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Tiu Lun TCS_NC p da bc

Phn A: Tng quan v b nghch luu

PHN A: TNG QUAN V B NGHCH LUU A BC


1. Tng quan 1.1. t vn d Trong nhng nam gn dy, h thng din t cng sut duc pht trin rt mnh. Vi nhiu l do,th nht: cc thit b din t cng sut ngy cng duc s dng nhiu, khng nhng trong linh vc cng nghip m cn thm nhp vo c linh vc thuong mi v dn dng. L do th hai: do nhu cu pht trin cc thit b s dng hiu qu v tit kim nang lung dng thi vi vic s dng ngun nang lung mi nhu nang lung gi, nang lung mt tri.v.v trc tip noi tiu th. Cc b chuyn di AC (chnh luu, nghch luu, bin tn) ngy cng duc quan tm DC nghin cu. dp ng cc nhu cu cng sut ln, cn phi nng cao din p v dng din. Tuy nhin do kh nang chu dng v p ca cc linh kin din t cng sut c gii hn, nn song song vi vic pht trin cc linh kin cng sut ln, ngui ta dng gii php mc song song d to dng din cao v mc ni tip d tang din p. Gii php mc ni tip cho ra di cc cu trc mch nghch luu p da bc thay cho nghch luu p hai bc truyn thng. Mch nghch luu p da bc c nhiu uu dim nhu cng sut cao hon, cht lung din p v dng din ng ra tt hon, mch lc du ra nh hon. so vi nghch luu p hai bc. Tuy nhin n cung c nhiu nhuc dim nhu cn nhiu linh kin hon, gii thut diu khin phc tp hon v v vy gi thnh cung dt hon. Nam 1980, Navae v cc cng s ca ng bt du nghin cu v nghch luu p da bc. V dn nam 1981 ng d ngh cu hnh NPC (Neutral Point Clamped) cho nghch luu p 3 bc. V sau, cu hnh ny duc pht trin cho nghch luu p da bc vi tn chung l cu hnh diode-clamped converter (diode kp). Cu hnh ny c dng cu vi mi nhnh gm nhiu linh kin chuyn mch mc ni tip. Mt s cu hnh khc ra di mun hon gm floating capacitor converter (t kp) v cascade H-dridge converter. Cu hnh t kp c cu trc tuong t nhu cu hnh diode kp; cu hnh H-dridge duc xy dng bng cch ni tip cc mch nghch luu 2 bc co bn. Trong d cu hnh

diode kp l cu hnh duc nghin cu v c nhiu ng dng nht. 1.2 ng dng ca b nghch luu. ng dng trong cng nghip ng dng trong dn dng ng dng trong truyn ti h thng din ng dng trong thuong mi ng dng trong phng th nghim Dng lm ti liu trong ging dy 2. Gii thiu b nghch luu p. B nghch luu p c nhim v chuyn di nang lung t ngun din mt chiu khng di sang dng nang lung din xoay chiu d cung cp cho ti xoay chiu.
GVHD: PGS. TS. Nguyn Van Nh Minh Triu Tiu Lun TCS_NC p da bc Trang 5 HVTH: Truong Phn A: Tng quan v b nghch luu

i lung duc diu khin ng ra l din p hoc dng din. Nu di lung duc diu khin ng ra l din p th b nghch luu duc gi l b nghch luu p, nguc li gi l b nghch luu dng. Cc b nghch luu to thnh b phn ch yu trong b bin tn. ng dng quan trng v tuong di rng ri ca chng nhm vo linh vc truyn dng din dng co xoay chiu vi d chnh xc cao. Trong linh vc tn s cao, b nghch luu duc dng trong cc thit b l cm ng trung tn, thit b hn trung tn. B nghch luu cn ng dng lm ngun din xoay chiu cho nhu cu gia dnh, lm ngun din lin tc UPS, diu khin chiu sng v cn duc ng dng trong linh vc b nhuyn cng sut phn khng 2.1 Khi nim. B nghch luu p l mt b nghch luu c ngun mt chiu cung cp l ngun p v di tung diu khin ng ra l din p. B nghch luu dng l b nghch luu c ngun mt chiu cung cp l ngun dng v di tung diu khin ng ra l ngun dng. Trn thc t ngun mt chiu l ngun p v di tung nghin cu l b nghch luu p. B nghch luu p cung cp v diu khin din p xoay chiu ng ra, ngun din p mt chiu

c th l: pin din, c quy, din p mt chiu duc chnh luu t din p xoay chiu c lc phng. Cc ti xoay chiu thung mang tnh cht cm khng (dng co xoay chiu, l cm ng), dng din qua cc linh kin khng th dng ngt bng qu trnh chuyn mch t nhin. Do d, linh kin trong b nghch luu p phi c kh nang kch dng, ngt dng qua n. Trong cc ng dng vi cng sut nh v va th c th s dng Transitor BJT, MOSFET, IGBT. Trong phm vi cng sut ln c th dng GTO, IGCT hoc SCR kt hp vi b chuyn mch. Vi ti tng qut, mi linh kin cn mc thm mt diode di song song d hn ch din p pht sinh khi kch ngt linh kin. 2.2 Phn loi. B nghch luu p c nhiu loi cung nhu c nhiu phuong php diu khin khc nhau: Theo s pha din p du ra: nghch luu p mt pha, ba pha. Theo s cp gi tr din p: d l s din p gia mt du pha ti dn mt dim din th chun trn mch DC c: hai bc (two level), da bc (multilevel t ba bc tr ln). Khi nim b bin tn hai bc xut pht t din p mt du pha ti (pha a, b, c) vi dim chun (v tr ni dt) trn mch DC thay di gia hai bc khc nhau (V v 0). B nghch luu p hai bc c nhuc dim l to din p cung cp cho cun dy dng co dv/dt kh ln v gy ra hin tung din p common mode (V
N0 DC

0) rt nghim trng. B nghch luu p da bc duc pht trin d gii quyt cc vn d gy ra nu trn ca b nghch luu p hai bc v thung duc s dng cho cc ng dng din p cao v cng sut ln. Uu dim ca b nghch luu p da bc l cng sut ca b nghch luu tang ln, din p dt ln cc linh kin gim xung nn cng sut tn hao do qu trnh dng ngt ca linh kin cung gim theo (switching losses); vi cng tn s dng ngt, cc thnh phn sng hi bc cao ca din p ra gim nh hon so vi b nghch luu p hai bc.
GVHD: PGS. TS. Nguyn Van Nh Minh Triu Tiu Lun TCS_NC p da bc Trang 6 HVTH: Truong Phn A: Tng quan v b nghch luu

Theo cu hnh b nghch luu: dng cascade (cascade inverter), dng nghch luu cha cp

diode kp NPC (neutral point clamped multilevel inverter) 2.3. Cc phuong php diu khin b nghch luu p. Phuong php diu ch d rng xung sin (Sin PWM-sin pulse width modulation). Phuong php diu khin theo bin d. Phuong php diu ch d rng xung (SH-PWM). Phuong php diu ch d rng xung ci bin (Modified PWM). Phuong php diu ch vector khng gian (SVPWM-space vector pulse width modulation). 3. Cu trc co bn ca b nghch luu p da bc. 3.1. Cu trc b nghch luu NPC. S dng thch hp khi cc ngun DC to nn t h thng din AC. B nghch luu da bc cha cc cp diode kp c mt mch ngun DC duc phn chia thnh mt s cp din p nh hon nh chui cc t din mc ni tip. Gi s nhnh mch DC gm n ngun c d ln bng nhau mc ni tip. in p pha - tm ngun DC (dim 0) c th dt duc (n+1) gi tr khc nhau v t d b nghch luu duc gi l b nghch luu p (n+1)bc. V d: xt hnh 1.1 bn dui, chn mc din th 0 cui dy ngun, cc mc din p c th dt duc gm (0, V
DC

/2, 2V
DC

/2, 3V
DC

/2,nV /2). in p t mt pha ti (v d pha a) thng dn mt v tr bt k trn nhnh DC (v d M) nh cp diode kp ti dim d (VD: D
+ + -

V d c / 5 V d c / 5 V d c / 5 V d c / 5 V d c / 5

DC

din p pha tm ngun DC dt duc mc din p U


0

a0

=V

/5, tt c cc linh kin b kp gia hai diode (D


a4
Da2 Da3 Da4 D'a1 D'a2 D'a3 D'a4

, D
a4
S 5 a S 3 a
+ b + M + Da1

S 4 a S 2 a S 1 a S ' 5 a S ' 4 a S ' 3 a S ' 2 a S ' 1 a

Hnh 1.1 B nghch luu NPC ) gm n linh kin mc ni tip lin tc k nhau S
DC 1a

GVHD: PGS. TS. Nguyn Van Nh Minh Triu


a4

Trang 7

HVTH: Truong

, S phi duc kch dng, cc linh kin cn li phi duc kho theo nguyn tc kch di nghch. Nhu hnh v trn, to ra su mc din p pha tm ngun DC (dim 0) nn mch nghch luu p trn gi l b nghch luu p su bc.
a c

, D
5a a4

, S )
4a
N

, S
3a

, S
2a

Tiu Lun TCS_NC p da bc

Phn A: Tng quan v b nghch luu

B nghch luu p da bc dng diode kp ci tin dng sng din p ti v gim Shock din p trn linh kin n ln.Vi b nghch luu ba bc, dv/dt trn linh kin v tn s dng ct gim di mt na. Tuy nhin vi n > 3, mc d chu gai p trn cc diode s khc nhau. Ngoi ra, cn bng din p gia cc ngun DC (p trn t) tr nn kh khan, dc bit khi s bc ln. 3.1.1. Cc trng thi dng ngt ca b nghch luu NPC. Xt b nghch luu p n bc dng cha cp diode kp NPC (hnh 1.1). Gi V /5 l d ln din p trong mi ngun ring l ph thuc d ln din p pha ngun VDC cn thit lp, cc linh kin b kp gia cc cp diode ni dn mt din th trn mch DC cn thit lp s trng thi kch dng. in p pha tm ngun DC tnh t dim du dy ca mt pha ti dn mt din th chun (dim 0) trn mch DC.
DC

Trng thi kch ngt ca cc kha bn dn trn mt nhnh pha ti ca cc pha a, b, c phi tha mn diu kin kch di nghch. Nu cc kha bn dn trn mt nhnh pha cng kch dng th gy ngn mch ngun hoc khng duc php cng kch ngt. S
ja

+ S
ja

=1;
jb

+S
jb

=1; S
jc

+ S =1 (1.1) Vi: j = 1, 2,3 (n-1) Gi n l dim nt ba pha ti dng sao di xng. Ta c din p ba pha ti:

u u u
0 0 ta a N

u u u
0 0 tb b N

u u u
in p u
a0

,u
b0

,u
c0
0 0 tc c N

gi l din p pha tm ngun ca pha a, b, c. Gi thit ti ba pha di xng, tho mn h thc:

u u u
ta tb tc

u u u u
in p Common mode:
0000 abcN

Ta c p ti :

0
30
uuu u
000 0 abc N

3
2 3 uuu uuu
000 00 abc ta a N

2 3 uuu uuu
jc

(1.2)
00 00 b ao c tb b N

2 3 uuu uuu
000 00 cab tc c N

(1.3) T d ta thy qu trnh din p v qu trnh dng din ng ra ca b nghch luu p ba pha s duc xc dnh khi ta xc dnh duc cc din p nghch luu u
a0

,u
b0

,u . Nu ba pha ti dng tam gic, din p pha ti bng din p dy do b nghch luu cung cp:

u u u
;
00tab a b

u u u
;
00tbc b c

u u u
(1.4) 3.1.2 Trng thi dng ngt b nghch luu NPC 5 bc.
00tca c a

c0

GVHD: PGS. TS. Nguyn Van Nh Minh Triu Tiu Lun TCS_NC p da bc
Vdc/4 Vdc/4 0 S'4a

Trang 8

HVTH: Truong

Phn A: Tng quan v b nghch luu

Vdc/4 Vdc/4
pha a

S4a S3bS3a S2a S1a S1b S'3a S'2a S'1a


pha b

S4b S2b S'4b S'3b S'2b S'1b S4c S3c S2c S1c S'4c S'3c S'2c S'1c

pha c

Xt pha a ca b nghch luu p nam bc dng diode kp. Gi V /4 l d ln din p trn mi ngun din ring l. Chn dim 0 tm ngun DC v tr gia, din p pha tm ngun DC dt cc gi tr nhu trong bng sau:
DC

Bng 1.1 Trng thi dng ngt ca b nghch luu p NPC 5 bc Mc din p nghch luu V
0

(0,0,0,0) (0,0,0,0)
V
d

4 V
d

2 3 4 V V

(
d d

Hnh 1.2 So d nguyn l nghch luu NPC 3 pha 5 bc


A0

Cc trng thi dng ngt tuong ng ( ( (


V V V V 4 4
d

4
d d

4
d

, , ,
GVHD: PGS. TS. Nguyn Van Nh Minh Triu
a b c

Trang 9

HVTH: Truong

Trng thi dng ngt ca cc linh kin ,0,0,0) (1,0,0,0)


V V V 4 4
d d

4
d

, , ,0,0) (1,1,0,0)
V V 4
d

4
d

, ,0) (1,1,1,0)
V

) (1,1,1,1) Ta thy c 5 mc din p ra tuong ng vi cc trng thi dng ngt cho mi pha. Vy c 5 trng
d

thi dng ngt linh kin cho mi pha, nhu vy c 125 trng thi dng ngt cho ba pha. V b nghch luu p c th to ra nam mc din p nn duc gi l b nghch luu p 5 bc 3.1.3. Nhn xt Vi cu trc nhu trn nn tn s dng ngt gim dn dn s ln chuyn mch trn cc pha b nghch luu p gim, tn tht ca b nghch luu gim t d c kh nang nng cao cng sut ca b nghch luu. V vy b nghch luu p da bc ngy cng duc s dng rng ri trong cc linh vc cng sut cao, nhung bn cnh d vn cn c nhng uu v khuyt dim nhu sau:
Tiu Lun TCS_NC p da bc Phn A: Tng quan v b nghch luu

Uu dim. Khi s bc d cao, thnh phn hi bc cao s d thp d khi s dng cc b lc. Hiu sut cao v cc kho c th duc diu khin tn s dng ngt co bn (phuong php PWM l ti uu). C th diu khin lung cng sut phn khng. Phuong php diu khin don gin cho h thng ni kt dng di song (back-to-back). Khuyt dim. Yu cu s dng qu nhiu diode khi s bc din p cao. Kh diu khin lung cng sut tch cc cho cc b bin di don. 3.1.4. Cc cng thc lin quan. in p Offset: V V M V Min (1.5) ax(u , u , u ), (u , u , u )
ax t1 t2 t3 min t1 t2 t3 om d o

Ch d medium common mode: V


o

V
oMin

+V
oMax

2 (1.6) Ch d gin don (Discontinuos): V


o

=V
oMin

hoc V
o

=V (1.7) in p diu khin:


VV VVVn nV
0 0 dki dki di i

(vi n: s bc ca b nghc luu)


.( 1) 1
dc

oMax

3.2. Cu trc b nghch luu Cascade H-dridge. S dng cc ngun DC ring, thch hp trong trung hp s dng ngun DC c sn, v d acquy, battery. Cascade inverter gm nhiu b nghch luu p cu mt pha ghp ni tip, cc b nghch luu p dng cu mt pha ny c cc ngun DC ring. S kt hp hot dng ca n b nghch luu p trn mt nhnh pha ti s to nn n kh nang mc din p theo chiu m (-V
DC

, -2V
DC

, -3V
DC

, -4V

DC

, -nV ), n kh nang mc din p theo chiu duong (V


DC

, 2V
DC

, 3V
DC

, 4V
DC

,nV
DC DC

) v mc din p 0. Nhu vy, b nghch luu p dng cascade gm n b nghch luu p mt pha trn mi nhnh s to thnh b nghch luu (2n+1) bc.
GVHD: PGS. TS. Nguyn Van Nh Minh Triu Tiu Lun TCS_NC p da bc Trang 10 HVTH: Truong Phn A: Tng quan v b nghch luu

3.2.1. Cc trng thi dng ct ca b ngch luu Cascade 7 bc. Xt pha a ca b nghch luu p 7 bc dng Cascade H-dridge. Gi V l d ln din p trn mi ngun din ring l. Chn dim 0 nhu trn th, din p pha V
a0 DC

dt cc gi tr nhu trong bng sau: V


a0

(V
a1

,V
a2

,V
a3

) (V
a10

,V
a11

,V
a20

,V
a21

,V
a30

,V

a31

) (S
aj

,S ) vi j=1,2.. 6. 3Vd (Vd,Vd,Vd) (Vd,0,Vd,0,Vd,0). (1,0,1,0,1,0). 2Vd (Vd,Vd,0); (Vd,0,Vd); (0,Vd,Vd) Vd (Vd,0,0); (0,Vd,0); (0,0,Vd) (Vd,Vd,-Vd) (Vd,-Vd,Vd) (-Vd,Vd,Vd) 0 (0,0,0)

V V V
a10 a20 a30

S S
a1

S
` a1

S S S
a3

S
` a3

S S S

V V
a11 a21 a5

S
` a5

V
a31

Hnh 1.3 B nghch luu Cascade H-dridge 1 pha 7 bc (Vd,0,Vd,0,0,0);(Vd,0,Vd,0,Vd,Vd) (Vd,0,0,0,Vd,0);(Vd,0,Vd,Vd,Vd,0) (0,0,Vd,0,Vd,0);(Vd,Vd,Vd,0,Vd,0) (Vd,0,0,0,0,0); (Vd,0,0,0,Vd,Vd); (Vd,0,Vd,Vd,0,0);(Vd,0,Vd,Vd,Vd,Vd); (0,0,Vd,0,0,0); (0,0,Vd,0,Vd,Vd); (Vd,Vd,Vd,0,0,0);(Vd,Vd,Vd,0,Vd,Vd); (0,0,0,0,Vd,0); (0,0,Vd,Vd,Vd,0); (Vd,Vd,0,0,Vd,0);(Vd,Vd,Vd,Vd,Vd,0); (Vd,0,Vd,0,0,Vd); (Vd,0,0,Vd,Vd,0); (0,Vd,Vd,0,Vd,0).
a2 ` a2 a4 ` a4 a6 ` a6

(0,0,0,0,0,0);(0,0,0,0,Vd,Vd); (0,0,Vd,Vd,0,0);(0,0,Vd,Vd,Vd,Vd) (Vd,Vd,0,0,0,0);(Vd,Vd,0,0,Vd,Vd); V V V V


a1 a2 a3

V
0 a ` aj

(1,0,1,0,0,0);(1,0,1,0,1,1);

(1,0,0,0,1,0);(1,0,1,1,1,0) (0,0,1,0,1,0);(1,1,1,0,1,0) (1,0,0,0,0,0); (1,0,0,0,1,1); (1,0,1,1,0,0);(1,0,1,1,1,1); (0,0,1,0,0,0); (0,0,1,0,1,1); (1,1,1,0,0,0);(1,1,1,0,1,1); (0,0,0,0,1,0); (0,0,1,1,1,0); (1,1,0,0,1,0);(1,1,1,1,1,0); (1,0,1,0,0,1); (1,0,0,1,1,0); (0,1,1,0,1,0). (0,0,0,0,0,0);(0,0,0,0,1,1); (0,0,1,1,0,0);(0,0,1,1,1,1) (1,1,0,0,0,0);(1,1,0,0,1,1);
GVHD: PGS. TS. Nguyn Van Nh Minh Triu Tiu Lun TCS_NC p da bc Trang 11 HVTH: Truong Phn A: Tng quan v b nghch luu

-Vd (0,Vd,-Vd) (0,-Vd,Vd) (Vd,0,-Vd) (-Vd,0,Vd) (Vd,-Vd,0) (-Vd,Vd,0) (-Vd,0,0); (0,-Vd,0); (0,0,-Vd) (-Vd,-Vd,Vd) (-Vd,Vd,-Vd) (Vd,-Vd,-Vd) -2Vd (-Vd,-Vd,0); (-Vd,0,-Vd); (0,-Vd,-Vd) (Vd,Vd,Vd,Vd,0,0);(Vd,Vd,Vd,Vd,Vd,Vd) (0,0,Vd,0,0,Vd);(Vd,Vd,Vd,0,0,Vd); (0,0,0,Vd,Vd,0);(Vd,Vd,0,Vd,Vd,0); (Vd,0,0,0,0,Vd);(Vd,0,Vd,Vd,0,Vd);

(0,Vd,0,0,Vd,0);(0,Vd,Vd,Vd,Vd,0) (Vd,0,0,Vd,0,0);(Vd,0,0,Vd,Vd,Vd) (0,Vd,Vd,0,0,0);(0,Vd,Vd,0,Vd,Vd). (0,Vd,0,0,0,0); (0,Vd,0,0,Vd,Vd); (0,Vd,Vd,Vd,0,0);(0,Vd,Vd,Vd,Vd,Vd); (0,0,0,Vd,0,0); (0,0,0,Vd,Vd,Vd); (Vd,Vd,0,Vd,0,0);(Vd,Vd,0,Vd,Vd,Vd); (0,0,0,0,0,Vd); (0,0,Vd,Vd,0,Vd); (Vd,Vd,0,0,0,Vd);(Vd,Vd,Vd,Vd,0,Vd); (0,Vd,0,Vd,Vd,0); (0,Vd,Vd,0,0,Vd); (Vd,0,0,Vd,0,Vd). (0,Vd,0,Vd,0,0);(0,Vd,0,Vd,Vd,Vd); (0,Vd,0,0,0,Vd);(0,Vd,Vd,Vd,0,Vd); (0,0,0,Vd,0,Vd);(Vd,Vd,0,Vd,0,Vd). (1,1,1,1,0,0);(1,1,1,1,1,1); (0,0,1,0,0,1);(1,1,1,0,0,1); (0,0,0,1,1,0);(1,1,0,1,1,0); (1,0,0,0,0,1);(1,0,1,1,0,1); (0,1,0,0,1,0);(0,1,1,1,1,0) (1,0,0,1,0,0);(1,0,0,1,1,1) (0,1,1,0,0,0);(0,1,1,0,1,1). (0,1,0,0,0,0); (0,1,0,0,1,1); (0,1,1,1,0,0);(0,1,1,1,1,1); (0,0,0,1,0,0); (0,0,0,1,1,1); (1,1,0,1,0,0);(1,1,0,1,1,1); (0,0,0,0,0,1); (0,0,1,1,0,1); (1,1,0,0,0,1);(1,1,1,1,0,1); (0,1,0,1,1,0); (0,1,1,0,0,1); (1,0,0,1,0,1). (0,1,0,1,0,0);(0,1,0,1,1,1); (0,1,0,0,0,1);(0,1,1,1,0,1); (0,0,0,1,0,1);(1,1,0,1,0,1). -3Vd (-Vd,-Vd,-Vd) (0,Vd,0,Vd,0,Vd). (0,1,0,1,0,1). 3.2.2. Nhn xt Vi cu trc nhu trn nn tn s dng ngt gim dn dn s ln chuyn mch trn cc pha b nghch luu p gim, tn tht ca b nghch luu gim t d c kh nang nng cao cng sut ca b nghch luu. V vy b nghch luu p da bc ngy cng duc s dng rng ri trong cc linh vc cng sut cao, nhung bn cnh d vn cn c nhng uu v khuyt dim nhu sau:

Uu dim. Cn s lung cc cu phn t nht d dt duc s bc din p cao nht. Vic ch to mch duc m dun ho do b nghch luu co bn c cu trc nhu nhau v khng cn mc thm diode cung nhu t cn bng p nhu cc so d d k trn. C th s dng chuyn mch mm d trnh mch bo v chng dV/dt cng knh v tn hao. Khuyt dim. Cn ngun DC dc lp cho vic chuyn di cng sut thc, do vy vic ng dng cn b hn ch. 3.2.3. Cc cng thc lin quan. in p Offset : V nV M V nV Min (1.8) (vi n: l s ngun c trong mch) . ax(u , u , u ), . (u , u , u )
ax t1 t2 t3 min t1 t2 t3 om d o d

Ch d medium common mode: V


o

= V
oMin

+V
oMax

2 (1.9) Ch d gin don (Discontinuos): V


o

=V
oMin

hoc V
o

=V (1.10)
oMax

GVHD: PGS. TS. Nguyn Van Nh Minh Triu Tiu Lun TCS_NC p da bc

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Phn A: Tng quan v b nghch luu

3.3. Nhn xt chung.

C th diu khin b nghch luu p (bng cch diu khin tn hiu dng ngt ln cc linh kin) bng nhiu phuong php, mi phuong php thch hp vi mi loi ti khc nhau. B nghch luu p da bc c phm vi hot dng vi ti cng sut ln do d vn d dt ra l gim bt tn s dng ngt v gim shock din p trn linh kin cng sut c nghia quan trng. Chuong sau s m phng b nghch luu p da bc NPC, qua d s thy r duc tn s dng ngt ca cc linh kin bn dn duc gim thiu dng k so vi cc phuong php diu khin b nghch luu p hin nay. Tn s dng ngt gim dn dn s ln chuyn mch trn cc pha b nghch luu p gim, tn tht ca b nghch luu gim t d c kh nang nng cao cng sut ca b nghch luu . B nghch luu ngy cng duc s dng rng ri trong cc linh vc cng sut cao. 4. Cc phuong php diu ch d rng xung. 4.1 Phuong php diu ch d rng xung Sine (SH-PWM). Phuong php SH-PWM c tn nay d l Subharmonic Pulse Width Modulation . thc hin to gin d kch dng cc linh kin trong cng mt pha ti, ta s dng mt s sng mang (dng tam gic) v mt tn hiu diu khin (dng sin). i vi b nghch luu p n bc, s sng mang duc s dng l (n-1). Chng c cng tn s fc, v cng c bin d dnh dnh Ac. Sng diu ch (hay sng diu khin) c bin d dnh dnh A
m

v tn s f , dng sg ca n thay di chung quanh trc tm ca h thng (n-1) sng mang. Nu sng diu khin ln hon sng mang no d th linh kin tuong ng duc sng mang d diu khin s duc kch dng. Trong trung hp sng diu khin nh hon sng mang no d th linh kin s b kha kch.
m

i vi b nghch luu p da bc ch s diu ch duc dnh nghia nhu sau: Vi: U : bin d thnh phn hi co bn to nn do phuong php diu ch. U
(1)m

: bin d thnh phn hi co bn dt duc.

4.2 Phuong php diu ch d rng xung ci bin (SFO-PWM).


base

U m U

(1.11) im khc bit so vi phuong php diu ch d rng xung d trnh by l sng diu ch (din p diu khin) duc ci bin. Theo d mi sng diu ch duc cng thm tn hiu th t khng (sng hi bi ba). Tn ti nhiu kh nang to nn thnh phn th t khng, mt trong cc tn hiu th t khng c th chn bng gi tr trung bnh ca gi tr tn hiu ln nht trong ba tn hiu diu ch vi tn hiu nh nht trong ba tn hiu diu ch- Phuong php SFO - PWM. Gi V
a

,V
b

,V l cc tn hiu diu khin ca phuong php diu ch PWM. Tn hiu diu khin theo phuong php SFO-PWM va duc m t c th biu din dui dng ton hc nhu sau:
offset

(1.12) ax( , , ) min( , , ) 2 MVVVVVV V


abcabc

4.3. Phuong php diu ch vector khng gian. 4.3.1. Khi nim vector khng gian. Ta gi s cho di lung 3 pha v
a

,v
b

,v
c

cn bng, tho h thc: v


a

+v
b

+v
c

GVHD: PGS. TS. Nguyn Van Nh Minh Triu


(1) b m ase

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=0 (1.13)
Tiu Lun TCS_NC p da bc Phn A: Tng quan v b nghch luu

Thc hin php bin hnh t cc di lung ba pha v thc :

13 .( . . ),
22/3 j abc

(1.14)

vkvavavaej
a

,v

22
b

,v
c

sang di lung vector theo h Php bin hnh thc hin nhu trn duc gi l php bin hnh vector khng gian v di lung duc gi l vector khng gian ca di lung ba pha. Hng s k c th chn vi cc gi tr khc nhau. Vi k = 2/3 ta c php bin hnh khng bo ton cng sut. Vi
2/ 3k

php bin hnh bo ton cng sut. minh ho c th cho khi nim ny ta xt cc di lung ba pha dng cosin nhu sau: (1.15) Vector khng gian theo dnh nghia s l : Nhu vy, trong to d vung gc , , vector khng gian c bin d V s quay quanh trc to d vi tn s gc . 4.3.2. Vector khng gian ca b nghch luu p da bc. Qu trnh dng ngt cc linh kin to ra din p ba pha ti. Theo l thuyt v khng gian vector

th din p ba pha d c th biu din dui dng vector khng gian. V n s thay di nhy cp trn hnh lc gic da bc. V tr ca mi vector din p trong khng gian s ph thuc vo cc trng thi dng ngt kinh kin. Tin hnh kho st c th cho cc b nghch luu ba v nam bc d xc dnh gin d vector khng gian din p. 4.3.3. Gin d vector din p ca b nghch luu 5 bc. Vi b nghch luu nam bc, kh nang diu khin kch dn linh kin to nn 125 trng thi khc nhau. Ta xt mi trng thi minh ho bi t hp (k
a

k ), vi: k =-2,-1,0,1,2 k
a

=-2,-1,0,1,2 k
b

=-2,-1,0,1,2 Cc h s trng thi k


c a

,k
b

,k
c b

k
c

ph thuc vo cch quy uc truc. Ta tin hnh quy uc nhu sau: (s quy uc ny da vo bng trng thi dng ngt)
2121 1111 0 1, 0 1 khi S S S S khi S S S S khi S S S S khi S S S S
12341234 '' aaaabbbb


12341234 '''' aaaabbbb

k khi S S S S k khi S S S S khi S S S S khi S S S S


12341234 ''' aaaaabbbbb

11 21
1234 '''' aaaa


1234 aaaa

GVHD: PGS. TS. Nguyn Van Nh Minh Triu


m

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HVTH: Truong

bt du t v tr
21 11 khi S S S S khi S S S S
1234 ' cccc


1234 '' cccc

,01 1111 2121 k khi S S S S khi S S S S khi S S S S khi S S S S khi S S S S


1234 '''''' ccccc


12341234 '''''''' bbbbcccc


12341234 bbbbcccc

Tiu Lun TCS_NC p da bc


' 11

Phn A: Tng quan v b nghch luu

Trong qu trnh kch, quy lut dng ngt di nghch phi tun th:

SS SS
xx

1 1,
' 22 xx


' 33

SS SS
xx

1 1,
' 44 xx

Vi x = a, b, c. Theo dnh nghia vector khng gian, tuong ng 125 trng thi kch dn linh kin ta thu duc 61 v tr vector khng gian ca vector din p to thnh. Ti tm ca lc gic c nam trng thi khc nhau cho cng v tr ti d l vector khng. Cc v tr cn li ng vi cc trng thi duc biu din trong gin d vector din p b nghch luu p 5 bc.
-222 -221 -212 -220 -202 -22-1 -210 -121 -211 -122 -111 -200 022 -201 -112 -2-12 -21-2

-12-1 -120 -21-1 021 -110 012 -2-11 -102 -20-1 020 -20-2 -11-1 -210 -101 122 011 100 121 010 112 001

22-2 12-202-2-12-2-22-2 -10-1 -2-1-2 -2-1-1 -2-2-2 000 111 002 102 220 120 -10-2 01-1 221 110 00-1 -1-1-2 222 211 100 -1-1-1 101 212 -1-10 -2-2-1 -1-2-1 -1-11 -2-20 -2-21 -1-12 -2-22 -1-22 -11-2 02-1 -1-20 0-11 -1-21 0-12

5. Cc dng sng mang trong k thut diu ch PWM. Cc sng mang dng tam gic c tn s cao (f
12-1 01-2 11-1 00-2 -1-2-2 0-10 01-1 0-1-2 10-1 0-20 1-11 0-21 1-12 0-22

1-22

sm
11-2 22-1 202 210 111 0-2-2 0-2-1 1-10 201 1-21 2-12 10-2 21-1 200 2-11 1-20

Hnh 1.4. Gin d vector din p b nghch luu p 5 bc cc di


2-22 20-1 21-2 1-1-2 1-2-1 2-10 1-2-2 2-1-1 2-21

< 9500Hz). C th chia thnh ba loi nhu sau: 5.1. B tr cng pha PD (Phase Dispostion). Tt c cc loi sng mang du cng pha nhau: Hnh 1.5: Sng mang dng PD cc di
GVHD: PGS. TS. Nguyn Van Nh Minh Triu
20-2 2-20 2-1-2 2-2-1 2-2-2

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Tiu Lun TCS_NC p da bc

Phn A: Tng quan v b nghch luu

5.2. B tr k tip nhau APOD ( Alternative Phase Opposition Disposition). Hai sng mang k tip nhau s dch 180
0

5.3. B tr di xng nhau qua trc 0 POD (Phase Opposition Disposition). Tt c cc sng mang trn trc 0 s cng pha nhau v cc sng mang nm dui trc 0 s b dch di 180
0

5.4. Nhn xt. Trong cc phuong php b tr sng mang, th thuong php b tr cc sng mang da bc cng pha (dng PD) cho d mo dng p dy nh nht. Ring di vi b nghch luu p ba bc, phuong php POD v APOD c cng kt qu dng sng mang. Trong cc phn m phng sau, ta ch s dng phuong php sng mang dng PD. Hnh 1.6: Sng mang dng APOD cc di Hnh 1.7: Sng mang dng POD cc di
GVHD: PGS. TS. Nguyn Van Nh Minh Triu Trang 16 HVTH: Truong