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Basic DOS commands

Occasionally on your Windows computer, you may need to perform a procedure by typing in commands at the 'Command Prompt'. Entering commands in this way allows you to bypass the Windows graphical user interface and communicate directly with the operating system. You are most likely to need to work in this way if you get an infection and have to disinfect your computer from the command line, for example, using one of the Sophos Resolve tools, or SAV32CLI or SWEEP.EXE. To communicate through the Windows command line, you will need to use MS-DOS commands. This article lists some basic DOS commands that you are likely to find useful when working from the command line, but there are many more available. To find out more about MSDOS, consult a book, online dictionary or encyclopedia, or other specialist publication. Command and Usage
ATTRIB

Examples
ATTRIB -R -A -S -H <VIRUS.EXE>

Change file attributes. '+' adds an attribute, '-' removes it. Attributes are: A=archive; R=read only; S=system; H=hidden.
C:

All these attributes will be removed from virus.exe.


C: CD\

Go to the C: drive. Similarly A: and D: etc.


CD

Change directory. When you change directory, the prompt changes, showing the path of the directory you are currently in.

takes you to the top of the directory tree (typically to C:) .


CD..

Note, directory is the term used by DOS for what Windows calls a folder. CD <DIRECTORYNAME> takes you to that directory. You can use one or more subdirectory names, separated by \ e.g. CD WINNT\Media takes you to the directory C:\WINNT\Media To change to another path, type the full path with slashes. e.g.
CLS CD \WINDOWS\SYSTEM CLS DEL <VIRUS.EXE> DEL *.JPG

moves you one level up the directory tree (i.e. up towards the root directory).

Clear the screen.


DEL

Delete one or more files in the current directory. Can be used with the '*' and the '?' wildcards.
DEL *.*

deletes virus.exe

will delete all files with the extension JPG.


DEL MY*.*

will delete ALL files in the current directory, USE WITH CAUTION. (Note: DEL cannot be used to delete directories. Use RD to remove a directory.)

will delete all files beginning with MY and with any extension.
DEL MY??.*

will delete files that are 4 characters long and begin with MY and with any extension. DIR DIR displays all files and folders in the Displays the contents of a directory (folder). current directory. Folders are indicated in the list by <DIR>. Note, directory is the term used by DOS for what Files are usually listed by name. Windows calls a folder. DIR /P displays the contents a page at a time,

These switches can be combined, so DIR /W /P i.e. as many as will fit in your command line will return multiple rows listing a page at a time. window. Press any key to display the next page. You can use the '*' and the '?' wildcards to search for a particular file. The ? character represents DIR /W displays the files/folders in multiple ONE character, and the * character represents rows. This view gives less information per multiple characters. file.
DIR *.*

lists all the files in a directory.

DIR *.JPG

displays all files with the extension JPG in the current directory and all subdirectories.
DIR MY??.*

displays all files beginning with MY, exactly 4 characters long, and with any extension.
DIR /S

lists the contents of all subdirectories.

displays all hidden files. EDIT <VIRUSLOG.TXT> opens the file Runs DOS EDIT (a simple text editor). Useful for viruslog.txt and allows you to edit it. editing batch files and viewing logs. This command requires QBASIC.EXE to be present. EDIT <NEWFILE.TXT> creates a new file called newfile.txt and opens it up for you to edit. HELP HELP DIR displays information on the DIR Displays DOS Help. For help on an individual command. command, type HELP then the command for which you want more information. MD MD <NEWDIR> creates a new directory called Make directory. Creates a new directory below Newdir. the current one. (The command can also be written as MKDIR)
EDIT PRINT PRINT <LOGFILE.TXT>

DIR /AH

Prints the specified file (if the printer is supported in DOS - many are not). Prints LOGFILE.TXT
RD RD <DIRECTORYNAME>

Remove directory. Removes a subdirectory of the current directory. The directory you want to remove must be empty of all files. (The command can also be written as RMDIR)
RENAME RENAME <OLDNAME.EXE> <NEWNAME.EXE>

Rename a file. You must use the full file name including the suffix.
TYPE TYPE C:\README.TXT|MORE

Displays the contents of a file on the screen. If you use this command on a file which is not a text file, the display will be unintelligible. Use with "|MORE" to display the text on a page by page basis, and prevent it scrolling off the screen. "|" is a pipe character.
> COMMAND > FILENAME.TXT

When you run a DOS command, output is usually sent to the screen. Use > to redirect output from e.g. SWEEP > REPORT.TXT The details of the screen to a file. It runs the command any infected files reported by SWEEP are sent preceding the >, creates a file in the current to a file called REPORT.TXT.

directory with the name you specify, and sends the information/output returned by the command, to that file.

Accessing the command prompt from Windows


To access the command prompt from Windows (a 'DOS box'), do as follows: 1. At the taskbar, select Start|Run. 2. Type
CMD

or on some versions of Windows


COMMAND

3. Click 'OK'. A command prompt will open.

Accessing the command prompt in safe mode


For Windows NT/2000/XP/2003, see the knowledgebase article on removing files with SAV32CLI. For Windows 95/98/Me you can boot from a startup disk, or use MS DOS mode 1. At the taskbar, select Start|Shut dows. 2. Select 'Restart in MS-DOS mode'. 3. Click 'OK'.