You are on page 1of 37

INDEX

S.No.
1.

Practical Name Windows 2000 Professional Installation

Page No. 1-4

Remarks

2.

Windows 2000 Server Installation

5-9

3.

Peer-to-Peer or Workgroup

10-19

4.

Active Directory NAT server

20-32 33-36

5.

Windows 2000 Professional Installation

Hardware Requirements: The hardware requirement for windows 2000 are as follows:

Processor: Minimum Intel Pentium 133 MHz. or Higher. Memory: Minimum 32 Mb Ram (64 Mb Recommended). Hard Disk: Minimum 650 Mb of free hard Disk Space (recommended 2 GB Hard Disk Space). CD-ROM Drive: 12x or faster recommended. Network: NIC (Network Interface Card) Peripherals: Mouse, Keyboard. Display Components: Video Adapter or monitor with VGA (Video Graphic Adapter) Resolution or higher.

Installation Options: Disk Partitioning: A new partition on an un-partitioned hard disk. A new partition on a partitioned hard disk. Installation on an existing partition. Deleting existing partition.

File system selection: Windows 2000 support FAT16, FAT32 and NTFS file system. Licensing Mode Selection. Language and Local Selection. Installation Method:

Installing Windows 2000 Professional from CD. Installation from other operating system. Installing Windows 2000 Professional over Network. Installation Steps followed. 1. Insert the Windows 2000 CD into CD-ROM if it is a bootable CD and reboot the computer. If the CD is not Bootable then create boot disk from the Windows 2000 CD-ROM. 2. When system restarts change the CMOS setting to boot from CDROM or floppy disk i.e. change the boot sequence. 3. On detecting a bootable CD in CD-ROM computer ask to confirm to boot from CD-ROM press any key to boot from CD. 4. On booting up the Set up checks the hardware configuration of the computer. 5. On completion the Windows 2000 professional set up starts loading file to run set up. 6. On completion the screen appears which shows various options: To set up Windows 2000 now, Press Enter. To repair Windows 2000 installation, Press R. To quit set up without installing Windows 2000, Press F3. 7. Press Enter to continue Windows 2000 Professional Installation. 8. Next Screen appears which shows the list of Partitioned and unpartitioned space on the disk To set up Windows 2000 on a Particular partition, Press Enter.

To create a partition on un-partitioned space, Press C. To delete the selected partition, Press D. 9. After creating a new partition on un-partitioned space or using an existing partition the screen appears with following option Format the partition using NTFS file system. Format the partition using FAT file system. Keep the current file system intact. (Only in case of installation on existing partition.). 10.After the partition is formatted the set up asks for location where the files to be installed of Windows 2000. Enter the location and Press Enter to continue. 11.On Enter, the set up copies files to Windows 2000 installation. After files are copied the Windows 2000 configuration is initialized and saved. 12.After the configuration is saved the computer asks for reboot and instructs to remove any floppy from drive A. 13.After the computer reboots the Windows 2000 set up wizard appears. Press next to continue. 14.The set up wizard detects and install devices like mouse and keyboard. Then the next screen appears which ask for customizing Regional Settings. 15.The system Locale and user Locales controls how number, currencies and date appear on the computer. 16.The keyboard layout controls the characters that appear when you type.

17.The next screen appears which prompts for user name and organization name to personalize the software being used. 18.The next screen prompts for 25 character product key. Enter the product key of Windows 2000 Professional given on the backside of CD cover. 19.On next screen computer prompts for computer name and administrator password. Enter the required data click next to continue. 20.The next screen prompts for date, time setting and time zone setting. Click next to continue. 21.The Windows then installs networking component. The networking s/w allows connecting to other computer, network and the internet. Click next to continue. 22.The next screen appears which performs the final tasks. Installs start menu items. Register components. Saves settings. Removes Temporary files used. 23.The set up wizard completes the installation. Click finish to complete set up and the computer reboots.

Windows 2000 Server Installation Hardware Requirements: The hardware requirement for windows 2000 are as follows:

Processor: Minimum Intel Pentium 133 MHz. A maximum of processor per computer are supported. 166MHz or higher is supported.

Memory: Minimum 128 Mb RAM (256 Mb Recommended) (4GB of maximum RAM supported). Hard Disk: Minimum 850 Mb of free hard Disk Space (recommended 2 GB Hard Disk Space). CD-ROM Drive: 12x or faster recommended or a DVDROM drive is required. Network: NIC (Network Interface Card) Peripherals: Mouse, Keyboard. Display Components: Video Adapter or monitor with VGA (Video Graphic Adapter) Resolution or higher.

Installation Options: Disk Partitioning: A new partition on an un-partitioned hard disk. A new partition on a partitioned hard disk. Installation on an existing partition. Deleting existing partition.

File system selection: Windows 2000 server supports FAT16, FAT32 and NTFS file system. New Technology File System (NTFS). Licensing Mode. Installation Method: Installing by booting from Windows 2000 server CD. Installation from set up boot disk and Windows 2000 server CD. Installing from other operating system. Installing Windows 2000 over Network Connection. The Installation can be divided into four main phases: Starting the Set up program. Starting Set up wizard. Installing Windows Networking. Finishing Setup. Installation Steps followed. 1. Insert the Windows 2000 Server CD into CD-ROM if it is a bootable CD and reboot the computer. If the CD is not Bootable then create boot disk from the Windows 2000 Server CD-ROM. 2. When system restarts change the CMOS setting to boot from CDROM or floppy disk i.e. change the boot sequence. 3. On detecting a bootable CD in CD-ROM computer ask to confirm to boot from CD-ROM press any key to boot from CD. 4. On booting up the Set up checks the hardware configuration of the computer.

5. On completion the Windows 2000 Server set up starts loading file to run set up. 6. On completion the screen appears which shows various options: To set up Windows 2000 now, Press Enter. To repair Windows 2000 installation, Press R. To quit set up without installing Windows 2000, Press F3. 7. Press Enter to continue Windows 2000 Server Installation. 8. The Windows Licensing agreement appears press F8 to agree or esc to quit. 9. Next Screen appears which shows the list of Partitioned and unpartitioned space on the disk To set up Windows 2000 on a Particular partition, Press Enter. To create a partition on un-partitioned space, Press C. To delete the selected partition, Press D. 10.After creating a new partition on un-partitioned space or using an existing partition the screen appears with following option Format the partition using NTFS file system. Format the partition using FAT file system. Keep the current file system intact. (Only in case of installation on existing partition.). 11.After the partition is formatted the set up asks for location where the files to be installed of Windows 2000. Enter the location and Press Enter to continue. 12.On Enter, the set up copies files to Windows 2000 installation. After files are copied the Windows 2000 configuration is initialized and saved.

13.After the configuration is saved the computer asks for reboot and instructs to remove any floppy from drive A. 14.After the computer reboots the Windows 2000 Server Set up wizard appears. Press next to continue. 15.The set up wizard detects and install devices like mouse and keyboard. Then the next screen appears which ask for customizing Regional Settings. The system Locale and user Locales controls how number, currencies and date appear on the computer The keyboard layout controls the characters that appear when you type. 16.The next screen appears which prompts for user name and organization name to personalize the software being used. 17.The next screen prompts for 25 character product key. Enter the product key of Windows 2000 Professional given on the backside of CD cover. 18.The next dialog box prompts up which asks for the Licensing mode to be used in the server. The two licensing modes available are:

Per Server Licensing Mode: Each connection must have its own Client Access list. Per Seat licensing Mode: Each computer must have its own Client Access List

19.On next screen computer prompts for computer name and administrator password. Enter the required data click next to continue. 20.The next dialog box appears which displays the various Windows 2000 components; the user can select them and install them.

21.The next screen prompts for date, time setting and time zone setting. Click next to continue. 22.The Windows then installs networking component. The networking s/w allows connecting to other computer, network and the internet. Click next to continue. 23.The next dialog box appears which displays two options The computer is not in a network, or is on a network without domain. Type the workgroup name in the text box. The computer is a member of domain; enter the domain name in the text box. Appropriate information should be entered then click next to continue. 24.If the computer is a on a domain the pop up box appears which asks to enter user name and password of a user that is authorized to join the machine to the domain. Press ok after filling the required data and continue. 25.The next screen appears which performs the final tasks. Installs start menu items. Register components. Saves settings. Removes Temporary files used. 26.The set up wizard completes the installation. Click finish to complete set up and the computer reboots. 27.The Log on box appears and Enter the user as Administrator and Administrator Password and Log on to the Machine.

Peer-to-Peer or Workgroup Using Windows, there are numerous ways to connect computers or create a network. For homes and small offices, the most common model is peer-topeer networking. By definition workgroup is a simple grouping of computers, intended only to help users find such things as printers and shared folders within that group. Workgroups in Windows do not offer the centralized user accounts and authentication offered by domains. A peer -to-peer network, also called a workgroup, is commonly used for home and small business networks. In this model, computers directly communicate with each other and do not require a server to manage network resources. In general, a peer-to-peer network is most appropriate for arrangements where there are less than ten computers located in the same general area. The computers in a workgroup are considered peers because they are all equal and share resources among each other without requiring a server. Each user determines which data on their computer will be shared with the network. Sharing common resources allows users to print from a single printer, access information in shared folders, and work on a single file without transferring it to a floppy disk. On a network, each computer has a network adapter. The computer uses this network device to send and receive information to and from other computers on the network.

Types of Cabling

Straight-through Crossover Rolled

Note: The console port does not support modem control or hardware flow control.

How to Identify an RJ-45 Cable To identify the RJ-45 cable type, hold the two ends of the cable next to one another so you can see the colored wires inside the ends, as shown in the following figure.

There are three types of commonly used RJ-45 cabling: straight, cross and rolled. If you hold the two ends of an RJ-45 cable side by side, you'll see eight colored strips, or pins, at each end. If the order of the colored pins is

the same at each end, then the cable is straight. If the order of the colors is reversed at each end, then the cable is rolled. The wires can be classified into four pairs of cables, namely, orange : orange-white green : green-white blue : blue-white brown : brown-white Examine the sequence of colored wires to determine the type of RJ-45 cable, as follows: Straight-through Cabling In a straight-through cable, the colored wires are in the same sequence at both ends of the cable. Straight-through Cable

RJ-45 Straightthrough (Ethernet) Cable Pin-outs Signal RJ45 Pin RJ45 Pin Signal

Tx+ Tx Rx+ Rx Crossover Cable

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Tx+ Tx Rx+ Rx

In a crossover cable, the first (far left) colored wire at one end of the cable is the third colored wire at the other end of the cable. Crossover Cable

RJ-45 Crossover (Ethernet) Cable Pin- RJ-45 RJ-45 Signal outs Pin Pin Signal Tx+ Tx 1 2 1 2 Rx+ Rx

Rx+ Rx Rolled Cable

3 4 5 6 7 8

3 4 5 6 7 8

Tx+ Tx

In a rolled cable, the colored wires at one end of the cable are in the reverse sequence of the colored wires at the other end of the cable. Rolled Cable

Signal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

RJ-45 Pin 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

RJ-45 Pin

Signal

Differences between Hub & Switch Hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. Typically used to connect segments of a local area network (LAN), a hub contains multiple ports. When data arrives at one port, it is copied to the other ports so that all segments of the LAN can see the data. Switching hub is a central network device (multiport hub) that forwards packets to specific ports rather than, as in conventional hubs, broadcasting every packet to every port. In this way, the connections between ports deliver the full bandwidth available.

Peer to Peer connection of two computers using crossover cable Step 1 : Prepare a cross cable using the above mentioned color coding. This would require a UTP-5 cable, two RJ-45 connectors and the crimping tool. Step 2 : Before connecting the two computers, first check whether the network adapter is configured or not. This is done by right clicking My Computer > Properties > Device Manager > Network Adapter. If the adapter is configured then proceed otherwise configure it by following the prompts. Step 3 : Right click on my computer and click on properties then go to the network identification tab give a computer name and a workgroup. Do the same with the other computer make sure that workgroup is same in both the cases.

Step 4 : Both the computers to be connected should have the same network id in the ip address. This can be verified by right clicking Network Neighborhood > Properties > Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) > Properties. Here enable Use the following IP option and assign same network id to both the computers.

Step 5 : go to the command prompt and type in e:/ipconfig/all

Step 6 :-

Ping the other computer with its ip address from the run command to see weather the connection is established or not. If it replies with the message then the connection is established successfully. Connecting eight computers using Straight Cable and Hub Step 1Prepare a straight cable using the above mentioned color coding. This would require a UTP-5 cable, two RJ-45 connectors and the crimping tool. Step 2 Before connecting the eight computers, first check whether the network adapter is configured or not. This is done by right clicking My Computer > Properties > Device Manager > Network Adapter. If the adapter is configured then proceed otherwise configure it by following the prompts. Step 3All the computers to be connected should have the same workgroup. This can be verified by right clicking My Computer > Properties > Computer Name. Here we can view the workgroup. Step 4The computers to be connected should have the same network id in the IP address. This can be verified by right clicking Network Neighborhood > Properties > Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) > Properties. Here enable Use the following IP option and assign same network id part of the IP address to all the computers. Step 5Now connect the computers with the hub through the straight cable. Step 6-

All the computers are now connected. This can be verified by visiting Network Neighborhood. If connected properly, an icon for the peer computers shall appear in the window. Shared resources shall be available for use.

Active Directory Active Directory is an essential and inseparable part of the Windows 2000 network architecture that improves on the domain architecture of the Windows NT 4.0 operating system to provide a directory service designed for distributed networking environments. Active Directory lets organizations efficiently share and manage information about network resources and users. In addition, Active Directory acts as the central authority for network security, letting the operating system readily verify a user's identity and control his or her access to network resources. Equally important, Active Directory acts as an integration point for bringing systems together and consolidating management tasks. Combined, these capabilities let organizations apply standardized business rules to distributed applications and network resources, without requiring administrators to maintain a variety of specialized directories.

Active Directory provides a single point of management for Windows-based user accounts, clients, servers, and applications. It also helps organizations integrate systems not using Windows with Windows-based applications, and Windows-compatible devices, thus consolidating directories and easing management of the entire network operating system. Companies can also use Active Directory to extend systems securely to the Internet. Active Directory thus increases the value of an organization's existing network investments and lowers the overall costs of computing by making the Windows network operating system more manageable, secure, and interoperable. How Does Active Directory Work? Active Directory lets organizations store information in a hierarchical, object-oriented fashion, and provides multi-master replication to support distributed network environments. Hierarchical Organization Active Directory uses objects to represent network resources such as users, groups, machines, devices, and applications. It uses containers to represent organizations, such as the marketing department, or collections of related objects, such as printers. It organizes information in a tree structure made up of these objects and containers, similar to the way the Windows operating system uses folders and files to organize information on a computer.

Figure 1: Active Directory organizes information hierarchically to ease network use and management. In addition, Active Directory manages the relationships among objects and containers to provide a single, centralized, comprehensive view. This makes resources easier to find, manage, and use in a highly distributed network. The Active Directory hierarchy is flexible and configurable, so organizations can organize resources in a way that optimizes their usability and manageability. In Figure 1 above, containers are used to represent collections of users, machines, devices, and applications. Containers can be nested (created oneinside-the-other) to reflect accurately the company's organizational structure. In this case, marketing and personnel organization containers represent those respective departments, and their relationship to one another, within the company. Grouping objects in the directory lets administrators manage objects on a macro-level (as collections) rather than one-by-one. This increases management efficiency and accuracy while letting organizations align network management with their business processes.

Object-oriented Storage As mentioned earlier, Active Directory stores information about network elements in the form of objects. These objects can be assigned attributes, which describe specific characteristics about the object. This lets companies store a wide range of information in the directory and tightly control access to it.

Figure 2: Active Directory objects and attributes are protected by access control lists. As illustrated in Figure 2 above, object- and attribute-level security lets administrators precisely control access to information stored in the directory. For example, a user object stored in the directory for Bob Jones has attributes for Bob's name, e-mail address, phone number, and Social Security number. The Active Directory lets administrators assign access privileges for each attribute of the object, as well as for the entire object. In this case, the system administrator has allowed global access to the Bob Jones object, but has locked access of the Social Security Number attribute.

Multi-Master Replication To provide high performance, availability, and flexibility in distributed environments, the Active Directory uses multi-master replication. As illustrated in Figure 3 below, this lets organizations create multiple copies of the directory, known as directory replicas, and place them throughout the network. Changes made anywhere on the network are automatically replicated throughout the network. (This is in contrast to single-master replication in which all changes must be made to a single, authoritative directory replica).

Figure 3: Active Directory supports multi-master replication for flexibility, high-availability, and performance. For example, fully synchronized directory replicas can be made available to each location in a wide area network (WAN). Such a process can give users faster performance because they can locate resources using the local directory service rather than by traversing the WAN. These same directories

could be managed locally or remotely depending on available administrative resources. What Are the Benefits of Active Directory? Totally integrated with Windows 2000 Server, Active Directory gives network administrators, developers, and users access to a directory service that:

Simplifies management tasks. Strengthens network security. Makes use of existing systems through interoperability.

Active directory installation Step 1:go to run command and type DCPROMO

Step 2 :click on next

step 3: check on create a new domain tree. And click on next.

Step 4:enter a NetBIOS name and click on next.

Step 5:enter password.

It will now configure the active directory.

Step 6:Press finish and restart the computer

NAT server A Network Address Translator (NAT) is an IP router defined in RFCs 1631 and 2663 that can translate the IP addresses and TCP/UDP port numbers of packets as they are forwarded. For outgoing packets, the source IP address and TCP/UDP port numbers are mapped to a public source IP address and a possibly changed TCP/UDP port number. For incoming packets, the destination IP address and TCP/UDP port numbers are mapped to the private IP address and original TCP/UDP port number. The NAT only forwards traffic from the Internet to the private network if a specific mapping exists in the NAT's translation table. Because of this, the NAT provides a level of protection for computers that are connected to private network segments. However, this level of protection also creates a connectivity problem when you want to make private network resources available to Internet clients. For example, suppose that you set up a Web server on your private network that is bordered by a NAT and had your ISP create a Domain Name System (DNS) record that resolves www.example.com to the public IP address (154.160.0.1) assigned to you by your ISP. When an Internet Web client initiates communication with your Web server on the private network, the following happens: 1 The user on the Internet Web client computer (using the public IP . address 131.107.0.1) types http://www.example.com in their Web browser. 2 The Internet Web client uses DNS to resolve the name . www.example.com to the address 154.60.0.1.

3. The Internet Web client computer sends a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Synchronize (SYN) segment from 131.107.0.1/TCP port 2000 to 154.60.0.1/TCP port 80. 4 When the NAT computer receives the TCP SYN segment, it checks its . NAT translation table. 5 Because there is no entry for destination 154.60.0.1/TCP 80, the TCP . SYN segment is silently discarded. 6 The Internet Web client computer retries until it finally displays an error . message. Because there is no NAT mapping for inbound traffic, resources on servers that are located behind NATs cannot be accessed from the Internet. The solution for this connectivity issue is a manually configured, static mapping for the inbound traffic from the Internet that gets translated to the traffic destined for the resource server behind the NAT. To facilitate the forwarding of inbound traffic to a resource server on the private network, you can configure one of two types of static mappings: You can map all traffic for a specific public IP address to a specific private address (an address mapping). The advantage to this type of mapping is the ease of configuration. Because all traffic to the public IP address is forwarded, you do not have to determine the types of traffic in terms of TCP and UDP ports for the services that are running on the private network computer. The disadvantage is that the private network computer is now directly exposed to the Internet and more susceptible to attack. You can use Internet Connection Firewall with Windows XP or other firewall software to help

protect it. Another disadvantage is that you must obtain more than one public IP address. At least two public addresses are required: one for the resource server and one for the translated traffic of your other private network computers. Map a specific public IP address/port number to a specific private IP address/port number (an address/port mapping) The advantage to this type of static mapping is that the resource server is less vulnerable to attack, except through the traffic allowed by the static address/port mappings. Another advantage is that you need only one public IP address for both the traffic sent to the resource server and the translated traffic for private network computers. The disadvantage is that there is additional configuration required. You have to create static mappings to each of the services on the resource server that you want to make available from the Internet. Print server On a network, a print server is a software application, network device, or computer that manages print requests and makes printer queue status information available to end users and network administrators. Print servers are used in both large enterprise and small or home office (SOHO) networks. In a large organization, a single dedicated computer serving as a print server might manage hundreds of printers. In a small office, a print server is often a specialized plug-in board or small network device about the size of a hub

that performs the same function as a dedicated print server, but frees up valuable disk space on the office's limited number of computers.