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Published by Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics,

University of Ni s, Serbia

Available at: http://www.pmf.ni.ac.rs/filomat

Radii of starlikeness and convexity for functions with xed second

coecient dened by subordination

Rosihan M. Ali

a

, Nak Eun Cho

b

, Naveen Kumar Jain

c

, V. Ravichandran

c,a

a

School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM Penang, Malaysia

b

Department of Applied Mathematics, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737, South Korea

c

Department of Mathematics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007, India

Abstract. Several radii problems are considered for functions f (z) = z + a

2

z

2

+ with xed second

coecient a

2

. For 0 < 1, sharp radius of starlikeness of order for several subclasses of functions are

obtained. These include the class of parabolic starlike functions, the class of Janowski starlike functions, and

the class of strongly starlike functions. Sharp radius of convexity of order for uniformly convex functions,

and sharp radius of strong-starlikeness of order for starlike functions associated with the lemniscate of

Bernoulli are also obtained as special cases.

1. Motivation and a survey

Let A denote the class of analytic functions f dened in the open unit disc D := {z C : |z| < 1} and

normalized by the conditions f (0) = 0 and f

functions. Thus functions in S has the form f (z) = z + a

2

z

2

+ . Gronwall [13] obtained lower and upper

bounds for the quantities | f (z)| and | f

2

.

Corresponding results for convex functions were also obtained. Unaware of these results, Finkelstein [8]

investigated the problem again and obtained similar results, except for an inaccurate lower bound for | f (z)|.

Corresponding estimates for starlike functions of positive order with xed second coecient were obtained

by Tepper [41], while for convex functions of positive order, such estimates were derived by Padmanabhan

[24]. The problem for general classes of functions dened by subordination was investigated by Padman-

abhan [27] in 2001. For close-to-star and close-to-convex functions, such estimates were investigated by

Al-Amiri [4] and Silverman [33], respectively.

In addition to distortion and growth estimates, Tepper [41] obtained the radius of convexity for starlike

functions with xed second coecient. This radius result was also obtained independently by Goel

[11], whom additionally obtained the radius of starlikeness for functions f with xed second coecient

satisfying Re( f (z)/z) > 0 for z D. Following these works, several authors have investigatedradii problems

for functions with xed second coecient; we provide here a brief history of these works.

2010 Mathematics Subject Classication. Primary 30C80; Secondary 30C45

Keywords. Subordination, radius of starlikeness, radius of convexity, radius of strong starlikeness, lemniscate of Bernoulli

Received: 13 January 2011; Accepted: 09 September 2011

Communicated by Miodrag Mateljevi c

The work presented here was supported in parts by grants from Universiti Sains Malaysia, and the National Research Foundation

of Korea (No. 2010-0017111). The authors are thankful to the referee for his useful comments.

Email addresses: rosihan@cs.usm.my (Rosihan M. Ali), necho@pknu.ac.kr (Nak Eun Cho), naveenjain05@gmail.com (Naveen

Kumar Jain), vravi@maths.du.ac.in (V. Ravichandran)

R.M. Ali et al. / Filomat 26:3 (2012), 553561 554

Let f and be analytic in D. Then f is subordinate to , written f (z) (z) (z D), if there is an analytic

function w, with w(0) = 0 and |w(z)| < 1, such that f (z) = (w(z)). In particular, if is univalent in D, then

f is subordinate to provided f (0) = (0) and f (D) (D). Noticing that several subclasses of univalent

functions are characterized by the quantities z f

(z)/ f (z) or 1 +z f

(z)/ f

plane, Ma and Minda [18] gave a unied presentation of various subclasses of convex and starlike functions

which are dened below. The region considered is the image set of an analytic function with positive real

part in Dand normalized by the conditions (0) = 1 and

starlike with respect to 1 that is symmetric with respect to the real axis. For a xed function , let

P() := {p(z) = 1 + cz + : p(z) (z)}.

Ma and Minda [18] considered the classes

ST() :=

_

f A :

z f

(z)

f (z)

P()

_

and CV() :=

_

f A : 1 +

z f

(z)

f

(z)

P()

_

.

For 1 B < A 1, the function (z) = (1+Az)/(1+Bz) is a convex function whose image is symmetric with

respect to the real axis. For this , the class ST() reduces to the familiar class consisting of Janowski starlike

functions denoted by ST(A, B). The corresponding class of convex functions is denoted by CV(A, B). We

shall consider these classes by relaxing the conditions on A, B to be |B| 1 with A B. The special case

A = 1 and B = 1 leads to the usual classes ST and CVof starlike and convex functions respectively, while

A = 1 2, B = 1 with 0 < 1 yield the classes ST() and CV() of starlike and convex functions of

order respectively. For 0 < 1, let SST() and SCV() be the classes consisting of strongly starlike and

strongly convex functions of order : SST() = ST(((1 +z)/(1 z))

).

A function f is k-fold symmetric if f (e

2i/k

z) = e

2i/k

f (z). It is clear that a function f A is k-fold

symmetric if and only if f (z) = z + a

k+1

z

k+1

+ a

2k+1

z

2k+1

+ . Let us denote the class of functions p(z) =

1+p

k

z

k

+p

2k

z

2k

+ subordinated to a function by P

k

(). For 1 B < A 1, and (z) =

1+Az

k

1+Bz

k

, denote the

class P

k

() by P

k

(A, B). For functions in the class P

k

(A, B), it is easy to see that |p

nk

| (AB). For 0 b 1,

denote the class of functions p with coecient p

k

= b(A B) by P

k,b

(A, B). Also let ST

k,b

(A, B) denote the

class of k-fold symmetric functions f with xed coecient a

k+1

= b(A B)/k satisfying

z f

(z)

f (z)

P

k,b

(A, B).

The radius of convexity for the class ST

b

:= ST

1,b

(1, 1) of starlike functions with xed second coe-

cient was extended by Tepper [41] and Goel [11], while Anh [5] determined the radius of convexity for the

class ST

k,b

(A, B) with certain restrictions on the parameters. The case k = 1 was earlier considered by Tuan

and Anh [43]. Earlier works in this problem include those by McCarty [21] who obtained the radius of con-

vexity for the class ST

1,b

(12, 1) and for functions f with f

P

1,b

(12, 1). The latter class was earlier

investigated by McCarty [20], and the result therein is sharp only for = 0. For 0 < 1, 0 < 1, Juneja

and Mogra [15] obtained the radius of convexity for the class of functions f with xed second coecient

satisfying f

P

1,b

(1 2, 1 2) as well as for the class ST(1 2, 1 2).

Improving the results of Mogra and Juneja [22], Padmanabhan and Ganesan [26] obtained the radius of

convexity for functions f (z) = z +a

k+1

z

k+1

+a

k+2

z

k+2

+ with missing initial terms and xed a

k+1

belonging

to the class ST(A, B) when A + B 0. Related results were derived by Mogra and Juneja [23] that are

generalization of the results obtained by McCarty [21] , Goel [10], Shaer [32], Caplineger and Causey [7],

Mogra and Juneja [14], Singh [35], [36], Padmanabhan [25], and Juneja and Mogra [15].

Silverman [33] obtained distortion and covering estimates, as well as the radius of convexity for the

class of close-to-convex functions f (z) = z + a

2

z

2

+ satisfying

Re

_

f

(z)

(z)

_

, 0,

for some convex function of order . Tuan and Anh [42] obtained results on certain related classes, while

Silverman and Telage [34], Umarani [44], Ahuja [1] and Aouf [6] obtained results on spirallike functions.

Kumar [16] investigated radius problems for functions

f (z) = {( + )

1

z

1

(z

F(z)

}

1

,

R.M. Ali et al. / Filomat 26:3 (2012), 553561 555

where is a positive real number, is a complex number such that +a 0 and the function F varies over

various subclasses of univalent functions with xed second coecient. Ali et al. [2] recently investigated

dierential subordination for functions with xed initial coecient.

In this paper, the radius of starlikeness of order , 0 < 1, for functions in ST() with xed second

coecient is derived. As special cases, sharp radius of starlikeness of order for several subclasses of

functions are obtained. These include the class of parabolic starlike functions, the class of Janowski starlike

functions, and the class of strongly starlike functions. Sharp radius of convexity of order for uniformly

convex functions, and sharp radius of strong-starlikeness of order for starlike functions associated with

the lemniscate of Bernoulli are also obtained. We shall also make connections with several earlier works.

The following extension of Schwarz lemma will be required.

Lemma 1.1. ([8]) Let w(z) = pz + be an analytic map of the unit disc Dinto itself. Then |p| 1 and

|w(z)|

r(r + |p|)

1 + |p|r

, |z| = r < 1.

Equality holds at some z 0 if and only if

w(z) =

e

it

z(z + pe

it

)

1 + pe

it

z

, t 0.

2. Radii of convexity and starlikeness

Ma and Minda [18, Theorem 3, p. 164] showed that for a function f CV(), the absolute value of the

second coecient of f is bounded by

ST() and CV(), it follows that the second coecient of f ST() is bounded by

f ST(), |a

2

| =

b

() is dened to be the subclass

of ST() consisting of functions f (z) = z + a

2

z

2

+ where the second coecient is given by a

2

=

(0)b.

Let CV

b

() be the subclass of CV() consisting of functions f (z) = z + a

2

z

2

+ with a

2

=

(0)b/2.

Theorem 2.1. Let be an analytic function with positive real part in D, (0) = 1,

disc Donto a region starlike with respect to 1 and symmetric with respect to the real axis. Further suppose that

min

|z|=r

Re (z) = (r).

Then the radius of starlikeness of order , 0 < 1, for the class ST

b

() is R

, where

R

=

_

_

1 if (1)

2

1

()

b(1+

1

())+

b

2

(1+

1

())

2

4

1

()

if (1) .

The result is sharp. (Here and elsewhere (1) = lim

r1

(r).)

Proof. Let f ST

b

() so that z f

(z)/ f (z) (z). From the denition of subordination, it follows that there

is an analytic function w with w(0) = 0 and |w(z)| < 1 in Dsatisfying

z f

(z)

f (z)

= (w(z)) (z D).

Since f (z) = z +

(0)bz

2

+ , a calculation shows that

(w(z)) =

z f

(z)

f (z)

= 1 +

(0)bz + ,

R.M. Ali et al. / Filomat 26:3 (2012), 553561 556

and hence

(w(z))w

(z) =

takes the form w(z) = bz + .

For a given 0 r < 1, let r

1

be dened by

r

1

:=

r(r + b)

1 + br

. (1)

Since w maps D onto itself, Lemma 1.1 yields |w(z)| r

1

, |z| = r. It follows that |w(z)| r

1

if |z| r, and

therefore {(w(z)) : |z| r}

_

() : || r

1

_

. Consequently, for |z| r < 1,

Re

_

z f

(z)

f (z)

_

= Re((w(z))) min

|z|r

Re (w(z)) min

|z|r

1

Re (z) = min

|z|=r

1

Re (z) = (r

1

).

The last equality follows from the hypothesis that min

|z|=r

Re (z) = (r).

Since the function is starlike, is univalent and hence

restriction of to the interval (1, 1) has non-vanishing derivative

(0) > 0, it

follows that

(r) > 0 and hence is strictly increasing on (1, 1). If (1) , then

Re

_

z f

(z)

f (z)

_

(r

1

) (1)

for |z| < 1, and thus in this case, R

= 1.

Let us now assume that (1) . Since (D) is symmetric, it maps (1, 1) into the real axis. Since is

strictly increasing, the inverse function

1

: (D) R R exists and is also increasing. Thus (r

1

)

holds if and only if r

1

1

(). The desired expression for R

1

=

1

()

for r.

To verify sharpness, consider the function f

0

: D C dened by

f

0

(z) = z exp

_

z

0

_

1

s

s(s + b)

1 + bs

_

1

s

_

ds

_

, 0 b 1.

The complex number z(z +b)/(1 +bz) Dand hence the function f

0

is well-dened. Clearly f

0

(0) = 0 and

f

0

(0) = 1. A calculation shows that

z f

0

(z)

f

0

(z)

=

_

z(z + b)

1 + bz

_

(D),

that is, f

0

ST

b

(). At z = R

, clearly

Re

z f

0

(z)

f

0

(z)

=

_

(R

+ b)

1 + bR

_

= ,

and this shows that the result is sharp.

Remark 2.2. Under the conditions of Theorem 2.1, it is clear from the proof that the order of starlikeness

for functions in the class ST

b

() is (1).

Remark 2.3. When b = 1, Theorem 2.1 reduces to a result in [9, Theorem 2.2, p. 304] for functions (with

varying second coecient) belonging to the class ST().

Remark 2.4. In view of Alexanders relation between the classes ST

b

() and CV

b

(), it follows that

Theorem 2.1 holds for the class CV

b

() if we replace the phrase radius of starlikeness by radius of

convexity.

R.M. Ali et al. / Filomat 26:3 (2012), 553561 557

Every convex function f in D maps the circle |z| = r < 1 onto a convex arc. However, it need not map

every circular arc about a center in D onto a convex arc. This motivated the investigation of uniformly

convex functions. A function f S is uniformly convex [12] if f maps every circular arc contained in D

with center D, onto a convex arc. Denote by UCVthe class of all uniformly convex functions. Ma and

Minda [19] and Ronning [30], independently showed that a function f is uniformly convex if and only if

Re

_

1 +

z f

(z)

f

(z)

_

>

z f

(z)

f

(z)

(z D).

Thus, f UCV if 1 + z f

(z)/ f

2

< 2u 1}. A corresponding

class PS consisting of parabolic starlike functions f , where f (z) = z

[30]. Clearly a function f is in PS if and only if

Re

_

z f

(z)

f (z)

_

>

z f

(z)

f (z)

1

(z D).

A survey of these functions may be found in [3] (see also [31]), while some radius problems associated with

the classes UCVand PS can be found in [9, 29].

Ma and Minda [19, Theorem 4, p. 171] (see also Rnning [30, Theorem 5, p. 194]) proved that the second

coecient of functions in UCVis bounded by 4/

2

. Hence we shall consider the class UCV

b

of functions

f UCVof the form f (z) = z + a

2

z

2

+ with xed second coecient a

2

= a given by a = 4b/

2

, 0 b 1.

Similarly, the class PS

b

consists of functions f SP of the form f (z) = z + a

2

z

2

+ with xed second

coecient a

2

= a given by a = 8b/

2

, 0 b 1.

Corollary 2.5. The radius of starlikeness of order , 0 < 1, for the class PS

b

is R

, where

R

=

_

_

1 if 0

1

2

2

(1)b+

(1)

2

b

2

+4

if

1

2

< 1,

with

= tan

2

_

1

2

2

_

_

.

The radius of convexity of order , 0 < 1, for the class UCV

b

is also R

Proof. Since f is uniformly convex, it follows (see Ma and Minda [19], Rnning [30]) that

1 +

z f

(z)

f

(z)

PAR

(z),

where

PAR

(z) = 1 +

2

2

_

log

_

1 +

z

1

z

__

2

= 1 +

8

n=1

_

_

1

n

n1

k=0

1

2k + 1

_

_

z

n

.

Since

PAR

(D) is the parabolic region , it is clear that

PAR

is a convex function (and therefore starlike with

respect to 1). Further

PAR

(D) is symmetric with respect to the real axis and

PAR

(0) > 0. A calculation

shows that

min

|z|=r

Re

PAR

(z) =

PAR

(r) = 1

8

2

(arctan

r)

2

.

R.M. Ali et al. / Filomat 26:3 (2012), 553561 558

The proof now follows from Theorem 2.1 by noting that the inverse of the function

PAR

is

1

PAR

(w) = tan

2

_

1 w

2

2

_

,

and hence

1

PAR

() = tan

2

_

1

2

2

_

_

= .

The result now follows from Theorem 2.1.

Remark 2.6. When b = 1, Corollary 2.5 reduces to a result in [9, Theorem 2.1, p. 303] for functions (with

varying second coecient) belonging to the class UCV.

For real numbers A, B with |B| 1, B < A, the function

A,B

(z) = (1 + Az)/(1 + Bz) is a convex function

whose range is symmetric with respect to the real axis and

A,B

(0) = A B > 0. Further

1

A,B

(w) =

(w 1)/(A Bw), and so

1

A,B

() = (1 )/(A B). The following corollary now readily follows from

Theorem 2.1.

Corollary 2.7. The radius of starlikeness of order , 0 < 1, for the class ST

b

(A, B) is R

, where R

is given by

R

=

_

_

1 if 0

1A

1B

2

(1)b+

(1)

2

b

2

+4

if

1A

1B

< 1,

with = (1 )/(A B). This result is sharp.

For 0 b 1, let SST

b

() = ST

b

(((1 + z)/(1 z))

corollary.

Corollary 2.8. The radius of starlikeness of order , 0 < 1, for the class SST

b

(), 0 < 1, is R

, where

R

=

2

(1 )b +

(1 )

2

b

2

+ 4

(2)

with = (1

1/

)/(1 +

1/

). This result is sharp.

Remark 2.9. Stankiewicz [40, Theorem 6, p. 105] obtained the radius of starlikeness of order for strongly

starlike functions of order for functions with varying second coecient. This is precisely Corollary 2.8

with b = 1. (Note that there is a typographical error in his result.)

Let SL be the class of functions dened by

SL :=

_

_

f A :

_

z f

(z)

f (z)

_

2

1

< 1 (z D).

_

_

Thus a function f SL if z f

(z)/ f (z) lies in the region bounded by the right-half of the lemniscate of

Bernoulli given by |w

2

1| < 1. This class SL was introduced by Sok o and Stankiewicz [37]. Paprocki and

Sok o [28] discussed a more general class S

[z f

(z)/ f (z)]

a

b

< b, b

1

2

, a 1. Some results for functions belonging to this class can be found in [38]

and [39]. In particular, we like to mention that Sok o [39, Theorem 2 (2), p. 571] has shown that the radius

of starlikeness of order for functions in SL is 1

2

. Letting SL

b

= ST

b

(

Sok o for functions with xed second coecient in SL in the following corollary.

R.M. Ali et al. / Filomat 26:3 (2012), 553561 559

Corollary 2.10. The radius of starlikeness of order , 0 < 1, for the class SL

b

is R

= 1

2

. This result is sharp.

Proof. Let f SL so that z f

(z)/ f (z)

1 + z =:

SL

(z). It is easy to see that

Re

1 + re

it

=

1

2

(

1 + r

2

+ 2r cos t + 1 + r cos t)

1/2

,

and it attains its minimum at t = . Thus

min

|z|=r

Re

SL

(z) =

1 r =

SL

(r).

Also

SL

(D) is the right-half of the interior of the lemniscate of Bernoulli |w

2

1| = 1; therefore it is convex

(andhence starlike with respect to 1), andsymmetric with respect to the real line. Notice that

1

SL

(w) = w

2

1

and hence :=

1

SL

() = 1

2

. The result now follows from Theorem 2.1.

Remark 2.11. When b = 1, the above corollary reduces to a result of Sok o [39, Theorem 2 (2), p. 571].

3. Radius of strong starlikeness

In [9], the radius of strong starlikeness for Janowski starlike functions is computed by rst nding

the disk in which w = z f

(z)/ f (z) lies and next subjecting the disk to be contained within the sector

| argw| /2. It is shown in [9] that the disk |wa| R

a

is contained in the sector | argw| /2 provided

R

a

(Re a) sin(/2) (Ima) cos(/2), Ima 0. This section is devoted to nding the radius of strong

starlikeness for certain classes of functions with xed second coecient.

Theorem 3.1. Let be an analytic function with positive real part in D with (0) = 1 and

map the unit disc D onto a region starlike with respect to 1 and symmetric with respect to the real axis. Then the

radius of strong starlikeness of order , 0 < 1, for functions f ST

b

() is R

, where R

following equation in r:

max{arg(r

1

z) : |z| = 1} =

2

,

with r

1

given by (1). The result is sharp.

Proof. The proof follows along similar lines as in the proof of Theorem2.1, and hence many of the details are

omitted here. Let D

r

= {z C : |z| r}. We claimthat maps D

r

onto a region symmetric with respect to the

real line. To see this, rst note that since maps Donto a region symmetric with respect to the real line, the

Taylors coecients of are real and hence (z) = 1+B

1

z+B

2

z

2

+ , B

i

R. Let w (D

r

) so that w = (rz),

z D. Then w = (rz) = (rz) (D

r

). Hence max{| arg(r

1

z)| : |z| = 1} = max{arg(r

1

z) : |z| = 1}.

Theorem 3.1 is next applied to certain special cases. Our rst result is for the case of starlike functions.

Corollary 3.2. The radius of strong starlikeness of order , 0 < 1, for starlike functions in ST

b

is the number

R

Proof. Let f be a normalized starlike function so that

z f

(z)

f (z)

1 + z

1 z

=: (z).

Since

(re

it

) =

1 r

2

+ 2ri sint

1 + r

2

2r cos t

,

R.M. Ali et al. / Filomat 26:3 (2012), 553561 560

it follows that

max{arg(r

1

z) : |z| = 1} = arctan

_

_

2r

1

1 r

2

1

_

_

.

Then the equation max{arg(r

1

z) : |z| = 1} = /2 becomes

2r

1

1 r

2

1

= tan

_

2

_

, 0 < < 1,

while R

r

1

= = csc(/2) cot(/2) = tan

_

4

_

.

Solving r

1

= for r yields the desired result.

The next result is for the class SL. Sok o [39, Theorem 2 (4), p. 571] obtained the radius of strong

starlikeness of order for functions in SL to be sin(). We extend this result for starlike functions with

xed second coecient in the following corollary.

Corollary 3.3. The radius of strong starlikeness of order , 0 < 1, for functions in the class SL

b

is the number

R

Proof. Let f SL

b

so that

z f

(z)

f (z)

1 + z =: (z).

Then

arg (re

it

) =

1

2

arctan

_

r sint

1 + r cos t

_

1

2

arctan

r

1 r

2

.

The equation max{arg(r

1

z) : |z| = 1} = /2 becomes

r

1

1 r

2

1

= tan

_

_

,

1

2

,

and thus r

1

= = sin(). Solving r

1

= for r yields the desired result. The case = 1/2 yields R

= 1.

References

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