Transportation Convention, Session 5D: Structures, Pretoria, August 1991.
488 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
The authors gratefully acknowledge:
• The support of the Concrete Society of Southern Africa for publishing this text as a book.
• The support and encouragement of the committee of the Prestressed Concrete Division of the
Society. The contributions made by various members of this committee in terms of planning the
text and in terms of their review comments were particularly useful.
The authors are particularly indebted to Michael A. Vasarhelyi of the Prestressed Concrete Division
for his careful review of the entire text. His comments and suggestions contributed significantly to
the value of the book.
Vernon Marshall
John M. Robberts
vi PREFACE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
i
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 2 v 11
THE BASIC IDEA OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 EFFECTS OF PRESTRESSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 GENERAL PRINCIPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 BASIC DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 PRESTRESSED VERSUS REINFORCED CONCRETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 HISTORY OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 21
MATERIAL PROPERTIES 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.1.6 2.1.7 2.1.8 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.3
CONCRETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Compressive strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Stressstrain relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Modulus of elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Tensile strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Timedependent behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Thermal properties of concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Poisson’s ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Nonprestressed reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Prestressed reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Relaxation of prestressing steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Fatigue characteristics of reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Thermal properties of reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
STEEL REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 31
3
PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 3.1 3.2
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 PRETENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 Basic principle and procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Stressing beds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Structural frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Basic principle and procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 Posttensioning systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 Posttensioning operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 Ducting for bonded construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 Grouting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
3.3
POSTTENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.3.5
3.4 3.5
PRETENSIONING VERSUS POSTTENSIONING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
4
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE 4.1 4.2 4.3
41
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 SIGN CONVENTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5 4.3.6 4.3.7 Basic assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Flexural response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Analysis of the uncracked section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Cracking moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 Ultimate moment: Sections with bonded tendons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 Analysis of beams with unbonded tendons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 Flexural analysis of composite sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 Limit states design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451 Design for the serviceability limit state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454 Design for the ultimate limit state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469 Limits on steel content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474 Flexural design of composite sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475 Partial prestressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
4.4
DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.4.4 4.4.5 4.4.6
4.5 5
REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487 51
PRESTRESS LOSSES 5.1 5.2
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 METHODS FOR CALCULATING PRESTRESS LOSSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 Total loss in pretensioned members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Total loss in posttensioned members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Methods for calculating prestress losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Pretensioned concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Posttensioned concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Loss due to relaxation of the steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Loss due to shrinkage of the concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Loss due to creep of the concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510 Friction losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528 Anchorage seating losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535
5.3
ELASTIC SHORTENING OF THE CONCRETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 5.3.1 5.3.2
5.4
TIMEDEPENDENT LOSSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3
5.5
LOSSES DURING POSTTENSIONING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528 5.5.1 5.5.2
5.6 6
REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540 61
EFFECTS OF CONTINUITY 6.1 6.2
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 ELASTIC ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.2.4 6.2.5 Eccentricity of the prestressing force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Force (flexibility) method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Fixedend moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Displacement (stiffness) method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 611 Concept of equivalent loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 617
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .2. . . . . . . . .3 CRACKED BEAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629 6. . . . . . . .1 Flexural behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 819 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Shear capacity of the concrete . . . . . . 629 Moment redistribution . . . 96 9. . . . . 921 101 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE SLABS 10. . . . . . 71 BEAMS WITHOUT WEB REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632 71 SHEAR 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . 98 Bursting Stress Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . 832 91 ANCHORAGE ZONE DESIGN 9. . . . . .4. . . . . . . . .1 Design codes of practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Restraint to axial shortening . . . . .3 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS BY THE EQUIVALENT FRAME METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Secondary moments . 629 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 EFFECTS OF PRESTRESS ON STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOUR . . . . .4 Effects of losses . . 103 10. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . 73 7. . . . . . . . . . . . 92 ANCHORAGE ZONE REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Preliminary value for the slab thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625 DESIGN AT SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . 716 COMPOSITE BEAMS . . .5 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 105 10. . . . . 831 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Instantaneous deflections . .1 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 10 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 DESIGN . . . . . . 1013 . . . . . 71 7. . . . . .3. 623 Concordancy and linear transformation . . . . 82 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1011 10. . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 9 DEFLECTION LIMITATIONS . . . . .1 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .4 7. . . . . . . 1012 10. . . . 730 81 DEFLECTIONS 8. 85 Instantaneous deflections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 10. . . . 82 Longterm deflections . . . . . . . . . . . 104 10. . . . . . . 628 ANALYSIS AT ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 915 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 6. . . . . . . . . .2 INTRODUCTION . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 725 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 814 8. . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . 814 Longterm deflections .2. . . . . .2 Spalling Stress Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 7 REFERENCES . . . . .6 8 BEAMS WITH WEB REINFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . .3 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 713 DESIGN PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Cracking behaviour . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 UNCRACKED BEAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 7. . . . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS iii 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 TRANSFER LENGTH . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .3 LIMITATIONS ON PRESTRESSING STEEL CONTENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 11. . . . . . 1059 10. . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1065 10.6 Ultimate limit states . . . . . . . . .1 Inplane normal forces . . . . . . . . . . . . 1119 APPENDIX A: LIST OF SYMBOLS APPENDIX B: DRAWINGS FLAT SLAB: REINFORCEMENT LAYOUT TENDON LAYOUT BRIDGE DECK: PRESTRESSING DETAILS . . . . . . . . . . 119 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1014 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. 117 EFFECTS OF TENDON CURVATURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. .5 DETAILING . . . . . .5. . . . .6. . . . . . . . .3 Prestressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 11. 1113 11. . . . . . .4 Minimum tangent length . .2.4. . . . . . 1033 10. . . . . . . . .2 Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1112 11. . . . . . . 1034 10. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Prestressed reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Nonprestressed reinforcement . . 1033 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Punching shear . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Design: EastWest direction . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1030 10. . . . .2 Loadings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 LONGITUDINAL NONPRESTRESSED REINFORCEMENT . .9 Deflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1071 111 DETAILING 11. . . . .5 LIMITATIONS ON SPACING OF TENDONS . .6 DESIGN EXAMPLE . . . .5. . .6. . . . . .3 Openings . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1035 10. . . . . . . . 1030 10. . . . . . . . . .4 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Considerations . . . . . 117 11. . 1060 10. . . . .7 11 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Check the preliminary value for the slab thickness . .6. . . . .6 Design: NorthSouth direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1036 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Code requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1031 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Balanced load .5. . . . . . . . . 1021 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . 116 11. . . . . . 1026 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1035 10. . . . . .3 Minimum radius of curvature . . . . 1035 10. . . . . . . . .1 Material properties .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1019 10. . . . . . . . 118 11. . . . 111 COVER TO TENDONS . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1111 11. . . . . . . . . . . .1 11. . . . . . .2 Outofplane multistrand effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . 116 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 11. . . . . . 111 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1071 10. . . . . . .iv TABLE OF CONTENTS 10. . . . . . . . . . .3 Maximum steel content . . .5. . . 1114 DRAWINGS . . . . 1035 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . 1118 REFERENCES . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.5 Serviceability limit states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 11. . . . . . . . . . .10 Concluding Remarks . .5 Minimum cover to tendons . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Minimum steel content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
including composite beams. The analysis and design of posttensioned flat plates and flat slabs are covered by Chapter 10. in a case where a semiempirical approach is followed. • Chapter 7: Design for shear. the relevant experimental work on which such a procedure is based is presented and discussed. postgraduate students and practising designers. • Chapter 6: The effects of continuity in prestressed concrete members. which affect detailing are presented in Chapter 11. The design considerations. The manner in which these aspects of behaviour are reflected in the various design codes of practice. essential for the design of prestressed concrete structures. Various aspects. This material is limited to slabs using unbonded tendons and levels of prestress at which the slabs will be cracked under the design service loads because most of the posttensioned flat plates and flat slabs constructed in South Africa are of this type. unbonded construction and partially prestressed sections are also covered. Although the objective and intended audience of the book is the same as that of the course. commissioned by the Prestressed Concrete Division of the Concrete Society of Southern Africa. applicable to both pretensioned and posttensioned construction are covered. Working drawings of the prestressing details of a flat slab and of a highway bridge are presented in Appendix B. Both uncracked and cracked beams are considered. commonly used in South Africa. Composite sections. is presented in the first three chapters. the procedures for simulating the various aspects of behaviour are developed from the basic principles of structural mechanics. . Generally. • Chapter 5: Procedures for estimating the instantaneous and longterm loss of prestress in pretensioned and in posttensioned construction. These cover the material properties of concrete. prestressing steel and nonprestressed reinforcement as well as the various prestressing systems and procedures generally used in South Africa. and it was the intention that it should serve as a vehicle for providing bridging education between tertiary training and design practice. Basic background information. These chapters also cover relevant specifications. It is important to note that a unique feature of the book is that current South African practice is emphasised throughout the text. However. are also discussed. The basic concepts and procedures required for the analysis and design of a prestressed concrete flexural member are presented in Chapters 4 to 9 as follows: • Chapter 4: Analysis and design of a section for flexure at the serviceability and ultimate limit states. The details of both the prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement are covered in this chapter. • Chapter 8: Procedures for calculating the instantaneous and longterm deflections of prestressed concrete flexural members. and a number of local effects. The course was aimed at young engineers and technologists with little or no experience in the design of prestressed concrete structures.PREFACE v PREFACE The content of this book was initially written and issued as a set of notes for the course Prestressed Concrete: Design and Practice. induced by tendon curvature. Each chapter contains comprehensive examples that illustrate the analytical concepts and design procedures covered. it can also serve as a useful reference text for undergraduate students. • Chapter 9: Design of the anchorage zone. peculiar to prestressed concrete members. are also explained.
THE BASIC IDEA OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
11
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 THE BASIC IDEA OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
In its general form, the term prestressing means the deliberate creation of permanent stresses in a structure before it is subjected to any imposed load. Because the object of prestressing a structure is to improve its performance, the stresses resulting from prestressing are designed to counteract those induced by the acting loads. As an example, consider the case of a simply supported beam made from an elastic material which is equally strong in compression and in tension. The deflected shape of the beam and the stress distribution over the depth of the midspan section, which result from the application of a uniformly distributed load w, are shown in Fig. 11a. The principle of prestressing can subsequently be used to counteract this response by applying an eccentric compression force P to each end of the beam. The prestressing forces are shown in Fig. 11b together with the resultant deflected shape of the beam and the stress distribution over the midspan section. Figure 11c shows the response to the combined application of the load w and the prestressing forces P, which is obtained by the superposition of the response to the load w (Fig. 11a) and the response to the prestressing forces P (Fig. 11b). A comparison of the deflected shapes and midspan stresses shown in Figs. 11a and 11c illustrates the effects of prestressing on the structural behaviour of the beam: Not only can both the compressive and tensile stresses (and hence, the corresponding strains) in the top and bottom fibres of the midspan section be reduced, but the beam deflection can also be reduced. It should be noted that although the stress in the bottom fibre (f wb – f pb ) resulting from the combined action of the load w and the prestressing forces P is shown to be compressive in Fig. 11c, it could be tensile depending on the relative magnitudes of f wb and f pb . Similarly, the resultant deflection (d w  d p ) shown in Fig. 11c to be upward, could be downward. Given the fact that concrete is strong in compression and weak in tension, it seems natural that one of the most successful applications of the principle of prestressing has been the development of prestressed concrete. A simply supported plain, unreinforced concrete beam subjected to an increasing load will fail immediately after the development of cracks when the induced flexural tensile stress f wb (Fig. 11a) exceeds the tensile strength of the concrete. In the case of a reinforced concrete beam, suitable steel reinforcement is provided in the tension zone of the section to carry the tensile forces required for equilibrium of the cracked section. For this reason, a reinforced concrete beam can carry loads which exceed the cracking load by a considerable margin. As opposed to reinforced concrete, where the concrete is allowed to crack under service loads, the original development of prestressed concrete was based on the prevention of flexural cracks forming under service loads. This was achieved by applying the criterion of no tensile stress, because it is generally accepted that if there are no tensile stresses present in the concrete it will not crack. However, this criterion has been relaxed with the subsequent development of prestressed concrete and it is currently common practice to allow some tension to develop in the concrete. As shown in Fig. 11, the tensile stresses induced by the load can be neutralised to any desired degree by providing suitable prestressing. With the subsequent development of the concept of partial prestressing significant tension and controlled cracking are allowed to develop at service load levels, in much the same way as in reinforced concrete. The latest schools of thought on prestressed concrete embodies the view that partially prestressed concrete occupies the range between reinforced concrete and fully prestressed concrete (i.e. no tension is allowed to develop at service load levels). From this viewpoint reinforced concrete and fully prestressed concrete represent the two boundaries of the complete range of
12
INTRODUCTION
w fwt (compression) dw
fwb (tension) Section Stresses at midspan section
(a) Response to uniformly distributed load
fpt (tension) dp e P P e fpb (compression) Section Stresses at midspan section
(b) Response to prestressing forces
w fwt – fpt dw  dp e P P e fwb – fpb Section Stresses at midspan section
(c) Response to uniformly distributed load and prestressing forces
Figure 11:
General effects of prestressing.
possibilities which exist for partially prestressed concrete and, as such, are two special cases of partially prestressed concrete. In prestressed concrete, the most commonly used method of applying the prestressing force to the concrete is by tensioning highstrength reinforcement, commonly referred to as tendons, against the concrete prior to the application of imposed loads. Two different processes can be distinguished in this regard:
• Pretensioning: In these prestressing methods, the prestressed reinforcement is tensioned before
the concrete is placed.
EFFECTS OF PRESTRESSING
13
• Posttensioning: In these prestressing methods, the prestressed reinforcement is tensioned after
the concrete has been placed and has developed sufficient strength to sustain the induced stresses. The definition of prestressed concrete as given by the ACI Committee on Prestressed Concrete (taken from Ref. 11) is quoted here for completeness: Prestressed concrete: Concrete in which there have been introduced internal stresses of such magnitude and distribution that the stresses resulting from given external loadings are counteracted to a desired degree. In reinforcedconcrete members the prestress is commonly introduced by tensioning the steel reinforcement. It is apparent from Fig. 11 that the use of prestressing will enable a designer to provide a structure of which the deflections at service load levels can be made much less than those of its reinforced concrete counterpart. This benefit is obtained in addition to the bonus of being in a position to provide a structure which is relatively crackfree at service load levels.
1.2
EFFECTS OF PRESTRESSING
The effects of prestressing are dictated by the fundamental reason for applying it in the first place: Prestressing is simply a means by which a controllable set of forces are applied to a structure to counteract the stresses induced by loads (e.g. dead loads and live loads). The effects of prestressing with regard to the development of stresses are illustrated by considering the rectangular beam section shown in Fig. 12a. If a moment M = 286 kN.m is applied to the section, the resulting stresses at the top and bottom of the section can be calculated from f = m My/I, where y is the distance from the top (or bottom) fibre to the centroidal axis and I is the second moment of area of the section about the centroidal axis. Taking tension positive and compression negative, this calculation yields a stress of –5.94 MPa at the top and a stress of +5.94 MPa at the bottom, as shown in Fig. 12b. The concrete can easily carry the compressive stress at the top of the section, but will most probably crack under the tensile stress at the bottom because it cracks at a much lower stress, which lies in the range of 50% to 75% of this value. As a first attempt to neutralise the tensile stresses in the section, an axial compression force P = 2258 kN is taken to act at the same time as the moment of 286 kN.m (see Fig. 12c). This axial force induces an additional uniform compressive stress of –5.94 over the section, which is calculated from f = –P/A, where A is the area of the section. The total stresses resulting from the simultaneous application of M and P are obtained by adding the stresses which are separately produced by each of these actions. As shown in Fig. 12c, a total stress of –11.88 MPa is obtained at the top and a zero stress is obtained at the bottom. The concrete will be able to carry these stresses for the strengths normally used in prestressed concrete structures. The fairly large force of 2258 kN may be reduced by applying it eccentrically. Therefore, as a next step, a force P = 1127 kN is applied at an eccentricity of 127 mm, measured from the centroid of the section, as shown in Fig. 12d. The additional stress which arises from the eccentricity is calculated from f = ± Pey/I, where e is the eccentricity as defined above. The stresses at the top and bottom of the section as produced by the various components of load are summarised in Fig. 12d, from which it may be seen that P causes a zero stress at the top and a compression of –5.94 MPa at the bottom. The total stresses, which include those produced by M, are seen to be –5.94 MPa at the top and zero at the bottom. When these results are compared to those obtained in the previous case, the beneficial effect of applying P eccentrically becomes clear: The tensile stresses in the section can still be completely neutralised even though the magnitude of P has been reduced by half, and in the process the total compressive stress in the top fibre has also been reduced by a half.
88 MPa +5.94 MPa –2.94 MPa –1.0 ´ 103 mm2 500 ´ 7603 12 = 182.94 MPa –11.94 MPa +5.94 MPa (c) M = 286 kNm P = 2258 kN –5.94 MPa +5.94 MPa –1.96 MPa 0 Figure 12: Effects of prestressing on stresses.94 MPa –5.14 INTRODUCTION 500 y= y = 380 760 y = 380 I= A = 500 ´ 760 = 380.94 MPa –5.9 ´ 108 mm4 760 2 = 380 mm (a) Section Properties Loading Condition Stress – A I (b) M = 286 kNm –5.96 MPa –3. – + – + – My + I P Pey – My – P + I A Pey I .97 MPa –5.94 MPa +5.98 MPa +3.97 MPa +2.98 MPa –3.97 MPa 0 (e) M = 286 kNm e = 254 P = 751 kN –5.96 MPa +5.94 MPa –2.97 MPa –2.94 MPa –5.94 MPa 0 (d) M = 286 kNm e = 127 P = 1127 kN –5.
Although this tension is probably not large enough to cause the concrete to crack. 1.3 GENERAL PRINCIPLES There are three different concepts which can be used to approach the simulation of the behaviour of a prestressed concrete member (Ref.GENERAL PRINCIPLES 15 As a final example in this regard. Using this approach. Another important effect of prestressing on structural behaviour is its impact on deflections at service load levels. In the following. This effect can be qualitatively investigated with reference to Fig. Also shown are the stresses produced in the top and bottom fibres of the section by the various components of load.96 . even though it is beneficial when the external load is present. the resultant deflection can be upward. it serves to illustrate that a larger eccentricity can be detrimental in the absence of external load (represented here by M). is reached it cracks and subsequently cannot carry any tensile stress. First approach: Prestressing transforms concrete into an elastic material. and that he may find that although the deflection of the loaded structure is small. will cause an upward deflection (see Fig. each approach is briefly described. it may be seen that the eccentric force acting on its own causes a tension of (3. Such a situation can arise in cases where the live load to dead load ratio is large. will transform it into an elastic material. the externally applied load w will produce a downward deflection (see Fig. the upward deflection of the unloaded structure is unacceptably large. This result is consistent with the previous finding that an increased eccentricity has a beneficial effect as far as the total stresses are concerned. This finding is important for design because it clearly shows that the critical stresses may arise either in the loaded or in the unloaded structure. it is convenient to view the concrete as being subjected to two sets of forces: • The external load which induces tensile stresses. points to the fact that the designer is working between various limits. 11a) while the prestressing force P. 11).98) = 1. 12e. once again. These examples are intended to illustrate the effects of prestressing on the development of stress in the section. If it is accepted that concrete will not crack if there are no tensile stresses present. Each approach can be used for design provided that it is properly understood by the designer. as shown in Fig. a total bottom fibre stress of zero is obtained while a total compression of –3. then it can be concluded that the removal of tensile stresses by prestressing will remove the source of its brittle behaviour and. 11. The brittle behaviour of concrete arises from the fact that when its tensile strength. which is much less than its compressive strength. which is applied at an eccentricity e. In the case of the simply supported beam considered here.1. 11b). which is even smaller than before. consider the case where the compression force P is further reduced to 751 kN but its eccentricity is increased to 254 mm. it is clear that the downward deflection produced by the external load is always reduced by the presence of prestressing and. depending on the relative magnitudes of the two components of deflection. Because the deflections caused by the two components of load are opposite.98 MPa at the top. However. in so doing. and are not intended to show that limiting the total tensile stress in the section to zero is necessarily beneficial or not. 11c).96 MPa is obtained at the top. Once again. The total deflection of the beam under the combined actions of the external load and the prestressing force is obtained by adding the deflections yielded by each load acting separately (see Fig. The fundamental idea behind this approach is that the precompression applied during prestressing transforms the concrete into an elastic material. This observation. • The internal prestress which sets up the compression required for neutralising any tension. . and provided that the limitations of each are realized.
m. This example is the same as that shown in Fig. as is the case for reinforced concrete. 500 380 760 254 380 A = 380. then the stresses. The fundamental principle. The examples considered in Fig. 12 (see Section 1. the primary difference between the behaviour of prestressed concrete and reinforced concrete lies in the increased cracking load and the possibility of actively controlling the deformations of the structure. however. Second approach: Prestressed concrete is a type of reinforced concrete. The internal couple arises from the compression supplied by the concrete and the tension supplied by the steel. Prestressed concrete can be viewed as a type of reinforced concrete in which highstrength reinforcement has been tensioned against the concrete before any imposed load is applied. This approach is credited to Freyssinet and is the source of the zero tensile stress criterion which has been applied over many years. 13 subjected to a moment M = 286 kN.2) serve as an illustration of how this approach can be used to calculate stresses in a beam section. The prestressed reinforcement is placed at an eccentricity e = 254 mm and carries a tension T = 751 kN.96 MPa M = 286 kNm C = 751 kN ec = 127 e = 254 T = 751 kN 0 Stress distribution la = 381 Figure 13: Prestressed concrete considered as a type of reinforced concrete. consider the section shown in Fig.0 ´ 103 mm2 I = 182. strains and deflections caused by each of the sets of forces can be considered separately and superimposed as required.16 INTRODUCTION If the precompression induced by the prestress prevents the concrete from cracking. in which a resisting internal couple must be developed to equilibrate an external moment. From this point of view.9 ´ 108 mm4 Section Properties 3. 12e. To illustrate the use of this approach to analysing a prestressed concrete beam section. . remains the same. Following this approach. prestressed concrete is considered as a combination of concrete and steel.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES
17
Horizontal equilibrium yields T = C = 751 kN. The internal couple provided by the compression in the concrete C and the tension in the steel T must be equal to the external moment M = 286 kN.m to satisfy moment equilibrium. The lever arm at which these forces are acting is given by 286 3 la = 751 × 10 = 381 mm Therefore C is acting at an eccentricity e C = 381  254 = 127 mm. The stress distribution in the concrete is obtained by considering the compression C = 751 kN acting on the concrete at an eccentricity of 127 mm. Using elastic theory f = − = − C − C eC y + I A 751 × 103 − 751 × 103 × 127 × 380 + 182.9 × 108 380 × 103
− = − 1.98 + 1.98 So that ftop = – 3.96 MPa (top fibre, compression) fbot = 0 (bottom fibre) These results are shown in Fig. 13 and are the same as obtained before in Fig. 12e. Third approach: Prestressing balances a part of the applied load. In this approach the view is adopted that the forces exerted by the prestressed reinforcement (tendons) on the concrete balances the applied loads to some desired degree. Consider the simply
h
L/2 L
L/2
(a) Parabolic tendon profile
P
P
wb (b) Tendon forces acting on the concrete
Figure 14: Simply supported beam with parabolic tendon.
18
INTRODUCTION
supported beam shown in Fig. 14a which has a parabolically curved tendon. It can be seen from Fig. 14b that the tendon applies the following forces to the concrete:
• The prestressing force P at each end of the beam where the tendon is anchored. • An upward uniformly distributed load w b acting over the span of the beam. This load arises
because the concrete prevents the tendon from straightening under the action of the prestressing force. It can be shown that for the tendon profile considered here wb = where h = sag of the tendon L = span of the beam If the beam is subjected to a downward uniformly distributed load w, it is clear that the portion of the load which is not balanced by the action of the prestress is given by (w – w b ). Using this approach, the beam is subsequently analysed by considering it as being subjected to the prestressing force P applied at the anchor positions at the ends of the beam and the unbalanced load (w – w b ) acting over its span. As an example of how this approach can be used to analyse a prestressed concrete beam, consider the simply supported beam shown in Fig. 15a, which is subjected to a uniformly distributed load w = 42.9 kN/m. The prestressing force P = 751 kN and the tendon profile is parabolic, with an eccentricity e = 254 mm at midspan and zero eccentricity at the ends. Since the bending moment at midspan M = 42.9 ´ 7.3 2 /8 = 286 kN.m, it is clear that this example is the same as that shown in Fig. 12e if the midspan section is considered. The upward uniformly distributed load applied by the tendon is given by wb = = 8Ph L2 8 × 751 × 0.254 7.32 8Ph L2
= 28.6 kN/m The loads and forces acting on the concrete are shown in Fig. 15b, from which it is clear that the unbalanced load is (42.9 – 28.6) = 14.3 kN/m acting downward. The midspan bending moment induced by this unbalanced load is M = = (w − wb) L2 8 14.3 × 7.32 8
= 95.3 kN.m The stress produced by this moment in the extreme fibres of the midspan section is given by f = = My I 95.3 × 106 × 380 182.9 × 108
= 1.98 MPa
GENERAL PRINCIPLES
19
w = 42.9 kN/m
500
380 760 h = 254 380 254
3650 7300
3650
Section at midspan A = 380.0 ´ 103 mm2 I = 182.9 ´ 108 mm4
(a) Simply supported beam
w = 42.9 kN/m
P = 751 kN
P = 751 kN
wb = 28.6 kN/m 7300
(b) Loads and forces acting on the concrete
500 –1.98 MPa –1.98 MPa –3.96 MPa
760
+1.98 MPa Stress due to unbalanced load (= 14.3 kN/m)
–1.98 MPa Stress due to prestressing force applied at ends of beam
0 Total stress
(c) Concrete stress in midspan section
Figure 15: Analysis using load balancing approach.
External prestressing can be achieved either by placing the tendons outside the member or by applying external prestressing forces using jacks. depending on whether the concrete has not been placed or whether it has been placed at the time of tensioning of the reinforcement.110 INTRODUCTION So that ftop = – 1.1. with negligible error.98 + 1. The definitions given in the following are all concerned with special features or attributes related to the construction of prestressed concrete structures.98 MPa (bottom fibre. calculated from f = − = − P A 751 × 103 380 × 103 = – 1.98 = – 3. 1. Prestressing methods can be classified either as being a pretensioning method or as being a posttensioning method. the prestressed reinforcement is tensioned before the concrete is placed. The descriptions are brief because the techniques and procedures covered here are more expansively dealt with in subsequent Chapters. their definitions are repeated here for convenience: • Pretensioning: In these prestressing methods.98 MPa (compression) Finally.98 MPa (top fibre.96 MPa (top fibre. • Posttensioning: In these prestressing methods. compression) fbot = + 1. compression) fbot = – 1. while external prestressing implies that the prestressing force is applied externally. 11). Although the terms pretensioning and posttensioning have been adequately defined in Section 1.4 BASIC DEFINITIONS Some of the most commonly encountered prestressing techniques and features of construction of prestressed concrete structures are introduced in the following (Ref. This steel reinforcement may either be highstrength wires. bars or strand. the total stress in the top and bottom fibres of the midspan section are given by ftop = – 1. the prestressed reinforcement is tensioned after the concrete has been placed and has developed sufficient strength to sustain the induced stresses.98 – 1. Hence the definition of tendon: • Tendon: A tendon is the prestressed reinforcement used to apply the prestress to the concrete. Internal and External Prestressing Internal prestressing refers to prestressed concrete structures in which the tendons are contained within the concrete. Internal prestressing is by far the most . 15c and are the same as obtained before in Fig. The most commonly used prestressing method is to tension highstrength reinforcement against the concrete.98 = 0 (bottom fibre) These results are shown in Fig. tension) The stress induced by the prestressing force acting at the ends of the beam is. 12e.
Jack Jack Figure 16: External prestressing using jacks. . they are referred to as bonded tendons. pressure vessels.BASIC DEFINITIONS 111 commonly used method. and can only be accomplished with posttensioning. as shown in Fig. Posttensioned tendons are encased in a duct so that they can be tensioned after the surrounding concrete has hardened sufficiently. However. These phenomena are more expansively dealt with in Section 2.5. Bonded and Unbonded Tendons When tendons are bonded to the surrounding concrete. the stresses induced by the prestressing force are reduced to levels at which the prestressing becomes ineffective. by the nature of the construction procedure. Unbonded tendons require corrosion protection. If the jacks are properly placed. Jacks can be used to externally prestress a simply supported beam.1. Circular prestressing. even though the tendons may be curved and not straight. although it can be debonded over a portion of its length by taking appropriate steps to accomplish this. tanks and pipes where the circular shape of the tendons is dictated by the shape of the structural element. the dead load is applied in stages. Shrinkage can be viewed as the timedependent strain which develops in the absence of load. while creep may be seen as the timedependent strain which develops in the presence of load. A pretensioned tendon is bonded to the concrete by virtue of the construction method. unless the jacks can be readjusted. the precompression which they produce can neutralise any tension caused by the applied load. on the other hand. Bonding is subsequently accomplished by injecting grout into the duct. In such cases the prestressing may also be applied in appropriate stages to avoid overstressing the concrete. Stage Stressing It sometimes happens that. Tendons not bonded to the concrete over their entire length are referred to as unbonded tendons. refers to circular structures such as silos. 16. This technique is referred to as stage stressing. which is commonly provided by placing them in grease filled plastic tubes. particularly in Europe. this procedure is of little practical importance because the timedependent strains resulting from shrinkage and creep of the concrete soon reduce the strains. Hence. Linear and Circular Prestressing Linear prestressing refers to elongated elements such as beams and slabs. although external prestressing by means of external tendons has recently gained some popularity for use in bridge construction.
which produces a number of desirable effects: • The high strength of the steel can be properly used. and can be used by the designer to control deflections. • The prestressing tends to neutralise tensile stresses and strains induced by the load.5 PRESTRESSED VERSUS REINFORCED CONCRETE One of the major differences between prestressed concrete and reinforced concrete. tension and cracking are allowed to develop in partially prestressed members at service load levels.Savings can be realised in the reduced cost of lighter supporting structures and. This mechanism is much more effective than is the case for reinforced concrete where only the uncracked part of the section in the compression zone participates in resisting the load. These advantages are particularly evident in the case of long span bridges and multistorey buildings.e. Additional ordinary nonprestressed reinforcement is usually provided in partially prestressed members to control the cracking and to ensure adequate ultimate strength. • Improved deflection control is possible with prestressed concrete. 12): • Prestressed concrete requires smaller quantities of material than reinforced concrete because highstrength materials are efficiently and effectively used and because it uses the entire section to resist the load. In prestressed concrete the highstrength steel is tensioned and anchored against the concrete. in the case of precast elements. i. This follows from the fact that the shear capacity of a prestressed member is increased . it is referred to as being fully prestressed. • The fact that members are lighter and more slender if prestressed concrete rather than reinforced concrete is used.112 INTRODUCTION Partial and Full Prestressing When a prestressed concrete member is designed in compliance with the zero tensile stress criterion. Thinner slabs result in reduced building heights and consequent savings in the cost of finishes. in the reduced handling and transportation costs. Innovative construction methods are facilitated. not to develop any tensile stress under service loads. as a result. This advantage is significant for structures subjected to aggressive environments and for fluidretaining structures. On the other hand. Higher strength concrete may be used to obtain more economic sections than with reinforced concrete. even at service load levels. • Prestressed concrete members will require less shear reinforcement than reinforced concrete members. This means that prestressed concrete members are lighter and more slender than their reinforced concrete counterparts. • Prestressed concrete generally provides better corrosion protection to the reinforcement than does reinforced concrete.  Aesthetically pleasing structures are more readily provided. so that cracking of the section is eliminated and. is that higher strength materials (for both concrete and steel) are used for prestressed concrete. 1. • The deformations induced by the prestressing serve to offset those produced by the load. with regard to their physical attributes. the full concrete section becomes active in resisting the load. leads to other advantages: . The following advantages of prestressed concrete are often put forward when compared to reinforced concrete (Ref. Longer spans are possible because of the reduced self weight.
HISTORY OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
113
by curved tendons, which carry some of the shear, and by the precompression, which reduces the principal tension.
• It often happens that the worst service load condition for a prestressed concrete structure occurs
during the prestressing operation. In such a case, it can be claimed that the safety of the structure has been partially tested: If the structure successfully withstands the effects of the prestressing operation, chances are good that it will perform well during its service life. A comparison of the economic advantages or disadvantages of prestressed concrete with those of reinforced concrete is complicated by the fact that each has a range of applicability, depending on the type of structure and the specific design requirements. However, if such a comparison is made where the ranges of applicability overlap, care must be taken to include not only the cost of the materials but also to include the additional costs associated with prestressed concrete, such as the use of specialised equipment and hardware, greater design effort, more supervision and the use of specialised personnel. Such a comparison should also reflect the relative performance and cost advantages inherent in each type of structure. For example, since the decking for posttensioned slabs can be stripped after tensioning, shorter construction times are realized together with all the related savings in construction and financing costs. If the view is taken that prestressed concrete and reinforced concrete represent the two boundaries of the range of possibilities which exist for partially prestressed concrete, they form part of the same system and cannot be considered as being in competition with each other. A comparison, as given above, can therefore be seen to be inappropriate because a specific prestressing level can always be found within the spectrum of possibilities to yield the best solution to a given problem. From this viewpoint, it would seem much more appropriate to compare prestressed reinforced concrete to structural steel.
1.6
HISTORY OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
A brief overview of the history of the development of prestressed concrete, as taken from Refs. 11 to 17, is presented in the following. It is interesting to note that the development of prestressed concrete is characterised by its individualistic nature, even though it took place simultaneously in several countries. A possible reason for this is the lack of communication which existed between the countries during World War II. The first application of the principle of prestressing to concrete is credited to P. H Jackson, of San Francisco, who in 1886 applied for a patent for Constructions of Artificial Stone and Concrete Pavements in which steel tie rods, passed through concrete blocks and concrete arches, were tightened by nuts. These structures served as slabs and roofs. An application for a patent, which can also be related to prestressing, was made in 1888 by the German C. E. W. Doehring. This patent covered the manufacture of mortar slabs containing tensioned wires. The purpose of the work done by the Austrian engineer J. Mandl was aimed at using the strength of the concrete in a beam as effectively as possible. To achieve this he, in 1896, became the first person to clearly articulate the purpose of prestressing as the need to counteract the tension produced by the load with compression induced by an applied prestressing force. The German engineer M. Koenen developed this idea and in 1907 derived an expression from which the required prestressing force could be calculated. The loss of prestressing force resulting from elastic shortening was accounted for in these proposals. In 1907 the Norwegian J. G. F. Lund suggested the construction of prestressed vaults using prefabricated concrete blocks jointed in mortar. The prestressing was applied by tensioned tie rods which transmitted the compression to the blocks by bearing plates at the ends. Bond between the tie rods and the mortar was destroyed at stretching. A similar prestressing procedure was suggested by the American engineer G. R. Steiner in the following year. This procedure consisted of initially tightening the reinforcing rods against the green concrete to destroy bond and to subsequently
114
INTRODUCTION
complete the tensioning operation once the concrete has hardened. These two procedures appear to be the first applications of posttensioning. In the procedures outlined above mild steel was tensioned to the permissible stress prescribed at the time (i.e. approximately 110 MPa), which corresponds to a strain of 0.00055 in the steel. Because this strain is comparable to the magnitude of the strain induced by shrinkage and creep of the concrete, most of the prestressing would have been lost with time. Therefore, these early attempts were bound to give unsatisfactory results because shrinkage and creep of the concrete were not accounted for. The American engineer R. H. Dill appears to have been the first, in 192325, to suggest that full prestressing can be provided by posttensioning highstrength steel, instead of mild steel. Dill coated the reinforcement with a plastic substance to prevent bond, and tensioned the reinforcement after most of the shrinkage in the concrete had taken place. The effects of creep were accounted for by occasionally tightening the nuts used for stretching the reinforcement. However, it should be noted that Dill did not actually say that highstrength steel was required for maintaining full prestress after losses. In 1922, W. H. Hewett, also of America, successfully applied prestressing to circular concrete tanks using an idea similar to that used by Dill. E. Freyssinet of France was the first engineer to fully grasp the importance of the effects of shrinkage and creep of the concrete, and is credited with the development of prestressed concrete as we know it today. In 1928, he introduced the use of highstrength steel bonded to the concrete, together with the requirement that a high tensioning stress be applied to the steel. The significance of these proposals is demonstrated by the fact that shrinkage and creep can together induce a strain of approximately 0.001 in the concrete, while a strain of approximately 0.007 can be induced in highstrength steel reinforcement during the prestressing operation. This means that, in this case, shrinkage and creep will reduce the prestressing force only by about 14%. Thus, by using highstrength steel for prestressing, it is still possible to completely neutralise any tension induced by the load in the concrete, even after losses. Freyssinet also demonstrated that a considerable saving in the required quantity of steel may be achieved by using highstrength reinforcement. The large scale use of prestressed concrete only became possible after the development of reliable and economical methods of carrying out the tensioning operation. The first practical implementation of pretensioning was made by E. Hoyer of Germany who, in 1938, introduced a procedure whereby piano wire was tensioned over a large distance, after which the concrete was cast. The prestress was transferred to the concrete by cutting the wires after hardening of the concrete. Although Hoyer was granted a patent for the longline pretensioning method, it should be pointed out that the idea did not originate with him, but rather with Freyssinet, whose proposal for the longline process he combined with Wettstein’s (1919) experience with the use of piano wire. The large scale use of posttensioning started with the introduction, in 1939, of Freyssinet’s system whereby a doubleacting jack was used to tension and to anchor 12 wire cables in conical wedges, which served as anchors. Since this time prestressed concrete has been widely accepted and used, as revealed by the fact that:
• Many prestressing systems and techniques have been developed. • A large number of books covering the design and construction of prestressed concrete structures
have been published.
• Numerous technical societies have been established who, through their activities and publications,
have greatly contributed to the progress of prestressed concrete. Some of the engineers and researchers who have made significant contributions to the subsequent development of prestressed concrete include: G. Magnel of Belgium (Ref. 18), Y. Guyon of France (Ref. 19), P. W. Abeles of England (Ref. 14 and 15), F. Leonhardt of Germany (Ref. 110), V. V. Mikhailov of Russia, and T. Y. Lin of America (Ref. 11 and 111).
REFERENCES
115
F. V. Emperger is credited with being the first to use the concept of partial prestressing when, in 1939, he suggested that pretensioned wires be added to conventionally designed nontensioned reinforcement to reduce the extent of cracking. This idea was further developed by Abeles who, in 1940, suggested the use of nontensioned highstrength steel together with pretensioned or posttensioned tendons. Apart from the recommendation that solely highstrength steel be used, this proposal also differed from Emperger’s in that a prestressing force of a definite designed magnitude be applied. The acceptance of partial prestressing was at first retarded, perhaps by the opposition to this concept by Freyssinet (Ref. 112), who stated (Ref. 113) “... there is no halfway house between reinforced and prestressed concrete; any intermediate systems are equally bad as reinforced or prestressed structures, and are of no interest.” However, partial prestressing has made enormous progress through the efforts and contributions of many eminent engineers and researchers, and is commonly used today.
1.7
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
REFERENCES
Lin, T. Y., and Burns, N. H., Design of Prestressed Concrete Structures, 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1981. Naaman, A. E., Prestressed Concrete Analysis and Design: Fundamentals, McGrawHill Book Company, New York, 1982. Abeles, P. W., The Principles and Practice of Prestressed Concrete, Crosby Lockwood & Son, London, 1949. Abeles, P. W., An Introduction to Prestressed Concrete, Volume I, Concrete Publications Ltd., London, 1964. Abeles, P. W., An Introduction to Prestressed Concrete, Volume II, Concrete Publications Ltd., London, 1966. Collins, M. P., and Mitchell, D., Prestressed Concrete Structures, PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1991. Khachaturian, N., and Gurfinkel, G., Prestressed Concrete, McGrawHill Book Company, New York, 1969. Magnel, G., Prestressed Concrete, Concrete Publications Ltd., London, 1948. Guyon, Y., Prestressed Concrete, John Wiley & Sons, New York, Vol. 1, 1953, Vol. 2, 1960.
110 Leonhardt, F., Prestressed Concrete Design and Construction, English translation, Wilhelm Ernst und Sohn, Berlin 1964, (1st ed., 1955, 2nd ed., 1962 in German). 111 Lin, T. Y., Design of Prestressed Concrete Structures, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1955. 112 Cohn, M. Z., “Some Problems of Partial Prestressing,” Partial Prestressing, from Theory to Practice. Volume I: Survey Reports, Edited by M. Z. Cohn, Chapter 2, NATO ASI Series, Series E, No. 113a, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht, 1986, pp. 1563. 113 Freyssinet, E., “Prestressed Concrete, Principles and Applications,” ICE Proceedings, Vol. 33, No. 4, February 1950, pp. 331380.
high anchor zone stresses and high flexural stresses which occur at transfer. provided the concrete is properly cured. 2. It is common practice to base the design of reinforced concrete structures on the 28day strength. as well as nonprestressed ordinary reinforcing steel. Ref. 26). and between 60 and 75% after 3 and 7 days. and to ignore any subsequent strength increase. 25) for a typical concrete using ordinary Portland cement. e. The values listed in Table 21 for the characteristic strength at various other ages are suggested by TMH7 (Ref. The compressive strength can be obtained from standard tests using either cubes or cylinders loaded to failure (Refs. these will be dealt with in the appropriate Chapters. the assumption of a uniaxial stress condition can very often be justified. high stresses may be induced prior to 28 days. 2. e. divided by the cross sectional area of the specimen yields the compressive strength. • Shape and size of the specimens: Standard testing procedures which use 150 mm diameter and 300 mm long cylinders are also used to determine the compressive strength (Ref. 22). Before considering the behaviour of the materials in combination. This topic is extensively covered in many textbooks. It is extremely important to note that the compressive strength must be determined in strict compliance with the requirements of a standard testing procedure because the measured results depend on the test method and also because it is primarily used as an index of strength in its application in structural design. respectively (Ref. it is essential that the designer is familiar with the relevant properties of each of these materials. Concrete technology is not considered here.g.CONCRETE 21 2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES Prestressed concrete combines high quality concrete and prestressed steel. 21 (Ref. the following external factors influence the compressive strength: • Age of concrete: The compressive strength increases with time.1 Compressive strength The single most important mechanical property of concrete is its compressive strength because it is extensively used in quality control and because many other mechanical properties required for the design of prestressed concrete structures can be expressed in terms of this property. in prestressed concrete. The standard specification generally used in South Africa is SABS 863 (Ref.1 CONCRETE The mechanical properties of concrete under uniaxial stress are considered in this Section.g. the strength will generally vary between 33 and 50%. the time dependence of strength must properly be accounted for in the design. However. The development of strength with time is shown in Fig. 27) for use in structural design. 24). 22 to 24). where it may be seen that the rate at which the strength develops reduces with time. For such cases. This topic is extensively covered in the technical literature and this chapter summarizes the most important properties required for the design of prestressed concrete structures. As a percentage of the value at 28 days. Although concrete is usually subjected to a three dimensional state of stress in practical structures. the magnitude of the compressive strength obtained from cylinders differs from .1. The maximum load sustained during such a test. which cover the composition of the concrete. 21. according to which 150 mm cubes are loaded to failure in a calibrated testing machine at a loading rate of approximately 15 MPa/min. Apart from intrinsic factors. Unfortunately. Where the effects of a multiaxial state of stress are significant.
0 40.5 16.0 30.0 30. This trend is clearly demonstrated in Table 22 and Fig. which show the relationship between cylinder strength and cube strength.0 1 year 25. 23 and 24 for cubes and cylinders. 28). 25). It should be noted that the data shown in Fig.0 Characteristic strength at other ages (MPa) 2 months 22.5 3 months 23.0 58.0 34.5 52.0 46. Research has also shown that the ratio of cylinder strength to cube strength tends to increase as the strength of the concrete increases (Ref.0 35.0 27.0 36. which is the value normally used. The size of the specimen also has an influence on the magnitude of the measured compressive strength as shown in Figs. the following seems reasonable for the size of specimens normally tested. The cylinder strength is generally between 70 and 90% of the cube strength.0 56. Note that the data shown in Fig.22 MATERIAL PROPERTIES 40 Compressive strength (MPa) 30 20 10 0 1 day 7 days 28 days 3 months 1 year 5 years Age of concrete (Log scale) Figure 21: Increase of concrete strength with time. The testing machine provides some lateral restraint to the specimen because of . 22 applies to concretes with very high strength.0 7 days 13. respectively.0 6 months 24.0 27. 22. 27).0 Table 21: Grade values obtained from tests on cubes.0 50. Characteristic strength of concrete (ordinary Portland cement) at other ages (Ref.0 42.0 31. and an average value of 80% is widely accepted.0 44. This directly stems from the fact that the measured compressive strength is dependent on the shape of the specimen. 24 was obtained from cylinders with a height to diameter ratio of 2.0 35. Among the various reasons put forward to explain the trend that the strength of a specimen increases as it becomes smaller. Typical curve for concrete made with ordinary Portland cement (Ref.5 19. also referred to as high performance concrete.0 48.0 29.5 32. Characteristic strength f cu (MPa) 28 days 20 25 30 40 50 20. The general trend is that larger specimens yield lower compressive strengths.0 25.0 54.
Ref. friction which develops between the platen plates and the contact faces of the specimen. similar to the weakest link in a chain. 211) fc¢ = 0. The reduction of strength caused by the longterm loading is usually ignored in design because the unconservative consequence of this assumption is more than offset by the usual design practice according to which a design is based on the 28 day strength. 21). increase the strength of the concrete. . is based on the assumption that failure is caused by the propagation of small cracks and that the largest crack is responsible for complete failure and fracture. smaller specimens tend to be stronger than larger specimens. 212). 22).8 fcu 50 70 90 110 Cube strength fcu (MPa) 100 mm cubes 130 Figure 22: Influence of the specimen shape on the compressive strength (Ref. the measured compressive strength can be increased by up to 20%. which ignores the significant timedependent strength increase. 210) Smeplas (Ref. Since the stress field induced by the restraint tends to confine the concrete and hence. where its effect will be limited to the end regions. 213). the compressive strength can be reduced by as much as 20% if the load is applied over several months (Ref. On the other hand. For smaller specimens. Since the probability that such a flaw. the compressive strength of a larger specimen tends to be smaller than that of a smaller specimen (see Ref. is contained in a specimen can reasonably be expected to increase with specimen size.CONCRETE 23 Table 22: Relationship between cylinder and cube strengths (Ref. which will induce failure at a given load. 29). • Applied load rate: By increasing the loading rate beyond that prescribed by a standard test (15 MPa/min. 12 15 20 25 30 37 40 50 50 60 60 70 70 85 80 95 Cylinder strength (MPa) 150 × 300 mm Cube strength (MPa) 150 mm cubes Cylinder strength fc¢ (MPa) 150 ´ 300 mm cylinders 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 30 Held (Ref. which should be mentioned. An alternative explanation for this trend. the restraint will be effective over a larger portion of its total height than will be the case for larger specimens.
Instead. this definition can be expressed as follows: f cu = f m .164 s . (21) . a statistical approach is followed by most of the modern design codes of practice (Refs. which is defined as the strength below which not more than 5% of the measured results may be expected to fall. If it is assumed that the measured values of strength are normally distributed. 215). It is therefore not a practical approach to specify a single precise value for compressive strength. even if the specimens are made under strict laboratory control. 27 and 214) whereby the strength is specified in terms of the characteristic strength f cu . 215).24 MATERIAL PROPERTIES 110 Akroyd Harman Neville Relative strength (%) 105 100 95 90 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Nominal cube size (mm) Figure 23: Influence of the cube size on the compressive strength (Ref. Experience has shown that the measured compressive strengths obtained from specimens taken from the same mix can show a significant variation. Nominal diameter of cylinder (mm) 0 110 105 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Relative strength (%) 100 95 90 85 80 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Nominal diameter of cylinder (in) 35 40 Figure 24: Influence of the cylinder size on the compressive strength (Ref.
. namely aggregate and the hardened cement paste. with increasing load. 213) together with the stressstrain curves for the constituent materials of the concrete. 25 (Ref. proper information must be obtained from the supplier of the system because this value depends on the particular system being used and can be higher than the values listed in Table 23.1. Figure 26 shows typical experimentally obtained stressstrain curves for normal weight concrete having strengths which vary from 20 to approximately 85 MPa. not only with regard to compressive strength but also with regard to increased tensile strength. The nonlinear response of the concrete is caused by microcracking which occurs at the aggregatepaste interfaces (Ref. The slope of this portion also tends to increase with an increase in compressive strength (this property is more expansively covered under Section 2.1. increased modulus of elasticity and reduced creep. These cracks are often only visible close to failure when considerable lateral expansion occurs. When specifying the minimum compressive strength of the concrete at transfer in the case of posttensioning. The minimum characteristic strengths recommended by SABS 0100 (Ref. Each curve is characterized by an ascending portion followed by a descending portion.CONCRETE 25 where fcu = characteristic compressive strength fm = mean compressive strength s = standard deviation Note that fm and s are obtained from test results.3). At 28 days (f cu ) Pretensioned Posttensioned 40 MPa 30 MPa At transfer Bonded Unbonded 25 MPa 18 MPa 2. whereas the concrete has a nonlinear response over the entire load spectrum. 50. 40. A comparison of these curves reveal the following: • The stressstrain response of the aggregate and the paste are both more or less linear up to failure. 214). When specifying concrete it is important to bear in mind the strength requirements at transfer. 214) for prestressed concrete are shown in Table 23. 216). while strengths of up to 70 MPa can be used in precast pretensioned applications. High strength concrete is usually specified for prestressed concrete because of its improved performance. The ascending portion is initially almost straight.2 Stressstrain relationship The stressstrain behaviour of concrete loaded in uniaxial compression is shown in Fig. Table 23: Minimum recommended characteristic strength according to SABS 0100 (Ref. 27) require that only concrete with a characteristic strength of 30. and hence progressively more nonlinear. while both SABS 0100 and TMH7 (Ref. • The stressstrain response of the concrete falls between that of the aggregate and that of the cement paste. Concrete strengths which range between 30 to 60 MPa are usually specified for prestressed concrete in South Africa. which can be the governing consideration. or 60 MPa be used. becoming flatter.
The transition from the ascending portion to the descending portion becomes sharper as the compressive strength increases. This reduction of the ultimate strain. 217).004 Figure 26: Typical stressstrain curves for normal weight concrete in uniaxial compression (Ref.002 Strain ec 0.002 for normal strength concrete. which separates the ascending and descending portions of the curve. The slope of the descending portion of the stressstrain curve as well as the strain corresponding to failure of the specimen (often referred to as the ultimate strain) both change with a change in compressive strength. The maximum stress. while indications are that it increases with an increase in strength. It should be noted (ksi) 50 . indicates that the uniaxial compressive behaviour of concrete becomes more brittle with increasing strength. 90 80 Compressive stress fc (MPa) 12 10 8 70 60 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.26 MATERIAL PROPERTIES Coarse aggregate rock Concrete Stress fc Cracks at interface of aggregate Hardened cement paste Strain ec Figure 25: Uniaxial stressstrain response of concrete and its constituent materials (Ref.003 6 4 2 0 0. particularly in the case of high strength concrete. once again.001 0. the slope becoming steeper and the ultimate strain becoming smaller with an increase in strength. The strain corresponding to this stress is about 0. 213). thus indicating that a more brittle behaviour is associated with stronger concrete. is defined as the compressive strength.
27 (Ref. 2.1. In the case of a linear elastic material.001 0. 218). • the slope of the ascending portion is decreased.001 per min.007 Figure 27: Influence of the loading rate on the stressstrain curve (Ref.1). the initial portion of the ascending branch may be seen to be approximately linear. This feature makes it possible to approximate concrete as a linear elastic (22) . 0 0 0.001 per day Cylinder strength fc¢ = 20. the relationship between the applied stress and the resulting strain can be expressed as follows: f = Ee where f = applied stress e = resulting strain E = modulus of elasticity (Young’s modulus) of the material Inspection of Fig.003 0. 0. The influence of load rate on the compressive stressstrain behaviour of concrete is shown in Fig. and • the descending portion becomes flatter. It is important to note that the stressstrain curve for concrete in uniaxial compression differs from that in flexure because the stress distribution in the specimens are different. special experimental techniques need to be resorted to for determining this portion of the curve.CONCRETE 27 that it is very difficult to experimentally determine the descending portion of the stressstrain curve because the failure mode of a compressive specimen is brittle. However. Ratio of concrete stress to cylinder strength fc / fc¢ 1.7 MPa (3000 psi) at 56 days 0.002 0.001 per hr.3 Modulus of elasticity A material is defined as being elastic when the deformations induced by an applied load is completely recovered immediately after the load is removed.1. 218). 26 clearly shows that the stressstrain relationship for concrete is nonlinear over the complete load spectrum. which reveals the following trends for a decrease in load rate: • the strength decreases (see Section 2.75 0. This aspect is covered in Chapter 4. Consequently.00 Strain rate 0.50 0.006 0.005 0.25 0.004 Concrete strain ec 0.001 per 100 days 0.
28: • The initial tangent modulus Eci is defined as the slope of the tangent to the stressstrain curve at its origin. The secant modulus is commonly used in prestressed concrete design.6 ± 0. • The secant modulus Ec is defined as the slope of a straight line drawn from the origin of the stressstrain curve to a specified point P on the curve. Dynamic methods for determining the modulus of elasticity have been developed in recent years. • The slope of a tangent at an arbitrary point P is defined as the tangent modulus Ect at that point. These procedures include both static methods (Ref. The modulus of elasticity of concrete can be defined in various ways because linear elasticity is an approximation of the actual nonlinear behaviour in this range.4 MPa/min.28 MATERIAL PROPERTIES material at service load levels. 214) suggests that the following expression can be used to obtain an estimate of the static secant modulus Ec from the dynamic modulus Ecq to within 5 GPa: Ec = 1. 219) and dynamic methods (Ref. This test defines the static modulus as the secant modulus corresponding to a stress equal to a third of the strength. 220).25 Ecq − 19 GPa (23) . whereas the initial tangent modulus and the tangent modulus are not commonly used in daytoday design. 219) requires that the static modulus be determined from tests on standard 150 mm diameter by 300 mm high cylinders loaded at a rate of 0. In these methods the magnitude of the stresses induced by the dynamically applied loads are very small so that the dynamic modulus is often taken as an approximation of the initial tangent modulus. SABS 0100 (Ref. The modulus of elasticity of concrete must be determined in strict accordance with standard testing procedures which have been developed for this purpose. and is often used as a parameter for the mathematical description of the stressstrain curve. The testing procedure prescribed by BS 1881: Part 121 (Ref. Three possible definitions are presented in Fig. The effects of any creep are also negligible in these tests because loads are rapidly applied and released. because the magnitude of the induced stress generally falls within this quasilinear range of the stressstrain curve. Eci 1 Stress fc 1 P Ect Ec 1 Eci = Initial tangent modulus Ect = Tangent modulus at point P Ec = Secant modulus Strain εc Figure 28: Definitions of the modulus of elasticity of concrete.
. Other factors which can also have an influence are mix proportions. has led to many attempts being made to correlate the modulus of elasticity with the compressive strength.CONCRETE 29 55 50 Dolomite (Olifantsfontein) Dolerite (Ngagane) (Newcastle) Andesite (Eikenhof) (Jhb) Greywacke (Malmesbury shale) (Peninsula) Wits Quartzite (Vlakfontein) Granite (Jukskei) (Midrand) Static elastic modulus (GPa) 45 40 35 30 25 20 20 30 40 50 60 65 Cube strength (MPa) Siltstone (Leach & Brown) (Ladysmith) Figure 29: Relationship between static modulus of elasticity and compressive strength for ages from three days to 28 days (Ref.2 f cu GPa where E c = static secant modulus of elasticity K o = a constant closely related to the modulus of elasticity of the aggregate f cu = characteristic cube strength at 28 days. age of the concrete and moisture condition. the values in Table 24 should be multiplied by (r/2300) 2 . The values for the static modulus of elasticity recommended by SABS 0100 (Ref. 29 (Ref. 222) clearly illustrate this point. where r is the density of the concrete in kg/m 3 . the modulus of elasticity increases with an increase in compressive strength. The relationships between the modulus of elasticity and the compressive strength for various South African aggregates shown in Fig. SABS 0100 also suggests that the following expression may be used to estimate the magnitude of the static modulus from the 28day cube strength: E c = Ko + 0. with a density of between 1400 to 2300 kg/m 3 . shape of the aggregate. In the case of lowdensity aggregate concrete. This approach has often been questioned and recent research (Refs. SABS 0100 suggests that Ko can be taken as 20 GPa for normal weight concrete. for a given strength. The type of aggregate used for the concrete appears to be the most important factor influencing the modulus of elasticity. This finding. 222). because they show that. the modulus of elasticity varies widely depending on the aggregate type used. in MPa (24) When the properties of the aggregate are unknown. 214) for concrete using normaldensity aggregates are given in Table 24. For a given aggregate type. together with the fact that the compressive strength is often the only property of the concrete available at the design stage. 221 and 222) has shown that no single expression can be used to relate the modulus of elasticity to the compressive strength only.
33 26 . t = characteristic strength at time t fcu. t / fcu. These references list values of Ko and a for a fairly wide range of South African aggregates. It should be kept in mind that the expressions given above yield results which. Static modulus E c (GPa) Mean value 25 26 28 31 34 36 Typical range 21 . it should be pointed out that some researchers question the validity of this assumption.6 fcu.39 32 . f cu (MPa) 20 25 30 40 50 60 The recommended values for the static modulus Ec given in Table 24 are the same as those given by TMH7 (Ref. However.4 Tensile strength The stressstrain diagram given in Figure 210 (Ref. where Ko and a are coefficients depending on the aggregate type. (25) 2. t = modulus of elasticity at time t Ec. It is therefore recommended that the modulus of elasticity should be determined from tests on concrete specimens made from the actual aggregates to be used in cases where structural deformations are important.40 30 . References 222 to 224 recommend that more accurate estimates of Ec can be obtained from E c = K o + a f cu .4 + 0. 28 = characteristic strength at 28 days t = time in days.40 33 . 214) recommends the following expression for estimating modulus of elasticity at any time t ≥ 3 days: fcu.30 23 . t Ec. t = Ec. .48 38 . at best.1.210 MATERIAL PROPERTIES Table 24: Modulus of elasticity of concrete (Ref.43 35 . This diagram also shows that the tensile strength of concrete is considerably smaller than its compressive strength.50 Characteristic cube strength. 28 0. 28 where Ec.42 Dynamic modulus E cq (GPa) Mean value 35 36 38 40 42 44 Typical range 31 . obtained from Table 24 fcu. and shows that the response is almost linear up to cracking. a reasonable approach to be followed in design would be to consider a range of values (as given in Table 24) which would bracket the expected deformations. must be viewed as being approximate. SABS 0100 (Ref. 28 = modulus of elasticity at 28 days.45 36 . ≥ 3 days The ratio fcu.29 22 . 214). 225) was obtained from a direct tensile test.36 28 . It is generally assumed that the modulus of elasticity in tension before cracking is the same as in compression. 28 can be estimated from Table 21. Where such tests are not feasible. 27).
9 MPa max. and is given by: f ct = where 2P p LD (26) P = the measured compression force at splitting L = length of cylinder (300 mm) D = diameter of cylinder (150 mm) P L D fct fct P Figure 211: Split cylinder (indirect tension) test. also known as the indirect tension test. the resulting horizontal stress across the vertical diameter will be found to be uniformly distributed over most of the depth of the cylinder.04 0.03 0. 211.CONCRETE 211 4 83 mm gauge ecr = 0. is loaded across a diameter until failure occurs (see Fig.12 ´ 103 Concrete stress fc (MPa) 3 D 13 mm notch 76 mm Specimen: 76 ´ 19 ´ 305 mm fc¢ = 43. Two methods are commonly used: The split cylinder test and the modulus of rupture test. is described in BS 1881: Part 117 (Ref. If it is assumed that the cylinder behaves as an elastic body. 225). 228)) and consists of loading a simply supported beam of square cross section to failure. The split cylinder test. 211).01 0. Standard testing procedures from which the tensile strength may be indirectly measured have been developed because of the practical difficulties associated with the direct tensile test. The magnitude of this stress at splitting is defined as the splitting tensile strength f ct . 226).02 0. According to this test a 150 mm diameter cylinder. aggregate size = 10 mm water cured 28 days 2 1 0 0 0.06 0. The dimensions of the beam cross section are 100 × 100 mm (or 150 × 150 mm) while the span length . 227) (also BS 1881: Part 118 (Ref. as shown in Fig.05 0.07 Elongation D (mm) Figure 210: Stressstrain response of concrete in uniaxial tension (Ref. 300 mm long. The modulus of rupture test is described by SABS Method 864 (Ref.
229).212 MATERIAL PROPERTIES is 300 mm (or 450 mm). calculated on the basis of ordinary beam theory. 212).65 times the splitting tensile strength. Figure 213 (Ref. . is defined as the modulus of rupture fr and is given by: fr = where P = the measured load at failure b = width of the section (100 or 150 mm) h = height of the section (100 or 150 mm) L = span (300 or 450 mm) PL b h2 (27) P/2 P/2 h fr L/3 L/3 L=3h Figure 212: Modulus of rupture test. The flexural tensile stress in the bottom fibre of the section at failure. b L/3 The modulus of rupture will overestimate the actual flexural tensile strength of concrete and should be viewed as a hypothetical strength to be used as a comparative measure for practical purposes only. 229) shows typical relationships between the various measures of tensile strength and the compressive strength. 8 Modulus of rupture fr Tensile strength (MPa) 6 Split cylinder fct 4 Direct tension 2 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Compressive strength fcu (MPa) Figure 213: Relationships between tensile and compressive strengths of concrete (Ref. From this figure it may be seen that the tensile strength can be related to the compressive strength and that the modulus of rupture is approximately 1. The load is applied at the thirdspan points (see Fig.
5 √c′ MPa (29) It is important to note that.1. Where these properties are required for design they are included as allowable stresses. Equations 28 and 29 should also be used with care because it appears that there is no simple relationship between tensile and compressive strength. 214) and TMH7 (Ref.5 Timedependent behaviour Definitions When concrete is subjected to a sustained stress.Basic creep. As such. the resulting strain can be divided into the following three components: • Instantaneous elastic strain: When the stress is applied to the concrete it causes an instantaneous elastic strain. 28) gives the following expression for the splitting tensile strength fct : f fct = 0. mix proportions and properties of the aggregate do not affect these properties to the same degree (see Ref. In order to use the mass of experimental data obtained on the basis of the assumption that creep and shrinkage are independent. it is important to point out that. curing conditions. which is the component of creep which occurs under conditions where there is no moisture exchange with the ambient medium.1.63 √c′ MPa where fc′ = Cylinder strength in MPa (28) Naaman (Ref.3): εc = where fc = applied stress εc = instantaneous elastic strain Ec = Young’s modulus of the concrete fc Ec (210) • Shrinkage strain: In the absence of temperature variations. 231) suggests that creep should be defined as the timedependent strain which takes place in excess of shrinkage. The ACI code (Ref. . care should be exercised to ensure that they are properly used in design. • Creep strain: Creep is defined as the component of the timedependent strain which is dependent on the applied stress. age. 27) do not give explicit characteristic values for the splitting tensile strength nor the modulus of rupture. shrinkage is defined as that part of the timedependent strain which is independent of stress. 230) suggests the following relationship between modulus of rupture fr and cylinder strength: f fr = 0. strictly speaking. which can be expressed as follows (see Section 2.CONCRETE 213 SABS 0100 (Ref. the reason being that factors such as watercement ratio. Shrinkage therefore corresponds to the timedependent strain which occurs in the absence of stress. it is not correct because it implies that creep and shrinkage are independent phenomena which are additive when they occur simultaneously (Ref. the effect of shrinkage on creep being to increase its magnitude. 21). The consequence of this definition is that the total creep must be considered as consisting of two components: . It is well known that creep and shrinkage are not independent. these quantities represent different measures of tensile strength. because the splitting tensile strength and the modulus of rupture differ not only from each other but also from the direct tensile strength. Neville (Ref. 231). Although this definition has been used for many years. 2.
214 MATERIAL PROPERTIES Strain 1 Shrinkage from t0 t0 Age t (a) Shrinkage of an unloaded companion specimen 2 Strain Creep on the basis of additive definition Shrinkage of an unloaded specimen Nominal elastic strain 1 True elastic strain t0 Time (t .t0) (d) Change in strain of a loaded and drying specimen 3 Strain 1 Figure 214: Definition of timedependent deformations of concrete (Ref. .t0) (b) Change in strain of a loaded and drying specimen Strain 3 Creep Nominal elastic strain t0 Time (t . 231).t0) (c) Creep of a loaded specimen in hygral equilibrium with the ambient medium Drying creep Total creep Basic creep 2 Shrinkage Nominal elastic strain t0 Time (t .
Factors which Influence Creep and Shrinkage Creep and shrinkage of concrete can be ascribed to the movement of water within the crystalline structure of the cement paste and loss of water to the surrounding environment by evaporation. depending on the specific admixture and cement used. and because of more and larger capillary pores. an increase in the aggregatecement ratio will lead to lower values of creep and shrinkage. is independent of . in turn. 21). and that fineness of grinding has a negligible effect on shrinkage. Reference 21 suggests that the type of cement affects shrinkage mainly through variations in C 3 A content. A larger value of this ratio represents a thicker (larger) member which has a longer diffusion path for moisture loss.CONCRETE 215 . which account for the state of the environment to which the concrete is exposed. Strictly speaking. The use of more porous aggregates leads to increased creep and shrinkage. age at loading and time under load (Ref. i. with creep approaching the value of basic creep for very large members. Aggregates which have higher values for the modulus of elasticity can offer greater restraint to potential creep and shrinkage of the paste and therefore tend to yield concrete which creeps and shrinks less. It is important to note that the use of certain admixtures can significantly increase the creep and shrinkage of concrete. As far as creep is concerned. as well as a number of other factors which include exposure conditions. partially because the evaporable water is increased. it should be noted that aggregates with higher porosity tend to have a lower modulus of elasticity.e. as the member becomes larger. creep should be determined on the basis of the elastic strain at the time under consideration and not the time at which the load is applied. which is the component of creep influenced by the drying process. depends on the composition and fineness of grinding (Ref. lowheat and Portlandpozzolana.e. except when the cement is extremely fine or extremely coarse. as such. Although both methods can be used. rapidhardening. in which the various components of strain are shown for a concrete specimen subjected to a sustained lowlevel compressive stress (i. However. These definitions are illustrated in Fig. 232): • Watercement ratio: Both creep and shrinkage are increased by an increase in the watercement ratio.Drying creep. A partial list of these factors includes (Ref. it is most probably only drying creep which is affected by a variation of the size and shape of the member because basic creep remains unaffected by loss of moisture from the concrete and. less than 40% of its shortterm compressive strength). Portland blastfurnace. • Aggregate: Since the seat of creep and shrinkage is to be found in the cement paste. The magnitude of the creep of concrete made with the following cements occurs in an increasing order: highaluminium. The factors which influence creep and shrinkage can be grouped into two broad categories: Intrinsic factors. It appears that concretes containing Portland blast furnace cement (PBFC) and rapidhardening Portland cement generally tend to shrink more than concrete containing ordinary Portland cement. the change in elastic strain is not accounted for under normal circumstances because the difference is usually small and because this approach is more convenient for structural analysis. Hence. 21). 214. which deal with the actual composition of the concrete as well as the influence of stress. the aggregate tends to restrain the deformation of the paste induced by creep and shrinkage. ordinary Portland. • Admixtures: The effect of admixtures on creep and shrinkage appears to be highly variable. Consequently. possibly because an increase of porosity can facilitate moisture transfer within the concrete. • Cement type: The influence of the type of cement on creep appears to be related in part to its effect on the rate of strength development which. • Member size and shape: The volume to exposed surface ratio of a member can be used as a general parameter for describing the influence of the size and shape of the member on creep and shrinkage. and extrinsic factors. creep and shrinkage reduce with an increase in the volume to surface ratio. It should be noted that the elastic strain of the concrete reduces with time because the elastic modulus increases with age.
216 MATERIAL PROPERTIES the size and shape of the member. 40. For most practical structures. This is confirmed by the fact that the effect of relative humidity is much smaller if the concrete has already reached hygral equilibrium before loading and. . respectively. Evidently shrinkage is affected to a greater extent than creep by the size and shape of the member. furthermore. Tests by England and Ross (Ref. Evidently creep continues for a very long time. • Magnitude of the applied stress: Creep strains are approximately proportional to the magnitude of the applied sustained stress for values less than 50% of the cube strength. once again. 60 and 80% of the final creep develops during the first month. It also appears that the creep of specimens heated just prior to loading is more significantly influenced by temperature than that of specimens cured at the test temperature. 215. It appears that it is not the relative humidity which is the influencing factor with regard to creep. SABS 0100 (Ref. 214) suggests that. but rather the process of drying while under load. For these reasons. creep may therefore be considered to be linearly related to stress within the service load range. • Age of loading: The age of the concrete when it is loaded has an important influence on the magnitude of creep. 231). Creep: behaviour and prediction The development of creep with time is shown in Fig. but measurable. creep has been found to correlate well with maturity. At 100% relative humidity the concrete absorbs water and swells slightly (as opposed to shrinking). which shows that most of the creep develops within a fairly short time period after the application of the load. 233) indicated that the effect of temperature on creep is greater in the range of 2060°C than in the range 100140°C. creep rates have been reported (Ref. It should be noted that the final creep is defined by SABS 0100 as the creep strain after 30 years. increases with temperature (Ref. the effect being to increase creep with earlier ages at loading. under conditions of constant relative humidity. and even at ages of the order of 30 years small. that creep is strongly dependent on relative humidity when the concrete is allowed to dry while under load. Beyond this point creep reduces with temperature up to about 120°C after which it. because of improved hydration in the latter case. 21). Shrinkage is also increased at higher temperatures during drying. the first 6 months and the first 30 months under load. The manner in which the age at loading influences creep seems to be related to the manner in which it affects the development of strength and the degree of hydration. • Relative humidity: Both creep and shrinkage are increased with a decrease of the ambient relative humidity. 1500 Specimen under constant load Strain (106) Load removed 1000 Creep 500 Strain on application of load 0 0 50 100 150 Time since application of load (days) 200 Instantaneous recovery Creep recovery Residual deformation Figure 215: Creep and creep recovery of concrete (Ref. 234). • Temperature: Creep is apparently not a monotonic function of temperature and passes a maximum in the vicinity of 50°C.
which tends to a finite value. as a function of time t t = time. which explicitly include a greater number of factors that influence creep.0 3.0 600 Inland Coastal area 30 Year creep coefficient for an effective section thickness (mm) of Airconditioned area (offices) Age of loading (days) 2. the creep strain is given by e cr (t ) = f (t ) e c where e cr (t) = creep strain. which is normally smaller than the instantaneous elastic strain associated with the application of the stress.5 20 30 40 50 60 70 1 3 7 28 90 365 80 90 100 Ambient relative humidity (%)* * Relevant values for outdoor exposure may be determined through the Weather Bureau.5 2.0 2. 150 4.5 1.0 0. 216.5 3. the longtime value of f(t) can vary between 1.5 300 3.0 1. . 214). are given in Ref.0 1.0 1. The 30 year creep coefficient f 30 can be obtained from Fig.0 0. is defined as twice the crosssectional area of the member divided by the exposed perimeter.0 0. This theory leads to the conclusion that creep strain is linearly related to the instantaneous elastic strain under constant sustained stress and under constant environmental conditions. The magnitude of the creep recovery is usually smaller than that of the creep at the time of removal of the stress.5 2. 27 and Refs.5 1. age of concrete at loading and section thickness on the creep coefficient (Ref. 214). 215. the age at loading and the effective thickness of the section which. given by Equation (210) f(t) = creep coefficient.CONCRETE 217 Removal of the sustained stress is accompanied by an instantaneous strain recovery in the concrete. the instantaneous recovery is followed by a timedependent recovery of strain.5. for the purposes of Fig. An exception occurs if the concrete is old when the stress is applied. Department of Environmental Affairs Figure 216: Effects of relative humidity. 235 through 237. 216. in which case the creep recovery can have the same magnitude as the creep.5 1. Using this approach.5 2. As shown in Fig. termed creep recovery. as a function of time t e c = instantaneous elastic strain. which is taken from SABS 0100 (Ref. measured from the time at which the sustained stress is applied t 0 (211) For most practical cases. This figure gives f 30 as a function of the ambient relative humidity.5 2. Linear creep theory can be applied to most practical structures within the service load range. More comprehensive procedures for determining f(t).5 and 3.
216). SABS 0100 (Ref. referred to by SABS 0100 above. Figure 218 gives the shrinkage strain after 6 months and after 30 years as function of the ambient relative humidity and the effective section thickness (defined as for creep. great care should be exercised to determine exactly which value of Ec should be used. while the concrete may not shrink at all if it always remains wet. More comprehensive procedures for determining the shrinkage strain are presented in Ref. as a function of time t fc = sustained concrete stress (212) The specific creep can be expressed in terms of the creep coefficient by equating Equations (211) and (212). These procedures explicitly include a greater number of factors which influence shrinkage. 234 that for concrete stored in air at 50% relative humidity and at 21°C (70°F) there are indications that creep and shrinkage develop at similar rates. as recommended by SABS 0100. in turn. 214 and 237) while others base it on the magnitude at 28 days (Refs. the rate of shrinkage reduces with time.0002 and 0. Note that the total shrinkage. 214) suggests that 50% and 75% of the total shrinkage takes place within the first month and within the first six months after the transfer of prestress. For the types of concrete generally used for prestressed concrete. For the purpose of estimating prestressing losses. It is therefore clear that f(t) is implicitly defined in terms of Ec. If the concrete has a water content which differs from this value. . excludes the shrinkage which takes place before transfer. 217 where it may be seen that. (210). is dependent on the magnitude of the modulus of elasticity Ec of the concrete (see Eq. 218 must be adjusted in proportion to the water content. These values apply to concrete with an original water content of 190 l/m 3 . as in the case of creep. 210). 235 through 237. 235 and 236). It is reported in Ref. 27 and Refs. Thus C (t ) f c = f (t ) e c = so that f (t ) f c Ec (213) C (t ) = f (t ) Ec Shrinkage: behaviour and prediction The development of shrinkage with time is shown in Fig. see Fig. and that a measurable rate can still be obtained after 20 years. it appears reasonable to take it as the design life of the structure. then the shrinkage obtained from Fig. The rate at which shrinkage develops depends on the conditions of drying: Most of the shrinkage can take place within a period of 3 months under adverse drying conditions. the magnitude of the shrinkage strain will normally vary between 0. respectively.218 MATERIAL PROPERTIES Equation 211 expresses the creep strain as a linear function of the instantaneous elastic strain which. This observation also emphasizes the fact that different procedures should never be combined to estimate creep strains. Although the time period associated with the total shrinkage is usually illdefined.0006. Because some of the procedures for estimating f(t) base the calculation of the instantaneous elastic strain on the magnitude of Ec at the time at which the concrete is loaded (Refs. and using Eq. The creep strain is often expressed in terms of specific creep (defined as the creep strain per unit stress) as follows: e cr (t ) = C (t ) f c where C (t) = specific creep. but which lies within the range 150 to 230 l/m 3 .
5 0 15 10 5 0 200 150 150 100 50 0 150 Shrinkage 0 Swelling 0 –200 –200 –200 –100 –100 –100 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Ambient relative humidity (%) Figure 218: Drying shrinkage for normal density concrete (Ref. 214). .CONCRETE 219 1200 Relative humidity: 50% 800 70% Shrinkage ´ 106 400 Time reckoned since end of wet curing at the age of 28 days 0 100% .0 12. 21).0 200 125 100 75 100 100 50 0 50 50 25 30 62. Airconditioned area (offices) 150 300 Coastal area Inland 30 Year shrinkage ´ 106 for an effective section thickness (mm) of 600 300 6 Month shrinkage ´ 106 for an effective section thickness (mm) of 150 200 175 300 100 600 45 40 35 400 350 300 250 350 300 250 200 250 87.5 25.0 20 37.5 25 50.400 10 28 Days 90 1 2 5 Years Time (log scale) 10 20 30 Figure 217: Development of shrinkage with time for concretes stored at different relative humidities (Ref.5 150 75.
2. SABS 0100 (Ref. 28). SABS 0100 (Ref.5 to 11. Poisson’s ratio ranges between 0. It appears that. Poisson’s ratio is defined as the ratio of the perpendicular strain to the strain in the direction of the load. strains develop both in the direction of the applied load and in a direction perpendicular to it. Hence. which consists of hotrolled mild steel bars. hotrolled high yield stress bars. the strength of concrete can be significantly reduced. There is some evidence that Ec at 400°C can be as low as onethird the value at 20°C. .220 MATERIAL PROPERTIES 2. as supplementary reinforcement for crack control and. However. coldworked high yield stress bars or welded steel fabric. to satisfy strength requirements. The nonprestressed reinforcement is normally included as shear reinforcement. which consists of high strength wires. • prestressed reinforcement. while indications are that the stiffness can be reduced at temperatures as low as 100°C (Ref.8 Fatigue In prestressed concrete members failure of the concrete in fatigue is not very common because the stress range and number of load cycles to which such members are subjected to in practice are normally less than that which causes failure.1. The properties of the various types of reinforcement mentioned above are described in the following Sections. the following types of reinforcement may be found in a prestressed concrete member: • nonprestressed reinforcement. 2. 214) recommends an average value of 10 × 10− 6/°C.15 and 0. 222). 2.2 (Ref.5 × 10− 6 / °C for South African aggregates (Ref.1. concrete can sustain about ten million cycles of load which fluctuate between 0 and 50% of its static compressive strength (Ref. concrete will expand when heated and shrink when cooled. 214) and TMH7 (Ref.7 Poisson’s ratio When concrete is uniaxially loaded. strand or alloy bars. in direct compression. 28).1. At temperatures in excess of 300°C. The strain in unconfined concrete induced by a change in temperature is expressed as follows: e cth = a c DT where e cth = strain in concrete induced by a change in temperature a c = coefficient of thermal expansion ∆ T = change in temperature (214) The coefficient of thermal expansion for concrete a c is strongly dependent on the aggregate type and can vary from 7. It should be noted that the material properties to be used for design can be determined from tests on axially loaded specimens because the steel reinforcement in prestressed concrete members is usually subjected to an almost uniaxial state of stress. it is important to note that the effect of temperature on the mechanical properties of concrete is strongly dependent on the aggregate type. 213). 27) recommend a value of 0. particularly in the case of partially prestressed concrete. prestressed concrete members will contain nonprestressed reinforcement in addition to the prestressed reinforcement.2 for design. For concrete in compression.2 STEEL REINFORCEMENT In most applications.6 Thermal properties of concrete As is the case for most materials.
219a. This figure clearly shows that the stressstrain behaviour of coldworked reinforcement does not exhibit a definite yield point as in the case of hotrolled bars. A comparison of the stressstrain curve for the hotrolled high yield bars with the curve for the mild steel bars (see Fig. A sudden reduction of stress. the lower yield point is taken as the yield strength of the material.10 0. Hence. d 500 400 a c Hotrolled f high yield stress bars d Mild steel bars f 500 400 a b c Hotrolled high yield stress bars Stress fs (MPa) Stress fs (MPa) 300 a bc 200 100 0 300 200 100 0 a b Mild steel bars c 0 0. Typical stressstrain curves for coldworked and hotrolled high yield reinforcing bars are shown in Fig. The maximum stress sustained by the specimen at point d is referred to as the ultimate stress. The strain hardening region is characterized by an increase in stress with an increase in strain until a maximum value of stress is reached at point d. 219b shows the initial portion of these stressstrain curves with the strain axis enlarged.010 0. Initially the response is linearly elastic up to point a. Because of . The slope of the initial linear elastic portion gives the modulus of elasticity. Any subsequent increase in strain beyond this point is accompanied by a stress reduction until fracture finally occurs at point f. which generally varies between 200 and 210 GPa. but rather shows a gradual transition from linear elastic to nonlinear behaviour. Fig. In such a case point a is referred to as the upper yield point and point b as the lower yield point. 220. 238). For the sake of clarity. There is little or no increase in stress for a corresponding increase in strain on the yield plateau. The yield plateau for mild steel extends to a strain approximately equal to 10 times the strain at first yield. 219) reveals that. often occurs immediately after first yielding. It should be noted that these curves were taken from Ref. beyond which a yield plateau develops.STEEL REINFORCEMENT 221 2. 239 and apply to Dutch steel with a specified yield stress of 400 MPa. The upper yield point is strongly dependent on the speed of testing. The stress at which yielding occurs is referred to as the yield stress and is an important property of steel reinforcement. from point a to point b. The characteristics of the stressstrain behaviour are subsequently discussed with reference to the curve for mild steel bars. the behaviour of the high yield bars is significantly less ductile than that of the mild steel bars. the section shape and form of the specimen and is usually of little interest.30 0 0.020 Strain es (b) 0. This feature is characterized by the smaller extent of the yield plateau as well as the smaller elongation at fracture.1 Nonprestressed reinforcement Typical stressstrain curves for hotrolled mild steel and hotrolled high yield steel reinforcing bars tested in tension are presented in Fig.20 Strain es (a) 0.030 Figure 219: Stressstrain curve for normal reinforcing bars (Ref. apart from the obvious difference of having higher yield and ultimate strengths. which is bounded by the onset of a region of strain hardening at point c.2.
This method is referred to as the offset strain method and the yield stress so determined is known as the proof stress. Other geometric properties as well as the mass of the bars are also presented herein. The strength of the reinforcing bars is specified in .222 MATERIAL PROPERTIES 600 FeB 400HK (coldworked) 500 400 300 200 100 0 FeB 400HWL (hotrolled) Stress fs (MPa) 0 0.12 0. 239). this feature. 221: • The yield stress fy1 can be defined as the stress corresponding to a specified strain εy1 under load. the yield stress for coldworked reinforcement must be defined. This is generally done in one of two ways.10 0.04 0. 220).14 0.16 Figure 220: Stressstrain curve for coldworked and hotrolled reinforcing bars (Ref. the nominal sizes in which reinforcing bars can be supplied are listed in Table 25.08 Strain es 0. as revealed by the reduced elongation at fracture (see Fig. of which the required tensile properties are summarized in Table 26. In South Africa. • The yield stress fy2 can also be defined as the stress corresponding to a specified plastic strain εoffset . Stress fs fy1 fy2 Es Es 1 1 ey1 Strain es eoffset Figure 221: Definitions of yieldstrength for gradual yielding steel. Another important feature of the stressstrain response of coldworked reinforcement is that it is significantly less ductile than that of hotrolled reinforcement. The reinforcement must also conform to the requirements of SABS 920 (Ref. 240).02 0. as shown in Fig.06 0.
83 78.865 Diameter (mm) 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 32 40 terms of the characteristic strength.6 Perimeter (mm) 18. where So is the original equivalent crosssectional area. Consider.54 113. 242 and 243) R Y Characteristic strength f y (MPa) Min. However.7 Mass (kg/m) 0.2 1256.2% proof stress. as appropriate.853 6. Table 26: Tensile properties of reinforcement to SABS 920 (Ref. Max.395 0.2% seems appropriate. ignoring the effect of strain hardening may change the intended failure mode to one which is undesirable. In most cases this approximation will lead to a conservative result in reinforced concrete and partially prestressed concrete members. 222 and the following aspects should be noted: • The recommended design value for the modulus of elasticity is 200 GPa.STEEL REINFORCEMENT 223 Table 25 : Nominal geometric properties of normal reinforcing bars (Refs. for example.222 0.578 2.313 9.1 314. 240 and 241). 400 – 15% greater than the measured yield stress or 0.1 201.27 50. 240) does not explicitly specify the offset strain which defines the proof stress. below which not more than 5% of the measured results may be expected to fall (Ref.27 78.9 804.70 50. Identifying symbol (Refs. 214) for use in design is presented in Fig. Area (mm 2 ) 28.85 25.27 62.53 100.2 490.1.5 125. It should be noted that SABS 920 (Ref.65 √o .42 37.13 31. • The actual stressstrain behaviour is approximated by a bilinear relationship which ignores strain hardening.466 3. 240). an offset strain of 0.1). the case of a beam in which large strains develop in the flexural reinforcement at failure: In such a case the effects of strain hardening . However. which is defined as the value of the yield stress or the proof stress. in cases where large strains can occur in the steel. The reasons for following this approach corresponds to those given for concrete strength (see Section 2. as appropriate 22 14 Minimum ultimate tensile strength (MPa) Minimum elongation at fracture* (%) Type of steel Hotrolled mild steel Hotrolled highyield steel and coldworked highyield steel 250 450 * Measured on a gauge length of 5.888 1.617 0. S The stressstrain curve recommended by SABS 0100 (Ref. 240).
where S o is the initial crosssectional area. or the elongation at fracture must be at least 12 % measured on a gauge length of 5. Steel reinforcement is normally detailed in compliance with the recommendations of SABS 82 (Ref. Wires can either be smooth or deformed. • The design curve includes a partial safety factor for material strength g m . Evidently the reason for this is that the restraint offered by the concrete to buckling of the reinforcing bar is significantly reduced under conditions of yielding in compression. • A maximum strain at fracture is not given. which consists of a grid of colddrawn steel wire placed at right angles and welded at the intersections. can increase the flexural capacity to such an extent that the accompanying increase in shear force may lead to an undesirable brittle shear failure in the actual structure. 242) and SABS 0144 (Ref. The reason for this most probably follows from the fact that the wire fabric is not stressrelieved.224 MATERIAL PROPERTIES Stress fs fy gm Es = 200 GPa 1 εyc = fyc Es 1 Es fyc = εy = fy gm + fy / 2000 Actual Tension fy gm Es Strain es Compression fy = Characteristic yield strength (in MPa) Figure 222: Design shortterm stressstrain relationship for nonprestressed reinforcement (Ref. 213 and 239). Welded steel fabric. . This fact must be kept in mind if significant ductility is a primary design requirement. • The tensile strength should be at least 510 MPa. • In addition. 214). 244). can often be used advantageously because of improved crack control and a reduction in fixing time.65 So . This aspect is discussed in Section 4. fabric can be supplied with a pitch and wire diameter different from the standard sizes. 244) according to which the minimum required tensile properties are as follows: • The yield stress measured at 0. which can lead to the occurrence of a failure near welded intersections at relatively small strains (Refs. the design curve indicates a smaller yield strength in compression than in tension. Welded steel fabric used in South Africa must conform to the requirements of SABS 1024 (Ref. • Although it is commonly accepted that the stressstrain response of steel in compression is similar to that in tension. If required for a particular design. rather than the intended ductile flexural failure.43% total elongation under load should be at least 485 MPa. and standard dimensions are listed in Table 27 (Ref. the tensile strength must be at least 5 % greater than the yield stress. It is interesting to note that the test specimen must contain at least one welded intersection within its length.1. 243).4.
33 3.17 5. Fabric with a pitch other than that specified in the Table is also available on request.3 5.72 6. the wire is stressrelieved by a suitable heat treatment. carried out either in the absence or presence of an applied tension.3 5. 243 and 244).6 4.6 6.0 4.78 2.0 4. These values are based on the wires having a mass of 0.0 7.00785 kg/mm 2 per metre length. Prestressing tendons take the form of either wires.55 5. strand or bars: • Wires are typically manufactured by colddrawing hightensile steel bars through successive dies to obtain the required strength characteristics.95 3.3 6.1 7.11 2.0 9. Subsequent mechanical processes can be used to indent or crimp the wire.45 1.0 7.93 1.0 9.0 8.STEEL REINFORCEMENT 225 Standard diameters and pitch of welded steel fabric commonly available in South Africa are given in Table 27. .0 8.6 5. 2.00 7. and an obvious approach to producing this material is by alloying.0 7. Table 27: Fabric reference number Standard dimensions of welded steel fabric (Refs.1 6.2 Prestressed reinforcement The material almost universally used for prestressing is high tensile strength steel.6 4.1 6. usually followed by a stressrelieving process.2.0 8.0 10.3 5. Nominal pitch of wires (mm) Nominal diameter of wires (mm) Nominal cross sectional area of wires (mm 2 /m of width) Longitudinal 393 318 251 197 156 123 63 786 636 503 396 312 246 312 246 126 Cross 393 318 251 197 156 123 63 197 197 156 156 123 123 42 42 42 6.0 9.0 * For information only.89 2.26 1.0 Cross 10.3 5.17 4.33 Nominal mass per unit area (kg/m 2 )* Longitudinal 617 500 395 311 245 193 100 772 655 517 433 341 289 278 226 133 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Cross 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 300 300 300 Longitudinal 10.1 6.6 4. The tensile strength of the steel can be further increased by colddrawing.6 4.41 2. Finally.0 7.00 3.1 6.3 5.
2. 224 together with a typical curve for a hotrolled high yield reinforcing bar. as given by these specifications.1). 223 where it may be seen that there are two possibilities with regard to stressrelieving. Significant residual stresses arise in wire and strand because of the various mechanical processes involved in their manufacture. • Prestressing bars are generally manufactured from alloy steel heat treated to obtain the required properties. and data supplied by the manufacturer should be used when available. It should be noted that the characteristic loads listed in these tables are defined as the value of the appropriate load below which not more than 5% of the measured results may be expected to fall. 246). The dimensions and required minimum tensile properties of the standard prestressing wires. However. prestressing wire and strand must conform to the requirements of BS 5896 (Ref. but detectable. super and drawn. six similar peripheral wires are spun over a central wire which has a slightly larger diameter. It is very important to note that strain tempering has the additional benefit of substantially reducing the relaxation loss even more than with ordinary stressrelieving. care should be taken because their magnitude can be influenced by the manufacturing process. as for coldworked reinforcing bars (see Section 2. Typical stressstrain curves for prestressing wire. the values for prestressing steels can vary slightly depending on the form of the steel: • Wires generally have the highest value. followed by a region containing a fairly sharp nonlinear transition to the final almost linear strainhardening portion. it should be noted that some high strength prestressing bars may have a short. yield plateau. In South Africa three types of 7wire strand are commonly produced: standard. In South Africa. By carrying out stressrelieving under tension (strain tempering). as in the case of the manufacture of wire. while the mechanical properties of drawn strand are enhanced by an additional drawing process. strand and bars. the proportional limit is increased even more. The impact of the stressrelieving process on the properties of the steel are discussed later in this Section. so that the yield strength must be defined in terms of either a proof stress or a stress corresponding to a total strain under load. Stressrelieving has the effect of removing the residual stresses and also of increasing the proportional limit of the steel. 245) while prestressing bars must conform to those of BS 4486 (Ref. • The modulus of elasticity for strand will be lower than for wire because they consist of spun wire. The presence of these residual stresses leads to a very rounded stressstrain curve as shown in Fig. Although the modulus of elasticity of steel is independent of strength. 225. which is bounded by fracture. This is accompanied by a significant reduction in the elongation at fracture. • Prestressing bars usually have a lower modulus than wire because of alloying. The tensile strength of super strand is higher than that of standard strand. Although typical values for the modulus of elasticity to be used for design are presented later in this Section. The following observations can be made from this figure: • Prestressing steel has a much higher tensile strength than the reinforcing bar. The complete process is summarized in Fig. • The stressstrain curve for prestressing steel can conveniently be divided into three portions: an initial linear elastic portion. are listed in Tables 28 to 211.226 MATERIAL PROPERTIES • In the manufacturing process of 7wire strand. • The stressstrain response of prestressing steel does not show a definite yield point. and can be supplied either as smooth bars or as bars with a ribbed surface which serves as a continuous screw thread. strand and bar are given in Fig. .
nonalloyed. 213). plain. high carbon steel rod Patenting: Heat to about 800°C (1470 °F) then cool slowly to make homogeneous Cold drawing: Pull through successively smaller dies to increase strength Stranding: Spin 6 helical wires around a straight central wire Stress relieving: Heat to about 350°C and cool slowly STRESSRELIEVED STRAND Figure 223: Strain tempering: Heat to about 350°C while strand is under tension LOW RELAXATION STRAND Production of sevenwire strand (Ref.STEEL REINFORCEMENT 227 Base material: Round. . hotrolled.
05 0.228 MATERIAL PROPERTIES 2000 Prestressing Strand (1860 MPa) Stress relieved wire (1620 MPa) 1500 Stress fp (MPa) High strength prestressing bars (1103 MPa) 1000 Hotrolled high yield reinforcing bars (450 MPa) 500 Assuming same elastic modulus 0 0 0.10 Strain ep 0. 28). Strain tempered (Low relaxation) Stress fp Stress relieved Untreated Strain ep Figure 225: Stressrelieving and strain tempering of prestressing wire (Ref. 213).15 Figure 224: Stressstrain curves for prestressed reinforcement (Ref. .
1 19.6 16.5 13.07 55.5 12.9 25.6 125 98.3 Specified Load at charac1% teristic elongation 0.8 21.4 39.9 12.7 22.4 17.8 20.7 15.3 41.2 27.8 21.7 34.7 40.5 (mm) 5 5 5 4. 245).8 21.8 10.0 10.4 64.4 17.0 22.5 4 4 4 3 3 (MPa) 1570 1670 1770 1620 1670 1720 1770 1770 1860 (g/m) 154 .9 17.6 27.3 222 47.1 53.1% proof load (kN) 50.5% measured on a gauge length of 200 mm Table 29: Nominal diameter Dimensions and properties of colddrawn wire in mill coil to BS 5896 (Ref.5 21.3 7.1 Specified characteristic load at 1% elongation (kN) 24.8 32.8 29. Nominal tensile strength Nominal 0. Nominal tensile strength Nominal crosssection (mm 2 ) 19.6 21.5 18. 245).8 17.STEEL REINFORCEMENT 229 Table 28: Nominal diameter Dimensions and properties of colddrawn wire to BS 5896 (Ref.5 4 4 (MPa) 1570 1670 1670 1770 1670 1770 1620 1670 1770 (MPa) 1300 1390 1390 1470 1390 1470 1350 1390 1470 (mm 2 ) 38.1% proof stress Nominal cross section Nominal mass Specified characteristic breaking load (kN) 60.3 50.9 25.3 28.5 (g/m) 302 Note: Minimum elongation at maximum load must be 3.6 125 98.5 (kN) 51.9 19.2 28.6 154 32.7 34.9 12.3 54.6 Nominal mass Specified characteristic breaking load (kN) 30.0 21.2 42.0 (mm) 7 7 6 6 5 5 4.6 26.7 15.
86 (kN) 568 830 1048 1300 * Measured on a gauge length of 5. where So is the original crosssectional area.230 MATERIAL PROPERTIES Table 210: Type of strand Dimensions and properties of sevenwire strand to BS 5896 (Ref. S .1% proof stress Nominal crosssectional area Nominal mass Specified properties Characteristic breaking load Min. Nominal diameter Nominal tensile strength Nominal steel area Nominal mass Specified characteristic breaking load (kN) 232 164 125 92 265 186 139 102 70 380 300 209 Specified Load at charac1% teristic elongation 0.2 12.5 32 36 40 (MPa) 1030 (MPa) 835 (mm 2 ) 522 804 1018 1257 (kg/m) 4.1% proof load (kN) 197 139 106 78 225 158 118 87 59 323 255 178 (kN) 204 144 110 81 233 163 122 90 61 334 264 184 (mm) 7wire Standard 15.5 11.3 9. Characelongateristic tion at 0.7 12.65 √o .9 11. Type of bar Nominal size Nominal tensile strength Nominal 0.31 7.1% fracture* proof load (kN) 460 670 850 1050 (%) 6 (mm) Hot rolled or hot rolled and processed 26.99 9.5% measured on a gauge length ≥ 500 mm Table 211: Dimensions and properties of hotrolled and hotrolled and processed high tensile alloy steel bars to BS 4486 (Ref.3 7wire Super 15.0 7wire Drawn 18.7 (MPa) 1670 1770 1770 1770 1770 1860 1860 1860 1860 1700 1820 1860 (mm 2 ) 139 93 71 52 150 100 75 55 38 223 165 112 (g/m) 1090 730 557 408 1180 785 590 432 298 1750 1295 890 Note: Minimum elongation at maximum load must be 3.2 12.0 15. 246).0 9.6 8. 245).33 6.
Although the strain in a prestressing tendon continually changes with time because of shrinkage and creep of the concrete. whenever possible. As discussed in Section 2.4.1. The ordinary stressrelieving process. approximates the actual behaviour by the trilinear curve shown in Fig. 214). it is generally acknowledged that these conditions approach those to be found in a relaxation test rather than in a creep test. It should further be noted that a maximum strain at fracture is not given and that the design curve includes a partial safety factor for material strength g m . 247) and ASTM Specification A416 (Ref.2. the relaxation properties of prestressing steel is significantly influenced by the particular stressrelieving process used. values supplied by the manufacturer should be used because the magnitude of the modulus of elasticity can be significantly influenced by the manufacturing process. of the same phenomenon described by relaxation. respectively. 246). The design stressstrain diagram for prestressing steel acting in tension.005 Figure 226: Design stressstrain relationship for prestressed reinforcement acting in tension (Ref.2. . 226. 214). are also produced in South Africa.STEEL REINFORCEMENT 231 Wire and strand which satisfy the requirements of ASTM Specification A421 (Ref. However. It is important to note that the recommended value of 165 GPa for the modulus of elasticity of high tensile alloy bars most probably only applies to asrolled and stretched bars conforming to BS 4486 (Ref.2. 248). the value of 205 GPa recommended by BS 4486 seems more appropriate. as recommended by SABS 0100 (Ref. it is strongly recommended that. This partial safety factor is discussed in Section 4. under different conditions. 2. Creep.8 fpu / gm fpu = Characteristic strength Ep 1 1 Strain ep Ep 0. Stress fp fpu / gm 0. which is defined as the timedependent change in strain under constant stress may be considered as another consequence.3 Relaxation of prestressing steel The timedependent loss of tensioning force required for maintaining a constant strain in a highly stressed steel tendon is defined as relaxation. In the case of asrolled and asrolled stretched and tempered bars. SABS 0100 suggests the following design values for the modulus of elasticity of prestressing tendons: Ep = = = 205 GPa for high tensile steel wire (wire to Section 2 of BS 5896: 1980) 195 GPa for 7wire strand (strand to Section 3 of BS 5896: 1980) 165 GPa for high tensile alloy bars.
55 y (215) 100 % Stress relaxation (log scale) Test temperature: 20°C Initial load: 70% of nominal breaking load 10 Normal relaxation 1 Low relaxation 6 months 0. Both Fig. 249) proposed the following expression for predicting the stress in stressrelieved wire and strand at any time: fs(t) fsi where fs(t) = steel stress at time t fsi = initial steel stress immediately after tensioning fy = yield stress of the steel. which predicts zero relaxation loss for values of the initial stress smaller than or equal to 55 percent of the yield . 215. 227 for normal relaxation and low relaxation South African prestressing strand.232 MATERIAL PROPERTIES which involves a heat treatment only. but at a decreasing rate. 228 for low relaxation strand tested at various temperatures. it being generally accepted that the relaxation loss of low relaxation steel is 20 to 25% that of normal relaxation steel. which involves heat treatment under tension.1 1 10 100 1000 1 year 104 10 years 105 50 years 106 107 Hours (log scale) Figure 227: Relaxation of prestressing strand (courtesy Haggie Rand Ltd. This trend is confirmed by Eq. 28. 215 clearly show that a large part of the relaxation loss occurs within a relatively short time period after application of the load and that relaxation proceeds with time. Sozen and Siess (Ref. yields low relaxation steel. measured at an offset strain of 0. = 1 − log t 10 fsi f − 0. The effect of initial stress on the relaxation loss after 1000 hours is shown in Fig. Relaxation appears to be primarily influenced by the ratio of initial stress to yield stress. in hours The above equation is based on data obtained from 501 relaxation tests on stressrelieved wire. It is also evident that the relaxation loss of low relaxation steel is significantly smaller than that of normal relaxation steel.). It has been suggested that this expression can also be applied to lowrelaxation strand and prestressing bars if the denominator 10 under the log t term is replaced by 45 (see Refs. The figure clearly demonstrates that the relaxation loss is increased if the initial stress is increased. Magura.001 log t = logarithm of time to the base 10 t = time after tensioning. Typical relaxation curves are shown in Fig. temperature and time. 213 and 250). the type of steel. 227 and Eq. yields normal relaxation steel while straintempering.
The magnitude of relaxation is strongly influenced by the temperature of the steel. It is generally accepted that relaxation losses are insignificant for initial stresses smaller than 50 percent of the yield stress. This trend is demonstrated in Fig.STEEL REINFORCEMENT 233 stress. .1 50 60 70 80 90 Initial Load (as % of nominal breaking load) Figure 228: Effect of initial stress on relaxation of low relaxation prestressing strand at various temperatures (courtesy Haggie Rand Ltd. 229 which gives relaxation curves for normal relaxation and low relaxation strand tested at various temperatures. Care should therefore be taken to make proper allowance for the increased relaxation which will occur in cases where the prestressing tendons are subjected to temperatures significantly higher than 20°C for extended periods of time. 100 % Stress relaxation (log scale) 1000 Hour tests Low relaxation strand 10 Test temperature: 80°C 60°C 40°C 1 20°C 0.). 100 1000 Hour tests Initial load: 70% of nominal breaking load % Stress relaxation (log scale) Low relaxation Normal relaxation 10 Test temperature: 100°C 80°C 60°C 40°C 20°C 100°C 80°C 60°C 40°C 1 20°C 0.1 1 10 100 Hours (log scale) 1000 10 000 Figure 229: Effect of temperature on the relaxation of strand (courtesy Haggie Rand Ltd.). the effect being that it is increased by an increase in temperature.
BS 5896 (Ref. In the absence of experimental data. The maximum relaxation loss after 1000 hours for various prestressing tendons as specified by BS 5896 and BS 4486 (Refs.5 8.0 2.0 Initial load as % of breaking load 60 70 80 4. in the case of pretensioning. 246). Table 212: Maximum specified relaxation at 1000 hours.5%. 214) recommends that the relaxation loss to be allowed for in design should be taken as twice the loss at 1000 hours for an initial force taken equal to the tendon force at transfer.5 4.5 4. 27) also requires that the relaxation loss to be allowed for in design should be estimated from the loss at 1000 hours for an initial force taken equal to the tendon force at transfer. It is of some interest to note that the multiplying factors specified by BS 8110 (Ref. If the creep plus shrinkage strain of the concrete is greater than 500 × 10 6 then the loss for an initial stress of 80% of the characteristic strength should be taken as 8. 245 and 246). the relaxation loss is usually experimentally determined after 1000 hours at 20°C and multipliers are subsequently used to estimate the longterm values required for design.5 8. Although TMH7 (Ref. This code explicitly states that the recommended multiplying factors account for the effects of creep and shrinkage of the concrete and. 245) and BS 4486 (Ref.5 3. This has the effect of reducing the initial stress level of the tendon. 251) for estimating the longterm relaxation loss from the 1000 hour test value account for the reinforcement type (wire and strand. The relaxation loss for low relaxation strand may be taken as half the above values. no guidance is given on how this is to be done. and hence the tendon. will shorten as a result of the effects of creep and shrinkage of the concrete. or bar). This effect must be accounted for in design and must therefore be reflected in the magnitude of the multipliers used for estimating longterm relaxation losses from experimental data obtained from relaxation tests at 1000 hours.234 MATERIAL PROPERTIES In practice.0 12 Low relaxation (%) 1. are listed in Table 212.0 12 It is important to note that a prestressing tendon in a prestressed concrete member will not be subjected to a constant strain because the member.5 6. SABS 0100 (Ref.5 Colddrawn High tensile wire in alloy mill coil steel bars (%) 8 10 – (%) 1.or posttensioning).0 2. the relaxation properties of the steel (normal or low relaxation) and the prestressing procedure (pre. SABS 0100 suggests that the relaxation loss for normal relaxation strand or wire may be assumed to vary linearly from 10% for an initial stress of 80% of the characteristic strength of the tendon to 3% for an initial stress of 50% of the characteristic strength. so that the relaxation loss in an actual member is less than the loss which would be obtained in a relaxation test where a constant strain is maintained in the steel for the duration of the test. the effects of elastic shortening of the concrete at transfer. . It also carefully defines the initial force for posttensioning as the prestressing force immediately after transfer and for pretensioning as the force immediately after tensioning. Maximum relaxation after 1000 hours Colddrawn wire Normal relaxation (%) Low relaxation (%) 1.5 7Wire strand Normal relaxation (%) 4.
This region is characterized by the almost horizontal portion of the SN curve which. The CEBFIP code (Ref. This stress range is substantially larger than that encountered in uncracked fully prestressed members. A typical modified Goodman diagram corresponding to 2 ´ 10 6 cycles is given in Fig.STEEL REINFORCEMENT 235 2. however.2. In this code. 27) recommends that the stress range should be limited to 250 MPa for mild steel reinforcing bars. in which the stress range S is plotted as a function of the corresponding number of load cycles N required to cause failure. depending on the minimum and maximum values of the fluctuating stress. The various types of prestressing steel do not appear to have a fatigue limit (Ref. which represents the relationship between the maximum and minimum cyclic stress at a particular number of cycles corresponding to failure. while a maximum of 10 ´ 10 6 can be considered in exceptional cases. for the reinforcing bars considered here. 500 400 300 200 100 0 104 Stress range S (MPa) 105 106 Cycles to failure N 107 108 Figure 230: SN curves for deformed reinforcing bars (Ref. a modified Goodman diagram. 213). with the result that fatigue is not normally critical for design in this case. can be used for this purpose. below which it can be assumed that the bars can sustain an indefinite number of cycles of load. TMH7 (Ref. and to 150 MPa for deformed bars. and to 300 MPa for highyield strength bars. be noted that the stress range in cracked partially prestressed . The stress range corresponding to the horizontal portion of the SN curve is known as the fatigue limit or the endurance limit. A single SN curve cannot show the effect of the magnitude of the minimum stress on fatigue failure. commences after about one to two million cycles. the characteristic fatigue strength is defined as the stress range which nine reinforcing bars out of ten can resist for 2 ´ 10 6 cycles if the maximum stress is 70% of the yield strength. 28). Inspection of this figure will reveal that the numbers of cycles which the reinforcing bars can sustain without failure increases as the stress range is decreased until a limiting value of the stress range is reached. 213). 236) limits the characteristic fatigue strength to 250 MPa for smooth bars. These values apply to a maximum of 2 ´ 10 5 cycles of load. by a process known as fatigue. The resistance of reinforcement to fatigue is often defined in terms of a SN curve. For design. Instead. 28). Figure 230 shows several experimentally obtained SN curves for deformed reinforcing bars (Ref. This figure shows that for the minimum stress normally encountered in prestressed members (50% to 60% of the ultimate tensile strength) a stress range of approximately 13% of the ultimate tensile strength can be resisted for 2 ´ 10 6 cycles.4 Fatigue characteristics of reinforcement When steel is subjected to a fluctuating stress its mechanical properties will deteriorate. It should. while the stress range should be limited to 60% of these values for 2 ´ 10 6 cycles. 231 for prestressing wires and strand (Ref. it is common to consider a minimum of 2 ´ 10 6 cycles.
The FIP Recommendations (Ref. A designer is therefore well advised to exercise caution and to take a conservative approach when considering fatigue.5 Stress range Usual stress range for prestressed concrete Minimum stress limit 0 0 0. while 60% of these values should be used for 2 × 10 6 cycles. with a probability of failure of 0. This document defines the characteristic fatigue strength of prestressing steel as the stress range which can be resisted for 2 × 10 6 cycles. TMH7 (Ref.0 Figure 231: Typical Goodman diagram for prestressing wires and strand (Ref. if the maximum stress is 85% of the yield strength.01.0 2 ´ 106 cycles Maximum stress (fps)max /Strength fpu Maximum stress limit 0. 28). . 27) recommends the following maximum values for the stress range in prestressing tendons in partially prestressed members. members can be significantly larger than in fully prestressed members so that fatigue can become an important design consideration in such cases.236 MATERIAL PROPERTIES 1. the recommendations related to fatigue strength made by the majority of the codes of practice are based on data obtained from tendons tested in air. It is important to note that although there is ample experimental evidence of the fatigue life of tendons in beams being shorter than that of similar tendons tested in air. deformed • Strand • Highstrength bars 200 MPa 150 MPa 200 MPa 200 MPa These values apply to a maximum of 2 × 10 5 cycles of load.5 Minimum stress (fps)min / Strength fpu 1. not deformed • Tendons. 252) suggest that the characteristic fatigue strength of wires and strand may be taken as 200 MPa. and that it may be taken as 80 MPa for highstrength bars. provided that the minimum stress does not exceed 50% of the ultimate tensile strength: • Tendons.
6).Material Design. MacMillan Education Ltd. Cement and Concrete.REFERENCES 237 2. South Africa. Pretoria. W. SABS. Mosley. Reducing the temperature produces opposite effects. ASTM. 1992.4. If the temperature is reduced from 20°C to 200°C the yield and tensile strengths will be increased by about 20% (Ref.” Darmstadt Concrete. 1990. “Method for Determination of Compressive Strength of Concrete Cubes. Addis. 1976. A. CEBFIP.” SP4 . London. BSI. Reinforced Concrete Design. Comité EuroInternational du Béton . 1986. London.” SABS Method 863. Norway. the actual value of the coefficient of expansion for steel is about 11.1. 1990. Vol.FCBSINTEF 7034. 210 Held. which is equal to the value taken for concrete (see Section 2. “Code of Practice for the Design of Highway Bridges and Culverts in South Africa. Prestressed Concrete Analysis and Design: Fundamentals. J. E. Edited by B. 4th ed. H. Bulletin d’Information No.” TMH7 Part 3.normal density concrete. STF65 F89020 .195. with stiffness and strength being increased. Germany. Midrand. Fulton’s Concrete Technology. Pretoria.. Alexanderstrasse 5 Darmstadt... 28).. J. Paris. “Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens..3 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 REFERENCES Portland Cement Institute. 1990. 9th ed. 7th ed. H. PCI. L. “Compressive Strength of Concrete (Including Making and Curing of the Test Cubes). CSRA. South African Bureau of Standards. . Report 4. Naaman. 1983. 1994.. 1982. March. Trondheim. 211 Smeplass.” ASTM C 3986. Midrand. Technishe Hochschule Darmstadt.. Mechanical properties . American Society for Testing Materials. “High Strength Concrete.. they can be significantly affected by extreme temperature conditions. McGrawHill Book Company.5 Thermal properties of reinforcement The strain induced by a change in temperature in unconfined steel reinforcement can be expressed as follows: e sth = a s DT where e sth = strain in steel induced by a change in temperature a s = coefficient of thermal expansion DT = change in temperature (216) Evidently. M. 213). 1989..” BS 1881: Part 116: 1983. South Africa. 5.5 ´ 10 6 /°C (Ref. British Standards Institution. Committee of State Road Authorities. “Research Results Concerning the Properties of High Strength Concrete. 213). and Bungey. However. 2. Portland Cement Institute. Although the mechanical properties of the reinforcement are not significantly affected by normal variations of the ambient temperature. Philadelphia. More specifically.” First Draft.Fédération Internationale de la Précontrainte. However. “Model Code for Concrete Structures. these improvements are accompanied by a reduction in ductility. If the temperature is increased beyond a value of approximately 200°C both the stiffness and strength will be substantially reduced.2. the tensile strength of wire or strand at 400°C is about 50% of its value at room temperature (Ref. New York. PCI. a value of 10 ´ 10 6 /°C is usually taken for design.
. H. June 1987. 224 Alexander. “Micro Cracking and Behaviour of High Strength Concrete Subject to Shortterm Loads.” BS 1881: Part 121: 1983. 495. D. L.. 161170. 1983. pp. R. Norway. E & FN Spon.” SABS Method 864. University of Illinois. Vol. A. J. 225 Gopalaratnam.. London. J. M. 216 Carrasquillo.” BS 1881: Part 209: 1990. Properties of Aggregates in Concrete.” Proceedings of the Symposium “Utilization of High Strength Concrete”.” BS 1881: Part 118: 1983. H. “Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 31889) and Commentary .” ACI Journal. “Recommendations for the Measurement of Dynamic Modulus of Elasticity. D. 1983. 219 British Standards Institution. PrenticeHall... S. Part 2. “The Influence of Aggregates on the Compressive Strength and Elastic Modulus of Concrete. A. 220 British Standards Institution. 1994.. “TimeDependent Deformations in Segmental Prestressed Concrete Bridges..Comité EuroInternational du Béton Bulletin d’Information No.. Hippo Quarries Technical Publication. New Jersey. 640. 1983. Vol. and Davis. “The Structural Use of Concrete. BSI. M. BSI. 214 South African Bureau of Standards. October 1981. MayJune 1981. 57. E. Vol.” SABS 0100: 1992. 1992. Part 1. No. 6. London.” The Civil Engineer in South Africa. Part 2.. and Mitchell. pp. “Method for Determination of Tensile Splitting Strength. “Researches Toward a General Flexural Theory for Structural Concrete. 13081310. Civil Engineering Studies. Chameleon Press. Fédération Internationale de la Précontrainte . 3.. 2738. “Prediction of Elastic Modulus for Design of Concrete Structures. Detroit. 1987.. May 1992. 54. London. Urbana. 222 Alexander. 228 British Standards Institution. Hippo Quarries Technical Publication. Trondheim. Construction Press. O. and Brooks. 82. 1991. Properties of Aggregates in Concrete. BSI. D. H.State of the Art Report. P. 3. M. Dilger.. V. Vol. V. 1989. “Softening Response of Plain Concrete in Direct Tension. Tapir. “High Strength Concrete . 1985. London. pp. P.. pp. 1980. and Nilson A. 197.An Overview of Cornell Research. Pretoria.238 MATERIAL PROPERTIES 212 FIPCEB. Nov.. 128. Stavanger. M. 34.” BS 1881: Part 117: 1983. Construction Materials: Their nature and behaviour. and Shah. D. 221 Alexander. Parts 1 and 2.. London. W. Second ed. 313324. and Davis.” ACI Journal. Vol. London. A. L. 1. Illston. No. “Some Aspects of the Strength of Concrete. E. M. SABS. 229 Illston. G. and Davis. Englewood Cliffs. ” American Concrete Institute. 231 Neville. SABS. Slate F. High Strength Concrete . S. July 1960.. M.” Civil Engineering and Public Works Review. G.. . MayJune. 1989. “Flexural Strength of Concrete (Including Making and Curing of the Test Specimens). Creep of Plain and Structural Concrete. 230 ACI Committee 318. No.. No. 218 Rüsch. No. 78.. pp. 226 British Standards Institution. 1992. No. pp. 1959. E. 5. June 1985. 217 Nilson.ACI 318 R89. 213 Collins. London.” The Civil Engineer in South Africa. “Method for Determination of Flexural Strength.” ACI Journal. 310323. M. Edited by J. 179186. 215 Neville. G.. BSI.. M. Pretoria.. H. 1990. 232 Marshall. pp. Vol. 27. 1990.. J. 1983. 223 Alexander. W. M.” Structural Research Series No. and Gamble. G. Prestressed Concrete Structures.. “Methods for Determination of Static Modulus of Elasticity in Compression. 227 South African Bureau of Standards.
. E. 236 CEBFIP. London. pp. Pretoria. Code of Practice for Design and Construction. “Detailing of Steel Reinforcement for Concrete. Vol.. Part 1. pp. “Model Code for Concrete Structures. pp. Sozen M.REFERENCES 239 233 England. 244 South African Bureau of Standards. Pretoria..” PCI Journal. 2nd ed. 1985. 1991.. 9. BSI. M. SABS. Pretoria. 239 Bruggeling. “Bending Dimensions of Bars for Concrete Reinforcement. 245 British Standards Institution. ACI.. 2. “Ontario Highway Bridge Design Code. A. “Standard Specification for Uncoated StressRelieved Steel Wire for Prestressed Concrete. in ACI Manual of Concrete Practice. 246 British Standards Institution. S. Vol.” Comité European du Béton . Thomas Telford Ltd.” ACI Report 209R82 (Reapproved 1986).” BS 5896:1980. A. Prague. Philadelphia. London. A.. “Reinforced Concrete under Thermal Gradients. London. 240 South African Bureau of Standards. March 1962.” SABS 82:1976.” SABS 0144: 1978. “International Recommendations for the Design and Construction of Concrete Structures . 14. 1958. 1991. Strength of Materials and Structures. 241 ISCOR Ltd. 1978.” SABS 1024: 1991. No. ASTM.. ASTM... Reinforcing Steel Bars. 1980. 1978.” ASTM A41685. 1984. “Specification for Uncoated 7wire StressRelieved Steel Strand for Prestressed Concrete.” ASTM A42180.” Comité EuroInternational du Béton Fédération Internationale de la Précontrainte.” 2nd ed. A. Raphael J. FIP Sixth Congress. Data Sheet: Availability and Properties.Principles and Recommendations. No. . 1976. Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd. Pretoria. “Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement. J. L. Shrinkage.. and Ross.” BS 8110: Part 1: 1985. G. 1357. 58. Balkema. 1985. 1980. and Siess C. G. BSI. 1980. SABS.. 235 CEBFIP. “Long Time Creep and Shrinkage Tests of Plain and Reinforced Concrete. Vol.Fédération Internationale de la Précontrainte. Philadelphia..” Proc. “Welded Steel Fabric for Reinforcement of Concrete. 1993. H. “Specification for High Tensile Steel Wire and Strand for the Prestressing of Concrete. 250 OHBDC. 247 American Society for Testing and Materials. published by Cement and Concrete Association. 234 Troxell G. London. 1985. 242 South African Bureau of Standards. “Specification for Hot Rolled and Hot Rolled and Processed High Tensile Alloy Steel Bars for the Prestressing of Concrete. D. SABS. and Temperature Effects in Concrete Structures. 248 American Society for Testing and Materials.. Structural Concrete: Theory and its Application. D. SABS. BSI. 238 Case.. D. 1983. 212. 1971. and Chilver A. “Structural Use of Concrete. FIP RecommendationsPractical Design of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Structures. Toronto.. June 1970. Part 1.. 1970. ASTM. Rotterdam. and Davis R. 237 ACI Committee 209. 243 South African Bureau of Standards. 11011120.” BS 4486:1980. 251 British Standards Institution.” SABS 920: 1985. P. Paris.. Pretoria. 252 FIP Commission on Practical Design. London. Ontario Ministry of Transportation and Communications. A. April 1964. ISCOR Ltd. 249 Magura D. “Prediction of Creep.” Magazine of Concrete Research. “A Study of Stress Relaxation in Prestressing Reinforcement. 40.
By the nature of the procedure. called uprights. It is important to ensure that the elongation of the tendons is maintained at a constant level while the concrete is allowed to harden. and the prestressing operation requires much less equipment and facilities than is the case for pretensioning.1 Basic principle and procedure The basic principle of pretensioning involves the tensioning of the tendons to a predetermined level. large bridge decks and continuous bridge decks. large building frames. but also to ensure that members are detailed to satisfy the practical requirements associated with the construction of such members. it is common practice in South Africa to dimension members in such a way that several prestressing systems can be accommodated. Structures and structural elements which cannot feasibly be prefabricated in a precasting yard and transported to site. 3. References 31 to 33 may be consulted for information on these specialized prestressing systems and procedures. the moulds must be designed and constructed to withstand the additional forces induced by the tendons. • Pretensioning on stressing beds: When pretensioning on a stressing bed. pretensioned elements are always precast and the method usually requires a substantial capital investment in prestressing equipment and stressing beds. while in posttensioning systems the tendons are tensioned after the concrete has been placed and has developed sufficient strength to sustain the induced loads. In this manner the tension is maintained in the . can only be prestressed by posttensioning. Posttensioned elements can either be precast or cast in situ. The descriptions are limited to linear prestressing systems commonly used because linear systems for special applications. 31a). The resulting elongation of the tendons is maintained at a constant level while the concrete hardens. circular prestressing systems. it is not feasible to present specific details of each system here. and this can be achieved by each of the following two methods (Refs. such as shells. the tendons are tensioned between and subsequently anchored to the rigid vertical steel anchor columns. in the interests of competitive tendering. Because of the large number of systems available.2 PRETENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 3. 31b). 31. In pretensioning systems the tendons are tensioned before the concrete is placed. Almost all the commonly used prestressing systems involve the tensioning of highstrength steel tendons and can be classified either as being pretensioning or posttensioning systems.2. The purpose of this Chapter is to give a brief description of the types of prestressing systems most commonly used. 31a). because they are now bonded to the concrete. placed at each end of the bed (see Fig.1 INTRODUCTION A designer must be familiar with the technology and techniques associated with prestressed concrete not only to ensure that the design requirements are properly satisfied. After the concrete has developed sufficient strength the tendons are released and. after which the concrete is placed (see Fig. their shortening is resisted by the concrete. Complete details may be obtained from suppliers. In this case. In this way the concrete is prestressed by the action of bond when the tendons are released (see Fig. building slabs.INTRODUCTION 31 3 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 3. including some detail regarding procedure. The importance of the latter consideration is emphasised by the fact that. electrical prestressing and chemical prestressing fall beyond the scope of the work covered herein. 32 and 34): • Pretensioning with individual moulds: According to this method the tendons are anchored directly to the individual steel moulds in which the concrete is cast.
This method. 32 and 35). and a strict cutting sequence which minimises eccentric loading on the concrete. as is the case when stressing beds are used (Refs. The length of stressing beds varies between 25 m and 200 m. and a typical arrangement is shown in Fig. and long beds can be provided with removable intermediate uprights (see Fig. 35). Tendons are tensioned by means of hydraulic jacks. Because of its limited use. With the exception of railway sleeper production. and can either be stressed individually or simultaneously from one end of the stressing bed. Stressing jack Upright Original length = L Removable intermediate upright Upright Formwork (a) Tendons tensioned between uprights L–∆ Stressing bed (b) Tendons detensioned (elastic shortening = D) Figure 31: Pretensioning on a stressing bed (adapted from Ref. often referred to as the longline or Hoyer method. must be adhered to when carrying out this operation. 31. the individual moulds can be can be moved through the plant on a mass production line instead of having to move the materials and the process to the moulds. in the case of small products. pretensioning with individual moulds is not commonly used (Refs. 31a) so that shorter tendons can also be tensioned (Refs.32 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES tendons while the concrete is placed and cured. lends itself to efficient mass production because a number of similar elements can be manufactured in a single tensioning operation if the bed is made long enough. 31 and 32). Tendons must be cut gradually and as close to the ends of the members as possible to avoid large impact loads from being imparted to the concrete. sawing or by hydraulic cutters. wires and strand are usually anchored by means of frictional splitcone wedges. Tendons are released individually either by flame cutting. It is also important to avoid the situation where too many tendons are cut at a single location because this can result in the failure of the remaining tendons at that location. 32). 32 and 34). Efficient quickrelease grips are also available for this purpose (see Fig. The stressing bed also serves as a casting and curing bed. and so will ensure that the bond between the concrete and the tendons in this zone is not impaired. Pretensioning on stressing beds is by far the most common method used today. Special jacks with a ram stroke of at least 750 to 1200 mm must be used if the strands are to be tensioned in a onestep operation (Ref. 31). . An apparent advantage of this method is that. After being tensioned. These precautions will prevent excessive damage to the concrete at the ends of the members. Tendons can be released individually or simultaneously. 31a. this method is not discussed here in any further detail.
in the case of strand. 35). 33. The principle advantages of this method are that the prestressing force is gradually transferred to the concrete so that impact loading is avoided. particularly in the case of long span members (see Fig. for a given stress in the tendon. For this reason smalldiameter wires and strand are used in pretensioning. the prestress is transferred to the concrete by bond and. Wire is often indented or crimped to improve its bond properties while. and that the tendons can subsequently be cut between the members without following a strict cutting sequence. Tendons are released simultaneously by making use of hydraulic rams. deflected tendons can be provided with either one or two holddown points. as shown in Fig. . A disadvantage of this method is that the precast members close to the releasing end will experience relatively large movements away from the releasing end because all the strain is released at that end. 32). Tendons can only be deflected if the stressing bed has been properly reinforced to sustain the vertical forces imposed by the holddown devices. and are held in their deflected position by special holddown devices at the lower deflection points (also called holddown or draping points) and by holdup devices at the high positions. Depending on the design requirements. 12. In pretensioned construction.9 mm sevenwire strand is most commonly used. These deflected tendons are often referred to as draped or harped tendons. therefore.PRETENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 33 Sevenwire strand Chuck Body Jaw assembly Retaining ring Spring Cap Figure 32: Typical quick release grip (adapted from Ref. It can be shown that the bond stress induced by a tendon will decrease as its diameter decreases. It is often necessary to deflect some of the tendons to obtain the desired cable profile. particular care must be taken to ensure that the bond strength of the concrete is not exceeded. Single holddown point Holdup device Double holddown point Figure 33: Pretensioning with deflected tendons (Ref. 33).
36). These tendons are subsequently held in position by the holddown pins which bear against the holddown reaction beam. As previously mentioned. hence. After the concrete has developed the required strength. the subsequent deflecting operation will increase the tension in the tendon and. when the holddown devices are released before releasing the tendons.34 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES Deflected tendons are usually tensioned straight and then deflected by a hydraulic ram. the deflected tendons are pushed down to their lower position by means of a temporarily installed hydraulic ram. 31). and vibrating the tendons while they are being tensioned (Ref. which is commonly used for the manufacture of doubletee beams. 31). can be significantly greater than the horizontal distance between its ends. measured along its deflected path. the precast members will move longitudinally when the tendons are released so that it is essential to release the holddown devices before releasing the tendons.g. Such tendons are referred to as blanketed tendons (see Fig. The method shown in Fig. If these effects are not properly accounted for in the design or in the releasing procedure (e. 35). However. the holddown pins are removed and the tendons are released. by partially releasing the tendons to transfer some prestress to the beams before releasing the holddown devices) cracks can develop in the top of the beam. Hydraulic ram pushes pin down Holddown pin (removed from hardened concrete) Holddown reaction beam Holddown device Doubletee form Ratchet adjustment Figure 34: Deflecting tendons in a doubletee beam (Ref. In this procedure. It is important to consider this effect when determining the initial tension to be applied to the tendons. Tendons in beams are deflected to reduce the cable eccentricity in the support regions which. If such a tendon is initially tensioned straight. in turn. 34. Deflected tendons can also be tensioned in their deflected shape. the undesirable situation arises in which concentrated upward vertical forces are imposed on the beam at the positions of the holddown points before any prestress has been transferred to the beam. particularly if the increase in tension is significant. after which the holddown devices are installed to keep them in their deflected shape. the prestressing force. 35 makes use of a centre hole jack to deflect the tendons. while a strand chuck bearing against the holddown anchors is used to anchor the tendons in their deflected positions. in which case the holddown devices must be capable of permitting the tendons to move longitudinally during the tensioning operation and provision must be made to reduce the friction between the tendons and the holdup and holddown devices. 34 and 35. . The actual length of a deflected tendon. the strand chuck and the holddown anchors cannot be recovered (Ref. Two methods of deflecting tendons in this way are shown in Figs. prevents flexural cracks from developing at the top of the beam in these regions. This objective can also be achieved by debonding some of the tendons over a distance at the ends of the beam. using rollers with needle bearings at the holdup and holddown points. The various techniques which have been used to reduce the effects of friction include tensioning the tendons from both ends. particularly in the case of deeper members such as bridge girders. In the method shown in Fig.
35).5 mm diameter strand Strand chuck Center hole hydraulic jack Strand chuck Holddown anchors Deflected strand group Strand chuck Figure 35: Tendon holddown device for use with a centre hole jack (Ref. 31). Blanketed strand length (debonded by plastic tubes) . Plastic tube over strands in bottom Figure 36: Blanketed strands (Ref.PRETENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 35 12.
To maintain a daily production cycle. The forms are removed after curing the concrete and before releasing the tendons. The longline method is also used for the production of hollow core slab units. they can be made adjustable to easily accommodate variations in member shape. which involves the application of wet heat in the form of live steam under a confining cover. The tendons are released once the concrete has developed sufficient strength. Figure 37 shows a steel mould with removable side forms and a form vibrator for a bridge girder. 35). Form underties External vibrator sled and track Transverse sleepers Figure 37: Steel mould for a bridge Ibeam (Ref. low slump concrete is extruded around the pretensioned tendons by an extruding machine which travels along the stressing bed to form a long hollow core strip. 34). by curing the concrete at an elevated temperature. or by combining these two options (Refs. 31 and 34). and they can easily be made strong enough to allow form vibration (Refs. Curing at an elevated temperature is often done by steam curing. References 32 and 35 can be consulted for further information on this procedure. Under such conditions the use of steel forms or moulds is preferable for the following reasons: Steel forms are durable and perform well under repeated use. In this method. . they can be manufactured to a high degree of precision. This high early strength can be obtained either by using high early strength cement. they are easy to handle when being erected or stripped. 31 and 35). the concrete must develop sufficient strength to allow the tendons to be released within about 16 hours after casting. 35). They should be loosened or stripped in such a way that they do not restrain any longitudinal movement or vertical deflection of the member which may take place when the tendons are released. a stressing bed must allow a daily production cycle so that members can be produced in large numbers.36 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES Typically. Steam curing generally commences 2 to 3 hours after casting and continues for 12 to 14 hours (Ref. after which the long hollow core strip is sawed into the required lengths. Other processes which can also be used to apply heat during curing include electricalresistance heating and heating by circulating hot fluids through pipes contained in the forms or in the stressing bed (Ref.
The principle is illustrated by Fig. 31 on this topic. It is possible to make a further distinction between stressing beds on the basis of whether they have been designed to produce one specific product or to produce many different types of product. The former are referred to as fixed beds while the latter are termed universal beds. in the interests of economy and efficiency. Stressing mechanism A Stessing end Elevation A Releasing end Metal form liners Pipes for hotwater curing Section AA Figure 38: Columntype stressing bed used for producing doubletee beams (Ref. the site conditions and the requirements of the production process. The brief description of each type of bed given below is a summary of the material presented in Ref. • Abutmentandstrut type. Columntype stressing beds are primarily used for producing singletee beams.2 Stressing beds Several different types of stressing bed are available. Clearly this type of bed can only be used as a fixed bed and. . 38. 31). doubletee beams and piles. Column beds In a column bed the prestressing force is carried directly by the bed acting as a column. The primary considerations for the design of a columntype bed are crushing of the concrete and buckling of the bed. • Tendondeflecting type. • Independentabutment type. can only accommodate small eccentricities of the prestressing force with respect to the bed. 31): • Column type.2. • Portable benches. which shows an example of a columntype bed used for manufacturing doubletee beams.PRETENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 37 3. The following types are generally used (Ref. each with its own range of application depending on the product being produced.
• Supported on piles: The structural action of the piles provides the required stability in this case (see Fig. • Founded on sound rock: In this case. The manner in which stability against sliding and overturning of the abutments is provided depends on the founding conditions as follows: • Embedded in soil: In this case. 39c. It is clear from this figure that the overturning action of the prestressing force on the abutments is counteracted by the self weight of the abutments. In this way. as shown in Fig. the slab is subjected to an axial load only. Abutmentandstrut beds An abutmentandstrut stressing bed basically consists of an abutment at each end joined by a concrete slab or strut. 39b). The abutments can either be embedded in soil. 310.38 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES Independentabutment beds The primary components of an independentabutment bed are two large structurally independent abutments. 39). It should also be noted that the concrete hinges provided between the abutments and the slab ensure that no bending is induced in the slab. Independentabutment beds are commonly used and can provide a fairly cheap solution in the case of long beds. 39a). 31). Prestressing force Passive soil pressure Prestressing force W (a) Embedded in soil Prestressing force Soil overburden Concrete Tension piling Compression piling (b) Supported on piles Rock Steel dowels anchored in drilled holes or prestressed anchors (c) Founded on rock Figure 39: Independent abutments (Ref. and that its sliding action is resisted by the slab acting as a strut. Evidently. stability against sliding can be provided by keying into the rock while the stability against overturning can be enhanced by anchoring the abutments to the rock with ties or prestressed anchors. the abutmentandstrut bed is the type most commonly used for short beds. together with the paved casting surface between the abutments. supported on piles or founded on rock (see Fig. as shown in Fig. stability is exclusively provided by the self weight of the abutment and passive soil pressure (see Fig. .
1). and by holdup devices which bear on the bed at the high positions (see Section 3. Tendondeflecting beds After tensioning. Because of this loading condition. Whereas rams are used to apply the prestressing force. This can be done either by providing the deadend abutment with removable uprights which can be fitted in several positions (see Fig. anchored to the bed at the holddown points. When fitted with an intermediate abutment.2. 312b). the slab component of the bed is subjected to large vertical loads in addition to the axial load associated with the structural action of an abutmentandstrut bed. 31). 311. deflected tendons are held in position by holddown devices. the potential efficiency of the stressing bed can be improved even more by designing the bed so that the prestressing force can be applied from either end.3 Structural frames The hardware used for prestressing the products can conveniently be viewed as consisting of the structural frame together with the hydraulic rams and pumping unit. but are seldom used. An alternative solution. • The slab must be reinforced or prestressed to sustain the combined flexure and thrust to which it is subjected. 31). 312a). can be improved by providing some means by which its length can be adjusted. Consequently. Prestressing force P Vertical forces induced by deflected tendons P This portion of bed is subjected to combined axial load and bending Figure 311: Tendondeflecting stressing bed (Ref. 3. Portable beds Portable beds are usually made of structural steel. or by providing an intermediate abutment with removable uprights (see Fig. with regard to the waste of pretensioning reinforcement or with regard to the production process. which is often simpler and cheaper.PRETENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 39 Prestressing force P Recess to accomodate stressing mechanism Concrete hinge P Abutment Figure 310: Strut Abutmentandstrut stressing bed (Ref. tendondeflecting stressing beds. The efficiency of a universal stressing bed. structural frames are required to transfer this force to the abutments and to . is to splice the strand at the required length. • Tendondeflecting beds are much more expensive than abutmentandstrut beds of equal capacity. differ from abutmentandstrut beds as follows: • The use of concrete hinges between the abutments and slab is no longer feasible.2. of which a typical layout is given in Fig.
the following structural steel components can usually be identified: Uprights. at least. 31): • The capacity of the bed. of releasing them. The required capacity of the jack depends on the type. Although the specific details of the structural configuration of frames will differ. 31). size and number of wires. it is anchored to the concrete by a purpose made anchorage supplied with the system. after which the tendons are tensioned and anchored. specially designed jacks are usually supplied with each particular type of posttensioning system.310 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES Fixed upright Removable upright Alternate upright positions Stressing end (a) Stressing bed with removable uprights Fixed upright Removable uprights Dead end Fixed upright Stressing end Intermediate abutment (b) Stressing bed with intermediate abutment Alternate stressing end Figure 312: Stressing beds with adjustable length (Ref. • The method to be used for releasing the prestressing force. The design of a structural frame for a particular situation must reflect the requirements of the installation and should. 3. from as low as 40 kN to as high as 10000 kN. particularly with regard to the details of the anchorages and the tendons. Although the specific details of anchorages vary from system to system. the prestressing operations are carried out only after the concrete has developed sufficient strength to sustain the induced loads. • The range and types of product to be manufactured on the bed. essentially two types of anchorage are commonly used for anchoring the tendon at its stressing end: . It is essential that jacks can easily accommodate the specific technical requirements of the prestressing system. maintain a constant strain in the tendons during the production cycle. depending on the design of the system.3 POSTTENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 3. The most common method of tensioning the tendons in posttensioning systems is the mechanical prestressing by means of hydraulic jacks which react against the concrete.3. strand or bars in each tendon and consequently shows a large variation. Obviously. Consequently. pull rods.1 Basic principle and procedure In posttensioning systems the concrete is first cast and allowed to harden. The prestressing force is transferred to the concrete by the anchorage assemblies which bear against the concrete. • The method to be used for tensioning the tendons. This consideration also covers the aspect of whether the bed is fixed or universal. After a tendon has been tensioned. cross beams and templates. They also provide the means of tensioning and anchoring the tendons and. cover the following considerations (Ref.
36). . The tendons can either be preplaced in the sheath prior to casting. which provides corrosion protection for the strand. In the case of bonded tendons. in the case of a bar. ducts are formed in the hardened concrete through which the tendons can be passed and subsequently tensioned. A typical single strand unbonded tendon is shown in Fig. Tendons can only be posttensioned if they are not bonded to the concrete at the time of tensioning. This is usually accomplished by placing mortartight metal or plastic tubes (also referred to as ducts or sheaths) along the intended profiles of the tendons before the concrete is cast. the anchoring of the tendons represents the final step in the posttensioning operation because the ducts are not subsequently filled with grout. In the case of wires. strand or bar by means of wedges. • Those which anchor the tendon by direct bearing. cement grout is injected into the duct to fill the void between each tendon and its duct (see Fig. the grout effectively bonds the tendon to the surrounding concrete and also provides protection against corrosion of the prestressing steel. this is achieved by means of cold formed rivet heads or socalled buttonheads while. 313a). Unbonded tendons remain unbonded over their entire length for the service life of the structure. 35). After the tendons have been anchored. Thus. These tendons are primarily used in the posttensioned slab systems found in building construction because of the considerable economies offered by this technique under these circumstances. 313b and consists of a grease coated single sevenwire strand encased in a plastic sheath. depending on the system being used. Corrugated metal or plastic sheath Filled with grout (a) Bonded multistrand tendon Plastic tube Grease Strand (b) Unbonded monostrand tendon Figure 313: Bonded and unbonded tendons (Ref. a nut which threads onto the end of the bar is used. In the case of unbonded tendons. and it is important to note that they are attached to the concrete only at their ends by the anchorages.POSTTENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 311 • Those which produce a frictional grip on the individual wires. This type of tendon is prefabricated in the factory by extruding the plastic sheath over the strand after the strand has been coated with a layer of grease. or can be threaded through the ducts after the concrete has hardened. the completion of the posttensioning operation depends on whether the tendons are bonded or unbonded. Upon hardening. The anchorages used in South Africa usually conform to the requirements of BS 4447 (Ref.
7 mm Ranges of tendon force for various tendon types. a designer must be familiar with the available posttensioning systems to ensure that members are detailed to satisfy the practical requirements of these systems in terms of housing the tendons and anchorages.7 mm 55 Strands 55 Strands 19 Strands 15 Strands 1 Strand 1 Strand 10 000 Tendon force. Posttensioning systems can conveniently be divided into four general categories (Refs.7 Aps fpu (kN) 9 000 8 000 7 000 6 000 4 000 3 000 2 000 1 000 Threadbar 15 mm to 36 mm Multiwire 7 mm 55 Wires 13 Wires 1 Wire 5 000 Figure 314: Monostrand 12.312 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 3. they differ in the type of tendon which is used. 31 and 35): Multistrand systems. 0. 314. . Aps ≡ fpu 11 000 Area of prestressing steel ≡ Characteristic tensile strength Multistrand 12. to encourage competitive tendering. multiwire systems. The tendon forces that can be achieved with each of these types of system are compared in Fig. For this reason.3. a generalised description of the typical features of posttensioning systems which fall within each of the abovementioned categories is given in the following. Although the basic principle used in these systems are essentially similar. monostrand systems and high strength bar (including multibar) systems. and receiving the jacks used for tensioning the tendons. It is strongly recommended that the details of a particular system should be obtained from the pamphlets issued by the company or to consult its representatives.9 mm Multistrand 15.9 mm and 15. the details of the anchorages and the method used for tensioning the tendons.2 Posttensioning systems Several posttensioning systems are available in South Africa. It is usual for designers in South Africa to furnish designs which can reasonably accommodate a number of the available posttensioning systems. Since a detailed description of all the available posttensioning systems is beyond the scope of this book.
The effects of the loss of tendon elongation resulting from seating of the anchorage must be accounted for in design.7 mm sevenwire strand usually being used. The most commonly used anchorages make use of the principle of wedge action. with the strands usually being individually gripped by two. upon release of the jack. When tensioned from one end only.or threepiece conical wedge grips which seat in tapered holes contained in the anchorage block (see Fig.POSTTENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 313 Multistrand systems The details of a typical multistrand system are shown in Fig. Some systems of this type offer tendons with up to 55 strands. in the case of long or appreciably curved tendons. 315. either 12. In these systems each tendon is made up of a number of strands. the subsequent pullin of the strand seats the grips which anchor the strand. from both ends to reduce friction losses. Tendon Sheath Wedge grips Pressure plate Hydraulic ports Permanent anchorage block/head Rubber springs Jack foot Grey cast iron or fabricated cone Grout injection point Jack piston Steel anchorage block Temporary wedge grips Figure 315: Typical multistrand posttensioning system. Tendons can be tensioned from one end only or. Some systems include special devices for ramming the grips to reduce the anchorage seating loss as well as the scatter of the individual anchorage pullin values for the strands contained in the tendon. 315).9 mm or 15. When a tendon is tensioned the wedge grips are inserted in the tapered holes around each strand and. a tendon is anchored at its other end by a deadend anchorage which can either be cast directly into the concrete or .
314 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES Swages Swage holder plate Spiral Duct Wire ties Block Guide (a) Swaged anchorage Grout tube Spiral Splayed end Reinforcement grid Side view Top view (b) Splayed strand anchorage Grout tube Spiral Uplate Tension ring Side view Duct Top view (c) Looped anchorage Figure 316: Typical deadend anchorages for multistrand posttensioning systems. .
After the required elongation has been reached. multistrand systems are by far the most commonly used systems for bonded construction because of their versatility and economy. . In this figure phase 1 of the construction contains the tendons which have already been tensioned and anchored. the anchorhead is locked in the stressed position with packing pieces inserted between the anchorhead and the bearing plate (see Fig. Thin shims are usually available. One of the advantages of this type of anchorage is that the anchorage seating loss is negligible. 317. 318 uses 7 mm wire and can be supplied with tendons containing up to 55 wires each. Tendons can either be completely prefabricated in a factory or they can be made up on site with field buttonheading equipment. Dead end anchorages and couplers are available for these systems. Purpose made multiuse jaws. The specific system shown in Fig. Typical examples of deadend anchorages for multistrand tendons are shown in Fig. require that tendons be joined to form a continuous tendon even though the member is constructed and posttensioned in a number of phases or segments. are used to attach the strand to the jack (see Fig. 315). The wires are anchored by buttonheads. The buttonheads are coldformed with a special headforming machine after the wires have been threaded through the anchorheads at each end. which are self releasing after completion of the tensioning operation. for making fine adjustments to the anchoring force to accommodate discrepancies between the estimated and measured elongations. Phase 2 Phase 1 Figure 317: Typical tendon coupler for multistrand posttensioning systems. 316. Most systems use hydraulic centrehole jacks capable of simultaneously tensioning all the strands in a particular tendon. This can be achieved by making use of couplers of which a typical example for a multistrand system is shown in Fig. The jacks used for the tensioning operations are supplied by the manufacturer and are designed to suit the tendons and anchorages of the particular system.POSTTENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 315 mounted on the surface of the concrete. 318. All wires in a tendon are tensioned simultaneously using a hydraulic jack attached to the anchorhead. 318d). Some types of construction procedure. Multiwire systems The components and basic principle of a typical multiwire system which anchors the wires by means of buttonheads are illustrated in Fig. In South Africa. which bear directly onto the anchorhead (see Figs. 318a and b). such as the segmental construction of a boxgirder bridge. while phase 2 contains the coupled tendons which are still to be tensioned. in addition to the packing pieces. formed at their ends. These systems use tendons which each consist of a number of smooth highstrength steel wires. It is essential that the length of the tendon as well as its elongation be estimated as accurately as possible to ensure that the tendon elongation at anchoring corresponds to the desired prestressing force.
Monostrand systems The distinguishing feature of monostrand posttensioning systems is the fact that each tendon comprises a single sevenwire strand. 313b.7 mm being the most commonly used sizes. The jack bears on a stressing bridge which transfers the jack reaction to the concrete (see Figs. the anchorages used in monostrand systems make use of two. The hydraulic jacks used for tensioning the tendons of these systems are supplied with the hardware required for attaching them to the anchorhead. These systems are only used in situations where multistrand systems or any of the other available systems cannot offer a satisfactory solution. The details of a typical monostrand system are shown in Fig. 318 uses a centrehole hydraulic jack to apply the tensioning force to the anchorhead by means of a pull rod which threads into a stressing sleeve which. 319 together with the construction sequence for a posttensioned slab.316 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES Coldformed buttonhead Buttonhead 7 mm diameter wire (a) Buttonhead anchor Stressing sleeve Stressing bridge Threaded anchorhead (b) Multiwire tendon Pull rod Bearing plate (c) Tendon tensioned by pull rod Stressing bridge Packing pieces Pull rod Sleeve Bearing plate Cylinder (e) Jack details (d) Locking the anchorhead into position Figure 318: Typical multiwire posttensioning system (Ref. in turn.or threepiece conical wedge grips which seat in tapered holes . with 12. These systems are usually unbonded and a typical tendon is shown in Fig.9 mm and 15. 318c and e). 35). As in the case of multistrand systems. threads onto the anchorhead. The particular system shown in Fig. It is important to note that multiwire systems are usually not used in South Africa any more because of their higher cost.
or pockets. (4) Tension and anchor strand . However. 319a and c). are usually supplied with the anchorages for fastening them to the forms and for forming tensioning voids. 319). referred to as grommets. the anchorages are designed to anchor only one strand and are therefore small. Plastic former (grommet) Anchorage body Wedge grips (a) Anchorage details Corrosion protection cap Form Corrosion protection sleeve Corrosion protection sleeve Grommet Monostrand Deadend anchorage Intermediate anchorage (b) Monostrand system for slab posttensioning Hydraulic pump Stressing anchorage (5) Cut excess strand. 35). cap end and fill in hole with weather resistant grout Tendon profile support (3) Place wedge grips (2) Remove grommet (1) Placement of monostrand and anchorage nailed to formwork (c) Construction sequence for posttensioned slab Figure 319: Typical monostrand posttensioning system (Ref.POSTTENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 317 in the anchorage body to anchor the strand (see Figs. in the concrete (see Fig. Plastic elements.
319. which has deformations rolled on over the entire length of the bar to form a continuous screw thread. It is to be noted that the hydraulic jacks used for tensioning the tendons are small and light so that the tensioning equipment can usually be operated by one person. Although single bar tendons are most commonly used. These factors. The bar can be supplied in most of the standard sizes (see Table 211) either as smooth bar or as threadbar. 320. while successive sections of the same continuous tendon can be tensioned separately by using an open throat jack to stress at intermediate points between partial slabs. practically all castinplace prestressed slabs. together with the elimination of the grouting operation as well as the simplicity and efficiency of the tensioning operation all offer considerable economies. Unbonded monostrand systems are particularly well suited for the posttensioning of thin slabs and narrow members because the small tendon diameter allows optimum eccentricities and because the compact anchorages can be accommodated by such thin members. are posttensioned by unbonded monostrand systems. multiple bar tendons are possible. .318 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES The various steps involved in installing and tensioning a monostrand tendon is summarised in Fig. Couplers are not required for monostrand systems because tendons can be supplied to almost any required length. the wedges are hydraulically seated in the factory. Bar systems usually use bonded tendons. which is self explanatory. Deadend anchorages are normally installed in the factory and. in the case of wedge anchorages. flat plates and flat slabs. Bar systems Bar systems are characterized by the fact that high strength bar is used for the tendons. The (a) Bell and plate anchorages End shutter Removable pocket former Grout tube Sheathing Ratchet Grout sleeve Bell anchorage Removable plastic nut (b) Tendon assembly at stressing end (c) Jack Details Figure 320: Typical threadbar posttensioning system. A typical single bar posttensioning system is shown in Fig. encountered in building structures in South Africa. but unbonded tendons provided with a corrosion protection system are available. The bar is anchored by a nut which threads onto the end of the bar and seats into either a bellshaped or plate anchorage. Hence.
Both anchorage types shown in Fig. 320c). An example of a deadend anchor for a threadbar system is shown in Fig. couplers can be used to provide tendons of almost any length. . When smooth bar is used. It is important to note. It should be noted that wedge anchorages have been developed for use with smooth bar tendons.POSTTENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 319 seat is spherical to prevent the development of significant bending moments in the bar when the axis of the bar is not perpendicular to the anchor plate (Ref. the jack is provided with a ratchet which is used to tighten the anchor nut against the anchor plate while the bar is being tensioned (see Fig. This difficulty. that the elongation of the tendon must be estimated as accurately as possible to ensure that the threaded length is such that the nut is turned to its end at anchorage. a situation which. sufficient space must be provided in the concrete surrounding the couplers to allow the movement which takes place during tensioning. of which an example for a threadbar system is shown in Fig. such as pulling bars and pulling nuts. 31). the use of threadbar is particularly attractive because the continuous thread makes it possible to cut the bar to any required length. The prime advantage of the bell anchorage is that the anchor ring contains the splitting forces induced by the anchorage after the tendon is tensioned. are usually of the sleeve type which simply screw onto each of the bars to be spliced. and also because the coupling hardware and operation are simple and relatively low in cost. 321a. In some systems. threads must be provided at the ends of the bar for the anchor nuts. for example. However. after tensioning. 320a exhibit negligible anchorage seating losses when properly installed. does not exist for threadbar. When bars need to be coupled. so that the full strength of the bar can be developed (Ref. These couplers. The length in which the bar can be supplied is often limited by production practice as well as transportation and storage requirements. It is important to note that when these sleeve couplers are used to splice bars. Any special hardware required for attaching the jack to the tendon. (a) Coupler Bell anchorage Grout tube Sheathing Anchor nut (b) Bell anchorage Figure 321: Typical deadend anchorage and coupler for a threadbar posttensioning system. in this regard. 32). arises in segmental and phase construction. is supplied with the jack. The couplers can also be used to extend a previously tensioned bar. 321b. in which case the thread runs over the complete length of the bar. A centrehole hydraulic jack is commonly used for the tensioning operation. of course.
on the other hand. equipment and the labour required to install. 33): • Tensioning should commence with tendons which are not located close to the edge of the section. the fundamental difference between the various systems lies in the type of tendon which is used. is based on its strength at the time of tensioning (Ref. if present. particularly in larger members. be removed or loosened before tensioning the tendons.3 Posttensioning operations After the concrete has reached the specified strength the tendons can be tensioned but. It is essential that all side forms and other obstructions which may restrain the deflections and shortening of the member. These tensile stresses can lead to the development of visible cracks. The measured elongations are used to check the pressure gauge readings and to give an indication of the average force over the length of the tendon. 32). • When a member is to be prestressed transversely as well as longitudinally. and shrinkage of the concrete. 33). 3. The following aspects regarding the sequence of tensioning should also be noted (Ref. However. Examples of such conditions are the development and subsequent decrease of the heat of hydration. the full prestressing force should be applied as late as is practically feasible to minimise the effects of shrinkage and creep of the concrete (Ref. sliding bearings are cleaned and that any devices used for temporarily fixing the bearings are released prior to tensioning. induced by prestressing. temperature differentials induced by variations in the external temperature. placed in the load path of the jack. by measuring the hydraulic pressure applied to the jack using a pressure gauge and. which does not extend over the full length of a member is tensioned. the choice is often an economic one. It often happens that a number of systems will work equally well for a particular application. Hence. tension and grout the tendons. 37) before . Consequently the selection of a specific system for a particular application will depend on how well these features of the system will meet the requirements of the job. When a member contains a number of tendons. that is. The stressing equipment should be calibrated to an accuracy of at least ± 2% (Ref. For this reason. Sometimes it may be necessary to tension some of the tendons in two steps to meet this requirement (Ref. as a general rule.3. • Before a tendon. the sequence in which they are tensioned must ensure that severe eccentric loading is avoided at all stages of the tensioning operation. It is important to ensure that the compressive stress permitted in the concrete when it is initially prestressed. and to ensure that the measurements of pressure taken from the gauge are accurately translated into force. It is particularly important in this regard to ensure that. secondly. This is achieved by first tensioning a sufficient number of tendons which extend over the entire length of the member. which system will be the cheapest in terms of the cost of the materials. the details of the anchorages and the method used for tensioning the tendons. by measuring the elongation of the tendon. The tensioning force applied to a tendon is monitored in two ways: Firstly. provides the tendon force at the anchorage. The pressure gauge. certain conditions which induce significant tensile stresses in the concrete at an early age may prevail. The theoretical hydraulic pressure required for a given applied force (as obtained by dividing the force by the ram area) will always be less than the measured pressure because of the internal friction of the jack.320 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES Choice of system Since the basic principle of the available posttensioning systems is essentially the same. to produce a calibration curve of hydraulic pressure versus applied force. the transverse tendons should be tensioned first. Jack calibration is usually accomplished by jacking against a laboratory calibrated load cell or proving ring. the stressing equipment must be calibrated. the concrete surrounding its internal anchorage must first be subjected to compression. A possible remedy for this problem is to apply a moderate prestress at a very early age and then to apply the full prestress at a later age when the specified concrete strength has developed. 33).
the calibration of the stressing equipment should. When a large number of tendons are to be tensioned. used as the starting point for measuring elongation. taken at regular load increments as tensioning proceeds. Note that the calculated tendon elongation should include a correction which accounts for the elongation of the length of the tendon that extends from the anchor to the jack grip position. or in combination. Any of the following causes will individually. A loadelongation diagram can be constructed by plotting measurements of load against elongation. • The actual steel crosssectional areas are smaller than assumed for the calculations. this problem can be solved by making use of the fact that the material behaviour of both the concrete and steel remains linear elastic at the stress levels induced by the prestress (Ref. 33): • The assessment of the effects of tendon friction is too conservative. Tendon elongations recorded during the tensioning operation provide a check on the applied tensioning force by plotting them as a loadelongation diagram. is simply to consider the calculated and measured increments of elongation beyond the initially applied prestress. 35 and 38). It should be noted that some posttensioning systems supply dynamometers which work in series with the jack. so that the tendon force can be directly monitored during the tensioning operation. the calibration should be repeated at regular intervals. so that the zero point can be obtained by extrapolating the loadelongation diagram to the value of zero load (see Fig. . Specifically. However. at least. It is generally required that the measured tendon elongation should agree with the calculated value to within ± 5% (Refs. Because the material behaviour is essentially linear elastic. on very large projects. result in the measured tendon elongation being larger than the calculated value (Ref. The normal procedure is to stress the tendon to between 5 and 10% of the full tensioning force and to use this position as the starting point for measuring the elongation (Ref. • The value assumed for the modulus of elasticity of the prestressing steel for the calculation of elongation is larger than the actual value. An alternative approach. 33). 37). Ref. 37 requires that the measured elongation of an individual tendon must agree with the calculated value to within ± 6%.POSTTENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 321 tensioning any of the tendons. which is often followed in practice. P3 Tensioning force P P2 Measured points P1 Extrapolation of loadelongation diagram to P = 0 ∆1 ∆2 ∆3 Tendon elongation Initial starting point for measuring elongation Zero point for measuring elongation Figure 322: Determining the zero point for measuring tendon elongation. It is difficult to establish the zero point for the measurement of tendon elongation because of slack. which can be directly compared to the calculated diagram. which has to be taken up before a tension is induced in the tendon. while the average difference between the measured and calculated elongations for all the tendons in a member must be less than ± 3%. be repeated after completion of the tensioning operations while. 322). these points should plot as an almost straight line.
When a long or appreciably curved tendon is tensioned from one end only. the tensioning force should not simply be increased to obtain the required elongation because of the danger of overstressing the tendon in the tensioned portion. a loss of elongation takes place because of the pullin of the strand when the wedge grips are seated. the anchorage set is of the order of 6 mm. care must be taken to ensure that the permissible tendon stress is not exceeded. Reference 37 requires that the elongation be measured to an accuracy of ± 2% or 2 mm. 33 and 35). This event is usually characterised by an increase in elongation without the associated increase in tensioning force. the effects of friction will lead to a considerable loss of force along its length. the temporary tension thus applied must not exceed 80% of its specified . or alternative. excessive friction can be overcome by injecting watersoluble oil into the duct. rust or the ingress of grout into the duct during casting of the concrete. appears to be dependent not only on the anchorage type. while the level of the tensioning force in the remainder of the tendon is essentially unknown. for example. 31 and 33). Note that anchorage set can be compensated for by installing shims behind the anchorhead. The magnitude of the anchorage deformation. the tendons are anchored when the hydraulic pressure on the jack is released. In this event. The calculated tendon elongation may not be achieved during tensioning for the following reasons (Ref. The total loss of elongation which takes place when a tendon is anchored is often referred to as the anchorage set (also pullin or anchorage seating). It is important to note that when the tensioning force is transferred from the jack to the anchorage. If wedgetype anchorages are being used. When overstressing a tendon. In some cases. An additional. procedure which can be followed is to retension the tendon after it has been temporarily overstressed (see Refs. a further loss of elongation takes place because of the resulting deformation of the anchorage components. posttensioning systems using anchorages which yield a significant anchorage set are not suitable for use with short tendons. During such an operation. 33): • The actual tendon friction is higher than assumed in the calculations because of. the oil must be removed after tensioning by flushing the duct with water. but also on the quality of workmanship (see Refs. In extreme cases of grout ingress. whichever is the most accurate. This loss of force can be reduced by tensioning the tendon from both ends. Clearly.322 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES • An anchorage or the concrete surrounding the anchorage has failed. • The actual steel crosssectional areas are larger than assumed for the calculations. while the anchorages commonly used for threadbar systems do not show appreciable anchorage set if properly installed. This event is identified by a loud cracking sound and a sudden drop in the applied tendon force. Reference 37 specifies that the anchorage set should be measured to an accuracy of ± 2 mm and requires that the measured values must agree with the values assumed for design to within ± 2 mm. Anchorage set must be recorded in the field to ensure that the values being obtained agree with those assumed for design. and must be considered in design. • A wire or strand in the tendon has fractured. • The value assumed for the modulus of elasticity of the prestressing steel for the calculations is smaller than the actual value. It is far better practice to overcome the obstruction by repetitively releasing and reapplying the tensioning force. After the prescribed tensioning force has been reached. It is generally recommended that tendon elongation be measured to an accuracy of ± 2%. For strand anchored by wedge grips. the tendon can actually be jammed in the duct so that only the portion of the tendon which extends from the obstruction to the point of tensioning is stressed. 32. which can be appreciable for some systems. If this step is taken.
such as: • Making sure that personnel are kept away from the back of the tensioning equipment and the anchorage at the opposite end of the tendon. The list given above is by no means exhaustive.4 Ducting for bonded construction In posttensioned construction. 37 and 38). for example. and 0. • They must be flexible enough to be placed on the required profile without buckling. The schedule which gives the sequence in which the tendons are to be tensioned. It is essential that the tensioning operation be supervised and carried out by experienced personnel who are familiar with the posttensioning system. for small tendons. and the material used for the duct must not have any adverse chemical reaction with the concrete. 313a). and to maintain their shape under the weight of the fresh concrete. as well as those which give the tensioning forces and corresponding anticipated pressure gauge measurements. This is accomplished by placing ducts along the specified tendon profiles to form conduits in the hardened concrete through which the tendons can be passed and subsequently tensioned.POSTTENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 323 characteristic tensile strength and. 3. • Ensuring that the tensioning equipment is properly maintained and assembled. 313). equipment and the procedures to be used. 38 and 313): • They must be of a type that does not permit the ingress of cement paste during casting. anchorage or the concrete. and the anticipated anchorage set for each tendon must be available before commencing the tensioning operation (Refs. A considerable amount of strain energy is stored in the tendon during the tensioning operation and failure of the tendon.2 mm.3. jack or an anchorage can lead to a sudden uncontrolled release of this energy. Although not commonly used in South Africa. the tension in the tendon must not exceed 70% of its characteristic tensile strength (Refs. In South Africa. 311 and 312. while the thickness of the strip steel generally ranges between 0. The tensioning equipment must be capable of applying the load in a controlled manner without imposing significant secondary stresses on the tendon. • Immediately stopping the tensioning operation in the event of an unusual occurrence such as. 37. 39 and 310). ducts must satisfy the following requirements (Refs. • They must be rigid enough to maintain the profile on which they are placed during casting. the ducts most commonly used are made of spirally wound steel strip which forms flexible corrugated sheathing (see Fig. for large tendons (Ref. A primary advantage of the polyethylene and polypropylene ducts is that they offer improved corrosion protection when compared to ducts made . the shape of the ducts must be of a type which will enhance the transfer of bond from the grout to the surrounding concrete. • They must be strong enough to resist damage during handling and casting. polyethylene and polypropylene tubing has successfully been used in Europe for many years. and further information regarding safety precautions in posttensioning can be obtained from Refs. In bonded construction. and that provision be made for an alternative power source which can be used in the case of a breakdown. Therefore. a sharp noise being heard or a bearing plate receding into the concrete. tendons or grout. the tendons are tensioned after the concrete has been cast and after it has developed the specified strength. after anchoring. and ensuring that it is not misused.6 mm. It is also strongly recommended that the tensioning equipment be power driven. The corrugations are required for bond strength. the calculated elongations. It is therefore important to exercise extreme caution when tensioning the tendons by taking a number of safety precautions. Such an occurrence may cause serious injury to any person standing in line with the jack or the anchorage at the opposite end of the tendon.
internal vibrators. Each anchorage must also be installed in such a way that it will not be displaced during casting. The importance of this inspection is underscored by the fact that the cost associated with clearing the areas affected by the ingress of grout into the ducts often exceeds the cost of properly sealing the ducting before casting. The recommended minimum size of the inner diameter of the vent tubes ranges between 20 mm and 25 mm (Refs. which requires the use of closely spaced supports. 313 and 314). such as in continuous slabs. at the following positions: • At the high points of the duct if the drape of the tendon. . Water and bleed water which can accumulate in the resulting air pockets can lead to corrosion of the prestressing steel and. It is also recommended that the vent tubes should extend a distance of at least 500 mm above the surface of the concrete (Ref. high point vents are not required. or insufficient concrete strength can lead to failure of the concrete in these regions during tensioning. Areas congested by reinforcement and other embedded materials are particularly prone to this problem. 323). Reference 38 suggests that in cases where the tendon curvature is small. is that the ducts must not be displaced during casting. The ducts must be installed to the specified alignment by securely tying them to closely spaced suppports. that they have not been damaged during installation. measured from the highest point to the lowest point exceeds 500 mm (see Fig. Since voids in the concrete behind the anchorage bearing plates. and connections to the ducts are completely grouttight. seriously impair the durability of the structure.5 times the area of the prestressing steel. Particular care should be taken to ensure that all joints in. the supports and ties must adequately resist the bouyancy forces which arise during casting. It is essential that each duct be fixed to its anchorage in such a way that the tendon axis is perpendicular to the bearing surface of the anchorage. if it is draped. 324c) (Ref. in so doing.324 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES of strip steel. When only the duct is placed before casting.5 m should generally not be exceeded. free of voids. 324a and b). and the tendon profile. When casting the concrete. • At significant changes in the duct crosssection. Reference 37 recommends that a spacing of between 1. A further consideration. through which trapped air and water can escape. air tends to be trapped at positions where there is a sudden change in the crosssection of the duct and. 37). 313). This situation can be prevented by providing vents. It is difficult to give a general rule for the maximum spacing of supports because it depends on whether or not the tendons are preplaced prior to casting as well as on the rigidity of the duct. care must taken to ensure that the ducts are not damaged by. such as at anchorages and at couplers where the duct is enlarged in the region of the anchorage (see Figs. The internal diameter of the duct is generally required to be large enough to yield a duct area of at least 2. The ducts must be carefully inspected after installation to ensure that they have been securely tied into position. the concrete at the anchorages must be properly vibrated to ensure maximum density.0 m and 1. It is important that ducts are installed on smooth curves without kinks to minimize the friction losses which arise during tensioning. This requirement can be satisfied by spacing the duct supports closely enough to prevent the ducts from sagging between them. the type and size of the duct. 37. and steps must be taken to ensure that the bearing plate is uniformly supported over its complete surface by the concrete onto which it bears. for example. Such damage can lead to the ingress of grout into the duct or to a reduction of the duct diameter to such an extent that the tendons cannot be inserted. at the high points of the duct (see Fig. When a tendon is grouted. the supports and ties must be able to support the tendon weight. If the tendons are preplaced in the ducts prior to casting. with the tendon being installed prior to tensioning. and that grout cannot leak into them during casting.
the situation can arise where ducts. it should be clear that a suitable grout must comply with the following requirements: • Since the grout must flow over long distances in a fairly confined space. 313). (a) Ref. and drain tubes should be installed at all the low points of the ducts to ensure that they are properly drained (Refs.POSTTENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 325 Air pocket 1 Grout 1 Tendon profile near high point Figure 323: Section 11 Air pocket at tendon high point resulting from inadequate venting (Ref. It is essential to ensure that water should not be allowed to collect in the ducts under such conditions. The ducts cannot be grouted if the temperature of the concrete falls below about 5ºC. 35). 31 and 35).5 Grouting In bonded construction the ducts containing the tendons are filled with cement grout as soon as possible after tensioning. it must maintain its fluidity during the grouting operation to ensure that all voids in the duct are completely filled. The primary reasons for grouting the ducts are to provide corrosion protection for the prestressing steel and to provide a means of bonding the prestressing steel to the surrounding concrete. In the case of long tendons. 3. 35 Figure 324: Placing of vents. provision should be made for intermediate inlets which can be used if difficulties or blockages should develop at the main inlet (Ref. are left ungrouted for a considerable period of time. containing tensioned tendons. . If these objectives are borne in mind. 313 Grout inlet (c) Ref. If freezing temperatures are likely to occur when the tendons are to be tensioned. 313 Grout outlet Duct Vent (b) Ref.3. Anchorages are provided with grout holes or grout tubes which serve as inlets or outlets for the grout.
should be used (Refs. when grouting large diameter ducts. and high speed compulsory mixers.326 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES • The amount of sedimentation as well as the resulting contraction of the grout must be kept as small as possible. 37 and 313). Ref. should not contain more than 500 mg of chloride ions per litre (Refs. the grout is usually passed through a screen with openings not exceeding 5 mm into a holding reservoir equipped with an agitator. Further information on this aspect may be obtained from Refs. It is important that the cement must be fresh and that it should not contain lumps or any other indications of hydration (Ref. The amount of bleed water should not exceed 2% by volume 3 hours after the grout has been mixed. for example. which do not contain chemical substances in quantities which are liable to damage the grout or the prestressing steel. • The hardened grout must have adequate bond and shear strength. • In freezing climates it is essential that steps be taken to ensure that the grout is resistant to frost so that it does not lose strength nor fracture as a result of freezing. and admixtures are sometimes used to improve its properties. The water used for grout must not contain deleterious quantities of substances harmful to the grout or to the prestressing steel and. and it should be completely reabsorbed after 24 hours (Refs. therefore. The grout is delivered at the duct. 33 and 313. all of which must be fine enough to pass through a 0. 37 and 313). from the reservoir. reduced bleeding and retarded setting time. for this reason. after setting. The grouting equipment usually consists of a mixer. When using an expanding agent. 313). Cement and water are the primary constituents of grout.38 to 0. It is generally recommended that the contraction be limited to 2% (Refs. The pump must be able to maintain a pressure of at least 1. other types of cement can be used provided their suitability has been established by tests. Aggregates are usually not added to the mix and are only used under special circumstances. The minimum value of the watercement ratio is usually controlled by the required fluidity of the grout while the maximum value is usually governed by the fact that the grout should not exhibit excessive bleeding. exceeds 20 MPa after 7 days and 30 MPa after 28 days (see Refs. 37 recommends that the cement should not be older than one month. The watercement ratio must be kept as low as possible within a range of 0. The two types of mixers used are: vane mixers. and air entrainment. After mixing. such as when grouting ducts which contain large cavities. The capacity of the mixer and the reservoir must be sufficient to allow the duct to be filled without interruption at the specified speed. to improve freeze resistance. • The grout should exhibit minimum bleeding and. all bleed water must be reabsorbed. 38) and. 35. which maintains the colloidal condition of the grout during the grouting operation. 37 and 313). bearing in mind the above considerations.0 MPa . It is recommended that the aggregate content should not exceed 30% of the weight of the cement (Ref. with a speed of about 1500 rev/min (Ref. Only wellproven admixtures. the objectives of adding admixtures are to improve the properties of the grout such as improved fluidity. 37 and 313).600 mm sieve (Ref. a holding reservoir and a pump together with all the connection hoses and valves. having a speed of approximately 1000 rev/min. This requirement is deemed to be satisfied if the compressive strength of 100 mm cubes. 37). or other ingredients harmful to the grout itself or to the prestressing steel (Refs. • The grout should not contain excessive quantities of chlorides. Ordinary Portland cement is most commonly used for grout but. and to impart other properties to the grout such as expansion. if conditions require their use. nitrates. 37 and 313). 37). trass or very fine sand. Therefore. 33 and 313). Fine aggregate can consist of siliceous granules. Mechanical mixers are used to consistently produce a homogeneous and stable grout which is free of lumps. tested at 20ºC. by a pump capable of providing a steady flow of grout. Admixtures are used only when the desired properties of the grout cannot be obtained by a suitable mixture of cement and water. to compensate for contraction. the unrestrained expansion of the grout should be limited to 5% (Ref. finely ground limestone. Fine aggregate may be added under special circumstances such as.43. sulfides. 313).
The grout should be discarded after 30 minutes unless a retarder is used. admixture (if used). if a blockage is encountered or if a breakdown of the grouting equipment occurs during grouting). Grouting should not be undertaken if the ambient temperature drops below 5ºC.5 MPa. into the nearest vent tube. if the grouting operation is interrupted for some reason (e. 313 and 314). • For high speed compulsory mixers: Water. cement. the grouting operation can be restarted. The grout is usually injected at the lowest inlet and. after which the tubes must be closed. . It should be noted that excessive pressures which develop during grouting can lead to water segregation and can also cause cracking or damage to the structural element. The first vent tube after the inlet is closed once the grout flowing out of it does not contain visible slugs of water or air. 37). approximately two thirds of the cement. 37). and care should be taken to ensure that the ducts are free from ice or frost before grouting commences in cold weather (Ref. If such an inspection reveals the presence of voids. Further information on grouting equipment may be obtained from Refs. Grouting hoses and all hose connections must be airtight and must be of a size and type which will prevent the buildup of pressure during grouting (Refs. 313: • For vane mixers: all the water. the grouting operation must immediately be stopped to prevent a large pressure. Grouting should proceed continuously in one direction at a rate which is slow enough to prevent segregation of the grout. and should be avoided. the admixture (if used). The grout should also immediately be flushed out of the duct by injecting water. After the outlet has been closed. The remaining vent tubes and the outlet are closed in sequence in the same manner. After removing the obstruction which caused the blockage. The sequence in which this takes place depends on the type of mixer. must be at hand. whichever is the greater. Before grouting. must be maintained on the grout for at least 5 minutes before closing the inlet (Ref. Reference 313 suggests that a rate of between 5 and 15 m per minute should be used. and is of the same consistency as at the inlet. 33. which can damage the structure. The grouting operation begins by adding the constituent materials of the grout to the mixer. It is extremely important that all grouting equipment must be in good working order. If an expanding agent is included in the grout mix. specific steps must be taken to protect the prestressing steel from corrosion. in the initial stages of the grouting operation. depending on the specific circumstances (see Refs.POSTTENSIONING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES 327 on a completely filled duct. the ducts should be checked for obstructions by water injection and all excess water should afterwards be displaced by the grout. 37 and 313).g. the remaining cement. against the direction of grouting. 313 and 314. the vent tubes should be opened after the grout has hardened and inspected to establish the extent of the grout fill. the final grouting pressure or a pressure of at least 0. the vent tubes must be reopened shortly after grouting to allow bleed water to escape. Equipment required for providing compressed air and for flushing grout out a duct. The ducts should be grouted within 7 days after tensioning. the problem can be remedied by topping up the vent tubes with grout or by undertaking a regrouting operation. and the following is recommended by Ref. while the duct progressively fills. and it should be equipped with a pressure gauge as well as a safety device which will prevent pressures exceeding 2. is wasted at the vents and at the outlet. The mixing time of the grout also depends on the type of mixer being used and should not exceed 4 minutes for vane mixers or 2 minutes for high speed compulsory mixers (Ref. from developing in the duct. If a blockage is encountered in a duct. 37. In all cases. and should the grouting operation be delayed for a longer period. 313). The system should also be capable of recirculating the grout if pumping is interrupted.0 MPa from developing.
• It is impractical to posttension very short elements because any anchor set will lead to a large percentage loss of tensioning force. • The loss of prestressing force associated with tendon friction during tensioning is significant in posttensioned tendons and must be considered in design as well as during construction.g. 38. which should also be considered when comparing the two methods of prestressing a member. it can be economically feasible for the contractor to set up a temporary prestensioning yard at. It is useful to remember. the transportation cost can also become prohibitive. posttensioned members. 3. can become excessive. is greater than that of posttensioning because of the additional material and labour costs associated with the ducts. the site on projects where a large number of pretensioned elements are to be used. anchorages and grouting required for posttensioning. On the other hand. which are usually constructed and tensioned in situ. the procedure remains costly and limited. measured in terms of cost per unit of tensioning load. . 37. usually at each vent. Although pretensioned tendons can be deflected. Appropriate testing procedures for determining these properties are described in Refs. • The efficiency of pretensioning. that although pretensioning is generally perceived as being limited to permanent precasting factories.328 PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES The fluidity of the grout should be tested immediately after mixing and at regular intervals during the grouting operation. • The tendons in posttensioned elements can easily be placed on smooth curves along the desired profile. • Long and very large members may be more conveniently and economically cast in place and posttensioned. In the case of continuous elements. strength and volume change. Clearly these difficulties are nonexistent if the longline method of pretensioning is used. such as continuous bridge beams. which are cast off site. A flow cone test is normally used for testing fluidity on site (Ref. 33. precast segmental posttensioned bridges). Some of the differences between pretensioning and posttensioning. When the precasting plant is situated too far away from the site. in this regard. can be manufactured in a precasting plant and subsequently transported to site (e. strongly recommended that this highly specialised and critical operation be carried out only by appropriately trained and experienced personnel. • Structural elements can be prestressed in situ only by posttensioning. Sufficient quantities of grout must be taken during grouting. and also because the small elongation of the short tendon requires a high accuracy of measurement. are listed in the following: • The capital investment in the equipment and facilities required for posttensioning is considerably less than for the equipment and industrial layout needed for pretensioning. therefore. It is. because the cost of transporting and handling large pretensioned members. to enable testing of the other properties of the grout such as bleeding. pretensioning becomes impractical.4 PRETENSIONING VERSUS POSTTENSIONING Pretensioning and posttensioning systems each have specific theoretical and practical advantages and disadvantages. These must be considered in conjunction with the particular technical requirements and the prevailing economic considerations for a specific job. before a decision can be made regarding which method of prestressing is to be used. It is extremely important to ensure that the grouting operation is carried out properly because the durability of a bonded posttensioned structure depends on how sucessfully this operation has been completed. 313 and 314. 37). or close to.
Modern Prestressed Concrete: Design Principles and Construction Methods..5 31 32 33 34 35 36 REFERENCES Libby. 1989.. Illinois. M. N. The CSRA Secretariat: Division of Roads and Transport Technology. English translation. “Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Works.. FIP Guide to good practiceGrouting of Tendons in Prestressed Concrete. 1973. Gurfinkel. 4th ed. and Mitchell. London. Part 1. 312 Recommendations for Safety Precautions in PostTensioning Operations. South African Bureau of Standards.” BS 4447:1973 (1990). Glenview. Halfway House. 27. Lin. Khachaturian.” 1st ed. FIP Guide to good practicePrestressed Concrete: Safety Precautions in PostTensioning. London. No. “The Structural Use of Concrete. Berlin. Design of Prestressed Concrete Structures.REFERENCES 329 3. “Structural Use of Concrete. F. John Wiley & Sons. “British Standard Specification for The Performance of Prestressing Anchorages for PostTensioned Construction. McGrawHill Book Company.. Part 1. 1964. Prestressed Concrete Design and Construction. New Jersey. BSI. London. Pretoria. BSI. 1969. Collins. PostTensioning Manual. Council for Scientific and Industrial Reseach. London. 4. Concrete Society of Southern Africa. British Standards Institution. Prestressed Concrete Structures.” SABS 0100: 1992. . SABS. 1990. July/August 1993. Van Nostrand Reinhold. T. Y. R. 1990. G. N. PrenticeHall.. New York. The Concrete Society Journal. P. 1992. 1987. PostTensioning Institute. and Burns.." CONCRETE. 311 FIP Commission on Practical Construction. New York. Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn. Vol. 1981.. reaffirmed 1990.. Thomas Telford Ltd. Pretoria. 313 FIP Commission on Practical Construction.. H. 3rd ed. New York. 37 38 39 310 British Standards Institution.. 1976. 1985. 1991. Prestressed Concrete. Englewood Cliffs. J. Leonhardt. D. Thomas Telford Ltd.” BS 8110: Part 1: 1985.. 314 "Grouting Specifications. Committee of State Road Authorities. Code of Practice for Design and Construction.
41. The material presented in this Chapter covers pretensioned and posttensioned members.2 SIGN CONVENTION Any systematic structural analysis requires a consistent sign convention. It is also important to realise that a computer implementation of any of the analytical procedures considered here should not be contemplated without the use of such a sign convention.e. This is followed by a presentation of methods of analysis. therefore.1 INTRODUCTION It is important that the difference between analysis and design for flexure be clearly understood. The process of design is more complex than that of analysis because. • Stress and force: Stress and force are both taken positive when tensile and negative when compressive. M Negative bending moment . both bonded and unbonded construction are considered. implies that the configuration of the section and the properties of the materials used are known. Analysis includes the processes required for assessing the response of the section to the applied loadings and. according to which positive moment corresponds to a concave deflected shape of the beam while negative moment corresponds to a convex deflected shape. Sections subjected to flexure only are considered here. Analysis usually forms an integral part of the design process because once a section has been designed it must be analysed to check if it satisfies the specified design criteria. it deals with unknowns while. • Bending moment: Ordinary beam convention is applied to bending moment. involves the selection of a suitable section and suitable materials out of many possibilities. on the one hand. after which various design procedures are dealt with. i. Any deviation from these rules is either self evident or clearly indicated in the text. and is defined by the rules listed below. In the case of posttensioned members. such as stress and strain. only the effects of moment are considered. that is. Design. +M +M M Positive bending moment Figure 41: Sign convention for bending moment. tension negative and compression positive. is first discussed. In this Chapter. on the other hand. The analysis of prestressed concrete sections for flexure is no exception to this rule.INTRODUCTION 41 4 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE 4. a large number of combinations of possibilities exist. even though the sense of some variables. can easily be determined by inspection. from zero load to failure. and includes both composite and partially prestressed concrete sections. the flexural behaviour of a prestressed concrete beam section over the complete loading spectrum. the reason being that since prestressed concrete beams are normally under compression the sense of the stress which occurs most often is positive. as shown in Fig. It should be noted that many authors use the opposite convention. 4. on the other hand. The sign convention followed in these notes conforms to that commonly used in structural mechanics.
3. 42). Centroidal axis x e. Plane sections before bending remain plane after bending.3 ANALYSIS 4.42 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE • Section properties: The dimensions. The strain distribution over the depth of a beam in bending varies as a function of the distance from the neutral axis. . area A and the second moment of area about the centroidal axis I of the section are always taken positive. Each of the three basic assumptions are discussed in the following with regard to their impact on the analysis of prestressed concrete beam sections. A large number ec M M Neutral axis k y (a) Beam subjected to flexure Figure 43: (b) Strain distribution with depth Plane sections remain plane during bending. The eccentricity e of the prestressing force is always measured from the centroid of the section and is taken positive below the centroidal axis (see Fig. • The stressstrain relationships of the materials are known. • The relationship between the strain in the steel and the strain in the surrounding concrete is known. 42).1 Basic assumptions The following basic assumptions are required for the analysis of a prestressed concrete beam section: • Plane sections before bending remain plane after bending. The first assumption implies that a linear relationship exists between the strain at a fibre in the concrete and its distance from the neutral axis as shown in Figure 43. The sign of the section modulus Z=I/y with respect to a particular fibre is determined by the distance y of the fibre measured from the centroidal axis. 4. This distance is taken positive for fibres located below the centroidal axis (see Fig. y Figure 42: Axial system for section properties.
it is important to note that the concrete is acting in flexure and not in direct compression or tension. After cracks have developed in the tension zone. • The maximum strain e cu reached in the extreme compression fibre in bending is a function of the concrete strength. According to SABS 0100 (Ref. Consequently the assumption that plane sections remain plane cannot be true in a cracked member when considering individual sections. this assumption will be used. disturbances occur at points where the width of the member abruptly changes. The assumption proves to be accurate for the concrete in the compression zone even at high loads close to the ultimate load. The determination of the stressstrain relationship for concentrically loaded cylinders beyond the cylinder strength is complicated by the fact that special testing equipment is required. In lieu of an alternative. the tensile strain in the uncracked concrete between cracks is known to vary from zero at the crack to some nonzero value at positions located some distance away from the crack because of the action of bond between the steel and the surrounding concrete. In spite of these objections. 41) indicate that this assumption is very nearly correct at all stages of loading up to failure. • The maximum stresses reached in the beam specimens were lower than the cylinder strengths. 45) has shown that the strain at the extreme compression fibre at maximum moment is also a function of the shape of the crosssection. and the following results were obtained: • A similarity exists between the stressstrain relationships for concentrically loaded cylinders and the stressstrain relationship for eccentrically loaded beam specimens. Note that the validity of the first assumption has often been questioned for a number of reasons (Ref. The most notable research was carried out by Hognestad et al (Ref. with the difference increasing with an increase in cylinder strength. • For nonrectangular sections.2.ANALYSIS 43 of tests on reinforced concrete members (Ref. The stressstrain relationships of the materials are known. as presented and discussed in section 2. The stressstrain relationships of both the prestressed and nonprestressed steel. 42) a simply supported beam should be considered as being deep when the ratio of the height of the section to the effective span length exceeds ½. However. application of this assumption by many researchers has shown that a good correlation can be obtained between calculated and measured results so that it can be considered to be accurate enough for design purposes. A great deal of research has been carried out to determine the stressstrain relationship of concrete flexural elements. can be used. The first assumption does not hold for deep beams and regions of high shear. decreasing with an increase in cylinder strength. provided that good bond exists between the concrete and the steel. However. this assumption will hold for this “average” tensile strain (Ref. and the relationship used for the purposes of flexural analysis must therefore take this into account. Rüsch (Ref. 41). 44) and Rüsch (Ref. • The stressstrain relationship for beam specimens could be determined for strains much larger than the strain at which the maximum stress occurs. • The strains are usually measured on the outside of the beam and it could be argued that this situation is not representative of conditions inside the beam. . 43): • Most of the conclusions were derived from the results of tests on beams with rectangular cross sections and measurements were made in a region of constant moment. if the gauge length for measuring strain is large enough to include a number of cracks. 45).
f cu GPa gm 4 e c 0 = 2. much research has been carried out to represent the stress distribution in the compression zone of a beam at ultimate as an equivalent rectangular stressblock. The recommendations given by SABS 0100 (Ref 42) and BS 8110 (Ref. and its influence on behaviour should be accounted for at these load levels. the stressstrain relationships obtained for concrete in direct compression can be applied to beams in bending. the tensile strength of the concrete is usually ignored because its influence on the moment of resistance is small. so that the remaining area in tension is small with a correspondingly small leverarm.0035 Parabolicrectangular stressstrain relationship for concrete in flexure (Refs.0035 0. 67 fcu gm ec0 Neutral axis x s = 0. 67 fcu gm 0. ecu = 0. It should be noted that the equivalent rectangular stressblock is only valid at ultimate. The purpose of the 0. The tensile strength becomes more important when calculating deformations at loadings appropriate to the serviceability limit state. 0. 46. When calculating the response of the section at ultimate. 47 and 48). and not when considering flexural response at other levels of loading. A constant value of 0. 42. .0035 is recommended for e cu and the partial factor of safety g m is discussed later. The parabolicrectangular stressstrain relationship recommended by the design codes of practice commonly used in South Africa (Refs. 42 and 47). This follows because the concrete in the tension zone is usually cracked at ultimate.9 x Strain distribution Figure 45: Parabolicrectangular stress block Equivalent rectangular stress block Rectangular stressstrain relationship for concrete in flexure (Refs.4 ´ 10 f cu gm fcu in MPa ec0 Strain Figure 44: ecu = 0. 67 fcu gm Eci Stress Parabolic curve E ci = 55 . 47) are summarized in Figure 45.67 factor is to take into account the differences between the cube strength f cu and the experimentally obtained results for beams in bending.44 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE If the above points are kept in mind. Because the stressstrain relationship is usually difficult to determine and to deal with computationally. 47 and 48) is shown in Figure 44. 46. 42.
When point D is reached the strain in the concrete at the level of the prestressing steel is zero. and it is zero when y tends to infinity. i. is acting on the section with no applied loading. several important points can be identified and are denoted by capital letters A to H. the total change in length of the concrete at the level of the prestressing steel is assumed to be equal to the change in length of the prestressing steel.3.3. With a further increase in moment the tensile stress at the bottom of the section will increase until point E is reached where the tensile strength of the concrete f r is exceeded and the concrete cracks. At each of these points the corresponding stress distribution is also shown. The prestressing tendons are bonded to the concrete and have material properties as shown in Figure 46b. and is determined by the following expression (see Fig.e. The curvature is positive when the bottom of the section has an algebraically larger strain than the top of the section.e. The distribution of the strain in unbonded tendons is assumed to be uniform along the length of the member. This is a particularly useful relationship because it only considers the response at a section and is independent of the response of the member as a whole. However.5 for definition). Point A on the momentcurvature relationship indicates the point of zero moment where only the effective prestressing force. Consider a typical beam section as shown in Figure 46a. including all losses. the strains at the top and bottom of the section are equal.1). 4. it is a convenient point from which to start the calculations and the self weight will be taken into account as an external moment applied to the section. This approach applies to all bonded steel. As the externally applied moment increases from zero to failure.ANALYSIS 45 The relationship between the strain in the steel and the strain in the surrounding concrete is known. a point of instability is reached where the curvature will increase with an accompanying . 43) k= ec y (41) where e c is the strain in the concrete at a distance y from the neutral axis. The strain in the concrete at the level of the steel is calculated by making use of the assumption that plane sections remain plane. Curvature k is defined as the angle between two faces of an element of unit length after deformation. and the corresponding moment is often refered to as the decompression moment.2 Flexural response By making use of equilibrium and the basic assumptions (see Section 4. the strain at the top of the section will change from tension to compression until point B is reached where the stress at the top of the section will be equal to the stress at the bottom of the section. i. even though it actually varies to some degree because of the effects of friction. a point of zero curvature. It should be noted that the shape of this diagram may differ according to the choice of material properties and level of prestressing. and the change in strain in the steel is subsequently obtained by assuming that it is equal to the calculated strain in the concrete at the level of the steel. as is considered in this example. Under these conditions. With a further increase in moment the stress decreases at the bottom until a point C is reached where it is zero. As the externally applied moment increases. A bilinear stressstrain relationship is assumed for the concrete as shown in Figure 46c. It is interesting to note that the exact shape of the concrete stressstrain relationship has little influence on the behaviour of a underreinforced section (see Section 4. the momentcurvature relationship of a given beam section can be calculated over the full range of loading. The implications of this assumption are discussed in Section 4.3. The calculated momentcurvature diagram is shown in Figure 46e with the initial portion of the diagram enlarged in Figure 46d. At this stage. This case corresponds to the fictitious case of a weightless beam.6.3.
6 mm2 fse = 813. 43).06 8 1 10 Curvature (´10 m ) (d) Initial moment curvature response 40 35 30 25 Concrete becomes plastic (ec = 0.06 0.m) Enlarged above in Figure (d) Range of service load Elastic Uncracked A0 10 20 30 40 50 3 60 1 70 80 90 Curvature (´10 m ) (e) Complete moment curvature response Figure 46 : Moment curvature response of an underreinforced beam with bonded tendons (Ref.0015) G F Steel yields Elastic Cracked E 20 15 10 5 0 10 D C B H Concrete fails Plastic Cracked Moment (kN.6 GPa 25 20 Concrete cracks E fr Zero concrete strain D at level of steel C Decompression B Zero curvature 0.0015 Strain ec 0.46 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE 2000 fpu = 1710 MPa 1500 fpy = 1489 MPa Stress fp 307 Aps 230 1000 Ep = 207 GPa 500 0 Aps = 100.4 MPa Ec = 27.003 Moment (kN.m) 15 10 5 (c) Idealized concrete material properties Only prestressing force 0 2 A0 2 4 6 3 epu = 0.04 Strain ep (b) Idealized prestressing steel material properties 30 Stress fc 41.14 MPa (= fr) 0.02 0. .6 MPa 155 (a) Crosssection 0 0.00015 4.
43). reduction of moment. The excellent agreement with the experimentally obtained curve clearly shows that the basic assumptions can provide reasonable results. makes use of the basic assumptions discussed in Section 4. If the Bernoulli/Navier hypothesis that plane sections remain plane is combined with the assumption that the material behaviour is linear elastic. 47 was calculated on the basis of the moment curvature relationship of Fig. 46 which. 49) 20 30 Deflection D (mm) 40 50 60 Figure 47: Momentdeflection response of an underreinforced beam with bonded tendons (Ref. in turn.m) 30 914 914 914 25 20 15 10 Deflection calculated from moment curvature relationship D 2 742 5 0 0 10 Deflection from experimental results (Ref. Beyond point F. Stability is subsequently regained once an increase in curvature is accompanied by an increase in moment. the tensile force P in the tendon is taken to induce an equal and opposite compressive force P in the concrete acting at the same position. 4. 46e. The maximum moment that the section can resist corresponds to the moment at point H where the concrete fails in compression.3. and at point G the stress in the concrete will reach the end of its elastic range. As indicated in Fig. As discussed in Section 4. the response corresponds to that of a cracked plastic section.3.1.3 Analysis of the uncracked section A prestressed concrete beam section usually remains uncracked over a wide range of moment (see Fig. the section behaves as an elastic uncracked section between points A and E. and as an elastic cracked section between points E and F. Following this approach. 46e).ANALYSIS 47 40 35 Midspan moment (kN. up to failure at point H.2. and beyond this point the section can sustain moments larger than the cracking moment. At point F the stress in the prestressing steel is equal to the yield stress. The theoretical momentdeflection curve presented in Fig. Failure of the concrete is defined as the point where the maximum concrete strain e cu is reached in the top fibre. stresses and strains in the uncracked section may be calculated on the basis of ordinary engineering beam theory.3. The stresses induced in the concrete by the prestressing force alone are subsequently calculated by considering the section to be subjected . the material response remains essentially linear elastic within this range.
Beam section Prestressing force and externally applied moment e P P A Pey I P Pey + A I My I External loadings P Pey My + + I A I Total stresses y + = + = Prestressing only (a) At a fibre distance y from the section centroid P A M Centroidal axis c.g. Using this approach. the stress induced by prestressing only on a fibre located a distance y from the section centroid is given by (see Fig. the sign convention must be carefully observed: The force P will carry a negative sign because it acts as a compressive force on the concrete. the stress induced by M on a fibre located a distance y from the section centroid is given by (see Fig. 48a) fP = where A = area of the section P Pe y + A I (42) I = second moment of area of the section about its centroidal axis When applying the above equation. The stress induced by an externally applied moment M in the uncracked concrete section is also calculated by ordinary beam theory. 48a) fM = My I (43) M Centroidal axis c. Beam section Prestressing force and externally applied moment e P ytop Pe Ztop Pe P + A Ztop M Ztop Pe M P + + Ztop Ztop A + ybot Pe Zbot = Pe P + A Zbot + M Zbot = Pe M P + + A Zbot Zbot Total stresses Prestressing only (b) At the outer fibres of the section External loadings Figure 48: Calculation of stresses in the concrete due to prestressing and an externally applied moment. Hence. The moment Pe will also be negative (indicating a negative moment) if the cable is located below the centroidal axis of the section because e carries a positive sign in this case.s. .48 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE to an axial load P acting at its centroid together with a moment Pe acting about its centroidal axis.s. Also note that y is positive for fibres located below the centroidal axis while it is negative for fibres located above the centroidal axis.g. where e is the eccentricity of the tendon measured from the centroid of the section.
42. 49 is subjected to a uniformly distributed load of 15 kN/m. Z bot can be shown to be positive because the extreme bottom fibre lies below the centroidal axis. 42 and 43 f = fP + fM = M y P Pe y + + A I I (44) Specifically. 300 h = 600 Section at midspan The beam section properties are calculated below. On the other hand.g.ANALYSIS 49 It must be noted that Eq. respectively Z top = I/y top = section modulus with respect to the extreme top fibre. Thus. 48b) f top = f bot = where Pe P M + + A Z top Z top Pe P M + + A Zbot Zbot (45) (46) f top .== 300 mm 2 2 h 600 = = = 300 mm 2 2 . including self weight. EXAMPLE 41 The posttensioned simply supported concrete beam shown in Fig. by combining Eqs. Calculate the extreme top and bottom fibre stresses at midspan if the tendon force is 1334 kN. 180 L = 12000 Figure 49: Example 41. The total concrete stress resulting from both the prestressing force and the loads is subsequently obtained by superimposing the stresses induced by each of these effects acting on their own (see Fig. w = 15 kN/m b = 300 Centroidal axis 300 c. Please note the use of the sign convention. located a distance y top from the section centroid Z bot = I/y bot = section modulus with respect to the extreme bottom fibre. the sign convention must be properly observed. 48a).4 ´ 10 mm 12 12 h 600 = . the extreme top and bottom fibre stresses are given by (see Fig. f bot = stress in the extreme top and bottom fibres.s. located a distance y bot from the section centroid Note that Z top carries a negative sign because the extreme top fibre lies above the centroidal axis so that y top is negative. 43 is applicable to any externally applied moment. As in the case of Eq. which means that y bot is positive. A = b h = 300 ´ 600 = 180 ´ 10 mm I= ytop ybot 3 2 1 1 3 3 9 4 bh = ´ 300 ´ 600 = 5. irrespective of whether it arises from the beam self weight or an externally applied load.
This means that the transformed section properties should be used for calculating the stresses in the concrete induced by all the loads. the transformed section properties should.180 = 120 mm. which includes creep strain. into account. the tendons are never bonded to the concrete. in some way. On the other hand. including the prestressing force. will act on the net concrete section. such as the prestressing force and self weight. in this case. the section properties should be based on the sections as indicated in Table 41 to ensure that stresses are estimated with sufficient accuracy. such as the superimposed dead load and the live load. Although it is theoretically more correct to base the calculation of stress on the section properties as outlined above. the tendons in pretensioned beams will always be bonded to the concrete. This is commonly done by making use of an effective modulus of elasticity for the concrete. By the nature of the procedure. which take place at . the stresses induced by these loads in the concrete should be calculated on the basis of the properties of the net concrete section which take the presence of the preformed ducts. the case of a posttensioned bonded prestressed concrete beam: At transfer and up to the time at which the grout has hardened and become effective the tendons are not bonded to the concrete so that any loads applied to the beam at this stage.410 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE Z top = Zbot = I ytop I ybot = = 5. However. respectively: f top = f bot = P Pe M 1334 ´ 10 1334 ´ 10 ´ 120 270 ´ 10 + + = . within which the tendons are contained. provides a close approximation. In the case of longterm loads. The total loss of prestress can conveniently be divided into instantaneous losses. m and the prestressing force P = 1334 kN acts at an eccentricity e = 300 . the tendons are effectively bonded to the concrete so that the transformed section properties must be used for calculating the stresses induced in the concrete by loads applied at this stage. in circumstances where the area of the ducts forms a significant part of the crosssection and/or if a large quantity of steel is contained in the section. Equations 45 and 46 are subsequently used to calculate the stresses in the extreme top and bottom fibres of the midspan section. reflect the effects of creep of the concrete. This approach greatly simplifies the calculations and. + + = 1352 MPa 3 6 6 A Z top Z top 18 ´ 10 18 ´ 10 180 ´ 10 P Pe M 1334 ´ 10 1334 ´ 10 ´ 120 270 ´ 10 . Stress calculations are usually carried out using the properties of the gross concrete section only. Hence.4 ´ 10 6 3 = 18 ´ 10 mm 300 5. Although this approach is convenient from a practical point of view. for example. the properties of the net concrete section should be used for all stress calculations in the case of unbonded construction because. + + = + + = 130 MPa 3 6 6 A Zbot Zbot 180 ´ 10 18 ´ 10 18 ´ 10 3 3 6 3 3 6 The section properties used in the above example for calculating the stresses were based on the gross concrete section. this is not frequently done in practice. for assessing the modular ratio used in the calculation of the transformed section properties. under normal circumstances. It should also be noted that a distinction must be made between the transformed section properties used for calculating the stresses induced by shortterm loadings and those used for calculating the stresses induced by the longterm loads. After the grout has hardened. Consider. it is not theoretically correct.4 ´ 109 = 18 ´ 10 6 mm3 300 2 2 9 The bending moment at the midspan section is given by M = w L / 8 = 15 ´ 12 / 8 = 270 kN. The correct section to be used in the various situations described above are summarised in Table 41. It is important to note that the magnitude of the prestressing force used for a stress calculation must reflect the loss of prestress appropriate to the age of the beam at the time under consideration.
410). f bot = f r = so that M Pe P + + cr A Zbot Zbot M cr = f r Zbot . Because the tensioned tendons in a prestressed concrete member are continuously subjected to a large strain over the life of the member. This loss occurs only in posttensioning systems. When a posttensioned tendon is anchored to the concrete after tensioning. the concrete shortens so that tendons already bonded or anchored to the concrete also shorten by the same amount. available experimental data indicate that it is sufficiently accurate (Ref. • Creep and shrinkage of the concrete. a loss of prestressing force. and timedependent losses. termed anchorage seating. hence. and hence prestress. induces a tensile stress in the extreme fibre equal to the modulus of rupture f r . • Anchorage seating. a loss of prestressing force. they are not affected to the same degree. The timedependent losses. which increases for sections further away from the jacking end. When the prestressing force is transferred to the concrete. a timedependent loss of tensioning force. develop with time and are attributed to the timedependent behaviour of the concrete and the steel as follows: • Relaxation of the tendons. When a tendon in a posttensioned member is tensioned.ANALYSIS 411 Table 41: Correct sections for stress calculations. • Friction. The cracking moment M cr with respect to the bottom fibre is therefore determined by setting f bot = f r and M = M cr in Eq. This friction reduces the tensioning force. in turn. The resulting loss of elongation of the tendon.4 Cracking moment The moment at which the section first cracks is referred to as the cracking moment. The instantaneous losses are attributed to the following sources: • Elastic shortening of the concrete. 46. if the anchorages make use of wedge grips. hence. and solving the resulting expression for M cr . Although this approach has often been questioned. Load Pretensioned bonded Transformed Transformed Transformed Transformed Posttensioned bonded Net Net Transformed Transformed Posttensioned unbonded Net Net Net Net Prestress Self weight Superimposed dead load Live load the time of transfer. It is usually taken as the moment which. which gradually develop with time. by elastic theory. the components of the anchorage will deform slightly and. leads to a shortening of the attached tendons. This action results in a timedependent reduction of the stress in the tendons and. Creep and shrinkage of the concrete in a prestressed concrete member each induce a timedependent shortening in the concrete which. friction is induced between the sliding tendon and the surrounding duct material. represents the friction loss. which occur in both pretensioned and posttensioned members. Although this loss occurs in both pretensioned and posttensioned members. leads to a reduction of the tensioning force. 4. This leads to a reduction of the stress in the tendons and.3. and the magnitude of the reduction. a certain amount of slip must take place to seat the grips. Hence. takes place as a result of relaxation of the steel.P FG Z H A bot +e IJ K (47) .
Sections which fail in this manner are heavily reinforced and are referred to as overreinforced sections. the cracking moment can no longer be used as the limit of uncracked section behaviour. must be used.65 f cu = 0. • Failure induced by crushing of the concrete prior to yielding of the steel. • Failure induced by crushing of the concrete compression zone after the steel has yielded and undergone a large nonlinear elongation. This failure mode is ductile because the section can sustain a moment close to the ultimate moment over a wide range of deformations. According to the SABS 0100 (Ref. This failure mode is brittle and takes place suddenly because. In such a case. it is important to note that once the section has cracked it can no longer be analysed as an uncracked elastic section. 410 is possible: • Failure induced by fracture of the steel immediately after the concrete has cracked.360 ´ 18 ´ 106 . This failure mode is brittle and occurs in very lightly reinforced sections in which insufficient steel is provided to carry the additional tensile force which is transferred from the concrete to the steel upon cracking. overreinforced sections are undesirable and should be avoided. Because of its ductility. Note that if the section has already been cracked in a previous loading. Determine the cracking moment of the section at midspan if the cube strength of the concrete is f cu = 45 MPa. Because the stressstrain response of prestressing steel does not show a definite yield point as in the case of hotrolled steel reinforcing bars (see Fig. The mode in which a given prestressed concrete section with bonded tendons fails in flexure depends on the amount of steel provided.(1334 ´ 103 ) ´ = 372. start to develop.0 ´ 106 N. 224). it is not possible to define a precise . and one of the three types illustrated in Fig.412 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE The modulus of rupture.360 MPa. EXAMPLE 42 Consider the posttensioned concrete beam of example 41. The cracking moment is usually used to mark the end of uncracked section behaviour and the onset of cracked section behaviour. that f r is assigned a positive value because it represents a tensile stress.P bot + e A FG H IJ K = 4. 46 it is represented by point H on the momentcurvature diagram. the maximum moment which it can resist.65 45 = 4. merely serves as an index for measuring the load at which hair cracks. However. defined as the moment which induces a zero stress in the extreme fibre. by definition. In the case of the section considered in Fig. in particular. m F 18 ´ 10 GH 180 ´ 10 6 3 + 120 I JK 4. This type of failure is highly undesirable and such sections are not commonly encountered in practice.3. but that the cracked section must be considered instead. Sections which fail in this manner are referred to as underreinforced sections. this type of failure is highly desirable and most sections encountered in practice are proportioned as underreinforced sections.5 Ultimate moment: Sections with bonded tendons The ultimate moment of a prestressed concrete beam section is. used in this way. 47. Z M cr = f r Zbot . Because of their brittle nature. the decompression moment. A higher load is usually necessary for visible cracks to form. The cracking moment M cr is calculated using Eq. the section suddenly loses its ability to sustain moment with any further increase in deformation. mm = 372. once the ultimate moment has been reached. 42) the modulus of rupture is given by f r = 0. often invisible to the naked eye. Note the proper use of the sign convention and.0 kN.
Figure 411 shows the assumed strain distribution as well as the stress distribution in such a section when the ultimate moment has just been reached. approximation is used. limit to the percentage of reinforcement required for underreinforced failure as is possible for ordinary reinforced concrete beam sections. .3.5). The most general approach to calculating the ultimate moment of a prestressed concrete beam section is to directly apply the basic assumptions listed in Section 4. • Although the compressive stress distribution in the concrete at ultimate is approximated by an equivalent rectangular stress block. This means that any concrete which falls below the neutral axis is assumed to offer no resistance to bending.45 or 0. The codes of practice commonly used in South Africa (Refs. the principle of the analytical procedure remains unaltered if a more exact. • The tensile strength of the concrete is neglected. 46. but more complicated. and the following important aspects must be noted: • The ultimate condition is defined in terms of a limiting strain e cu being reached in the concrete at the extreme compression fibre. b a fcu ecu x bx fc (x) C h d Aps Neutral axis x z T es Assumed strain distribution Figure 411: Assumed stress distribution Analysis of a rectangular bonded prestressed concrete beam section at ultimate. 42.0 (Note that the values of a given here include a partial safety factor g m = 1.ANALYSIS 413 Moment Ultimate ( fps £ fpy ) Cracking Overreinforced Underreinforced ( fpy < fps £ fpu ) Steel yields Amount of reinforcement increases Ultimate moment less than cracking moment ( fps = fpu ) fpu = Characteristic strength of the prestressing steel fpy = Defined yield stress of the prestressing steel fps = Stress in the prestressing steel at ultimate Curvature kcr Figure 410: Momentcurvature behaviour for increasing reinforcement.1. 47 and 48) set a = 0. this approach is developed for the calculation of the ultimate moment of a rectangular bonded prestressed concrete beam section.9 or 1.4 and b = 0. In the following.
it will carry a negative sign if the sign convention is properly applied to Eq.e. (b) Strain distribution at ultimate conditions .414 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE • Because the tendons are bonded to the concrete. induced by the effective prestress acting on its own. Thus e se = where f se Ep (49) E p = Modulus of elasticity of the steel • e ce is calculated by considering the prestress to be acting on the elastic uncracked section. This means that when e ce is substituted into Eq. Hence. including all losses which have taken place at the time under consideration. Hence the total strain in the prestressing steel is given by e ps = e s . The total strain in the steel must include the strain induced by the effective prestress.e ce + e se The various components of strain are calculated as follows: (48) • e se is simply taken as the elastic extension of the steel acting under the effective prestress f se . including all losses. the changes in strain in the steel are taken to be the same as in the adjacent concrete after bonding.ece + ese (a) Strain induced by effective prestress only (i. 48 it will be b x d e Centroidal axis Aps ece ese es ecu h ese ece eps = es .e. • A compressive strain e ce in the concrete at the level of the steel. no moment from external loads acting on the section) consists of two components: • A tensile strain e se induced in the steel by the effective tensioning stress f se acting in the tendon. 410. zero moment) Figure 412: Strain in the steel. Figure 412a shows that the initial strain induced by the effective prestress alone (i. at the level of the steel e ce = where LM P + P e OP 1 NM A I QP E 2 (410) c E c = Modulus of elasticity of the concrete Note that because e ce is a compressive strain.
226. experimentally determined stressstrain diagrams may be used instead. Thus.ANALYSIS 415 added to the other strain components. care must be taken to properly include the partial safety factor g m . the steel stress at ultimate f ps is obtained from the stressstrain relationship of the steel as the stress corresponding to the strain e ps (see Fig. since the steel is bonded to the concrete.x IJ e H x K cu (411) d = effective depth of the steel. depending on whether a nominal or design value of the ultimate moment is being calculated. Stress fps eps Figure 413: Strain Determining f ps from the stressstrain curve for the steel with e ps known. The design stressstrain curve recommended by SABS 0100 (Ref. 411). and the other design codes of practice commonly used in South Africa also prescibe similar design stressstrain curves. 411) T = A ps f ps where A ps = crosssectional area of the prestressing steel (412) The total compressive force acting in the uncracked compression zone of the concrete at ultimate is calculated simply by evaluating the volume of the compressive stress prism (see Fig. as expected (see Fig. the change in strain in the steel is the same as in the concrete at the level of the steel.0035 by the codes of practice commonly used in South Africa (Refs. used in conjunction with with Eqs. 410 must include all prestress losses at the time under consideration. The total tensile force T acting in the steel at ultimate is subsequently calculated from (see Fig. considering similar triangles (see Figs. 47 and 48) Once the total strain e ps in the prestressing steel has been determined by Eq. 42. 42) for prestressed reinforcement is shown in Fig. Although actual. always taken positive e cu = limiting strain in the concrete at the extreme compression fibre. 48. es = where FG d . • The change in strain e s induced by the ultimate moment is obtained by applying the compatibility assumption that plane sections remain plane and that. Thus. It is also important to note that the value for P in Eq. 412b). 411 and 412b). 413). specified as 0. 49 through 411. always taken positive x = depth to the neutral axis. C= where z x 0 f c (x ) b dx (413) f c (x) = compressive stress in the fibre located a distance x from the neutral axis b = width of the section . 46.
411 and 414 it is clear that the internal lever arm z is given by z = d . This means that C will carry a negative sign. which is consistent with the sign convention.x+ zb z x 0 f c (x )bdx x x g (416) 0 f c (x )bdx C x Neutral axis Figure 414: fc (x) x x Line of action of resultant compression force C.x+x = d . If an equivalent rectangular stress block is used.416 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE Note that f c (x) is negative because it represents a compressive stress and that. . 413 can be simplified as follows (see Fig. x is taken positive. 411): M u = T z = C z where z = internal lever arm (415) The position of the line of action of C must first be determined before the internal lever arm z can be calculated. Equation 413 is general and can be applied to any assumed stressstrain relationship for the concrete. Taking moments either about the line of action of C or T yields the following expressions for the ultimate moment M u (see Fig. as for Eq. b = stress block parameters The ultimate moment is calculated by considering moment equilibrium of the section. 413 and rearranging terms yields the following expression for the distance from the neutral axis to the line of action of C: x = zb z x 0 f c (x )bdx x x g 0 f c (x )bdx From Figs. the following expression can be written: Cx = zb x 0 f c ( x ) b dx x g Substituting for C from Eq. Eq. Considering the compressive stress distribution (see Fig. taken negative because it represents a compressive stress a. 411): C = a f cub b x where (414) f cu = characteristic compressive strength of the concrete. 411. 414).
Calculate the ultimate moment M u using Eqs. in this case. the value of x currently selected is correct and the ultimate moment M u can be calculated as indicated in the next step. as appropriate. which includes the ultimate moment. Calculate the total strain in the prestressing steel e ps using Eqs. or by using Eq. it is important to note that the complexity of the resulting expression for x is dependent on the complexity of the stressstrain curve assumed for the steel. 415) with T = A ps f ps ( from Eq.b x / 2 (see Fig. If an equivalent rectangular stress block is used they can be simplified by substituting Eq. if this expression is not satisfied.ANALYSIS 417 Thus. 413 or 414. Calculate the magnitude of T using Eq. 414 for C in Eq. 417 together with the current value of x. for example. and is recommended for use when more complicated approximations of the stressstrain relationships for the concrete and steel are used.x+x = d . However. C and x. 48 to 411. 412. Any solution technique should therefore initially be aimed at calculating x. 48 and 411 through 417 will reveal that all the quantities represented by these equations. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Assume a value for the depth to neutral axis x. after which T. Obtain the magnitude of the steel stress f ps corresponding to the strain e ps using the stressstrain relationship for the steel.b 2 2 IJ K FG H IJ K (417) An inspection of Eqs. 411). Determine the magnitude of C from Eqs. C. Therefore.b FG H x x = a f cub b x d . to summarize: M u = T z = . The iterative procedure presented below follows this approach. Consider. z and M u can be calculated. z = d . as appropriate. 416) f c (x )bdx 0 These expressions are general and can be applied to any assumed stressstrain relationship for the concrete. then it is possible to find a closed form solution for x. can be directly calculated if the value of the neutral axis depth x at ultimate is known. (g) If an equivalent rectangular stress block is used for the concrete together with a simple approximation of the stressstrain curve for the steel. if the relationship T + C = 0 is satisfied. M u = A ps f ps d . 413) z = d . The correct value of x will ensure that horizontal equilibrium is satisfied. However. Hence.C z ( from Eq. the case where an equivalent rectangular stress block is used in conjunction with a trilinear approximation . 415 and by recognising that. 415 and 416 together with the current values of T. 412) C= z x 0 f c (x )bdx ( from Eq. a revised value must be selected for x and steps (b) through (f) repeated.x+ zb z x 0 f c (x )bdx x x g ( from Eq.
e p1 (418) f ps = f p1 + E p 2 e ps . 412 and 414 into the above expression yields A ps f ps + a f cu b b x = 0 Stress. This is done by writing e ps as a function of x and substituting the result into each of 419b and 419c.e ce .e g  T p1 p p2 ce se ce cu cu . 415).e p1 h for e p1 < e ps < e py for e ps £ e p1 .e ce + e se = e se . and that f ps can be expressed in terms of e ps as follows: f ps Rf  = Sf E T py p1 for e ps ³ e py (419a) (419b) (419c) + E p 2 e ps . and rearranging terms lead to f ps Rf  =S f  T se s1 + E p 2 s1 + E p e cu e cu FG d IJ H xK FG d IJ H xK for e p1 < e ps < e py for e ps £ e p1 (421a) (421b) where f s1 = R f + E ce .e p1 Equations 419b and 419c express f ps in terms of e ps and must therefore be expanded to express f ps in terms of x.e . 48 and 411 yields e ps = e s .f p1 e py .f p1 e py .e ce + FG d .x IJ e H x K cu = e se . 415 that the particular expression to be used for f ps depends on whether e ps is smaller than e p1 .e cu + c h d e x cu (420) Substitution into 419b and 419c. whether it is larger than e py . eps Trilinear approximation of the stressstrain curve for the steel.e p1 d i fps = Ep eps Ep ep1 Figure 415: epy Strain. fps fpy fp1 E p2 = f py .e . 418 will reveal that if f ps is either known or expressed as a function of x.418 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE of the stressstrain curve for the steel (see Fig. Inspection of Eq.e p1 p e ps d i for e p1 < e ps < e py for e ps £ e p1 where E p = Modulus of elasticity of the steel E p2 = f py . It is also clear from Fig. then a closed formed solution can be found for x. or whether it lies between e p1 and e py .e  S E be . Horizontal equilibrium provides the following expression T +C = 0 Substituting Eqs. Combining Eqs.
418 and solving for x yields A ps f py x =a f cub b For e ps < e py The following quadratic equation. 42) to calculate the design ultimate moment of the section using (a) the iterative procedure. 422a or 422b. If e ps calculated in step (b) falls within the range assumed in step (a). At the time under consideration. f pu 1860 f py = = = 1617 MPa gm 115 . f se = 1150 MPa.9. 419a into Eq. 421b for e ps £ e p1 Equations 422a and 422b are used as follows to calculate the correct value of x: (a) (b) (c) Make an assumption about the range within which e ps lies and calculate x using either Eq. EXAMPLE 43 The rectangular prestressed concrete beam section shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. and (b) the approach whereby the depth to neutral axis x is directly calculated in closed form. 416 contains six 12. Thus For e ps ³ e py Substituting Eq. then the calculated value of x is correct. which can be directly solved for x.15. Referring to Figs. 48 through 411). Using this value of x calculate e ps (Eqs. . as appropriate.ANALYSIS 419 Since the expression to be used for f ps depends on the magnitude of e ps relative to e p1 and e py . Once the correct value of x has been determined. 417. For the equivalent rectangular stress block prescribed by SABS 0100. 417 for g m = 1. Make use of the equivalent rectangular stress block as well as the design stressstrain curve for strand as prescribed by SABS 0100 (Ref. the solution for x will also depend on the magnitude of e ps . 421a or 421b is substituted into Eq. 416. 418: (422a) F a f b b I x +a f f x +b E e d g = 0 GH A JK cu 2 s1 cu ps (422b) where E = E p2 for e p1 < e ps < e py = E p for e ps £ e p1 f s1 is defined in Eq. is obtained if either of Eqs. 421a for e p1 < e ps < e py and in Eq. Otherwise. the centre of gravity of which is located 60 mm above the beam soffit. while the design stressstrain curve recommended for the strand considered here is shown in Fig. a = 0. as outlined above. the assumption made in step (a) is incorrect and the process must be repeated from step (a) with a revised assumption regarding the range within which e ps falls. the ultimate moment can be directly calculated from the second part of Eq.45 and b = 0. The material properties are: Concrete: Steel: f cu = 50 MPa f pu = 1860 MPa E c = 34 GPa E p = 195 GPa 2 The properties of the uncracked beam section are listed in Fig. 226 and 415.9 mm 7wire super grade strand. 416 and A ps = 6 ´ 100 = 600 mm .
01329 Strain.f se A ps = 1150 ´ 3 = 690 kN acting on the elastic uncracked section (including all losses at the time 600 ´ 10 under consideration).300 IJ 0.45 fcu C e = 240 mm A = 210 ´ 10 mm 3 2 Neutral axis h = 600 d = 540 T 60 Aps = 600 mm2 Figure 416: Example 43. I = 6.005 = = 1617 195 ´ 10 3 + 0.8 ´ 1860 = 1294 MPa .01329 0.00664 (a) Iterative approach.005897 3 Ep 195 ´ 10 while the change in strain e s induced by the ultimate moment is obtained from Eq.8 f pu gm f p1 Ep = 0. 115 1294 3 195 ´ 10 = 0.420 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE b = 350 ecu = 0. 410 6. from Eq. fps fpy = 1617 MPa fp1 = 1294 MPa ep1 = 0.3 ´ 109 mm 4 es Stress. eps e py = f p1 = e p1 = f py Ep + 0. 411 e se = es = FG d .3 ´ 10 c The elastic extension of the steel acting under the effective prestress is given by e ce = F P + Pe I 1 = F 690 GH A I JK E GH 210 ´ 10 2 3 + 690 ´ 240 9 2 I 1 = 0. epy = 0.005 = 0.9 x 0.0035 = 0.x IJ e H x K cu = FG 540 . Therefore. Assume x = 300 mm The magnitude of e ce is calculated on the basis of the effective prestress P = .0035 x 0.00664 Figure 417: Stressstrain curve for the steel.000282 JK 34 f se 1150 = = 0.0028 H 300 K .
ANALYSIS 421 Therefore. 419 and 421a. x is calculated from Eq. 417 finally yields the magnitude of the design ultimate moment. T can now be determined by Eq.00664 = 48. a larger value must be selected for x. in this particular case. T + C = 1281 kN ¹ 0 which means that horizontal equilibrium is not satisfied for the selected value of x (= 300 mm). Note that e se = 0. 419b. Thus E p2 = f py − f p1 ε py − ε p1 = b1617 − 1294g × 10 −3 0.9 ´ 136. respectively.58 GPa . Before this equation can be set up. Inspection of Table 42 and Fig.e ce + e se = 0.01329 − 0. Assume e p1 < e ps < e py For this case. as calculated in part (a) of this example. 48 as e ps = e s .005897 = 0. T + C = 2617 kN These results show that horizontal equilibrium is not satisfied by the selected value of x (= 100 mm).8 kN Because an equivalent rectangular stress block is being used for the concrete. a smaller value of x should be selected and the above computations repeated.45 ´ 50 ´ 103 ´ 350 ´ 0. çCç and T + C versus x.9 mm the condition T + C = 0 is satisfied for all practical purposes. 417 yields the same result. C is calculated by Eq. Note that.005897 and e ce = 0. 418 reveals that for x = 136. and that the magnitude of C is smaller than that of T.00898 The steel stress at ultimate is subsequently obtained from Fig. Because the magnitude of C is larger than that of T.3 kN. m 2 2 IJ K FG H IJ K (b) Using the closed form solution of x.00898.000282) + 0. Hence. f ps could also have been directly calculated from Eq.9 6 = 600 ´ 1617 540 ´ 10 = 464.02158 f ps = 1617 MPa T = 970. E p2 and f s1 have to be calculated from Eqs. which means that this value of x is correct because it satisfies horizontal equilibrium. 414 C = a f cub b x = 0. Assume x = 100 mm If the above calculations are repeated for x = 100 mm the following results are obtained: e ps = 0. 418 shows a plot of T. f ps = 1408 MPa.(0.4 kN C = 708. 422b.9 ´ 300 = 2126 kN d i Therefore. the total strain in the steel at ultimate is given by Eq. 412 T = A ps f ps = 600 ´ 1408 ´ 10 3 = 844.8 kN .000282. M u = A ps f ps d  FG H bx 0. The results obtained for various selected values of x are presented in Table 42 while Fig. The reader should verify that the second of Eq.9 mm and f ps = 1617 MPa (see Table 42) into the first of Eq. Substituting x = 136. 417 as the stress corresponding to a strain e ps = 0. Consequently.0028 .
3 T + C (kN) 261.4 970.58´103 ´ 0.422 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE Table 42: x (mm) 100.0 150.0 125.01780 0. 422b.640 0.02158 0.69 84.7 92.0 136.4 970.9 IJ x =G H K 600 cu 2 s1 ps p2 e cu d h c h 2 + (1102 ) x + 48. the following expression is obtained: b 0= F a f b b I x +a f f x +c E GH A JK F 0.1560 2500 2000 1500  C Internal forces (kN) 1000 500 0 500 1000 x = 136.01649 f ps (MPa) 1617 1617 1617 1617 1617 T (kN) 970.0.01528 0.005897 .8 1063 885.0 138.58´103 0.1 970. f s1 = f p1 + E p 2 e se .0035 .0035 ´ 540 = 1181x 2 +1102 x + 91814 .0.01638 0.00664 = 1102 MPa Substituting these results into Eq.9 mm 1500 100 120 140 160 180 200 x (mm) 220 T T+C 240 260 280 300 Figure 418: Variation of the internal forces as a function of x.4 970.e ce .50 7.45´ (50)´ 350´ 0.4 970.9 Calculation of x.00028). .e p1 c h g = 1294 + 48.9 978.(0. e ps 0.4 C (kN) 708.e cu .
ANALYSIS
423
Solving for x yields x = 146.4 mm. Check if e ps corresponding to this value of x falls within the range assumed. Using Eqs. 48 and 411
e ps =
FG d  x IJ e  e + e H x K F 540  146.4 IJ 0.0035  (0.00028) + 0.005897 =G H 146.4 K
cu ce se
= 0.01559
This value of e ps is larger than e py = 0.01329. The assumption that e ps is less than e py is therefore incorrect,which means that the calculated value of x is also incorrect. Assume e ps > e py If e ps > e py then x can be directly calculated from Eq. 422a. Thus
x =
FA GH a f
ps
f py
cu
I = FG 1617 JK H 0.45 ´ (600 ´) ´ 350 ´ 0.9 IJK = 136.9 mm 50 bb
cu
As before, e ps corresponding to this value of x must be checked. Hence,
e ps =
FG d  x IJ e H x K
 e ce + e se =
FG 540  136.9 IJ 0.0035  (0.00028) + 0.005897 H 136.9 K
= 0.01648
This value of e ps is larger than e py = 0.01329, as assumed, and therefore the calculated value of x is correct. The ultimate moment is subsequently calculated from the second of Eq. 417.
M u = a f cub b x d 
FG H
bx 2
IJ K
= 0.45 ´ (50) ´ 350 ´ 0.9 ´ 136.9 540 
FG H
0.9 ´ 136.9 6 ´ 10 = 464.2 kN. m 2
IJ K
Note that these results are exactly the same as obtained in part (a) of this example. It should also be noted that a substantial amount of numerical work can be avoided if these calculations are started by assuming e ps to be larger than e py , because this condition is often satisfied by the beam sections encountered in practice. The solution presented here initially considered the case where e p1 < e ps < e py simply to give a more complete illustration of the solution procedure.
Example 43 amply demonstrates that the computational effort required for the calculation of the ultimate moment capacity M u of a prestressed concrete beam section can be significantly reduced if the procedure for determining the steel stress at ultimate f ps can be simplified because once f ps is known, the depth to neutral axis x and, hence, M u can be directly calculated. Most design codes of practice provide a simplified approximate procedure for estimating f ps , and the procedure recommended by SABS 0100 (Ref. 42), which is the same as that recommended by BS 8110 (Ref. 47), is presented in the following and illustrated by example 44. The method uses the equivalent rectangular stress block prescribed by SABS 0100 and assumes that the effective prestress f se does not exceed 0.6f pu . It is directly applicable to sections of which the compression zone, measured to a depth of 0.9x, is rectangular. The design ultimate moment is calculated by the following expression (given in the notation used in these notes):
M u = A ps f ps d  d n
b
g
(423)
where
d n = 0.45x x = depth to neutral axis, as obtained from Table 43 f ps = design tensile stress in the tendons at failure, as obtained from Table 43
424
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
Table 43:
Conditions at the ultimate limit state for rectangular beams with pretensioned tendons or posttensioned tendons having effective bond (Ref. 42). Design stress in tendons as a proportion of the design strength, f ps 0.87 f pu Ratio of depth of neutral axis to that of the centroid of the tendons in the tension zone, x/d
f pu Aps f cu bd
f se f pu =
0.6 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 EXAMPLE 44 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.92 0.88 0.85 0.83 0.81 0.79 0.77 0.5 1.00 1.00 0.97 0.90 0.86 0.83 0.80 0.77 0.74 0.71 0.4 1.00 1.00 0.95 0.88 0.84 0.80 0.76 0.72 0.68 0.64 0.6 0.11 0.22 0.32 0.40 0.48 0.55 0.63 0.70 0.77 0.83
f se f pu =
0.5 0.11 0.22 0.32 0.39 0.47 0.54 0.60 0.67 0.72 0.77 0.4 0.11 0.22 0.31 0.38 0.46 0.52 0.58 0.62 0.66 0.69
Use the approximate method recommended by SABS 0100 to calculate the design ultimate moment of the prestressed concrete beam section of example 43. For the beam of example 43 f se / f pu = 1150 / 1860 = 0.6183 , which is slightly larger than 0.6. Therefore, when using Table 43 f se /f pu is set to 0.6, which is the maximum value provided for by the method. Also,
f pu A ps f cu bd
=
1860 ´ 600 = 01181 . 50 350 ´ 540
Interpolating between the values given in Table 43 for f pu A ps / f cu b d equal to 0.1 and 0.15 at f se /f pu = 0.6, the following results are obtained:
f ps 0.87 f pu
= 10 .
and
x = 0.26 d
Therefore, f ps = 1.0 (0.87 ´ 1860) = 1618 MPa and x = 0.26 ´ 540 = 140.4 mm. The design ultimate moment is calculated from Eq. 423
M u = A ps f ps d  0.45 x = 600 ´ 1618(540  0.45 ´ 140.4) ´ 106 = 463.0 kN. m
This result is very close to the ultimate moment M u = 464.3 kNm obtained by the more elaborate procedures employed in example 43.
a
f
So far, only rectangular sections have been considered. In the analysis of flanged sections (I or Tsections) a distinction is made between the case where the compression zone falls entirely within the flange and the case where it extends down into the web (see Fig. 419). If the compression zone
ANALYSIS
425
is entirely contained within the flange (see Fig. 419a), then the analysis is exactly the same as for a rectangular section of the same width b and the equations developed above for a rectangular section apply without modification. This follows because the tensile strength of the concrete is neglected, which means that the concrete which falls below the neutral axis is ignored in the analysis and can be of any shape.
b x bx hf
b
bx x
bw
bw
(a) Rectangular section behaviour
Figure 419: Flanged section at ultimate.
(b) Flanged section behaviour
However, if the compression zone extends into the web the analysis must account for the fact that, in this case, the compression zone is no longer rectangular. Since the principles on which the analysis is based remain unaltered, the equations developed above for a rectangular section, which do not involve the assumption that the compression zone is rectangular, remain valid. Specifically, Eqs. 48 to 412, 415 and 419 to 421 remain valid because their derivation is not dependent on the shape of the compression zone. The remaining expressions must be modified to account for the nonrectangular compression zone. The solution procedure, which is illustrated by example 45, is exactly the same as for a rectangular section: The depth to neutral axis x is initially determined, after which the ultimate moment is calculated. It should be noted that, when working with an equivalent rectangular stress block, the situation may arise where the depth to neutral axis x is larger than the flange thickness h f , but that the depth of the stress block bx is less than h f . It is suggested that such cases be analyzed as rectangular sections, even though the magnitude of x indicates that the compression zone extends into the web. This approach implies that the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block bx is taken as the depth of the compression zone for the purpose of calculating the compressive force in the concrete at ultimate. EXAMPLE 45 Determine the design ultimate moment of the Ishaped prestressed concrete beam section shown in Fig. 420. The section contains eight 12.9 mm 7wire super grade strand, of which the centre of gravity is located 60 mm above the beam soffit. The material properties are: Concrete: Steel: f cu = 50 MPa f pu = 1860 MPa E c = 34 GPa E p = 195 GPa
Use the equivalent rectangular stress block as well as the design stressstrain curve for strand as prescribed by SABS 0100 (Ref. 42), and assume that f se = 1060 MPa at the time under consideration. The properties of the uncracked beam section are listed in Fig. 420 and A ps = 8 ´ 100 = 800 mm². For the equivalent rectangular stress block prescribed by SABS 0100, a = 0.45 and b = 0.9, as shown in Fig. 420. Since f pu and E p of the strand considered here are the same as for that used in example 43, the stressstrain curve for the steel is also the same, and is as shown in Fig. 417.
as expected.038 x = 0 Solving for x yields x = 203. 420.9 ´ 203. and the total tensile force acting in the steel at ultimate T is given by Eq.45 ´ 50 ´ 10 = 3.45 fcu Cf s = 0.01329) then. the magnitude of C fmax is less than that of T.938 ´ 10 9 I 1 = 0.038 x The following condition must be satisfied to ensure horizontal equilibrium: (424) 3 d i ´ 150 ´ 0.45 × −50 × 10 −3 × 350 − 150 × 150 = −675 kN c h e j b g Cw = a f cubw b x = 0. 48 through 411. Therefore s = b x = 0. as shown in Fig. the total compressive force acting in the concrete is divided into a part C f which acts in the overhanging portion of the flange and a part C w which acts in the web. Before the ultimate moment can be calculated. from Fig. f ps = f py = 1617 MPa. at the time under consideration) is given by P = .8 = 183. For convenience. C f = α f cu b − bw h f = 0. and by noting that the effective prestress acting on the section (including all losses 3 = . 417.9 x T + C f + Cw = 1294 − 675 − 3.005436 e se = se = 3 Ep 195 ´ 10 e ce = F P + Pe I 1 = F 848 GH A I JK E GH 165 ´ 10 2 c 3 + 848 ´ 2902 8.0035 0.8 mm.848 kN.000386 JK 34 .A ps f se = . the maximum compression force C fmax which can be supplied by the flange only is calculated and compared to T.45 × −50 × 10 −3 × 350 × 150 = −1181 kN e j Therefore.9 x Cw e = eccentricity of the tendon 700 = − 60 = 290 mm 2 A = 165 × 10 mm 3 9 2 4 T es I = 8.938 × 10 mm Figure 420: Example 45. Assume e ps > e py If e ps > e py (= 0. f 1060 = 0. Thus.4 mm is greater than h f = 150 mm. the validity of the initial assumption that e ps is greater than e py must be checked.426 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE b = 350 hf = 150 h= 700 bw = 150 x Neutral axis d = 640 Aps = 800 mm2 150 350 60 ecu = 0. 412: T = A ps f ps = 800 ´ 1617 ´ 103 = 1294 kN In order to check whether or not the compression zone extends into the web. C fmax = α f cubh f = 0. which means that the compression zone must extend into the web to satisfy horizontal equilibrium. e ps is calculated by combining Eqs.800 ´ 1060 ´ 10 Hence.
000386) + 0. ´ 103 2 2 IJ K FG H IJ K If the section contains nonprestressed reinforcement A s (often referred to as slack reinforcement). and therefore the calculated value of x is correct.e ce + e se (see Fig. 421.7 kN.01329. Therefore. Ts = As f s (425) b x Neutral axis d2 d1 ecu bx a fcu C ese . On the other hand. The ultimate moment is subsequently calculated by considering moment equilibrium about the line of action of T. where f ps corresponds to the total strain e ps = e s1 . 42) for nonprestressed reinforcement. the procedure for calculating the ultimate moment remains exactly the same as for the sections considered above.ece Aps As es1 es2 Strain distribution Figure 421: Tps Ts Resultant forces Analysis at ultimate of a prestressed concrete beam section containing nonprestressed reinforcement. 421).ANALYSIS 427 es = FG d . acting on the area A s .b x IJ H 2K 2 K w The magnitude of C w to be used in the above expression is found by substituting x = 203. the only difference being that the two types of steel are considered separately as shown in Fig. M u =C f d  FG H hf IJ . e ps = e s . 421 and Eq.x IJ e H x K cu = . It is important to note that f ps and f s cannot be obtained from the same stressstrain relationship. When calculating the tension in the prestressing steel T ps and in the nonprestressed steel T s . as assumed. the difference in the strain histories of the two types of steel must be accounted for in the analysis.2038 IJ 0.007493 . FG 640 . while the magnitude of C f = .(0. but that they must be determined from the stressstrain curves which apply to the prestressing steel and to the nonprestressed steel. .007493 H 2038 K . The procedure for calculating the ultimate moment of a prestressed concrete beam section containing nonprestressed reinforcement is illustrated by example 46.C FG d .9 ´ 2038 . Therefore.(3. 424. M u = (675) 640 = 720. 48).038 ´ 2038) 640 .675 kN remains unchanged. T s is calculated from the stress f s .8 mm into Eq. ´ 103 .e ce + e se = 0. respectively. Thus.0035 = 0. Equation 412 can be used for calculating T ps . Figure 222 shows the design stressstrain relationship prescribed by SABS 0100 (Ref. m FG H 150 0.01332 This value of e ps is larger than e py = 0.005436 = 0. corresponding to the strain e s2 (see Fig.
b = 350 hf = 150 d1 = 640 h = 700 d2 = 650 ecu = 0. 412 and 425. Assume e ps > e py and e s2 > e sy If e ps > e py (= 0. the position of which is shown in Fig. fs fsy = 391.00196) (see Fig.0035 Neutral axis x 0.3 MPa for e s2 > e sy (= 0. es Stressstrain curve for the nonprestressed reinforcement. The dimensions of the section as well as the material properties of the concrete and the prestressing steel are exactly the same as for the section of example 45.9 x 0. 222. However. Therefore. 417).15 MPa in Fig. and is obtained by setting f y = 450 and g m = 1.9 mm 7wire super grade strand.00196 .938 × 10 mm As = 628 Aps = 500 mm2 Figure 422: Example 46. 42). Take f y = 450 MPa and E s = 200 GPa for the nonprestressed reinforcement. a = 4. 423).3 MPa esy = 0.428 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE EXAMPLE 46 Determine the design ultimate moment of the Ishaped prestressed concrete beam section shown in Fig. this section contains two Y20 nonprestressed reinforcing bars in addition to five 12.5 and b = 0. As for example 45.45 fcu C e = eccentricity of the tendon 700 = − 60 = 290 mm 2 bw = 150 150 350 es1 60 50 mm2 es2 Tps Ts A = 165 × 10 mm 3 9 2 4 I = 8. 423.9 while the stressstrain curve for the prestressing steel is as shown in Fig. f sy = = = 3913 MPa and e sy = = = 0. 422. 417. and assume that f se = 1116 MPa at the time under consideration. respectively: . A ps = 5 ´ 100 = 500 mm² and A s = 628 mm². fy f sy 450 3913 . while f s = f sy = 391. 200 ´ 10 3 Stress. 422. The design stressstrain curve for the nonprestressed reinforcement is shown in Fig. Use the equivalent rectangular stress block as well as the design stressstrain curves for strand and for nonprestressed reinforcement as prescribed by SABS 0100 (Ref. gm 115 Es .00196 Figure 423: Strain.01329) then f ps = f py = 1617 MPa (see Fig. T ps and T s are subsequently calculated from Eqs.
088 x kN d i As in the previous examples.000254 GH A I JK E GH 165 ´ 10 8. and therefore the calculated value of x is correct. Hence.01179 148.938 ´ 10 JK 34 F d .8 = 133.8 e cu = 0.e ce + e se = 0.7 640 = 606.148.x IJ e = FG 640 . 414): C ( x ) = a f cubb x = 0.7 650 ´ 103 2 2 IJ K As previously discussed in this Section.8 x IJ K FG H IJ K From the above it is clear that e ps is larger than e py = 0.148. m FG H 0.000254) + 0.ANALYSIS 429 Tps = A ps f ps = 500´1617 ´103 = 808.45 ´ 50 ´ 103 ´ 350 ´ 0.7 kN. x is calculated by considering horizontal equilibrium.00196.9 ´ 148.8 0. The ultimate moment is finally calculated by considering moment equilibrium about the line of action of C. as expected.45 × −50 × 10 e −3 j × 350 × 150 = −1181 kN is larger than the total tensile force which can be provided by the prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement T = Tps + Ts = 808.9 ´ 148. and by noting that the effective prestress acting on the section (including all losses 3 at the time under consideration) is given by P = .7 kN Ts = As f s = 628´ 3913´103 = 245. underreinforced sections are desirable because they exhibit a gradual ductile failure with large accompanying deformations. the validity of the initial assumption that e ps > e py and that e s2 > e sy must be checked.8 IJ 0.(0.9 mm is less than h f = 150 mm.7 kN . e se = e ce = e s1 f se 1116 = = 0.8 mm.9 ´ x = 7.7. Upon substitution of these values: M u = 808. Therefore s = 0.9 x = 0. 422).7 = 1054 kN .f se A ps = 1116 ´ 10 ´ 500 = 558 kN .9 ´ 148.8 K H x K c 1 cu e ps = e s1 . Ductile .7 + 245.005723 = 0.01156 . Before the ultimate moment can be calculated. and that C can be expressed as a function of x as follows (see Eq. 48 through 411.01156 =G H 148. considering similar triangles: e s2 = FG d H 2 x 650 . This means that the entire compression zone is contained in the flange. as opposed to overreinforced sections which fail suddenly in a brittle manner with small accompanying deformations.01329 and that e s2 is larger than e sy = 0.0035 = 0.8 ´ 103 + 245.01753 e s2 is calculated by considering the strain distribution (see Fig. M u = Tps d1  FG H bx bx + Ts d 2 2 2 IJ K FG H IJ K FG H IJ K The magnitudes of T ps and T s to be used in the above expression are as calculated above. as assumed. according to which the following condition must be satisfied: T + C ( x ) = 1054 . Thus.0035 = 0. e ps is calculated by combining Eqs. Thus.005723 3 Ep 195 ´ 10 2 2 3 9 F P + Pe I 1 = F 558 + 558 ´ 290 I 1 = 0. The magnitude of the maximum compression force which can be supplied by the flange C fmax = α f cubh f = 0.088 x = 0 Solving for x yields x = 148.
the ductility of the section is reduced under these conditions. 422a reveals that: • The magnitude of x is increased if the amount of steel A ps is increased. The manner in which the steel content. the trends identified below remain true in general. is increased. that the total strain in the steel at ultimate is increased when x is decreased. The importance of providing a section which is ductile cannot be overemphasised and. hence. Therefore. as reflected by f py . its magnitude can vary significantly in the case of very high strength concrete. that the strain in the steel at ultimate exceeds the yield strain.430 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE behaviour is generally characterised by a large curvature at failure k u relative to the curvature at first yielding of the steel k y (see Fig. 410). • The magnitude of x is increased if the strength of the steel. hence. Bearing these trends in mind. therefore. strength of the steel and the concrete strength influence the magnitude of k u as summarised below: • If either the steel content or the strength of the steel is increased. Figure 424 illustrates this effect and also demonstrates that the change in strain e s induced by the ultimate moment and. The manner in which provision is . be demonstrated by considering Eq. a more ductile behaviour. therefore. Under these conditions the ductility of the section is. Note that although e cu generally does not vary much for normal strength concrete. The conditions under which a prestressed concrete beam section will exhibit a large value of k u and. increased. It should also be noted that the equation assumes that stress in the steel at ultimate is equal to the yield stress and. together with the fact that the magnitude of k u is increased if the magnitude of x is reduced. This trend becomes apparent when considering the expression k u = çe cu ç / x: If x is decreased. ecu xb kub kua xa > xb kua < kub esa < esb xa esa esb Figure 424: Influence of depth to neutral axis x on the curvature at ultimate k u . then k u must increase provided e cu is taken to remain constant. x is increased and k u is decreased. can be identified by realising that the magnitude of k u is increased if the magnitude of x is reduced. Inspection of Eq. in turn. ductility should always be a prime design consideration. it follows that the steel content. • If the concrete strength is increased. the strength of the steel and the concrete strength influence the magnitude of x can. • The magnitude of x is decreased if the concrete strength f cu is increased. 422a (which was derived by considering horizontal equilibrium): A ps f py x =(422a) a f cubb Note that although this equation was derived on the basis of an equivalent rectangular stress block and on the assumption that the stressstrain relationship of the steel shows a definite yield plateau. for this reason. x is decreased and k u is increased.
If the beam remains uncracked. then the steel strain must be uniformly distributed over the length of the tendon. The change in steel strain resulting from an applied load can be calculated by making use of the fact that the total change in the elongation of the steel and of the concrete adjacent to the steel must be equal because the steel is anchored to the concrete at the ends of the beam (see Fig. the compatibility assumption that the changes in strain in the steel are the same as in the adjacent concrete is no longer valid.4. any change in strain in an unbonded tendon will be distributed over its entire length.6 Analysis of beams with unbonded tendons There is a significant difference between the behaviour of prestressed concrete beams with bonded tendons and that of beams with unbonded tendons. It is instructive to investigate some of these differences before presenting the procedures for analysing beams with unbonded tendons. the change in steel strain is given by es = where DL = L z L 0 M ( x )e( x ) dx L Ec I (426) L = original length of the tendon The effect of bond. is DL = z L 0 M ( x )e( x ) dx Ec I If the effects of friction are ignored.ANALYSIS 431 made for sufficient ductility of a prestressed concrete beam section in design is covered in Section 4.3. which is equal to the total elongation of the steel. y x M(x) Bending moment Figure 425: Change in steel strain in an unbonded prestressed concrete beam. Instead. 4. 425). Since the tendons in an unbonded beam are not bonded to the concrete. Therefore. Centroidal axis e(x) x L e. . or the lack thereof.4. 425) ec = where M ( x )e( x ) Ec I M(x) = moment at the section under consideration e(x) = eccentricity of the tendon at the section under consideration The total change in elongation of the concrete adjacent to the steel. on the change in steel strain induced by external load in an uncracked beam is illustrated by example 47. the change in strain in the concrete at the level of the steel at any section along the span is given by (see Fig.
the change in steel strain is the same over the entire length of the cable. the maximum change in steel strain induced by the load will occur at the midspan section. where the moment is given by M = wL²/8.x )dx = 2 2 L Ec I LM L x MN 2 2 x 3 3 OP PQ L 0 ε s unbonded = 2 1 wL e 12 E c I If the steel is bonded to the concrete. .432 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE EXAMPLE 47 The simply supported prestressed concrete beam shown in Fig. 426 yields e s unbonded Therefore. The cable is straight and is placed at an eccentricity e. 426: es = DL = L z L 0 M ( x )e( x ) dx L Ec I For the beam considered here: bg wx M b xg = b L − xg 2 e x = e Substitution into Eq. 426 carries a uniformly distributed load w over a span L. y Figure 426: Example 47. x If the cable is unbonded and free to slip. e = L Ec I z L 0 wx we ( L . the maximum change in steel strain is calculated from e s bonded = Thus. w Centroidal axis e L e. Therefore. it can be concluded that the change in steel strain in the unbonded beam is 2/3 of the change in steel strain at the midspan section of the bonded beam. Assume that the beam remains uncracked to compare the change in steel strain induced by the load in the case where the steel is unbonded to the change in strain in the case where the steel is bonded. in this case. in the case considered here. and is given by Eq. 2 Me 1 wL e = Ec I 8 Ec I ε s unbonded = 2 ε 3 s bonded Therefore.
It should be noted that since the change in steel stress. evenly distributed cracks (a) Bonded Figure 427: Flexural failure of bonded and unbonded prestressed concrete beams. Another major difference between the postcracking behaviour of a beam containing no bonded steel and a bonded beam is illustrated in Fig. it is reasonable to expect the ultimate moment of resistance M u of an unbonded beam to be less than that of the corresponding bonded beam. hence. not only because of its contribution to the tensile force in the ultimate resisting couple. the beam contains no bonded reinforcement then there is a tendency for it to develop a single large crack. However. If the beam contains only properly detailed bonded steel.ANALYSIS 433 Example 47 clearly demonstrates that if the beam remains uncracked the relative movement between the unbonded steel and the concrete leads to a lower change in steel strain than is the case at the critical section of a bonded beam. Since the stress in the steel at ultimate f ps is significantly less in an unbonded beam than in a bonded beam. is normally small and therefore ignored in stress calculations before cracking. 412). and the difference appears to range between 10 and 30% (Ref. 427.bx/2). the situation often arises in unbonded beams that the steel stress f ps is much less than its ultimate strength f pu when the limiting crushing strain e cu is reached in the concrete. Because of this behaviour. the steel stress increases much more gradually than would be the case at the critical section of a bonded beam. after the section cracks the magnitude of this relative movement appears to increase significantly with increasing load so that the steel strain and. Such nonprestressed reinforcement will increase the flexural capacity of an unbonded beam. 410). { { Single large crack (b) Unbonded . often at least equal to the effective depth of the prestressing steel (Ref. This is indeed the case. This behaviour reduces the ultimate moment capacity of an unbonded beam and leads to smaller average concrete strains at failure than is the case in bonded beams. Inspection of Eq. Some design codes of practice specify minimum amounts of nonprestressed bonded reinforcement to be included in unbonded prestressed concrete beams. a reduction in f ps will reduce the flexural capacity of the section. rotations and deflections. Bearing in mind that the ultimate moment is calculated from M u = A ps f ps (d . Major stress and strain concentrations occur at the top of these large cracks so that flexural failure tends to be localized at a section. At flexural failure none of the cracks will be particularly wide and the concrete compression zone will tend to fail over a relatively large length of the member. 426 also reveals that the magnitude of this difference is dependent on the shape of the bending moment diagram and on the cable profile. Crushing Crushing Many small. all other things being equal. This type of failure is ductile with large accompanying curvatures. many evenly distributed cracks will develop in the region of maximum moment (see Fig. which arises from the change in steel strain. on the other hand. but also because of the advantages to be gained from the resulting improved crack control. it is clear that. 427a). or only a few large cracks (see Fig. the relative movement between the unbonded steel and the concrete is not of much practical significance at this stage. If. The presence of nonprestressed bonded reinforcement tends to spread the flexural cracks and to limit their size. 427b). and can therefore significantly improve this undesireable behaviour.
• Shape of the bending moment diagram. • Coefficient of friction between the tendon and the duct. However.3). the change in steel stress resulting from the application of external load is normally small enough to be safely ignored in the calculation of concrete stresses.7 f Q pu (427) where l is normally taken as the length of the tendon between end anchorages. the tendency has been to make use of empirical and semiempirical expressions for estimating f ps . 47) and ACI 31889 (Ref. Since. • Amount of nonprestressed bonded reinforcement. . 42). this stress change is even smaller than in the case of a bonded beam.3.3. if the total area of the preformed ducts in which the unbonded tendons are contained forms a significant part of the crosssection. This equation applies to rectangular sections and flanged sections in which the compression zone is entirely contained in the flange. in the case of uncracked bonded sections. Ultimate moment A rational procedure for the flexural analysis of a cracked unbonded prestressed concrete beam section is complicated by difficulties associated with quantifying the various factors which influence flexural behaviour after cracking. which is the same as that recommended by BS 8110. 413): • Magnitude of the effective stress in the tendons.434 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE Analysis of the uncracked section Before cracking. as discussed in Section 4. as illustrated by example 47. Because of the difficulties encounted in analytically treating the influence of these factors on the magnitude of the stress f ps in the steel at ultimate. concrete stresses in uncracked unbonded sections are calculated in exactly the same way as in uncracked bonded sections (see Section 4. Further guidance on the reduction of l in the case of continuous multispan members can be found in SABS 0100. • Cable profile. • Properties of the materials used in the member. the change in stress induced in the tendons of an unbonded beam by the external load is usually small: In fact. BS 8110 (Ref. If the section contains nonprestressed bonded reinforcement A s . It appears that the flexural strength of an unbonded section depends on the following factors (Ref. there is usually no reason why this change in steel stress should be accounted for in the case of unbonded sections. including all losses Df s = additional stress induced in the steel by bending of the beam under the ultimate load Examples of such expressions may be found in SABS 0100 (Ref. the section properties to be used for the calculation of concrete stress should be based on the net concrete section instead of the gross section. 411). 1 − 17 l/d f cubd LM N OP MPa ≤ 0. Therefore. These expressions are usually of the following general form: where f ps = f se + ∆f s f se = effective prestress in the steel. is an example of a semiempirical equation. • Spantodepth ratio of the beam. and was derived on the basis of an assumed length of the zone of inelasticity within the concrete of 10x. and is generally much more complex than that of a cracked bonded section. The expression prescribed by SABS 0100.3. and is presented below in the notation used here: f ps = f se + f pu A ps 7000 .
50 ´ 350 ´ 640 12000 / 640 LM N = 1421 MPa which is greater than 0.17 . 6m The stressstrain curve for the nonprestressed steel is as shown in Fig. 423 while a = 0. 7000 1 .45 and b = 0.ANALYSIS 435 SABS 0100 suggests that the effect of this reinforcement can be approximately accounted for by adding to A ps an equivalent area of prestressing steel equal to A s f y / f pu . w Centroidal axis e = 290 6m 12 m Figure 428: Example 48. f s = f sy = 391.9 for the equivalent rectangular stress block. The procedure is illustrated by example 48. = 1519 mm 2 1860 Recognizing that the length of the tendon between the end anchorages l is virtually equal to the span of the beam (= 12 m).7 kN . Ts = As f s = 628 ´ 3913 ´ 10 . the only difference being that the tendons are unbonded in this case. from Fig. The properties of the materials and the section at midspan are exactly the same as the section considered in example 46 (see Fig.7 f pu = 1302 MPa. Simply mixing the provisions of various codes can lead to totally misleading results. 412 and 425. the subsequent calculations for estimating the ultimate moment must be based on the provisions of that code. respectively: Tps = A ps f ps = 500 ´ 1302 ´ 103 = 6510 kN . and the ultimate moment M u is subsequently calculated by considering moment equilibrium. the depth to neutral axis x is calculated by considering horizontal equilibrium of the section. Once f ps is known.17 . f cubd1 l / d1 LM MN d i OP MPa PQ OP Q = 1116 + 1860 ´ (500 + 1519) . the magnitudes of T ps and T s can be calculated from Eqs.3 MPa. EXAMPLE 48 The simply supported concrete beam shown in Fig. The effect of the nonprestressed reinforcement on the magnitude of f ps is accounted for by converting A s to an equivalent area of prestressing steel A¢ = ps As f y f pu = 628 ´ 450 . 423. 428 is posttensioned by unbonded tendons. Make use of the appropriate provisions of SABS 0100 to calculate the design ultimate moment of the midspan section. Therefore f ps = 1302 MPa. 422). 427: f ps = f se + f pu A ps + A¢ ps 7000 1 .00196) so that. With f ps and f s known. Assume e s2 > e sy (= 0. f ps can be directly calculated from Eq. 3 = 245. It is extremely important to realize that when an expression for f ps recommended by a particular design code of practice is used.
126. 422). so that the calculated value of x is correct. m FG H IJ K Note that the ultimate moment is less than M u = 606. Therefore s = 0. permanent formwork can be placed and the slab can be cast with minimum interruption to the rail traffic since scaffolding is not required for these stages of construction. As for example 46.5 e cu = 0.7 650 ´ 103 2 2 = 525. Therefore C is given by Eq. A typical application is that of a road over rail bridge where the interruption of the railway line must be limited.00196. 4. The precast beams are erected first and can be used to support the formwork for the slab.5 0.9 x = 0.9 ´ 126.01448 x 126.0035 = 0.7 kN.3 kN.7 = 896. as assumed. The beams would normally be prestressed and the slab would be of reinforced concrete. It is also possible to posttension the composite element longitudinally as shown in Fig. e s2 = FG d H 2 x 650 . as expected.9 ´ 126. .m obtained for the bonded beam section of example 46.5 ´ 103 + 245. their material properties are likely to differ: The precast beams can be manufactured in a casting yard where high control of quality is possible and a strength of 50 . Once the beams are in place. e s2 is calculated by considering the strain distribution (see Fig.436 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE The entire compression zone is contained in the flange because the magnitude of the maximum compression force C fmax = a f cubh f = 0. Thus. 414 as d i C( x ) = a f cub b x = 0. Upon substitution of these values: M u = 651 640  0.5 IJ K FG H IJ K It is therefore clear that e s2 is larger than e sy = 0.45 ´ 50 ´ 103 ´ 350 ´ 150 = 1181 kN is larger than the total tensile force which can be provided by the prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement T = Tps + Ts = 651 + 245.7 kN . or transversely to increase the flexural resistance in that direction.9 ´ 126. Although both elements are made of concrete.7 Flexural analysis of composite sections A composite structure is defined as a structure composed of structural elements using materials with different material properties.088 x d i The depth to neutral axis is subsequently calculated by considering horizontal equilibrium. Composite structures in prestressed concrete typically consist of precast concrete beams with an in situ concrete slab. 429. A crosssection of the precast beam and the slab is called a composite section and several examples are shown in Fig.5 mm. as expected. Thus. while a strength higher than 30 MPa is probably not economical for the slab. 429f.45 ´ 50 ´ 103 ´ 350 ´ 0.9 ´ x = 7. Making use of composite construction can result in savings in both construction cost and time.60 MPa is feasible.9 mm is less than h f = 150 mm. from which T + C( x ) = 896.088 x = 0 Solving for x yields x = 126.5 = 113. M u = Tps d1  FG H bx bx + Ts d 2 2 2 IJ K FG H IJ K FG H IJ K The magnitudes of T ps and T s to be used in the above expression are as calculated above.7 .3.7. The ultimate moment is finally calculated by considering moment equilibrium about the line of action of C. The validity of the assumption that e s2 > e sy must also be checked.
The loading stage under consideration will determine if it is the precast section only or the composite section resisting the loads. . and the tensile stresses induced at the bottom of the precast member may need to be accounted for. 3.ANALYSIS 437 In situ concrete slab Precast prestressed concrete beam (d) (a) (e) (b) Posttensioned tendon (c) (f) Figure 429: Typical cross sections of composite beams (Ref. These differences will be addressed in each of the following sections as they arise. Analysis of the uncracked section Consider a composite section consisting of a precast beam section supporting an in situ slab as shown in Fig. 414). 2. 430. 414): 1. Assume that no temporary supports are used during construction so that the beams support the formwork for the slab as well as the slab itself. The different loading stages and the corresponding section resisting the loads can best be determined by considering the construction procedure (see Table 44): (a) At transfer. A transformed effective flange width must be determined for the composite section to account for the difference in the stiffnesses of the materials used for the slab and for the beam. The analysis of the composite section is based on the assumption that the horizontal shear resistance at the interface between the precast beam and the in situ slab is sufficient to ensure composite action. Differential shrinkage takes place between the precast beam and the in situ slab. when only the initial prestressing force P t and the moment induced by the self weight of the beam M b are acting on the precast beam section. The analysis of a composite section can be carried out as for noncomposite sections if the following four main differences are taken into account (Ref. 4.
can still be applied. with the two different stresses can occur at the same level in the composite section. 429c). respectively. as shown in However. when the effective prestressing force P e together with the moment induced by the self weight of the beam M b are acting on the precast beam section. (c) (d) In situ concrete slab + Precast prestressed concrete beam Figure 430: = Mf Pe + M b + M f (c) + ML = Pe + M b + M f + M L (d) Pt + M b (a) Pe + M b (b) Distribution of stress in a composite section during service (Ref. 429. the simple case shown in Fig. 430. the principles of analysis. cases the precast beam and the in situ portions can overlap (see Fig. from which it can be seen that the critical stages are (a) and (d). The variation is caused by shear lag effects and is dependant on several factors such as the type of loading. as shown in Fig. such as live loads. only In certain result that Fig. dimensions of the crosssection and time dependant properties of the concrete (including .3. The stresses caused by the additional loads must be added to the existing stresses in the precast beam. 432 for a simply supported beam. Loading stage Loads Pt + Mb Pe + Mb Pe + Mb + Mf Pe + Mb + Mf + ML Resisting section Precast beam Precast beam Precast beam Composite section (a) Tensioning of precast beam (b) Precast beam after losses (c) Casting of slab (d) Live and superimposed dead load The stress distributions at each of these load stages are shown in Fig. 431. is the other critical stage. At this loading stage the in situ slab will also be subjected to high compressive stress. Loading stage (a) occurs at transfer when the maximum prestressing force acts together with minimum loading to induce maximum compressive and tensile stresses in the bottom and top fibres of the precast beam. Table 44: Loading stages on a composite section during service. Directly after the slab has been cast. This loading stage has been discussed in Section 4. the beam self weight moment M b and the effective prestressing force P e are acting on the precast beam section. where the minimum prestressing force is present together with the maximum external loading. as illustrated in Fig. when the slab self weight moment M f (including the weight of any formwork).3. 410).438 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE (b) After the prestress losses have taken place. as presented in this Section. Here. the top and bottom fibres of the precast beam are subjected to maximum compressive and tensile stresses. 429a using unpropped construction is considered here. After the concrete in the slab has hardened any additional loads. When a flanged beam is subjected to an applied loading. act on the composite section. respectively. the compressive stresses in the flange will vary over the width of the flange. Although several different combinations of composite construction exist. Loading stage (d).
42.15 times the effective length of the span from the support.7 times the effective span. 46) places the point of zero moment at a distance of 0. 46.85 L. as shown in Fig. The following values for b e are recommend by local design codes (Ref.sections (428a) (428b) L z = distance between points of zero moment. the actual flange width (See Fig.sections for L .e. the plane sections assumption is used to determine the distribution of strain in the section. 433a) L Bending moments Figure 432: The effects of shear lag on the distribution of compressive stress in a flanged beam. 433b.ANALYSIS 439 In situ concrete slab Precast beam In situ slab Precast prestressed concrete beam Figure 431: Pt + M b (a) Pe + M b + M f (b) Pe + M b + M f + M L (c) Stress distribution for overlapping a composite section. S = the spacing of the webs. For continuous beams L z may be taken as 0. The difference between the modulus of elasticity of the concrete used for the precast beam . Since an exact theoretical analysis is usually not justified. The actual flange is replaced by a fictitious flange having an effective flange width b e so that it carries the same load as the actual flange. i. the following simplified approach is followed. creep and shrinkage). the distance between points of zero moment L z = 0. It should be noted that TMH7 (Ref. This implies that for the end span of a continuous beam.2 Lz £ S z g + 01L g £ S . 47 and 48) be = where Rbb  S bb  T w w + 0. for T . For the analysis.
the stresses in the concrete can be calculated by Eqs.b from the centroid of the precast beam . are resisted by the beam section only. At transfer. 42 and 46). and that used for the in situ slab leads to different stresses being induced in the section by equal strain.b from the centroid of the precast beam Z bot. including prestress. The calculations can be simplified by transforming one material to the other and it is generally more convenient to transform the slab material to the beam material. a Tsection is used for the analysis. It is recommended that this difference be taken into account when the concrete strength differs by more than 10 MPa (Ref.b = I b / y top. at loading stage (d) (Fig.b = Section modulus of the beam section with respect to the extreme bottom fibre of the precast beam. which proceeds as discussed in previous Sections. This is accomplished by replacing the effective width b e of the slab by a transformed width b ft as follows: where n c = modular ratio = Ec. 438): f top . 430).b = f bot .b = where Mb + M f ML Pe P + + + Ab Z top . cb (430a) (430b) A b = Area of the precast beam Z top.b Zbot . located a distance y bot.b b ft = nc be (429) E c.b = modulus of elasticity of the concrete in the precast prestressed beam After the section has been transformed to one material.b = Section modulus of the beam section with respect to the extreme top fibre of the precast beam.b Zbot . This is done by multiplying the stresses in the transformed slab by the modular ratio n c . superimposed loads applied after the slab concrete has hardened are resisted by the composite section. located a distance y top.b = I b / y bot. It is important to note that the stresses calculated in the slab on the basis of the transformed section must be transformed back to the slab material to obtain the actual stresses in the slab. 45 and 46 using the beam section properties because all the loads. Hence.440 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE S be Equivalent stress distribution Actual stress distribution L bw S (a) Lz = 0.b Z top .85 L (b) Figure 433: Effective flange width b e .f = modulus of elasticity of the concrete in the in situ slab E c. and this fact must be accounted for in the calculation of stress. the concrete stresses at this stage can be calculated as follows (see Fig. However.b Z top . f Ec. cb Mb + M f ML Pe P + + + Ab Zbot .
The loading and corresponding maximum midspan moments are calculated in the following table: Beam selfweight Slab selfweight w (kN/m) M (kN. Take P 4 = 1200 kN.f = 30 MPa Ec.5 Additional load 16.32 121. bf = 1200 hf = 150 In situ slab Precast beam hb = 700 d = 630 Concrete material properties: Precast beam fcu.b = 34 GPa fcu. with P 1 = 1350 kN (assuming some loss has taken place). Just after the slab has been cast. 434. Take P t = 1500 kN.cb from the centroid of the composite section Z bot.0 The effective flange width can be calculated from be = bw + 0. located a distance y bot.cb = I c / y bot.88 165.0 450. .cb = I c / y top. After a long time with no additional loads.2 ´ 15 000 = 3 350 mm This is greater than the actual flange so that b f = 1 200 mm is used. located a distance y top. The precast prestressed beams are spaced at a distance of 1200 mm. In addition to self weight.ANALYSIS 441 I b = Second moment of area of the precast beam Z top. the beam must support an additional uniformly distributed load of 16 kN/m.cb = Section modulus of the composite section with respect to the extreme bottom fibre of the precast beam.m) 5. with P 2 = 1350 kN.cb = Section modulus of the composite section with respect to the extreme top fibre of the precast beam. Just before the slab is cast. Assume unpropped construction and determine the elastic stresses at the following stages: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) At transfer of prestress.2 Lz = 350 + 0.b = 50 MPa Ec. After a long time with additional loads.f = 28 GPa In situ slab Unit weight gc = 24 kN/m3 70 bb = 350 Cross section at midspan Figure 434: Composite cross section for Example 49.4 4.cb from the centroid of the composite section I c = Second moment of area of the composite section EXAMPLE 49 A simply supported composite beam has a span of 15 m and the cross section shown in Fig. Take P 3 = 1200 kN (assuming all the losses have taken place).
b1 = = P1e + M b hb / 2 P1 + Ab Ib b gb g i 3 6 1350 ´ 10 ´ 280 + 165.0 10.2  f top .2 mm The distances to the various fibres of importance. f E c .cb = 510.8 ybot.8 ytop.cb = 189. Ab Ib b gb g (b) Stresses in the beam just before casting the slab: f top . d .cf = 339.908 = 15.96 148.bt = Pt e + M b hb / 2 Pt + = 6122 .908 = 2.b = 350 ybot.442 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE To determine the section properties of the composite section the modular ratio is required nc = Ec. 435.8235 ´ 1200 = 988.2 Figure 435: Locations of section centroids for Example 49.439 = 193 MPa . ytop.b = 28 = 0.8235 34 The transformed flange width is calculated from b ft = ncbe = 0. The eccentricity of the prestressing force with regard to the precast beam e = 630 −700/2 = 280 mm.51 + 7.03 MPa .2 26.00 Composite section 393.8.4 ´ 10 (350) 1350 + 9 245 10 ´ 10 = 5.79 MPa .b = 350 Centroid of composite section Centroid of beam section ytop. and the section properties are summarized as follows: In situ slab (transformed) Area (´ 10 mm ) Second moment of area (´ 10 mm ) (a) Stresses at transfer: 9 4 3 2 Precast beam 245. d f bot . measured from the centroid of the transformed section are given in Fig.bt = = Pt e + M b hb / 2 Pt + Ab Ib b gb g i 3 6 1500 ´ 10 ´ 280 + 165.4 ´ 10 (350) 1500 + 9 245 10 ´ 10 = 6122 + 8.
51 + 3188 = 2.67 MPa f bot . .4 + 1215) ´ 10 6 (350) .ANALYSIS 443 f bot . f 4 = L ytop . .3167 = 6. cb Ic I n = F 450 ´ 10 (189.1719 = 6.3188 = 8. .898 .b 2 = P2 e + M b + M f P2 + Ab Ib d ibh / 2g = 551 . b (e) Stresses in the composite section after a long time with additional load: In the slab f top .671 ´ 0.32 MPa . = 3167 ´ 0.95 MPa . d f bot .4 + 1215) ´ 106 (350) .8235 JK GH 26. Ab Ib b gb g (c) Stresses in the precast beam when slab is cast: f top .96 ´ 10 JK 6 c 9 = 5. b (d) Stresses in the composite section after a long time without additional load: f top .b 3 = P3e + M b + M f hb / 2 P3 + Ab Ib d ib g i 1200 ´ 103 ´ 280 + (165.35 MPa .8) 9 d ib g = 3179 + .61 MPa In the beam f top .b 3 = P3e + M b + M f P3 + Ab Ib d ibh / 2g = 4.7.8) I ´ 0.898 + 1719 = 318 MPa .439 = 12. cf Ic I n = F 450 ´ 10 (339.8235 = 2.96 ´ 10 = 3179 . d f bot .b1 = P1e + M b hb / 2 P1 + = 551 . cb P4 + + Ab Ib Ic 6 450 ´ 10 (189.b4 = P4 e + M b + M f hb / 2 M L ytop . 26. .b 2 = P2 e + M b + M f hb / 2 P2 + Ab Ib d ib g i 1350 ´ 10 3 ´ 280 + (165.8235 JK GH 26. 1200 = + 9 245 10 ´ 10 = 4. 1350 = + 9 245 10 ´ 10 = 5.96 ´ 10 JK 6 c 9 .62 MPa .8) I ´ 0.70 MPa .8235 = 4. f 4 = FM GH FM GH L ytop .
95 (b) 8.61 6. as shown in Fig.90 (e) Figure 436: Stress distribution (in MPa) in the composite section of Example 49.515 = 190 MPa . a vertical position is selected. Differential shrinkage If the precast beam is relatively old when the in situ slab is cast. cb h Ic = 6.18 2. bf = 1200 bft = 988. These can be determined by making use of compatibility and equilibrium (Ref.2) 26. Figure 437 shows the strains and stresses caused by differential shrinkage in the composite section.c = 339.b = unrestrained creep and shrinkage at the top and bottom of the precast beam A position is required where compatibility can initially be established.e top. a moment M b must be applied to the beam.32 3. To achieve this position of compatibility.444 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE f bot . 436. The calculated stresses are summarized in Fig. 437a): e sf = unrestrained shrinkage of the in situ slab e top. and a tensile force F must be applied to the in situ slab.8 2.62 (d) 1.2 section 15.b hb bot .2 4. and that the following strains have occurred (see Fig.67 ytop. Therefore.b I b (431) where k b = curvature of the beam section = h b = height of the precast beam section 1 e .70 (c) 6.93 2.03 (a) 12. 437b. to simplify the problem. The resulting shortening of the slab relative to the precast beam is called differential shrinkage.b e bot.c = composite 510. much of the creep and shrinkage of the precast beam has already taken place.b 4 = P4 e + M b + M f P4 + Ab Ib 6 9 d ibh / 2g + M c y b L bot . 416).617 + 8.617 + 450 ´ 10 (510.96 ´ 10 = 6. Assume that the beam and the slab act independently since casting of the in situ concrete.79 1.b d i . The moment M b can be calculated as follows: M b = −k b E c . Since any position may be chosen that will correspond to the deformed shape of the beam.35 Centroid of ybot. the shrinkage of the in situ slab is greater than the magnitude of the remaining creep and shrinkage of the precast beam.
437c. b + e top .c hf F hf /2 F Mc Centroidal axis of the composite section Final position (c) Forces on composite section Mb (d) Equivalent forces on composite section Figure 437: Differential shrinkage in a composite section. c  F GH hf I.b e avg. f A f where A f = cross sectional area of the in situ slab e diff = differential shrinkage strain = e sf . The force in the slab required to take up the differential strain can be determined from F = e diff E c. as shown in Fig. It is customary to use a set of equivalent forces as shown in Fig.ANALYSIS 445 esf In situ slab etop.b (b) Forces required for compatibility ytop.b Position at casting ediff esf F Mb Precast prestressed beam ebot. 437d.e avg. where M c = F ytop .b (a) Positions following unrestrained shrinkage and creep eavg.b / 2 for a symmetric beam i The beam and the slab can now be joined and the applied force F and moment M b cancelled by applying equal and opposite forces and moments to the composite section.M 2 J K b (433) .b = average strain in the beam = (432) de bot .
b cc (435) b cc = ratio of creep strain to the elastic strain The value of b cc can range between 1.f ytop. and the following reduction factor y can be applied to these stresses to account for this effect (Ref.f ftop. cb F + Ac Ic M c ybot .cb ybot.c Centroid of the composite section Centroid of the precast beam ytop.e b cc . as shown in Fig. 432) must reverse this shortening and is therefore a tensile (positive) force. cf F + nc Ac Ic M c ybot . 437. cf F + Ac Ic c ft I JK In JK (434a) (434b) (434c) (434d) f top . For a beam prestressed by a tendon located below the centroidal axis of the section.c Figure 438: Definition of symbols and stresses for differential shrinkage in a composite section.cb ybot. Creep itself tends to relieve the stresses caused by differential shrinkage. which results in a reduction factor of 0. is often used for design. 431) positive.b = f bot .b = M b ytop .b fbot.b Ib M b ybot . The notation used for the distances to extreme fibres used in these equations are defined in Fig. However. It is important to note the sign convention assumed for determining these stresses.b ybot. for example. The force F (Eq. f = f bot .cf ytop. if high creep is expected because of.b ybot. this value of b cc must be increased to reflect the increased creep. f FF GH A FF =G HA  ft M c ytop. a very dry environment.cf fbot. The differential shrinkage will usually be a negative value as this would indicate a shortening of the slab relative to the beam.b Ib M c ytop .b (a) Definition of symbols (b) Stresses caused by differential shrinkage ytop.43.446 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE The resulting stresses can now be determined as follows f top . . 4. the creep and shrinkage strains will be negative with the corresponding curvature k b negative and moment M b (Eq.5 and 2. cb F + Ac Ic where A ft = transformed cross sectional area of the in situ slab A c = cross sectional area of the composite section ftop. 46 and 48): y= where 1.38.5 and an average value of 2.
bot + 0.8  FG H 150 ´ 103 .322) = 44.b = e cr .21 ´ 106 d i The tension force applied to the slab for compatibility is given by F = e diff E c. Because the in situ slab is cast 6 months after the beam is cast.bot = 0.2 339.b = e cr .21 ´ 106 ´ 28 ´ 1200 ´ 150 = 404.b = (2910 .e avg .322 MPa and 8.58 ´ 10 6 6 e cr .56 kN.b .8 ´ 106 = 80.6 b = 404.4e sh = 167.00´103 = 59.m The average strain in the precast beam is given by e avg .M JK 1.4e cr f bot .6) ´106 =174.4´ 48 ´ 10 (2. e bot .58 ´ 10 6 + 0.b I b =(174.e top . The creep strains in the top and bottom fibres of the beam will then be 6 6 e cr .4´ 310 ´ 10 e bot .b + e top .b 2 = 0.0 ´ 106 The curvature of the beam caused by these strains is d i = 168.e 16 .b = 0. 6 6 6 6 kb = 1 1 2910 .8 ´ 10 .168.4e cr f top . 2 2 d i so that the differential shrinkage strain is e diff = e sf .4e sh = 44.6 Assume that the remaining creep in the precast beam takes place under the stresses present at the time the slab is cast.0 ´ 10 6 MPa 1 for creep of the precast beam 6 for shrinkage of both the beam and slab The total strain in the precast beam including the remaining portion of the shrinkage is e top .b = 310 ´ 106 .49 = 47. c  F GH hf 2 I.698) = 167.b cc = 1. top = 0. The following values for creep and shrinkage apply: e cr = 48 ´ 10 e sh = 310 ´ 10 b cc = 1.229.9 ´106 m1 . = 0.9 ´106 ) ´ 34 ´10 6 ´10.698 MPa.80.4´ d310 ´ 10 i = 2910 ´ 10 .7 hb c h b g while the moment required to rotate the beam through this curvature is M b =k b E c. respectively.6) ´ 10 = 229.b 2 = 0.4´ 48 ´ 10 (8. top + 0.2 kN d i The moment M c is determined from M c = F ytop .49 kN. the reduction factor for creep is y= 1. assume that 60% of the creep and shrinkage have already taken place in the beam at the time of casting of the slab. The stresses in the top and bottom of the beam are 2.e b cc .(168. f A f = .4988 .6 ´ 10 + 0.ANALYSIS 447 EXAMPLE 410 Calculate the differential shrinkage stresses in the composite section of example 49.b = 1 1 6 6 e bot .59. m 2 IJ K Finally.
97 (b) Stresses caused by differential shrinkage 2.404.96 ´ 10 3 3 = 172 MPa .8) IJ ´ 0.3 26.87 (c) Total stress Figure 439: Total stresses Example 410.97 MPa These stresses must be added to those caused by all the loadings after losses.2 + 47. b b c bot .2 . cf c c ft c 3 b top .4988 =G H 10 ´ 10 393. b b c top . as shown in Fig.49 ´ 350 . It can be seen from the final stresses that it is the tensile stress in the bottom of the precast beam that is most significantly affected by differential shrinkage from the point of view of design.61 6.56 ´ (189.3 H 10 ´ 10 K 26.F + M y In y GH A A JK I F 404.F + M y Iy GH I JK A I F 59.35 0.96 ´ 10 K 34 c top .F + M y In y GH A A JK I F 404.2 + 47. 439.22 2. f = F F . 4.45 MPa f bot . .67 2.8) IJ 28 ´ 0.448 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE The stresses caused by differential shrinkage can now be calculated as follows f top .F + M y Iy GH I JK A I F 59.b = F M y .8) IJ 28 ´ 0.07 + = 1.4988 =G H 148.56 ´ 510. cb c c = 0.4988 =G H 148.56 1.56 ´ (339.404.404.2 + 47.56 ´ (189.2 393.2 393.b = F M y .24 + 47.56 MPa f top .45 0. cb c c 3 3 = 0.3 26.404.3 26.2 IJ ´ 0. cf c c ft c 3 = 0.2 . f bot .90 (a) Stresses caused by all loadings after losses 0.4988 =G 393.49 ´ (350) .96 ´ 10 K b bot .72 4.05 8.96 ´ 10 K 34 c bot . f = F F .
The only way that the difference between f cu for the slab and for the beam impacts on the analysis of flexural strength is that it influences the calculation of the compressive force in the concrete. This can be accounted for either by transforming the slab concrete to the beam concrete on the basis of the strength ratio n cu (transformed section) or by making use of basic principles (untransformed section) (see Fig. 436 becomes Cf = Ra f Sa f T b xbe cu . . T bb (b) Transformed slab width Horizontal shear In both the preceding sections dealing with the analysis of the uncracked section and with the ultimate strength of the composite section. f cu. The compression force in the slab C f and in the beam C w can be determined from the following: Cf = Ra f Sa f T h f be h f b ft cu .b f cu. Consider the case where the compression zone extends into the precast beam.f / f cu. This difference is generally only considered if it is more than 10 MPa. Eq. respectively c h For the case where the compression zone is entirely contained in the slab (bx < h f ). as shown in Fig.h f bb where b ft = transformed slab width = n cu b e n cu = strength ratio = f cu.b cu .b Cf Cw T bb (a) Original slab width Figure 440: Flexural capacity of a composite section.b b x .b b xb ft cu .b = characteristic concrete strength of the slab and beam.f .ANALYSIS 449 Ultimate moment The flexural capacity of a composite section can be determined in the same way as for a flanged section if provision is made for the difference in strength f cu of the concrete in the precast beam and in the in situ slab. However.f Cf bx Cw bft afcu. 440). the assumption was made the the section acts compositely. f for an untransformed slab width for a transformed slab width (437a) (437b) Cw = 0 afcu. composite action is only possible if the induced horizontal shear can be transmitted across the interface between the precast beam and the in situ slab. 440. f for an untransformed slab width for a transformed slab width (436a) (436b) Cw = a f cu.b be hf x afcu.
Recommendations exist (Refs. the distance L v extends from the section of maximum moment to the point of zero moment. It must be noted that the restrictions on shear stresses as recommended by design codes are dependent on the method used for obtaining the interface shear stresses. 47 and 423) which suggest that the maximum value of the horizontal shear stress can be obtained by distributing the average shear stress v hu along the length L v in proportion to the vertical design shear force diagram. T (b) Beam elevation For the case shown in Fig. the support. . in which case the horizontal shear stress at the interface v hu is given by Cf a f cu . the compression force to be transmitted across the interface is taken as a f cu. f h f be .f Cf Minimum moment section 0 vhu Maximum moment section Cf T Lv (a) Cross section at postion of maximum moment Figure 441: Horizontal shear in a composite beam. Elastic theory yields the following equation for determining the horizontal shear stress v he at the interface of an uncracked section vhe = where VQ I c bv (438) V = shear force at the section where the shear stress is required Q = first moment of area of the concrete on either side of the interface about the neutral axis of the transformed composite section I c = second moment of area of the transformed composite section b v = width of the interface The horizontal shear stress v hu at ultimate can be determined by dividing the horizontal force in the slab that has to be transmitted across the interface by the area of the interface. 441b. f b xbe vhu = = (439) bv Lv bv Lv where L v = distance over which the force must be transmitted be hf bv x bx afcu. Figure 441a shows the case where the compression zone is entirely contained in the slab. i.e. It should be noted that the shear stress v hu is an average stress while the limiting values recommended by design codes are given with regard to a maximum value.450 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE There are two commonly used methods of calculating the horizontal shear stress at the precastin situ concrete interface: The first method makes use of elastic theory while the second method considers conditions at ultimate when plastic deformations have taken place in the section. In the case where the compression zone extends into the precast beam.
. • Serviceability limit states.4 DESIGN 4. and are essentially the same as those applicable to BS 8110 (Ref.g. flour mill or chemical plant) the design must ensure that there is a reasonable probability that the structure will survive an accident. 417 and 424). Possible damage to other elements such as finishes. efficiency and durability of the structure is not impaired. which are concerned with the maximum loadcarrying capacity of the structure. • Robustness: The design must be robust. Any condition at which a structure may become unfit for use constitutes a limit state. even though it may be damaged. 47). 42). services. or interference with its proper function. • Vibration: Where there is a likelihood of the structure being subjected to excessive vibrations. this approach requires that each limit state must be examined separately to make sure that it has not been reached. partitions. Ultimate limit states • Stability: The structure must remain stable under all the critical combinations of the design ultimate loads.DESIGN 451 4. not be unreasonably susceptible to the effects of accidents. therefore. The structure should. 46. 416. 42. location or use of a structure (e. Serviceability limit states • Deflection: The deformation of the structure or any part thereof must be limited to ensure that neither its appearance nor its performance is adversely affected. glazing and cladding. as well as to adjacent structures is also a consideration in this regard.1 Limit states design All the design codes of practice normally used in South Africa for the design of prestressed concrete structures (Refs. Obviously. by overturning or by buckling. appropriate measures must be taken to prevent discomfort or alarm to occupants. damage to the structure. These checks can be made either on a deterministic or on a probabilistic basis. and the objective of the design procedure is to ensure that such a limit state is not reached. This requirement implies that no ultimate limit state is to be reached by rupture of any section. which are concerned with the normal use and durability of the structure. 47 and 48) are based on the so called limit states design approach. This means that if the provisions of these codes are followed. The limit states listed below are those applicable to SABS 0100 (Ref.4. • Cracking: The width of cracks must be controlled to ensure that the appearance. each limit state is examined to establish if there is an acceptable probability of it not being reached (see Refs. which offers a rational and practical procedure for ensuring that there is an acceptable probability that the structure will remain fit for its intended use during its design life. in the sense that the failure of a single element or damage to a small area of the structure must not lead to the collapse of a major part of the structure. and the codes currently used in South Africa for the design of prestressed concrete structures all adopt a probabilistic basis. • Special hazards: If a potential hazard exists due to the nature of the occupancy. The various limit states can be placed in one of the two following categories: • Ultimate limit states.
as implemented in the design codes of practice (Refs. • Durability: The durability of the structure must be considered in terms of its conditions of exposure and its design life. The approach followed by the limit states design method to determine these quantities. concrete is a more variable material than steel. 42): • Possible reductions in the strength of the materials used in the actual structure as compared with the characteristic values obtained from laboratory tested specimens. Values recommended by SABS 0100 (Ref. The value of g m depends on the material: By the nature of its manufacturing process. • Fire resistance: When a structural element may be exposed to fire its retention of structural strength. If it is assumed that the measured values of strength are normally distributed. 418. 46. resistance to flame penetration and resistance to heat transmission must be considered. the design resistance must exceed the design load effect at the ultimate limit states and the design criteria must be satisfied at the serviceability limit states. is briefly described in the following. the following aspects must be considered in the design: • Fatigue: The effects of fatigue must be considered if the nature of the imposed load on the structure is predominantly cyclic. . Thus. this definition can be expressed as follows: f k = f m .452 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE Other considerations In addition to the limit states listed above. higher values are used for ultimate limit states than for serviceability limit states. design strength = fk gm (441) The factor g m is intended to account for the following (Ref.164 s . Design material strengths Material strengths are specified in terms of their characteristic values. For a satisfactory design. therefore.1. 420 and 424) commonly used in South Africa. 42. the design material strengths and the design loads must be known. In order to carry out the necessary calculations to verify compliance with these requirements. minimum concrete strength and permissible crack width is intended to ensure that the durability requirements of most structures are satisfied. where f k = characteristic strength f m = mean strength s = standard deviation (440) The design material strength applicable to each limit state is derived from the characteristic strength by dividing it by a partial safety factor for material strength g m . 47 and 48) and loading codes (Refs. 42) for g m are listed in Table 45. • Local weaknesses.1 for the specific case of the characteristic compressive strength of concrete). • Inaccuracies in the assessment of the resistance of sections. It also depends on the importance of the limit state being considered and. which are defined as the strength below which not more than 5% of the test results may be expected to fall (see Section 2. • Lightning: Reinforcement may be used as part of a lightning protection system. 419. Compliance with code recommendations regarding minimum concrete cover to the reinforcement.
by their nature.3 1. . • Variations in dimensional accuracy achieved during construction. applicable to a particular limit state. because the variability of the dead load is less than that of the live load. more variable. • Inaccurate assesment of load effects. the data required to establish characteristic values for the various loads are not available at the present time.15 1. the value of g f for dead load will be less than the value for superimposed live load. the values usually given in the various loading codes are not characteristic values but are nominal values.40 ³ 1. Limit State Concrete Steel Ultimate Flexure or axial load Shear Bond Others (eg.40 1. the value of g f for a particular load decreases because of the reduced probability that the various loads will all reach their nominal values simultaneously.DESIGN 453 Table 45: Partial safety factors for material strength g m as recommended by SABS 0100 (Ref. it would be possible to account for the variability of the loads acting on a structure by defining them in terms of characteristic values which have a 5% chance of being exceeded. Thus. 42).50 1.15 Design loads If sufficient statistical data were available. The value of g f depends on the following factors: • Type of load: Higher values of g f are associated with loading types which.0 1. Unfortunately. on forecasts of the implications of future developments.50 1. are • Number of loads acting together: As the number of loads acting together increase.0 1. bearing stresses) Serviceability Deflection Cracking strength of prestressed concrete elements using tensile stress criteria 1. A design load.0 1. Therefore. possibly. so that values are usually based on experience and. • Unforeseen redistribution of stress within the structure. is obtained by multiplying the corresponding nominal load by the appropriate partial safety factor g f . • Importance of the limit state: Higher values of g f are used for ultimate limit states than for serviceability limit states because of the requirement of having a smaller probability of the former being reached. 42): (442) • The possibility of unfavourable deviation of the loads from their nominal values. Thus. for example. design load = nominal load ´ g f The factor g f is intended to account for (Ref.
6W n It should be noted that if a particular load in a load combination has a relieving effect on the load effect being considered.0L n 1. provide for in this regard are essentially the same.4. The codes for bridge loadings commonly used in South Africa (Refs. • Class 2 (limited prestress): Tensile stresses permitted. 418) at the ultimate limit state: 1. most loading codes will provide a reduced value of g f to be applied to that particular load. 42) in this regard.9D n + 1. 420 and 424). only applicable to the recommendations of SABS 0100 (Ref. This classification is essentially the same for all these codes of practice and is summarised below. The flexural design of class 3 (partially prestressed) members is covered in Section 4. but with surface crack widths limited to values prescribed by the particular code being used. 4.2 Design for the serviceability limit state Since the serviceability limit state of cracking governs the flexural design of class 1 and class 2 members. Generally.5D n 1. the same as those of BS 8110 (Ref. It is extremely important to note that the loads and load factors to be used must be obtained from the particular loading code specified by the design code of practice being followed because the provisions of a code of practice is always dependent on those of a particular loading code.4. 47). referred to above. strictly speaking. the design procedure developed in this Section only covers class 1 and 2 pretensioned as well as bonded and unbonded posttensioned members.3W n 0.2D n + 0. differ slightly from SABS 0100 and BS 8110 in the manner in which the various factors which impact on the magnitude of the design material strengths and loads are assigned to the material and load factors. However. which are.3W n The following combinations comply with recommendations of SABS 0160 at the serviceability limit state: 1. while the design of class 3 members tends to be controlled by the ultimate limit state or the serviceability limit state of deflection.1D n + 0. The normal procedure followed in limit states design is to design on the basis of the expected critical limit state and then to examine the remaining limit states to check that they are not reached. however. The bridge loading codes also specify an additional factor g f3 with which the effects of the design loads must be multiplied to obtain the design load effects. but limited to the extent that no visible cracks develop.6. .3L n + 0. • Class 1 (full prestress): No tensile stress permitted.1D n + 1. the design of class 1 and class 2 members is governed by the serviceability limit state of cracking. imposed loads L n and wind loads W n comply with the recommendations of SABS 0160 (Ref.454 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE The combinations listed below for selfweight D n . • Class 3 (partial prestress): Tensile stresses permitted. The descriptions of the material and load factors given above are. in principle.5L n + 1. In the flexural design of prestressed concrete members.2D n + 1. the critical limit state depends on the limitations imposed by the limit state of cracking. the factors which all the different loading codes.6L n 1. which also provides the basis on which prestressed concrete elements are classified by the design codes of practice commonly used in South Africa.
45 f ci 0. Compression • • Design load in bending Design load in direct compression 0. 442 for a simply supported beam subjected to a uniformly distributed load: • At transfer of prestress (Fig. the stage corresponding to transfer of the prestressing force and the stage corresponding to maximum load at the serviceability limit state.3 f ci 0.0 MPa 0. can be identified. Class 1 members Class 2 members Pretensioned Posttensioned At transfer 1. Tension Serviceability limit state 1.25 f cu 0.36 √ci f 2. Although the purpose of the compressive stress limitations are not explicitly stated in the codes.45 f ci 0. Tension f ci = Concrete compressive strength at transfer * Within range of support moments in continuous beams and other statically indeterminate structures this limit may be increased to 0.33 f cu * 0. Under these conditions the beam will tend to deflect upwards and the stress distribution at the midspan . 46.45 √fcu ** 0.DESIGN 455 The criteria which limit crack width are stated in terms of limiting concrete flexural tensile stresses by the design codes of practice used in South Africa (Refs. generally appear to be the most important. and to prevent microcracking and spalling of the concrete in the compression zone under serviceability conditions.33 f cu * 0.25 f cu 0 0. In addition to the limiting tensile stresses. the prestress will be acting at its maximum value because the longterm losses have not yet taken place. all related to the presence of the prestressing force. after all the losses have occurred. SABS 0100 (Ref 42). Table 46: Limiting concrete stresses in prestressed members. It should be noted that the concrete stress limitations are divided into two sets: One corresponding to conditions at transfer and another which applies to the serviceability limit state. These stages are illustrated in Fig.33 f cu * 0.4 f cu ** These stresses may be increased under certain conditions. The concrete stress limitations specified by SABS 0100 (Ref.45 √ci f 0. as specified in SABS 0100 The design process for prestressed concrete members differs from that used for other construction materials because a number of critical stages in the life of the structure. This follows because these conditions can normally be identified as being the most critical. 47 and 48). 42. it seems reasonable to assume that they are intended to prevent the development of excessive creep strains in the concrete under serviceability conditions.25 f cu 0. 42) are listed in Table 46. 442a).3 f ci 1. while the applied external load will be acting at its minimum value because only the self weight of the beam will be present at this stage.36 √ ** fcu 2. Of these. these codes also specify maximum compressive stresses in the concrete which may not be exceeded at the serviceability limit state. Compression • • Triangular or near triangular distribution of prestress Near uniform distribution of prestress 0.45 f ci 0.3 f ci 0.
respectively. The factor h is the ratio of the final prestressing force to the initial value P t which includes only the instantaneous losses.%longterm loss/100. The maximum prestressing force P t corresponds to the value directly after transfer and includes all the instantaneous losses but excludes all timedependent losses. Since the stages described above are usually critical they will serve as the point of departure for developing a design procedure. which represents a minimum value because all the longterm losses would have taken place at this stage. • At the serviceability limit state the maximum service load will be acting together with the effective prestressing force. Therefore. respectively. Minimum loading Prestress at a maximum (before losses) (a) Transfer of prestress Maximum loading Stress distribution at midspan section Prestress at a minimum (after losses) (b) At the serviceability limit state Figure 442: Stress distribution at midspan section Critical stages for a simply supported prestressed concrete beam. The minimum prestressing force hP t corresponds to the final value after the all the losses (instantaneous and timedependent) have taken place. the criteria for design at the serviceability limit state can be stated as follows: • At transfer of prestress: Ensure that the top and bottom fibre concrete stresses under maximum prestress and minimum applied moment M min do not exceed the allowable values for tension and compression. The minimum moment is usually equal to the dead load moment. Under these conditions the beam will deflect downwards and the stress distribution at the midspan section will show a large compression in the top fibre and a small compression or tension in the bottom fibre. . • At the serviceability limit state: Ensure that the top and bottom fibre concrete stresses under minimum prestress and maximum applied moment M max do not exceed the allowable values for compression and tension.456 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE section will show a small compression or even a tension in the top fibre and a large compression in the bottom fibre. It is also given by h = 1 . The magnitude of the stress limitations imposed by the design codes of practice also make it possible to assume a linear elastic uncracked section for purposes of analysis.
Referring to Fig. then the stresses in the top and bottom fibres will be reduced to s 1 and s 2 . as shown in Fig. 443d. respectively.t = stress in the extreme top and bottom fibres. is superimposed on the stresses at transfer. The stress changes Ds top and Ds bot induced in the top and bottom fibres by the application of an additional moment DM are shown in Fig. s = f bot . If the effect of the prestress losses. The derivation given here was adapted from Ref. Therefore. t = f top . as shown in Fig. respectively. 443. 443b. at transfer f top. at the serviceability limit state f tt . and the final stress condition at the serviceability limit state (see Fig. and • determine the so called permissible cable zone which delimits the zone along the span in which the cable may be placed.s = stress in the extreme top and bottom fibres. respectively. 421). as shown in Fig. and the opposite is true if an allowable stress is not attained. • establish the feasibility domain of P t and e.DESIGN 457 Equations 45 and 46 can be used to express these criteria in terms of the following four stress inequality equations: P Pe M f top . f cs = allowable tensile and compressive stresses. be noted that s 1 and s 2 correspond to the combined action of hP t and M min . respectively. This means that. f bot. f ct = allowable tensile and compressive stresses. f bot. However. represent minimum required values. therefore. which take place with the passage of time. 443a.s . then the corresponding section modulus Z top or Z bot is smaller than required (Ds = DM / Z). 443a) f tt = Pt Pe M + t + min A Z top Z top (444) . If any of the allowable stresses at the serviceability limit state f cs or f ts is exceeded. the objective is to find the most efficient beam section. at transfer f ts . at the serviceability limit state The design process basically involves a manipulation of these four stress inequality equations. 443d) is reached when M min + DM = M max . It should. 443c. 414 and is credited to Guyon (Ref. before the design process can be developed expressions and procedures must be devised to • estimate the minimum required section properties in terms of Z top and Z bot . from the design point of view. t = t + t + min £ f tt (443a) A Z top Ztop f bot . Assume that the two allowable stresses f tt and f ct are both attained at the critical beam section at transfer. Minimum required section properties The purpose of the following derivation is to determine the minimum section properties which will simultaneously satisfy the four stress inequality equations. the top fibre stress at transfer can be expressed as (Eq. the magnitudes of Z top and Z bot for which the allowable stress requirements at the serviceability limit state are exactly satisfied. s = Pt Pe M + t + min ³ f ct A Zbot Zbot h Pt h Pt e M max + + ³ fcs A Z top Z top h Pt h Pt e M max + + £ ft s A Zbot Zbot (443b) (443c) (443d) where f top.t . respectively.
446 and 447 into Eq. 448 yields h f tt + M min DM 1. The top fibre stress under the action of M min . after all the prestressing losses have developed.hM GH A Z Z JK Z t t min top top min + top M min Z top (445) Substituting Eq. by noting that M max = M min + DM.h + ³ fcs Z top Z top a f which.h M g df h f i A similar analysis of the state of stress in the bottom fibre will show that bM . can be solved to yield the following expression for Z top : bM .h f M + D M df h f i min cs tt (451) . 444 into 445 yields s 1 = h ftt + M min 1. 448 f cs will appear as a negative quantity because it represents a compressive stress.h Z top a f (446) The stress increment induced by the additional moment DM in the top fibre is D s top = DM Z top (447) The following condition must be satisfied to ensure that the allowable stress in the top fibre at the serviceability limit state is not exceeded: s 1 + Ds top ³ f c s (448) Note that in Eq.458 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE ftt s1 Dstop fcs + Time = + = fct (a) At transfer (Pt + Mmin) s2 (b) (hPt + Mmin) Dsbot (c) (DM) ft s (d) At the serviceability limit state (hPt + Mmax) Figure 443: Evolution of stress in a prestressed concrete beam. is given by s1 = which can be rewritten as h Pt h Pt e M min + + A Z top Z top s1 = h FP + Pe + M I.h M g Z ³ df h f i Z top £ max min cs tt max ts min bot ct (449) (450) Equations 449 and 450 can also be written in the following convenient form by using M max = M min + DM: Z top £ a1 . Substitution of Eqs.
that these equations are functions of M min which. which are rewritten in the following form: Z top +e A 1 £ (453a) Pt f Z M LM N OP Q d tt top min i 1 £ Pt f ct Zbot . once again. 443. emphasised that the objective of the design approach followed here is to provide the most efficient crosssection and. after which the minimum required values for Z top and Z bot can be calculated and a suitable section subsequently selected. The validity of the assumed value of M min can then be checked and. a least weight beam. Note. usually lead to a section which can. an improved value of M min can be used to calculate revised minimum required values for Z top and Z bot . only satisfy one of Eqs. particularly as the experience of the designer and. The process is usually started by assuming a value for M min based on experience. 422) still represents an extremely useful technique and is presented here.h f M + D M df h f i min ts ct (452) Equations 449 and 450 or. the normal situation is that the section will have one section modulus which is approximately equal to the minimum required value while the other one is larger than required. Eqs. the magnitude and corresponding eccentricity of the prestressing force must be determined. 451 and 452 can be used to find a beam section which will satisfy the limiting stress criteria. It is. which means that the cable falls outside the section. Magnel diagram Once the section has been selected.DESIGN 459 Zbot ³ a1 . 449 and 450.M min LM Z NA bot +e OP Q d 1 Pt R hLZ   ³ MN A  df Z . is dependent on the crosssection so that the procedure by which a suitable section is found must involve some form of iteration. such as for example a required type of shape. at best. 449 and 450. it is possible that the required eccentricity of the prestressing force may be larger than y bot . hence. In such a case the section must be revised to satisfy the practicality consideration that the cable must fall inside the section. Although numerous procedures for accomplishing this exist. the method originally developed by Magnel (Ref. hence. if required. This process normally converges rapidly. Eqs.M i T top c s top max top c s top max i O + eP Q (453b) for f cs Z top < M max (453c) for f cs Z top > M max . The procedure is basically a geometric interpretation of the four stress inequality equations. itself. the accuracy of the initial assumption for M min increases. • Practical considerations. Therefore. alternatively.M i  S  h LM Z + eOP £ N A Q   df Z . The following considerations are important when designing a beam section using the approach outlined above: • Although the section moduli may satisfy Eqs. however.
as shown in Fig. If. The maximum practical eccentricity e pl is also plotted on the Magnel diagram as a vertical line (Ref.bot A  Z top A O epl Domain of feasibility B Eq. therefore.M Q i  T bot t s bot max bot t s bot max for f t s Zbot < M max (453d) for f t s Zbot > M max At this stage of the design. the line in Fig 444 which represents the inequality 453a at equality and.M i  S  h LM ZA + eOP £ N  df Z . on the other hand. for example. Consider. 444 was constructed on the presumption that f cs Z top < M max and f ts Z bot < M max . . If e pl lies to the left of point A then no practical solution exists and a revised section with larger section moduli must be selected. In this case the feasible domain is reduced to the region bounded by ABEFD which contains points which have e and associated P t values satisfying not only the stress inequalities but also the practicality requirements. and is shown to intersect the quadrilateral ABCD. 453 are P t and e if an a priori value has been taken for h. the stress inequality 443a from which it was derived. represents a feasibility domain.460 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE 1 Pt R h L Z + eO   ³ MN A PQ  df Z . It is important in this regard to note that the so called Magnel diagram shown in Fig. the only two unknown quantities in the inequality Eqs. These equations can therefore be plotted at equality on the e1/P t plane. e pl lies to the right of point C then any point contained in ABDC will yield practically feasible values of e and P t . 4 e A D F Eq E 53 b C Eq . 414). Each line serves as a boundary which divides the plane into a part in which the inequality relationship represented by the line is satisfied and another part in which it is not. it can be concluded that the region bounded by the quadrilateral ABCD contains points with coordinates e and 1/P t which satisfy all four the stress inequality equations and. If all the lines are examined in the same way. 444. therefore. 1 Pt Z . All the points with coordinates e and 1/P t which fall below the line will satisfy the stress inequality 443a while it is not satisfied by the points which lie above the line.4 Eq 53 d . 453 c Figure 444: The Magnel diagram.4 5 3a . in which case they will each plot as a straight line.
it can also serve as a powerful analytical tool.g. Usually the value which leads to the smallest possible value of P t is selected. The design codes of practice commonly used in South Africa (Refs. the eccentricity must normally be varied along the span to ensure that the stress limitations are not exceeded at other sections. 444).DESIGN 461 Once the Magnel diagram has been constructed for a section.1 IZ GH P A JK F f . Fig. but that it may be increased to 80% provided that special consideration is given to safety. The number of strands required for the selected value of P t will depend on the maximum permissible jacking force. It should be noted that although the Magnel diagram is presented here as a design tool. 443) are known at all sections of the beam. the required value of P t and corresponding value of e can be selected.1 IZ e³G H h P A JK tt t ct t cs t ts t top  M min Pt M min Pt M max h Pt M max h Pt (454a) (454b) (454c) (454d) bot top  bot These equations can be applied to any section of the beam to determine the permissible range of e and. It is interesting to note that the bottom cable limit is governed by conditions at transfer while the top cable limit is determined by the stress limitations imposed at the serviceability limit state. the largest value of e obtained from Eqs. hence. Equations 443 can be solved for e as follows: e£ F f .1 IZ e£G H P A JK F f . This feasibility zone is often referred to as the permissible cable zone. The development presented here assumes that all the quantities contained in the four stress inequality equations (Eqs. 454c and 454d at equality represents the minimum permissible value of e. referred to as the top cable limit. The top and bottom cable limits can be determined at each section along the span and plotted on an elevation of the beam. and to the assessment of the friction losses. 47) also requires that the initial prestress at transfer should normally not exceed 70% of the characteristic strength of the tendon and that it must not exceed 75% under any circumstances. the region in which the cable may be placed so that all the stress inequalities for that particular section are satisfied. referred to as the bottom cable limit. This point will correspond to the largest value of 1/P t at the largest practically feasible value of e (point F. as shown in Fig. to the stressstrain characteristics of the tendon. Since the bending moment varies over the span. The maximum permissible value of e at a section. the prestressing force must not exceed 70% of the characteristic strength of the tendons for posttensioned tendons. 445. Similarly.1 IZ e³G H h P A JK F f . 42. e. 46 and 48) specifically state that immediately after transferring the prestress. BS 8110 (Ref. A procedure is developed herein to determine the zone within which the cable can be placed so that the stress inequality equations are satisfied at each section over the span. The region between the two cable limits clearly . or 75% for pretensioned tendons. if the same prestressing force is to be used over the entire span. 46. with the exception of the eccentricity e which is the variable to be determined. is given by the smallest value yielded by Eqs 454a and 454b at equality. Permissible cable zone The design of a beam section as well as the calculation of the prestressing force and its eccentricity is based on the conditions at the critical section. in the case of a symmetrically loaded simply supported beam. 47 and 48) all recommend that the jacking force should normally not exceed 75% of the characteristic strength of the tendon. at the midspan section. The bridge codes (Refs.
Figure 446b shows the cable zone which is obtained for a optimum design where only one combination of P t and e is possible at the critical section. which will not arise if the Magnel diagram has been properly used in the design process. 414). .462 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE represents a feasibility zone within which the cable may be placed so that the stress inequality equations are satisfied at each section over the entire span. and is obtained when an insufficient concrete section is used. can only be overcome by using a revised section with larger section properties. Figure 446 presents three types of cable zone which may be obtained during the course of a design (Ref. Cable zone Top cable limit (largest of Eqs. but the cable zone is wide enough accommodate the cable. The cable zone shown in Fig. 446c is characterised by the fact that a part of it lies outside the section. The cable zone shown in Fig. 446a is most commonly obtained and represents the case where the bottom cable limit falls outside the maximum available eccentricity e pl . 414). Cable zone epl C L Centroidal axis (a) Common design Cable zone C L Centroidal axis (b) Optimum design Cable zone C L Centroidal axis (c) Insufficient concrete section Figure 446: Typical types of cable zone (adapted from Ref. This problem. 454c and 454d) Centroidal axis Bottom cable limit (smallest of Eqs. 454a and 454b) Figure 445: The permissible cable zone.
Since the timedependent losses in prestensioned members tend to be larger than in posttensioned members the magnitude of h.2 to 0. as described in Chapter 5.5M f  h T L max se for M min > (0. is to find a least weight concrete section. and many handbooks provide useful guidance in this regard. Calculate the permissible cable zone using Eqs. the design must be suitably revised and the appropriate previous steps repeated. This aim can be achieved by the following design steps: (a) (b) (c) (d) Determine a satisfactory concrete section using Eqs. 449 and 450 or. and Lin (Ref.75 and 0. which will ensure that the specified concrete stress limitations are satisfied at transfer and at the serviceability limit state. alternatively.3) M max for M min < (0. 454 and place the cable so that it falls within this zone. is usually smaller for pretensioned than for posttensioned members. 453) to determine the magnitude of the prestressing force and its eccentricity at the critical section. Another initially unknown quantity of which the magnitude must be assumed is the area of the concrete crosssection A.3) M max se M L = superimposed dead and live load moment applied to the section h = depth of the section Obviously. The design process can be greatly facilitated by assuming reasonable values for the various initially unknown quantities.65h f »S  0. 410) suggests the following in this regard: A ps f se A» (455) 0.85. the quality of the initial assumptions made by a designer will improve with experience over time. 451 and 452. as presented herein. which can be taken between 0. . it can easily be adapted to accommodate other circumstances. together with the magnitude and position of the minimum required corresponding prestressing force. One of the most important assumptions which must be made is that of the magnitude of h. The prestress losses calculated in step (d) must be used in these calculations. If the stress check of the previous step reveals that the design is unsatisfactory. the design procedure will then simply commence at step (b). either because some of the permissible stress limitations are exceeded or because the design proves to be unacceptably conservative. Otherwise the design can be accepted. (e) (f) Although the procedure outlined above applies to the design of the section as well as the prestress. The concrete stresses must always be checked at a representative number of sections along the span to ensure that none of the specified permissible values are exceeded.2 to 0. Eqs. if the section has already been selected on the basis of other specific requirements. For example.DESIGN 463 Design procedure The objective of the flexural design of a prestressed concrete beam at the serviceability limit state. Use the Magnel diagram (Eqs. All the calculations required for steps (a) through (c) require a value for h which must initially be assumed because the prestress losses can only be evaluated after completing step (c). In this step.5 f cs where A ps RM  0. the prestress losses are calculated at each section of interest.
75) f ts .0.464 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE EXAMPLE 411 Make use of the provisions of SABS 0100 (Ref. so that M min = 356. Hence.83 ´ 2. as obtained from SABS 0100.83 ´ 3561) ´ 106 M max .2 .019 . the design loadings are obtained from SABS 0160 as follows: For calculating M min : wmin = 10 w D = 10 ´ 8.1 = 712. In order to obtain an initial .h M min . . the self weight of the beam is given by w D = g c A = 24 ´ 345 ´ 10 = 8.m and M max = 2DM = 2 ´ 356. (712.1 ´ 0.0. . estimate of M max . The beam must be designed to support a uniformly distributed live load of 5. .45 f ci = 0. 6 3 . Select a suitable section at midspan The midspan moment due to the design superimposed load Dw = 1. the minimum and maximum moments at the midspan section are calculated 2 as wmin L 8.0.45 f cu = 0. .28 ´ 212 M min = = = 456.85 .45 45 = 3.45 35 = 2.0.83. The permissible stresses for f cu = 45 MPa and f ci = 35 MPa. = = 858. m 8 8 b g M max = wmax L2 1557 ´ 212 .6 kN/m.4 kN. m .85 MPa For the purposes of these calculations h is assumed to be 0. If the self weight of 3 3 the concrete is g c = 24 kN/m .46 kN/m is given by DM = DwL / 8 = 6.28 kN/ m . m 8 8 .42 ´ 10 mm f cs . min = (712.2 . Assume f cu = 45 MPa and f ci = 35 MPa. = 2589 ´ 10 mm = (15. .h f tt 14.1 w sdl + w L = 1.45 ´ (35) = 15.45 f ci = 0.019 MPa f cs = 0.28 kN/m.75 MPa At the serviceability limit state: f ts = 0. . Using these design loads. 6 3 Z top .6 + 5.6) + 10 ´ 58 = 1557 kN/ m . it is assumed that M min = DM. min = max = = 24.h M min .662 MPa f ct = 0.2 kN.33 f cu = 0.2 kN.28 = 8.33 ´ (45) = 14.83 ´ 3561) ´ 106 M . For calculating M max : wmax = 11 wD + wsdl + 10 w L = 11(8.83 ´ Figure 447 shows the selected Tsection together with its section properties.1 kN.662 Zbot .8 2 2 = 6. are as follows: At transfer: f tt = 0.46 ´ 21 / 8 = 3561 kN.28 + 0. 42) for flexural design at the serviceability limit state to design a class 2 pretensioned concrete Tbeam which is simply supported over a span of 21 m. Therefore.h f ct 3.m Equations 449 and 450 can now be used to obtain an initial estimate of the minimum required values for the section moduli.8 kN/m and a superimposed dead load of 0.
2 mm Z top = 99.h M min = = 2810 ´ 106 mm 3 .min are almost equal. based on the above magnitudes of M min and M max .83 ´ (15.1385 ´ 10 6 e 6 47.min < Z bot (= 47. Hence. for example.4 ´ 10 +e Z top 99. 453 on the e1/P t plane. 453d are applicable. f cs . . Note that since the magnitudes of Z top. limitations imposed by deflection control and practical considerations influenced this choice. Z top .0.m) > M max (= 858. min = Zbot . min = (858.9 kN.75) 6 3 6 3 Clearly.h M min = = 29. an Isection would be more efficient.m) and f ts Z bot (= 142.44 ´ 10 . 453c and the first of Eqs.2 .456.4) ´ 106 M max .min and Z bot. y top = 3218 mm 9 4 1000 y bot = 678.5 ´ 10 6 .019 .34 ´ 10 mm ) so that the section should be satisfactory.DESIGN 465 1200 90 110 A = 345 ´ 10 3 mm 2 I = 32. Z top.77 ´ 10 6 d i (456a) = 400.h f ct 3.0.34 ´ 10 mm 6 3 200 Figure 447: Section for example 411.83 ´ 456.4 ´ 10 d i (456b) = 114. Revised minimum required values can now be calculated for the section moduli.m the second of Eqs.77 ´ 10 mm ) and Z bot. Since f cs Z top (= 1481 kN.2 kN.4) ´ 106 M max . However. a symmetric section such as. This diagram is constructed by plotting Eqs. a Tsection is specified as a design requirement in this case.2 kN.2 .34 ´ 10 Zbot +e +e 3 1 A 345 ´ 10 £ = 6 3 3 f ct Z top .0.0.662 (858. Determine the prestressing force at the midspan section The next step is to determine the magnitude of the prestressing force and its eccentricity at the midspan section by making use of the Magnel diagram.min > Z top = (99.83 ´ 2.h f tt 14.2 ´ 10 6 .662 ´ 10 99.75 ´ 10 ´ 47.456.83 ´ 456.77 ´ 10 6 mm 3 Z bot = 47.M min 2. +e 3 1 345 ´ 10 A £ = 6 3 3 Pt f tt Z top .m) < M max = 858.8319 ´ 10 6 e . It should also be noted that although the section can be optimised to a further degree.85 .77 ´ 10 .79 ´ 106 mm 3 f ts .M min Pt 15.0.11 ´ 10 mm .
where P t is in kN and e is in mm.2 1 (´ 103 kN1) Pt 0 0. is used. 448 together with e pl . Selecting e = 570 mm. jacked to 75% of its characteristic strength. satisfy the four stress inequlity equations.8 0. 456c 0. = 385.4 200 0 200 e = 570 mm 400 e (mm) 600 0. and a value of P t = 1280 kN is selected.34 ´ 10 .M max Pt 14.2 ´ 10 = 159. Since the characteristic strength per strand is 186 kN.6 Eq.1160 ´ 106 e .5884 Feasibility domain Eq. 456b 0. 456a Figure 448: Magnel diagram for the midspan section.77 ´ 10 + eI GH 345 ´ 10 JK id99. the jacking force per strand is 0.85 ´ 103 h FZ GH A top +e I JK 0.0%.5884 ´ 10 therefore.2 1.8206 ´10 kN all fall within the feasibility domain and. If the loss of prestress due to elastic shortening is assumed to be 8. it is clear that values of 1/P t which range between 1/P b = 3 1 3 1 kN and 1/P d = 0.83 ´ d F 99.9 mm 7wire super grade strand.34 ´ 10 GH 345 ´ 10 6 3 +e I JK (456d) If the cover is taken as 35 mm and it is assumed that the tendons are placed in three evenly spaced layers at a vertical centre to centre spacing of 40 mm.2 0.4 0.M max Pt 3.8206 Eq.6 0.466 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE 1 0.75 ´ 186 = 139.83 ´ F 47. 0.4 0. .2 ´ 10 6 3 6 3 (456c) .2 ´ 106 .77 ´ 10 i . Assume that 12.019 ´ 10 ´ 47. The above four inequalities are plotted at equality in Fig. These values correspond to permissible values of P t which range between P d = 1219 kN and P b = 1700 kN. FZ hG HA bot I + eJ K 0.858.8 1 1. then the maximum possible eccentricity e pl is approximately 595 mm. 456d epl = 595 mm 800 1000 1200 Eq. 1 £ = f cs Z top .0 ´ 106 + 1331 ´ 106 e 1 ³ = 3 6 3 f ts Zbot .858.5 kN.
9 mm 7wire super grade strand are required.08) 139. The values of both . Comparing the right hand sides of Eqs.3 = 9.x ) Note that in Eqs.34 ´ 10 .M GH hP A JK hP L 3. = 2714 + 7.77 ´ 10 i .3 kN.85) 1 =M MN 0.784 x (21 . say 10 strands are required. P t = 1283 kN e = 570 mm at midspan Determine the cable zone Before the cable limits can be calculated. 457b governs the bottom cable limit. m 2 Substitution of these expressions into Eqs.83 ´ d1283 ´ 10 i .83 ´ d1283 ´ 10 i .140 ´ 10 x (21 .1IZ .2 + 3.307 x (21 .x ) e³ F f . A similar examination of Eqs.x ) = 4.226 x (21 .307 x (21 . M min = M max wmin x ( L . 457c and 457d reveals that the top cable limit is controlled by Eq.x ) e³ F f .0. Under these conditions 10 strands will provide P t = 1283 kN.83 ´ d1283 ´ 10 i x (21 .784 ´ 10 6 3 0.226 x (21 .784 ´ 10 PQ ´ d99. To summarize: 10 @ 12.974.83 ´ 1283 ´ 10 d i x (21 . 457a and 457b clearly shows that Eq.34 ´ 10 6  7.x ) kN.75) =M N1283 ´ 10 ct t bot  M min Pt 1 6 6 3 3 3  OP ´ 47.019 1 =M MN 0.345 ´ 10 ts max t bt t 3 3 OP PQ ´ 47.x ) = 7.x) 6 6 3 (457c) = 1102 + 7.1IZ GH P A JK L (15.140 x (21 .M GH hP A JK hP L (14. Thus.4.x ) e£ F f .x ) kN.x ) (457d) . 457 e is in mm and x is in m. m 2 w x = max ( L .4.1IZ GH P A JK L 2.345 ´ 10 cs top t 3 3 OP 7.x) Q d1283 ´ 10 i 6 6 3 (457a) = 496.140 ´ 10 x (21 . 454 give e£ F f .77 ´ 10 i .0.x) 345 ´ 10 Q d1283 ´ 10 i max t (457b) = 443.DESIGN 467 then the initial force per strand at transfer is (1 . M min and M max must be expressed as functions of x.5 = 128. 1280/128.7 + 3.1IZ .662 =M N1283 ´ 10 tt t top  M min Pt 1 345 ´ 103 3 OPd99. Therefore. 457d.
449a for the half span because of symmetry. where this example is concluded.0 m for 7.5 m where e(x) is in mm and x is in m. 449a.5 m C. cable limits are listed in Table 47 at span/12 points along the span of the beam.C 150 150 C. since the central region of the bottom cable limit falls outside the beam.0 m from a support.0 £ x £ 10.5 m (a) Cable zone 3.S e = 570 60 60 60 C.468 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE C L Centroidal axis 222 x (m) ed(x) e(x) eb(x) 570 epl = 595 Cable zone 7. The next step in the design process is the calculation of the prestress losses.G.G.S 108 430 456 60 60 (c) Tendon layout at support (b) Tendon layout at midspan Figure 449: Cable zone. These steps are illustrated in example 51. Note that. It is also important to check the ultimate moment of resistance of the critical section. The eccentricity of the resulting cable profile can be expressed as follows for the half span: e( x ) = R222 + 49.71x S570 T for 0 £ x £ 7.C e = 222 C. after which a stress check can be made. The cable profile is selected to lie within the cable zone and has draping points each located at a distance of span/ 3 = 7. as shown in Fig. while Figs. the cable zone is also limited by the maximum practical eccentricity e pl . and the resulting cable zone is drawn in Fig. which in this .G.G. 449b and 449c show possible tendon layouts at midspan and at the support. respectively. The magnitudes of the eccentricity at span/12 points are listed in Table 47.0 m L/2 = 10.
• For bonded tendons it is suggested that f ps initially be taken equal to the design value of f pu because the large steel strains associated with the flexural failure of an underreinforced . Consequently. respectively. The reader should verify that the approximate procedure recommended by SABS 0100 yields M u = 1388 kN. The design procedure is based on Eqs.750 3.750 10. so that they apply to any crosssectional shape: M u = A ps f ps z ¢ A ps f ps + a f cu Ac = 0 where z = internal lever arm ¢ Ac = concrete area under compression at ultimate (458) (459) These equations can be rearranged to the following forms.500 case is located at midspan.4. Bottom cable limit e b (x) (mm) 444 552 641 710 760 789 799 Top cable limit e d (x) (mm) 271 25 176 333 445 512 534 Selected eccentricity e(x) (mm) 222 309 396 483 570 570 570 x (m) 0 1. This follows because the contribution of the tensile strength of the concrete is neglected. i. and the required computations can be simplified by making use of a suitable approximate procedure for estimating the steel stress at ultimate f ps .DESIGN 469 Table 47: Cable limits and cable profile. 4.6L n . and that a midspan moment of 1099 kN. the design is also satisfactory with respect to flexural strength.e.m for the midspan section.2D n + 1. the effective depth to the prestressing steel and the area of steel needed to meet the requirements of flexural strength at the ultimate limit state. so that the tensile zone of the section is of no importance with regard to flexural strength and merely serves to contain the tendons. Equations 417 and 418 can be restated in the following more general form. which are more useful for design: Mu A ps = (460) f ps z ¢ Ac =  A ps f ps a f cu (461) The design process is summarised in the following: (a) Assume values for f ps .000 8.500 5.m is induced by the ultimate design loads prescribed by SABS 0160. 1.3 Design for the ultimate limit state Flexural design for the ultimate limit state essentially provides a means of determining the concrete area under compression. 417 and 418. z and for the overall section depth h.250 7. which are expressions of moment and horizontal equilibrium.
the actual values of f ps and z corresponding to this section can be determined either by the strain compatibility approach or by a suitable approximate procedure. Note that the calculation of f ps requires a value for the effective prestress f se including all losses. for which f pu = 1860 MPa and E p = 195 GPa. 460. using the load factors prescribed by SABS 0160. However. This process is continued until a satisfactory section has been obtained. For the equivalent rectangular stress block prescribed by SABS 0100.8 kN/ m . before these calculations can be made a value must be estimated for the ultimate design moment which. requires an assumed value for the self weight of the beam. 411) requires that a minimum amount of bonded reinforcement equal to 0. (d) (e) After completing the flexural design at the ultimate limit state. where A denotes the area of that part of the section which lies between the tension face and the centroid of the gross concrete section. However. The final step in the design procedure is to verify that the ultimate moment of resistance of the section is larger than the moment produced by the design ultimate loads. it seems reasonable to accept a value of 0. SABS 0100 (Ref. The beam is subjected to an imposed nominal live load of 9. in turn.45 and b = 0. the design ultimate load. • Since z ranges between 0.9h. Assume f ps = 0. and the design ultimate moment at the midspan section are given by 12 w D + 16w L = 12 ´ 4. 47) do not specifically require such reinforcement. 410). When unbonded tendons are used. These results can be used together with Eq. • The limitations imposed by deflection control at the serviceability limit state can be used for guidance when selecting an initial value for h. the initial guess of f ps for unbonded tendons must reflect the fact that it is normally significantly less than the design value of f pu . so that an initial estimate of A ps can be obtained from Eq. Assume f cu = 50 MPa and E c = 34 GPa for the concrete. 42) and BS 8110 (Ref.8 h = 0. and a maximum value of 0.9 mm 7wire super grade strand. EXAMPLE 412 Make use of the provisions of SABS 0100 (Ref.004A be provided for this purpose. (b) (c) Obtain an initial estimate of the required area of prestressing steel A ps from Eq. if required.0 = 19.3.7f pu is suggested in this case. 460 to calculate an improved value for A ps and. ¢ The required concrete compression area Ac is subsequently calculated from Eq. 461 can be used to obtain a revised value for A’ c .6). M= 19. 8 8 .470 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE bonded section will result in these high steel stresses. depending on the section shape. but ACI 31889 (Ref. 460 using the assumed values of f ps .8h as an initial guess (Ref. whichever is most convenient.8 ´ 14 2 wL2 = = 4851 kN.8 ´ 700 = 560 mm. a = 0. If it is assumed that the nominal self weight of the beam is w D = 4. m .9. Use 12. z and h. Once a preliminary section has been selected.5 + 16 ´ 9. a minimum amount of bonded reinforcement should always be placed to improve behaviour at ultimate (see Section 4.5 kN/m. . At this stage sufficient information is available for selecting a suitable section.87 ´ 1860 = 1618 MPa and z = 0. the section must be examined to check that the concrete flexural stress limitations are satisfied at transfer and at the serviceability limit state. . . 42) for flexural design at the ultimate limit state to design the midspan section of a 700 mm deep pretensioned concrete Ibeam which is simply supported over a span of 14 m.87 f pu = 0. Eq. 461. This means that the magnitude of the prestress losses must be assumed.6h and 0.0 kN/m.
.9 mm 7wire super grade strand is 100 mm .DESIGN 471 Using Eq. f ps and z into Eqs.6 and = = 0. a f cu 0. 450 can be selected. f ps = 1.15 ´ 14 / 8 = 469. Substituting the revised values for M.5 ´ 10 mm within the top flange. f pu A ps f se 1116 1860 ´ 535.0 = 19. The approximate procedure recommended by SABS 0100 for calculating the ultimate moment of resistance of the section will be used to recalculate f ps and z for the preliminary section.4 mm.45x = 640 . m . which is sufficient. five strands 2 will provide an A ps = 500 mm .5 ´ 10 mm 0.3 mm 2 1618 ´ 560 ¢ The required concrete compression area Ac is subsequently obtained from Eq.45 ´ (50) = 469.45 ´ (50) Thus the preliminary section shown in Fig.87 f pu d For Therefore.96 + 16 ´ 9. . As a final check. In order to do this it is assumed that f se = 1116 MPa. Since the 2 crosssectional area provided by one 12.87 f pu ) = 1618 MPa and x = 0. b = 350 150 h= 700 150 e = 290 mm A = 165 ´ 10 mm 3 2 150 Aps 350 d = 640 I = 8. so that the design ultimate load is 12 w D + 16w L = 12 ´ 3.9 ´ 1618 3 2 ¢ Ac = == 3581 ´ 10 mm . 4851 ´ 10 6 = 535.2 kN.9 mm . 2 2 moment at the midspan section is M = wL / 8 = 19. so that the section can be 2 accepted as it stands and the minimum required value of A ps can be taken as 497.3 ´ 1618 3 2 = 38.938 ´ 10 9 mm4 60 Figure 450: Section for example 412.0. 460 A ps = M f ps z = . 0.15 kN /m and the design ultimate . 3 The self weight of this section is given by w D = g c A = 24 ´ 165 ´ 10 = 3. the internal lever arm is given by z = d . .96 kN/m. It can be shown that this section 3 2 ¢ can accommodate the entire concrete compression zone Ac = 38.2 ´ 10 6 = 497.0 (0.45 ´ 128 = 582. .9 mm 2 1618 ´ 582. 461 ¢ Ac =  A ps f ps a f cu = 535.0.20 d = 0.20 Table 43 gives = 10 and . 460 ¢ and 461 yields the following values for A ps and Ac : A ps = M f ps z A ps f ps 497.20 ´ 640 = 128 mm. Since the compression zone falls entirely within the flange. the ultimate moment of resistance of the section is calculated and compared with the moment induced by the design ultimate loads.08890 1860 f pu 50 ´ 350 ´ 640 f cu b d f ps x = 0.4 These values are fairly close to the values obtained in the initial trial.3 = = 0.
When prestressed concrete members are designed for the serviceability limit state.6 and f pu f pu A ps f cu b d = 1860 ´ 500 = 0.2 mm. Using the value of x determined in step (a) together with an assumed value for the stress in the nonprestressed steel at ultimate f s . 450) and the effective depth to the nonprestressed steel is taken as d 2 = 650 mm. This problem can usually be rectified by providing a sufficient quantity of additional nonprestressed reinforcement.0 (0. The effective depth to the prestressing steel d 1 = 640 mm (see Fig.87 f pu ) = 1618 MPa and x = 0. which is designed as follows: (a) Assume a value for the stress in the prestressing steel at ultimate f ps and set the sum of the moments of the internal forces. Assume f se = 1116 MPa. respectively. 412 and 425. Since the compression zone falls entirely within the flange.7 kN 3 Ts = As f s = 3913 ´ 10 As kN . f ps = 1.0. (b) (c) This procedure is illustrated by example 413.08304 .87 f pu = 10 and . 42) for flexural design.472 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE For f se = 1116 MPa. 458 as M u = A ps f ps z = 500 ´ 1618 ´ 588. the internal lever arm is given by z = d .45 and b = 0.2 mm and the ultimate moment of resistance is given by Eq. and the corresponding magnitude of A s is then accepted. can be calculated and compared to the assumed values. If the actual and assumed values differ significantly.2 ´ 106 = 475.2 = 588. This process is repeated until the assumed and calculated values of f ps and f s agree to within an acceptable tolerance.m. and take f y = 450 MPa and E s = 200 GPa for the nonprestressed reinforcement. x = 018 from Table 43. so that the tensile force in the prestressing steel T ps and in the nonprestressed steel T s can be calculated from Eqs. 422 example