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T N PH A V H PHNG TRNH
Nguyn Tt Thu
12
Khi gii h phng trnh ni ring v gii ton ni chung, ta thng tm cch lm gim s n
cn tm. Lc bi ton s d gii quyt hn. Tuy nhin trong nhiu bi ton gii phng
trnh th vic a thm vo mt s n ph (tc l tng s n cn tm ln) li gip cho ta gii
quyt bi ton tt hn.
V d 1. Gii phng trnh

3 + x +

6 x = 3 +
_
(3 + x)(6 x).
Li gii. Phng trnh ny chng ta c cch gii trn. Ta thy v tri ca phng trnh
trn l tng ca hai cn thc, cn v phi cha tch ca hai cn thc v ta nhn thy hai
cn thc v tri c quan h tng bnh phng ca chng bng 9 (tc l hai cn thc ny
c hai quan h mt l t phng trnh cho, hai l tng bnh phng bng 9), do nu ta
t a =

x + 3, b =

6 x th ta c c h phng trnh
_
a + b = 3 + ab
a
2
+ b
2
= 9
y l h i xng loi I, gii h ny ta c (a, b) = (0, 3) hoc (3, 0).
Vi a = 3, ta tm c x = 0.
Vi a = 0, d dng tnh c x = 3.
Vy phng trnh cho c hai nghim l x = 0 v x = 3.
Nhn xt. Khi gp phng trnh c dng
F
_
f(x),
n
_
a + f(x),
m
_
b f(x)
_
= c, (I)
ta c th t u =
n
_
a + f(x) v v =
m
_
b f(x) a bi ton v vic gii h phng trnh
_
G(u, v) = c
u
n
+ v
m
= a + b
Gii h ny ta tm c u, v. T c th suy ra c gi tr ca x.
Ch . Khi tm c u, v tm x ta ch cn gii mt trong hai phng trnh
n
_
a + f(x) = u
hoc
m
_
b f(x) = v.
1
Trng THPT L Hng Phong, thnh ph Bin Ha, tnh ng Nai.
2
Bi vit c trnh by li bng chng trnh son tho LaTeX bi can_hang2007. ngh cc bn ghi r
ngun ca http://onluyentoan.vn khi ng ti trn cc trang web khc.
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2 Nguyn Tt Thu
V d 2. Gii phng trnh
3

24 + x +

12 x = 6.
Li gii. iu kin phng trnh c ngha l x 12. t u =
3

24 + x v v =

12 x.
D thy u
3

36, v 0. Ta c h phng trnh


_
u + v = 6
u
3
+ v
2
= 36

_
v = 6 u
u
3
+ (6 u)
2
= 36

_
v = 6 u
u(u
2
+ u 12) = 0
Phng trnh u(u
2
+ u 12) = 0 c ba nghim
3

36 l u = 0, u = 3 v u = 4. T y ta
tm c x = 24, x = 88, x = 3.
Vy phng trnh cho c ba nghim x = 24, x = 88, x = 3.
V d 3. Gii phng trnh
4

x +
4

17 x = 3.
Li gii. iu kin: 0 x 17. t a =
4

x, b =
4

17 x (a, b 0). Ta c h
_
a + b = 3
a
4
+ b
4
= 17

_
a + b = 3
_
(a + b)
2
2ab

2
2a
2
b
2
= 17

_
a + b = 3
a
2
b
2
18ab + 32 = 0
T phng trnh th hai ca h phng trnh cui, ta tm c ab = 2 hoc ab = 16. Nghim
ab = 16 b loi v theo gi thit ta phi c ab
_
a+b
2
_
2
=
9
4
< 16. Vy ta phi c
_
a + b = 3
ab = 2
Gii h ny ta c (a, b) = (1, 2) hoc (2, 1). T tnh c x = 1 hoc x = 16.
Vy phng trnh cho c hai nghim x = 1, x = 16.
V d 4. Gii phng trnh
x
3
+ 1 = 2
3

2x 1. ()
Li gii. t y =
3

2x 1, ta thy y
3
+ 1 = 2x. Vy ta c h phng trnh
_
x
3
+ 1 = 2y
y
3
+ 1 = 2x
Tr hai phng trnh ca h, ta c
x
3
y
3
= 2(y x) (x y)(x
2
+ xy + y
2
+ 2) = 0 x = y,
v x
2
+ xy + y
2
+ 2 =
_
x +
y
2
_
2
+
3y
2
4
+ 2 > 0. Thay vo h ta c
x
3
+ 1 = 2x (x 1)(x
2
+ x 1) = 0
_
_
x = 1
x =
1

5
2
Vy phng trnh c ba nghim x = 1, x =
1+

5
2
, x =

51
2
.
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t n ph a v h phng trnh 3
Ch .
Ta c th gii quyt bi ton trn bng cch sau:
() x
3
+ 2x = 2x 1 + 2
3

2x 1 f(x) = f
_
3

2x 1
_
,
vi f(t) = t
3
+ 2t. D thy f(t) l hm ng bin trn R nn t trn ta c
x =
3

2x 1 x
3
2x + 1 = 0.
Dng tng qut bi ton trn l
_
f(x)
_
n
+ b = a
n
_
af(x) b. (II)
gii phng trnh ny, t t = f(x), y =
n
_
af(x) b, ta c h
_
t
n
+ b = ay
y
n
+ b = at
y l h i xng loi II vi hai n t v y.
Khi thay a, b, f(x) l cc s ta c c cc bi ton v phng trnh.
V d 5. Gii phng trnh
2x
2
+ 4x =
_
x + 3
2
.
Li gii. iu kin: x 3. Ta c phng trnh cho tng ng
2(x + 1)
2
2 =
_
(x + 1) + 2
2
(x + 1)
2
1 =
1
2
_
x + 1
2
+ 1.
t t = x + 1, y =
_
x+1
2
+ 1 =
_
t
2
+ 1, suy ra y
2
1 =
t
2
. Vy ta c h
_

_
t
2
1 =
y
2
y
2
1 =
t
2
Tr tng v hai phng trnh, ta c
t
2
y
2
=
y t
2
(t y)
_
t + y +
1
2
_
= 0,
t y suy ra t = y hoc t + y +
1
2
= 0.
Vi t = y 0, ta c h phng trnh tng ng
_
_
_
t
2
1 =
t
2
t = y 0

_
2t
2
t 2 = 0
t 0
t =
1 +

17
4
.
Vi gi tr t va tm c ny, ta tnh c x =

173
4
(tha x 3).
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4 Nguyn Tt Thu
Vi y = t
1
2
, h phng trnh ca ta tr thnh
_

_
_
t +
1
2
_
2
1 =
t
2
t
1
2

_
_
_
4t
2
+ 2t 3 = 0
t
1
2
t =
1 +

13
4
.
T y ta tm c x =
5+

13
4
(tha x 3).
Vy phng trnh cho c hai nghim l x =

173
4
v x =
5+

13
4
.
V d 6. Gii phng trnh
x
2
x 1000

1 + 8000x = 1000.
Li gii. iu kin: x
1
8000
. Phng trnh cho tng ng
4x
2
4x 4000 = 4000

1 + 8000x
(2x 1)
2
4001 = 4000
_
4000(2x 1) + 4001.
t u = 2x 1, v =

1 + 8000x, d thy v 0, u
4001
4000
. Ta c h phng trnh
_
u
2
4001 = 4000v
v
2
4001 = 4000u

_
u
2
4001 = 4000v
u
2
v
2
= 4000(v u)

_
u
2
4001 = 4000v (1)
(u v)(u + v + 4000) = 0 (2)
Do u + v + 4000 > 0 nn t (2) ta c u = v 0. Thay vo (1), ta c
_
u
2
4000u 4001 = 0
u 0
u = 4001.
T y ta tm c x = 2000 (tha x
1
8000
).
Vy phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x = 2000.
Ch . (II) nu ta thay hng s b bng mt biu thc g(x) th ta vn c th gii phng
trnh bng cch lm tng t nh trn.
V d 7. Gii phng trnh
4x
2
+ 7x + 1 = 2

x + 2. ()
Li gii. iu kin: x 2. Ta c
() (2x + 1)
2
+ 3x = 2
_
2(2x + 1) 3x.
t t = 2x + 1, y =

2t 3, ta c y
2
+ 3x = 2t v y 0. Nh vy ta c h
_
t
2
+ 3x = 2y
y
2
+ 3x = 2t
(t y)(t + y + 2) = 0,
t suy ra y = t hoc y = t 2.
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t n ph a v h phng trnh 5
Vi y = t, h phng trnh tr thnh
_
t
2
2t + 3x = 0
t 0

_
_
_
4x
2
+ 3x 1 = 0
x
1
2
x =
1
4
.
Xt trng hp y = t 2. Lc ny h phng trnh ca ta c vit li nh sau
_
t
2
+ 3x + 2(t + 2) = 0
t 2

_
_
_
4x
2
+ 11x + 7 = 0
x
3
2
x =
7
4
.
Vy phng trnh c hai nghim x =
7
4
, x =
1
4
.
V d 8. Gii phng trnh
8x
3
4x 1 =
3

6x + 1.
Li gii. Phng trnh cho tng ng
(2x)
3
4x 1 =
3

2x + 4x + 1.
t u = 2x, v =
3

2x + 4x + 1, ta c h phng trnh
_
u
3
4x 1 = v
v
3
4x 1 = u

_
u
3
v
3
= v u
u
3
4x 1 = v

_
(u v)(u
2
+ uv + v
2
+ 1) = 0
u
3
4x 1 = v

_
u = v
u
3
4x 1 = u
8x
3
6x = 1. (1)
Nu |x| > 1 th |8x
3
6x| = 2|x|(4x
2
3) > 2 nn (1) v nghim. Do vy ta phi c |x| 1.
iu ny cho php ta t x = cos t vi t [0, ]. Khi phng trnh (1) c th vit li thnh
cos 3t =
1
2
t
1
=

9
t
2
=
5
9
t
3
=
7
9
.
Vy phng trnh cho c ba nghim x = cos

9
, x = cos
5
9
, x = cos
7
9
.
V d 9. Gii phng trnh
7x
2
13x + 8 = 2x
2 3
_
x(1 + 3x 3x
2
).
Li gii. D thy x = 0 khng l nghim ca phng trnh cho. Xt trng hp x = 0.
Chia c hai v ca phng trnh cho x
3
, ta c
7
x

13
x
2
+
8
x
3
= 2
3
_
1
x
2
+
3
x
3.
t t =
1
x
, ta c
8t
3
13t
2
+ 7t = 2
3

t
2
+ 3t 3
(2t 1)
3
(t
2
t 1) = 2
_
2(2t 1) + (t
2
t 1).
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6 Nguyn Tt Thu
t u = 2t 1, v =
3
_
2(2t 1) + t
2
t 1, ta c h phng trnh
_
u
3
t
2
+ t + 1 = 2v
v
3
t
2
+ t + 1 = 2u
u
3
v
3
= 2v 2u (u v)(u
2
+ uv + v
2
+ 2) = 0.
Do u
2
+ uv + v
2
+ 2 > 0 nn ta c
u = v 2t 1 =
3

t
2
+ 3t 3 8t
3
13t
2
+ 3t + 2 = 0
(t 1)(8t
2
5t 2) = 0.
Gii phng trnh cui ta tm c ba nghim t
1
= 1, t
2
=
5

89
16
, t
3
=
5+

89
16
.
Vy phng trnh cho c ba nghim x = 1, x =
16
5

89
, x =
16
5+

89
.
Nhng v d trn ta thay b (II) bng mt biu thc cha x. Vy nu thay a bng mt
biu thc cha x th nh th no? Ta cn gii quyt c theo cch trn na hay khng? Ta
xt v d sau.
V d 10. Gii phng trnh
4x
2
11x + 10 = (x 1)

2x
2
6x + 2.
Li gii. Phng trnh cho c th vit li thnh
(2x 3)
2
+ x + 1 = (x 1)
_
(x 1)(2x 3) x 1.
t u = 2x 3, v =
_
(x 1)(2x 3) x 1. Ta c h phng trnh
_
u
2
+ x + 1 = (x 1)v
v
2
+ x + 1 = (x 1)u
u
2
v
2
= (x 1)(v u) (u v)(u + v + x 1) = 0.
T y suy ra u = v hoc u + v + x 1 = 0.
Vi u = v, ta c
u
2
+ x + 1 = (x 1)u (2x 3)
2
+ x + 1 = (x 1)(2x 3)
2x
2
6x + 7 = 0.
Phng trnh ny v nghim.
Vi u + v + x 1 = 0, ta c
2x 3 +

2x
2
6x + 2 + x 1 = 0

2x
2
6x + 2 = 4 3x

_
_
_
x
4
3
7x
2
18x + 44 = 0
H ny v nghim.
Vy phng trnh cho v nghim.
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t n ph a v h phng trnh 7
Nh vy (II) ta c th thay a v b bng nhng biu thc cha x v ta vn c cch gii tng
t. Vi cch lm nh vy chng ta s to ra c nhng phng trnh hay v kh. Ta xt v
d sau.
V d 11. Gii phng trnh
8x
2
13x + 7 =
_
1 +
1
x
_
3

3x
2
2.
Li gii. Phng trnh cho tng ng
8x
3
13x
2
+ 7x = (x + 1)
3

3x
2
2
(2x 1)
3
(x
2
x 1) = (x + 1)
3
_
(x + 1)(2x 1) + x
2
x 1.
t u = 2x 1, v =
3
_
(x + 1)(2x 1) + x
2
x 1, ta c h phng trnh
_
u
3
(x
2
x 1) = (x + 1)v
v
3
(x
2
x 1) = (x + 1)u
Tr tng v hai phng trnh, ta c
u
3
v
3
= (x + 1)(v u) (u v)(u
2
+ uv + v
2
+ x + 1) = 0.
Ch rng
u
2
+ uv + v
2
+ x + 1 =
_
v +
u
2
_
2
+
3u
2
4
+ x + 1
3u
2
4
+ x + 1
=
3
4
(2x 1)
2
+ x + 1 =
4x
2
+ 2(2x 1)
2
+ 5
4
> 0,
nn t trn ta c
u = v 2x 1 =
3

3x
2
2 8x
3
15x
2
+ 6x + 1 = 0
(x 1)(8x
2
7x 1) = 0
_
_
x = 1
x =
1
8
Vy phng trnh cho hai nghim x = 1, x =
1
8
.
V d 12. Gii phng trnh

1 x
2
+
4

x
2
+ x 1 +
6

1 x = 1.
Li gii. iu kin:

51
2
x 1. Ta thy tng ca cc biu thc trong cn bng 1 nn ta
t a =

1 x
2
, b =
4

x
2
+ x 1, c =
6

1 x, a, b, c 0, khi ta c h
_

_
a + b + c = 1
a
2
+ b
4
+ c
6
= 1
a, b, c 0
Do a, b, c 0 v a + b + c = 1 nn ta c 0 a, b, c 1, suy ra a
2
a, b
4
b, c
6
c. Do
a
2
+ b
4
+ c
6
a + b + c = 1.
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8 Nguyn Tt Thu
Nh vy h trn tng ng vi
_

_
a = a
2
b = b
4
c = c
6
x = 1.
Kt lun: phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x = 1.
V d 13. Gii phng trnh
x =

3 x

4 x +

4 x

5 x +

5 x

3 x.
Li gii. iu kin: 0 x 3. t a =

3 x, b =

4 x, c =

5 x, a, b, c 0. Ta c
h phng trnh
_

_
ab + bc + ca = 3 a
2
ab + bc + ca = 4 b
2
ab + bc + ca = 5 c
2

_
(a + b)(a + c) = 3
(b + c)(b + a) = 4
(c + a)(c + b) = 5
Nhn tng ng ba phng trnh ca h phng trnh cui ri ly cn bc hai hai v ta c
(a + b)(b + c)(c + a) = 2

15.
M (a + b)(b + c)(c + a) = 3(b + c) = 4(c + a) = 5(a + b) nn ta c
_

_
a + b = 2
_
3
5
b + c = 2
_
5
3
c + a =
_
15
4

_
a =
23
4

15
b =
17
4

15
c =
7
4

15
x =
671
240
.
Vy phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x =
671
240
.